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Computers in Human Behavior 32

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-03 Volume 32

CHB 2014-03 Volume 32

The psychological functions of avatars and alt(s): A qualitative study BIBAKFull-Text 1-8
  Richard Gilbert; Vandana Thadani; Caitlyn Handy; Haley Andrews; Tristan Sguigna; Alex Sasso; Stephanie Payne
Prior research has shown that approximately 50% of active participants in the 3D virtual world of Second Life have one or more secondary avatars or "alts" in addition to their primary avatar. Thus, these individuals are operating a "multiple or poly-identity system" composed of a physical self, a primary avatar, and one or more alts. However, little is known about the functions these virtual identities serve for the virtual-world user. The current study involved qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with Second Life participants (N = 24) who had a primary avatar and at least one alt. Interviews were coded to examine the functions that primary avatars and alts served. Eight functions -- seven suggested by previous research on virtual world identity and one that emerged from analyses -- were reflected in a large majority of the transcribed interviews and are described in the article. The current findings add to our understanding of how multifaceted identity systems operate, as more individuals augment their physical self with a set of virtual identities.
Keywords: Identity; Virtual worlds; Avatars; Qualitative analysis; Second Life
Are two better than one? Playing singly, playing in dyads in a computerized simulation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict BIBAKFull-Text 9-14
  Ronit Kampf
The study examined a computerized simulation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a peace education tool for Israeli female undergraduate students of Palestinian and Jewish origin. To win the game, players are required to arrive at a two-state solution of the conflict. 100 Israeli female students of Palestinian and Jewish origin either supporting or opposing this solution played the game singly or in dyads. The rules of the study required players in dyads to reach mutual agreement on every action in the game. Results indicated that 19 out of 25 dyads resolved the conflict in the game as opposed to 16 out of 50 single players. In addition, players in dyads took more political actions and less security actions than single players did. Finally, players in dyads preferred to focus more on political actions than on security actions in the game. The abovementioned results point out three key implications for peace education. First, PeaceMaker reduces the tension and the charged atmosphere between Jewish and Palestinian players. Second, the game should be played in dyads and not singly. Finally, dyads should be comprised of a Jewish player and a Palestinian player in order to challenge their interaction and game behavior.
Keywords: PeaceMaker; Israeli-Palestinian conflict; Gender; Dyads; Computerized simulations
Understanding online behavioural advertising: User knowledge, privacy concerns and online coping behaviour in Europe BIBAKFull-Text 15-22
  Edith G. Smit; Guda Van Noort; Hilde A. M. Voorveld
Online behavioural advertising (OBA) is a special form of targeted advertising. For OBA, it is necessary to collect data about online surfing behaviour, which is usually undertaken by installing 'cookies'. The use of cookies is heavily debated by policy makers in the US and Europe. Central to this discussion is whether users should provide informed consent prior to the installation of cookies. However, to provide informed consent, it is vital that website users understand the mechanisms of OBA and cookies. This study investigates whether the existing knowledge is sufficient, whether website users are concerned about their privacy, and how they cope with OBA, cookies and the requested informed consent. An online questionnaire (N = 2022) was fielded briefly after new European cookie regulations were enacted. The results confirmed that the knowledge is still insufficient to obtain good understanding of this new advertising technique. In addition, the results showed that groups of Internet users did not differ in terms of knowledge, although they did differ in terms of privacy concerns. A comparison of privacy-concerned groups showed that a dual approach is needed in communicating about OBA, not only to inform but also to reduce worries, especially in older and less-educated groups.
Keywords: Targeted advertising; Informed consent; Privacy concerns; Survey; Coping
Dispelling the myth of the socio-emotionally dissatisfied gamer BIBAKFull-Text 23-31
  C. Herodotou; M. Kambouri; N. Winters
The relationship between digital gaming and gamers' psychological well-being has been an issue of concern in public and academic communities. Theorists advocate for the compensation hypothesis, arguing that real-life dissatisfaction such as social disintegration, reinforces motivation for gaming. Hence, the profile of the typical gamer has been one of emotionally and socially dissatisfied young individual. Considering for the fact that gaming is an increasingly social activity practised along with other individuals, this paper aims to evaluate the validity of these concerns by examining the Basic Psychological Needs (BPNs; Deci & Ryan, 1985) of 1298 World of Warcraft (WoW) gamers, viz gamers of a popular, massively multiplayer online game. Data collected from a large-scale online survey, revealed significant but weak associations between BPNs and gaming suggesting that gaming is less likely to be associated with gamers' real-life socio-emotional status. The analysis of BPNs mean scores reinforced further this finding; the relatively high BPNs mean scores demonstrated that gamers' Basic Psychological Needs are reasonably satisfied. Yet, in an attempt to identify the factors explaining game involvement, participants' self-reported reasons for gaming were thematically analyzed. It was revealed that gamers are avidly social individuals. Their gaming practices are primarily reinforced by social interaction in the form of either competition or collaboration.
Keywords: Gamers; Well-being; Basic Psychological Needs; Social interaction; Motivation
Receptive to bad reception: Jerky motion can make persuasive messages more effective BIBAKFull-Text 32-39
  Himalaya Patel; Lauren C. Bayliss; James D. Ivory; Kendall Woodard; Alexandra McCarthy; Karl F. MacDorman
When used deliberately in television and film, jerky motion captures attention. However, it can be distracting in the movements of characters in digital video. To what extent does this kind of jerkiness influence message processing? Based on a limited-capacity model of message processing, jerky character motion was predicted to increase compliance to a persuasive message. The present experiment manipulated the jerkiness of an actor's movements in a computer-delivered video to examine its effect on responses to a hypothetical medical scenario. Jerkiness, whether subtle or obvious, increased self-reported compliance. It also decreased heart rate variability, indicating attentional mediation. Though counterintuitive, these findings indicate that jerky character motion can make computer-mediated messages more persuasive.
Keywords: Advertising; Cognition; Computer animation; Decision making; New media; Physiological measures
Implementing tablet PCs in schools: Students' attitudes and opinions BIBAKFull-Text 40-46
  Hakan Dündar; Murat Akçayir
In this study, the attitudes, expectations and views of 206 students in four high schools within the scope of the FATIH project in Turkey were assessed regarding tablet PC technology after six months of a pilot plan that included the distribution of tablet PCs to students. The research questions of this study are whether there is a meaningful difference between tablet PC use by male and female students and the effect of computer and Internet by students on attitudes toward tablet PC use. Qualitative and quantitative data collection tools were used in the research. The Computer Attitude Measure for Young students (CAMYS) developed by Teo and Noyes (2008) was used in evaluating the students' attitudes toward the tablet PC usage. Interviews were conducted with eight teachers at pilot schools concerning the integration of tablet PCs into their classes; the positive and negative dimensions of tablet PCs were analyzed. The findings indicate that students have a positive attitude toward tablet PCs. There was not a meaningful difference between the attitudes of male and female students toward tablet PCs. The length of computer and Internet by the students did not affect their attitudes toward tablet PCs. The ways that teachers used tablet PCs in classes, the positive and negative aspects of tablet PC usage and the students' expectations of tablet PCs were discussed in the study.
Keywords: Computer attitudes; Young children; Tablet PC; Gender differences
An eye-tracking study of cueing effects in multimedia learning BIBAKFull-Text 47-53
  Eric Jamet
In order to assess the effects of attention guiding during the learning of a multimedia document comprising static diagrams and spoken explanations, we recorded the eye movements of participants exposed to a digital learning environment either with or without visual cues. As predicted, the presence of cues (an item changing colour when it was verbally evoked) limited the amount of time spent fixating the less relevant areas of the interface, thereby allowing for more synchronized processing of the visual and auditory sources of information that referred to each other, and better learning (though not deep comprehension) of the signalled information. These results suggest that visual cues can direct attention to the right areas of the screen at the right time, thereby promoting learning.
Keywords: Multimedia learning; Cueing; Visual attention; Eye-tracking
The temporal relationships among habit, intention and IS uses BIBAKFull-Text 54-60
  Woong-Kyu Lee
This study raised the following two research questions about the relationships among habit, intention and uses. First, there may have some differences between habit and intention in the effects on uses, especially temporally. Second, the relationship between past and future use may involve more than habit. In order to answer the questions, based on the memory process model, theories in traditional social psychology and path dependency theory, three hypotheses were proposed on the following topics: habit with proximal and distal uses, intention with proximal and distal uses, and proximal-distal uses. Surveying Korean social network service (SNS) users, and analyzing the data via a partial least square analysis, all the hypotheses were shown to be valid. In this study, we found the effects of intention on IS use differ temporally and past use can be considered a determinant for use.
Keywords: Habit; Intention; Proximal use; Distal use; Memory process model; Path dependency; IS continuance
Problematic internet use in terms of gender, attachment styles and subjective well-being in university students BIBAKFull-Text 61-66
  Hatice Odaci; Özkan Çikrikçi
The aim of this study was to investigate problematic internet use in terms of gender, attachment styles and subjective well-being. This study based on a relational screening model and using a cross-sectional research protocol was conducted with 380 university students from various departments in the Karadeniz Technical University and Artvin Çoruh University faculties of education in Turkey. The Problematic Internet Use Scale, The Relationship Scale, Subjective Well-Being Scale and Personal Information Form were used in the study. Data were analyzed using the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, two-way ANOVA, the Bonferroni test and multiple regression analysis. Results revealed significant correlations among problematic internet use, attachment styles and subjective well-being. Problematic internet use correlated positively with a dismissing attachment style and a preoccupied attachment style. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that gender, subjective well-being and dismissing and preoccupied attachment styles accounted for 19% of total problematic internet use variance. Gender, subjective well-being, and a dismissing attachment style made a significant distinctive contribution to the model. Problematic internet use differed significantly according to gender and attachment styles. Results revealed significant correlations among problematic internet use, attachment styles and subjective well-being. Problematic internet use differed significantly according to gender and attachment styles.
Keywords: Problematic internet use; Attachment styles; Subjective well-being; University students
Is there more to email negotiation than email? The role of email affinity BIBAKFull-Text 67-78
  Ingmar Geiger; Jennifer Parlamis
Email has profoundly influenced the way we communicate personally and professionally and, for many, email negotiations have become a common, every day experience. While many studies have investigated email negotiations by relying on and discussing the characteristics of the medium, this paper focuses on the user's attitude toward the medium and its respective influence on email negotiation. Specifically, we investigate which dimensions make up negotiators' attitude toward email, i.e. their email affinity, and how these attitudes, in turn, influence the negotiation outcomes. In our scale development, three facets of email affinity are theoretically considered, empirically explored and validated: email preference, email comfort and email clarity. Our negotiation study contains a quasi-experimental email negotiation exercise where subjects were paired according to their email affinity. Email comfort emerged as a significant predictor of individual profit, joint gain, and different dimensions of subjective value. Theoretical implications and further research are discussed.
Keywords: Negotiation; Email; Scale development; Email affinity; Media synchronicity theory; E-negotiation
Interrelationship between Stages of Concern and Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge: A study on Taiwanese senior high school in-service teachers BIBAKFull-Text 79-91
  Yang-Hsueh Chen; Syh-Jong Jang
Whereas teachers' Stages of Concern (SoC) and their Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) appear to be related constructs, studies are scant regarding the connection between these two research areas. This study intensively examined the association between Taiwanese senior high school teachers' SoC and TPACK through a national survey (N = 605) and canonical correlational analysis. To ensure rigor of study, we revised a TPACK instrument for Taiwanese senior high school teachers, statistically tested SoC's developmental phases, and reworked the Stages of Concern Questionnaire. Three canonical correlations became evident, portraying a significant connection between SoC and TPACK and further supporting our hypothesis that a higher level of technology integration would correlate higher with more synthesized types of teacher knowledge. Recommendations were put forward regarding support strategies of change facilitators, as well as directions for future research.
Keywords: Stages of Concern; TPACK; Technology integration; Professional development; Taiwan
The interplay between immersion and appeal in video games BIBAKFull-Text 92-100
  Georgios Christou
Immersion and appeal are considered to be necessary constituents of the player experience. In this article their relationship is examined through a 2 × 2 factorial study (n = 173) in the context of two games, a first-person shooter and a massively multi-player online role-playing game, and in the context of two types of players: experienced players who have never played the game in one of the genres in question, and experienced players who have played one of the games in question. It is found that immersion and appeal are linearly correlated, and the repercussions of this finding are discussed.
Keywords: Immersion; Appeal; Video games; Game experience; Player experience
Dealing with conflicting information from multiple nonlinear texts: Effects of prior attitudes BIBAKFull-Text 101-111
  Johan L. H. van Strien; Saskia Brand-Gruwel; Henny P. A. Boshuizen
This study investigated the effects of prior attitudes on how students deal with conflicting information in multiple nonlinear texts. Sixty-one Dutch 11th grade students read multiple texts on a controversial topic and wrote a short essay on it. These essays were scored on perspective taken and the origin of information included in them. Ordinal regression analysis showed that students with strong prior attitudes were significantly more likely to write essays that were biased towards their prior attitudes. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that students with strong attitudes took explicit stances and added large proportions of information not presented in the reading materials in their essays, whereas students with neutral attitudes wrote syntheses and borrowed more information from the materials. Overall, results show that prior attitudes can bias how students deal with conflicting information in an open-ended reading and writing task.
Keywords: Prior attitudes; Conflicting information; Multiple texts; Nonlinear text
All things considered? Investigating the diversity of public affairs issues that individuals think about in the Internet age BIBAKFull-Text 112-122
  Jae Kook Lee; Jihyang Choi; Sung Tae Kim
This study investigates factors that have influence on the diversity of public affairs issues considered by individuals in the new media environment, exemplified by the Internet. By analyzing two data sets of the 2004 and 2008 American National Election Studies (ANES), we found that individuals are likely to consider more issues, as they are exposed to the Internet, even after controlling for key variables, such as socio-economic status, political interest, and traditional media use in 2008 study. Further, specific exposure to campaign was found significantly associated with agenda diversity in 2008 study. When both of Internet use and specific exposure were taken into account, the effects of Internet use vanished, indicating that specific exposure plays a mediating role. We also found that education and interest in public affairs are significant predictors of agenda diversity. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Internet; Agenda diversity; Rich media; Exposure; Election; Campaign
Measuring engagement in video game-based environments: Investigation of the User Engagement Scale BIBAKFull-Text 123-132
  Eric N. Wiebe; Allison Lamb; Megan Hardy; David Sharek
This research investigated the use of the User Engagement Scale (UES) as a psychometric tool to measure engagement during video game-play. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors (Focused Attention, Perceived Usability, Aesthetics, and Satisfaction) as compared to the six found in the original development of the UES. In the context of video game-play, a revised UES (UESz) demonstrated better psychometric properties than the original UES defined by six subscales, including enhanced reliability. Further validity analysis included comparisons with the Flow State Scale (FSS), showing the complementary nature of the two scales and what constructs both scales might be measuring in a video game context. Criterion validity analysis demonstrated that UESz was more predictive of game performance than the FSS. Findings related to both the UESz and FSS were discussed relative to an overarching framework of hedonic and utilitarian qualities of game-play.
Keywords: Engagement; Psychometric measurement; Flow; Video game
Seductive details and attention distraction -- An eye tracker experiment BIBAKFull-Text 133-144
  Günter Daniel Rey
The seductive detail principle asserts that people learn more deeply from a multimedia presentation when interesting but unimportant adjuncts are excluded. The recent eye tracker experiment attempts to expand this principle for learning contexts containing no time limits and examines the moderating effect of attention control. Students (N = 55) received an illustrated introduction to factor analysis and then took a retention and transfer test. Each learner was randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (with or without seductive text passages) × 2 (with or without seductive illustrations) between subjects factorial design. Students who did not receive seductive text passages or seductive illustrations performed better on transfer, but not on retention than did learners receiving these details. The lower the learner attention control (measured with an anti-saccadic test), the more harmful were seductive text passages on transfer. Eye movements indicate that seductive text passages and illustrations might impede transfer differently.
Keywords: Multimedia learning; Cognitive theory of multimedia learning; Seductive details; Attention control; Attention distraction
Coping with information in social media: The effects of network structure and knowledge on perception of information value BIBAKFull-Text 145-151
  Dongyoung Sohn
The explosive growth of social media has intrigued many scholars to inquire into why people willingly share information with others. However, relatively little attention has been devoted to how people determine which information they share in the networked environment. In this study, a 2 (network density -- dense vs. sparse) × 2 (knowledge -- expert vs. novice) × 3 (information valence -- negative vs. neutral vs. positive) online experiment was performed to examine how the three factors interact and cross over in shaping individuals' perceptions of the value of information for themselves and for others in the network. Results show that individuals' perceptions of information value are influenced not just by their level of knowledge, but also by how the network environment is structured. Implications for the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Social media; Network structure; Information value perception; Knowledge
Online support groups for mental health: A space for challenging self-stigma or a means of social avoidance? BIBAKFull-Text 152-161
  Aideen Lawlor; Jurek Kirakowski
A mediation model was used to test two hypotheses, (1) Online Support Group (OSG) use mediates self-stigma and recovery from self-stigma and (2), recovery from self-stigma mediates OSG use and support seeking. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) using Bayesian estimation with Monte-Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) was used to analyse the model, based on the data collected from 99 users of OSGs for mental illness. The hypotheses were not supported. Active users were found to have higher levels of recovery from self-stigma and increased likelihood to have sought formal support. However, these perceived benefits maybe attributable to underlying factors which encourage a user to actively participate. Frequency of visits negatively affects recovery from self-stigma, suggesting that OSGs are a form of social avoidance, as opposed to a method of challenging the problem of stigma. This supports a growing body of research which is highlighting the negative effects of excessive dependency on OSGs. Users, moderators and mental health professionals need to be cognizant of the potential harm that excessive dependency can cause to already vulnerable people.
Keywords: Online support groups; Mental illness; Self-stigma; Seeking support
A tale of two social networking sites: How the use of Facebook and Renren influences Chinese consumers' attitudes toward product packages with different cultural symbols BIBAKFull-Text 162-170
  Cong Li
Culture influences people's information processing and attitude formation. This study examined the effects of using social networking sites from a cultural perspective, based on the culture learning model in the acculturation literature. A total of 251 Chinese individuals residing in the U.S. participated in the experiment. They were randomly assigned to one of four product package conditions with different cultural symbols (either American cultural symbols or Chinese cultural symbols, or both, or neither). Their usage intensity of two social networking sites, U.S.-based Facebook and China-based Renren ("the Facebook of China"), was measured. It was found that participants' usage intensity of Facebook and Renren reflected their cultural orientation, language proficiency, and length of stay in the U.S. It was also discovered that more intensive Renren usage led to more favorable attitudes toward packages carrying Chinese cultural symbols. However, participants' willingness to pay for the products with different packages was not affected by their usage intensity of social networking sites, due to the country-of-origin effect.
Keywords: Social networking site; Facebook; Renren; Acculturation; Cultural identity; Country-of-origin
The true self online: Personality correlates of preference for self-expression online, and observer ratings of personality online and offline BIBAKFull-Text 171-177
  Tamsin C. Marriott; Tom Buchanan
Theorists have suggested some people find it easier to express their "true selves" online than in person. Among 523 participants in an online study, Shyness was positively associated with online 'Real Me' self location, while Conscientiousness was negatively associated with an online self. Extraversion was indirectly negatively associated with an online self, mediated by Shyness. Neuroticism was positively associated with an online self, partly mediated by Shyness. 107 online and offline friends of participants provided ratings of them. Overall, both primary participants and their observers indicated that offline relationships were closer. However, participants who located their Real Me online reported feeling closer to their online friends than did those locating their real selves offline. To test whether personality is better expressed in online or offline interactions, observers' ratings of participants' personalities were compared. Both online and offline observers' ratings of Extraversion, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness correlated with participants' self-reports. However, only offline observers' ratings of Neuroticism correlated with participants' own. Except for Neuroticism, the similarity of online and offline observers' personality ratings to participants' self-reports did not differ significantly. The study provides no evidence that online self-presentations are more authentic; indeed Neuroticism may be more visibly expressed offline.
Keywords: Personality; Online; Internet; Real me; True self
Contextualizing cybersex experience: Heterosexually identified men and women's desire for and experiences with cybersex with three types of partners BIBAKFull-Text 178-185
  Krystelle Shaughnessy; E. Sandra Byers
Cybersex is a constellation of partnered, online sexual activities; yet, researchers have not considered the relationship between participants. In this study, we examined cybersex within three partner contexts that differ in their degree of anonymity: primary partner, someone known who was not a partner (known non-partner), and stranger. Participants were 105 men and 264 women who reported at least one cybersex experience. They completed an online survey that included measures of the incidence, frequency, and desired frequency of cybersex within each partner context. Significantly more men and women reported that they had engaged in cybersex with a primary partner compared to a known non-partner and stranger. Participants also desired significantly more frequent cybersex in this context. Compared to the women, the men desired significantly more frequent cybersex overall but only engaged in more frequent cybersex with a stranger. Within partner contexts, there was a positive association between desired and enacted frequency. In addition, participants who desired more frequent cybersex within one partner context also desired more frequent cybersex within other partner contexts. The findings suggest that to fully understand cybersex experience it is necessary to consider gender and the degree of anonymity in the partner context.
Keywords: Cybersex; Online sexual activity; Anonymity; Gender differences; Internet; Relationships
Perceptions and experiences of, and outcomes for, university students in culturally diversified dyads in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 186-200
  Vitaliy Popov; Omid Noroozi; Jennifer B. Barrett; Harm J. A. Biemans; Stephanie D. Teasley; Bert Slof; Martin Mulder
The introduction of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL), specifically into intercultural learning environments, mirrors the largely internet-based and intercultural workplace of many professionals. This paper utilized a mixed methods approach to examine differences between students' perceptions of collaborative learning, their reported learning experiences, and learning outcomes when they collaborated in a CSCL environment working with a culturally similar or dissimilar partner. Culturally diverse student dyads worked together to perform an online learning task in the domain of life sciences. Our sample of 120 BSc and MSc students was comprised of 56 Dutch and 64 international students, representing 26 countries. The results showed that students from an individualist cultural background had a more negative perception of collaborative learning than did students with a collectivist background, regardless of group composition. For women, working in a culturally similar dyad consisting of students from an individualist cultural background resulted in a more negative perception of collaborative learning than did working in this type of group for men or women working in a culturally similar dyad consisting of students from a collectivist cultural background. Students from an individualist cultural background achieved better learning outcomes than did students with a collectivist background, regardless of group composition. These findings suggest that cultural background adds an important dimension to collaborative learning, which requires students to manage collaboration that is not only virtual but also intercultural.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Cultural diversity; Higher education; Multicultural groups
An exploration of the potential educational value of Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 201-211
  Bin-Shyan Jong; Chien-Hung Lai; Yen-Teh Hsia; Tsong-Wuu Lin; Yu-Syuan Liao
Current research on Facebook use suggests that students primarily use it to enhance social connectedness, but seldom for educational purposes. The aim of this study is to respond to the three following questions: (1) Is there a potential educational value in using Facebook? (2) If so, how does Facebook's educational value compare with its other known values? (3) How does the educational utility of Facebook compare with that of other social mediums available on the Internet, such as the bulletin board system (BBS)? A total of 387 subjects voluntarily participated in an anonymous online survey. These subjects were questioned about their use of Facebook, BBS platforms, and e-learning platforms. There were three major new findings. Firstly, 81% of subjects had discussed course-related problems with their peers on Facebook. Secondly, in relation to the six known motives for using Facebook, peer discussion of educational matters was considered to be the fourth most important in this survey. Lastly, Facebook does not satisfy users' occasional need to review or browse through past communication records; BBS fares much better in this regard.
Keywords: Facebook; E-learning; Bulletin board system; Learning platform
Twitter versus Facebook: Exploring the role of narcissism in the motives and usage of different social media platforms BIBAKFull-Text 212-220
  Shaun W. Davenport; Shawn M. Bergman; Jacqueline Z. Bergman; Matthew E. Fearrington
The amount of research on social networking sites (SNS) and narcissism is accumulating quickly requiring greater levels of variable specification and more fine-tuned hypothesis testing to clearly determine the relationships among key variables. The current investigation examines two of the most popular SNS, Facebook and Twitter, formulating hypotheses around the specific features of each site within college and adult samples. Unlike previous research that has focused almost exclusively on SNS usage, we focused on active usage (i.e., SNS content generation) as opposed to passive usage (i.e., SNS consumption) and included reasons for usage as a potential black box in the narcissism to SNS usage relationship. Results suggest that the features of Twitter make tweeting the preferred means of active usage among narcissists in the college sample, but not the adult sample, who prefer Facebook. In fact, we found no significant direct or indirect relationship with active usage on Facebook for the college sample, calling into question popular press articles linking Millennial narcissism with Facebook use. Additionally platform differences (i.e., microblogging versus profile-based) may explain the importance of active usage on Twitter relative to Facebook. That is, with Twitter, narcissistic motives for usage all manifest through tweeting while Facebook provides other mechanisms to achieve narcissistic motives.
Keywords: Social networking; Narcissism; Personality; Millennials; Facebook; Twitter
How charismatic trainers inspire others to learn through positive affectivity BIBAKFull-Text 221-228
  Annette Towler; Gamze Arman; Timothy Quesnell; Lisa Hoffman
We focus on how charismatic trainer behaviors, such as visionary content, intellectual stimulation and individual attention, influence affective, cognitive and skill-based learning outcomes during computer-based training. Using an experimental design, 92 undergraduates were presented with an on-line Excel training program that contained narration that was either charismatic or non-charismatic. Path analysis results indicate that participants who viewed videos narrated by a charismatic trainer (as opposed to a non-charismatic trainer) had positive reactions to the trainer, which was related to positive affectivity. Trainee positive affectivity was subsequently related to recall one week after training, and this recall was related to skill transfer one week after training. The results confirmed that charismatic trainers influence skills acquisition through boosting positive affect.
Keywords: Employee training; Trainer; Charismatic; Affect
Psychological predictors of addictive social networking sites use: The case of Serbia BIBAKFull-Text 229-234
  Jasna S. Miloševic-&Eth;oriðevic; Iris L. Zezelj
The popularity of social networking sites (SNS) changed to a great extent not only media environment, but also everyday life activities of modern humans. Despite their obvious benefits in terms of communication, there is evidence of addictive tendencies in SNS use. The study examined psychological and socio-demographic predictors of these addictive tendencies in Serbian SNS users drawn from a representative sample (N = 2014), having in mind that Serbia has Facebook penetration rate over European average. Results indicate a low incidence of self-reported addictive tendencies, with some individual differences worth addressing. We developed and tested exhaustive model that included three sets of predictors (socio-demographic, psychological and exposure to traditional media), as well as restrictive models that systematically excluded group by group. Path analysis revealed that psychological traits were stronger predictors than socio-demographic ones: people with lower self-esteem, lower general self-efficacy and higher introversion were more likely to report addictive SNS use. Although our results in general support the so called "social compensation hypothesis", it can be due to the focus on addictive tendencies instead of other indicators of SNS use.
Keywords: Addictive tendencies in SNS use; Extraversion; Self-esteem; Self-efficacy; Traditional media exposure; Path analysis
Motivations for the complementary use of text-based media during linear TV viewing: An exploratory study BIBAKFull-Text 235-243
  Eunyoung Han; Sang-Woo Lee
The phenomenon of complementary use of text-based media, such as social media or instant messaging (IM), during linear TV viewing has been growing. This represents a new pattern of TV consumption, and is worth studying from a business as well as an academic perspective. In this paper, we present our findings from an exploratory study of 66 users who were interviewed to determine their motivations for the complementary use of text-based media during linear TV viewing. Five major use motivations were identified: communication about the impressions of a broadcast; information sharing and seeking; feelings of coviewing; curiosity about others' opinions; and program recommendations. We classified use motivations according to program genre, and also conducted a comparative analysis on how use motivations differ when using KakaoTalk (a form of instant messaging) and Facebook. Our work clarifies the use motivations of text-based media during TV consumption, which has not been addressed in previous studies, and provides insights into implementing text-based media that is complementary to linear TV viewing. Most interviewees in this study, however, were KakaoTalk users; future studies should explore users of more diverse types of text-based media.
Keywords: Complementary use motivations; Social TV; Second screen; Text-based media; Social media; Instant messaging
A cloud-based learning environment for developing student reflection abilities BIBAKFull-Text 244-252
  Yen-Ting Lin; Ming-Lee Wen; Min Jou; Din-Wu Wu
Students learn new knowledge effectively through relevant reflection. Reflection affects how students interact with learning materials. Studies have found that good reflection abilities allow students to attain better learning motivation, comprehension, and performance. Thus, it is important to help students develop and strengthen their reflection abilities as this can enable them to engage learning materials in a meaningful manner. Face-to-face dialectical conversations are often used by instructors to facilitate student reflection. However, such conventional reflection methods are usually only usable in classroom environments, and could not be adopted for distance learning or after class. Cloud computing could be used to solve this issue. Instructor guidance and prompting for initiating reflection could be seamlessly delivered to the students' digital devices via cloud services. Thus, instructors would be able to facilitate student reflective activities even when outside the classroom. To achieve this objective, this study proposed a cloud-based reflective learning environment to assist instructors and students in developing and strengthening reflection ability during and after actual class sessions. An additional experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an industrial course. Results show that the learning environment developed by this study is able to effectively facilitate student reflection abilities and enhance their learning motivation.
Keywords: Reflective learning; Cloud computing; Improving classroom teaching
How do people compare themselves with others on social network sites?: The case of Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 253-260
  Sang Yup Lee
The social comparison theory and its subsequent studies say that comparing with others can influence an individual in several ways (e.g., evaluation of oneself, influence on self-esteem/self-confidence, and efficient decision making) and people compare with others when they are confronted with information of others. With the popularity of social network sites, many people acquire or are exposed to information of others on social network sites, which implies that people are likely to frequently engage in social comparison behavior on social network sites. The present paper examines social comparison behavior on social network sites (especially on Facebook) using a college students sample. We find that an individual's personality characteristics (i.e., social comparison orientation, self-esteem, self-uncertainty, and self-consciousness) influence the person's social comparison frequency on Facebook. A positive relationship between Facebook use intensity and social comparison frequency on Facebook is found. In addition, we find a positive association between social comparison frequency on Facebook and the frequency of having a negative feeling from comparison. Other findings are also reported in the paper.
Keywords: Social comparison; Social network sites; Facebook
Assessment of IT governance in organizations: A simple integrated approach BIBAKFull-Text 261-267
  Hesham Bin-Abbas; Saad Haj Bakry
There are various methods available for dealing with IT governance. These methods are diversified, and in some cases lengthy and complicated. This paper is concerned with providing a unified simple approach for IT governance assessment. The approach is developed and tested through the following three main steps: (1) highlighting the basic requirements of IT governance considering key available methods; (2) designing the target approach that integrates these requirements and uses knowledge management principles; and (3) illustrating the use of the approach through a typical illustrative application. The approach uses the "STOPE: Strategy, Technology, Organization, People and Environment" view to integrate the issues involved, the knowledge management principles as an added value, and the six-sigma phases as a cyclic improvement process. The work provides "fifty" main IT governance controls; and these enable finding key strengths and weaknesses of IT governance in organizations from which development directions can be derived. It should be noted that considering knowledge management, and people as a main domain in the integration view, illustrate special emphasis of the human factor in IT governance.
Keywords: Information Technology (IT); IT governance; ISO recommendations; COBIT; ITIL; STOPE view
Peer attachment, sexual experiences, and risky online behaviors as predictors of sexting behaviors among undergraduate students BIBAKFull-Text 268-275
  Danielle M. Crimmins; Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar
The current study created a predictive risk model for sexting behaviors based on prior sexual experiences, online environments, and peer attachment styles (trust, alienation, and ambivalence). Eighty-eight undergraduate students completed an anonymous online survey regarding their sexting behaviors, sexual experiences, Internet usage, and peer attachment styles. 61% Of the sample reported sexting. The final predictive model for sexting behavior included the following variables: ambivalence, unprotected sex, Internet adult pornography use, and web-based video chatting with strangers. In terms of individual relationships, unprotected sex, adult pornography use, and web-based chatting with strangers were significantly related to sexting (see Table 5). Individuals who have had unprotected sex were 4.5 times more likely to sext, and individuals who viewed adult pornography were 4 times more likely to sext. Finally, individuals who had engaged in web-based video chatting with strangers were 2.4 times more likely to sext. Future research suggestions and study limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Sexting; Peer attachment; Risky sexual behaviors; Online environments
The effectiveness of advergames compared to television commercials and interactive commercials featuring advergames BIBAKFull-Text 276-283
  Steven Bellman; Anna Kemp; Hanadi Haddad; Duane Varan
Advergames played on computers can be persuasive forms of advertising, especially when players are highly involved or experience telepresence ("being there" in the game). But 30-s TV commercials also deliver high levels of telepresence. Online-video interactive TV commercials, which can combine a TV commercial and an advergame, potentially deliver double the effectiveness of either form of advertising by itself. This study compared the effectiveness of advergames played on a PC to normal 30-s TV commercials, and also to interactive commercials enhanced with advergames. The results show no differences in telepresence, and therefore no differences in persuasive effect, measured by brand attitude, across these three ad types. Implications for advertisers and for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Advergames; Computer mediated communication (CMC); Advertising; Television; Online video; Telepresence
Facebook: The enabler of online civic engagement for activists BIBAKFull-Text 284-289
  Anne Marie Warren; Ainin Sulaiman; Noor Ismawati Jaafar
This exploratory study aims to investigate the existing efforts in civic engagement using Facebook. Previous work describes the typical usage of Facebook for connecting with others, to educate and inform in a wide range of context. Little research exists, however, on the emerging role of Facebook as an enabler for civic engagement in a social network environment. With over one billion global Facebook users, there is emerging evidence that activists are making concerted efforts to utilize Facebook's dynamic ability for addressing social issues. The present study conducted face-to-face interviews with twelve activists in examining how Facebook was used to conduct civic engagement activities that address social issues. The analysis was based on the five criteria of Internet activism, i.e. collection of information; publication of information; dialogue; coordinating actions and lobbying for decision makers. The results revealed that activists are using Facebook to seek information, check on others, follow links, post civic messages, promote social events, appeal for donations, call for volunteers, discuss social issues, schedule plans and advocate change. These findings indicate that activists are using Facebook to shape the traditional civic engagement landscape in an online realm. Future opportunities for this stream of research are then discussed before concluding.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Civic engagement; Facebook; Activists; Social media; Social issues
Advances in cognitive psychology, educational technology and computing: An introduction to the special issue BIBFull-Text 290-291
  Dirk Ifenthaler; J. Michael Spector; Demetrios G. Sampson; Pedro Isaías
The effect of users' tagging motivation on the enlargement of digital educational resources metadata BIBAKFull-Text 292-300
  Panagiotis Zervas; Demetrios G. Sampson
The emerging Web 2.0 applications have allowed new ways of characterizing digital educational resources, which moves from the expert-based descriptions relying on formal classification systems such as the IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) to a less formal user-based tagging. This alternative way of characterizing digital educational resources is commonly referred to as social tagging, whereas the collection of tags created by the different users individually is referred to as folksonomy. As a result, a number of studies have been reported in the field of Technology-enhanced Learning (TeL) which provide evidence that social tagging has the potential to enlarge metadata descriptions, as well as the formal structured vocabularies with additional terms derived by the resulted folksonomy but more in depth studies are needed regarding this enlargement process. Thus, one issue to investigate further is the possible influence of users' tagging motivation to the resulted enlarged metadata descriptions. In this paper we aim to investigate this issue by first proposing a methodology that aims to evaluate whether users' tagging motivation can influence (a) the enlargement of educational resources possible descriptions compared to the anticipated creators' descriptions and (b) the resulted folksonomy compared with formal structured vocabularies used by the creators of the educational resources and then, apply it to an existing LOR with more than 3,000 science education resources, 434 taggers and 14,707 social tags. Our experiments provided evidence that taggers with a specific type of tagging motivation can produce tags that are significantly different from formal metadata generated by the creators of the educational resources.
Keywords: Educational resources; Social tagging; Folksonomy; User tagging motivation; Evaluation methodology; Evaluation results
Wiki as a collaborative writing tool in teacher education: Evaluation and suggestions for effective use BIBAKFull-Text 301-312
  Said Hadjerrouit
Wiki technology provides new opportunities to foster collaborative writing in teacher education. To empirically evaluate the level of collaborative writing in a wiki-based environment, this article used three methods and their combination. The first method was the history function that records all students' actions, enabling to trace all changes made in the wikis. The actions were analyzed in terms of number and percentage of contribution using a taxonomy categorized by 10 editorial types. The second method examined comments posted on the wiki discussion page to evaluate the level of collaboration. The third method provided feedback on the level of collaboration by means of peer assessment. The results show important differences in the types of contributions across the categories investigated. The results also reveal that the level of collaborative writing was lower than expected. Possible factors that may influence wiki-based collaborative writing are discussed. Finally, suggestions for effective use of wikis as collaborative writing tools in teacher education conclude the article.
Keywords: Collaboration; Collaborative learning; Collaborative writing; Cooperation; MediaWiki; Wiki
Cognitive, metacognitive and motivational perspectives on preflection in self-regulated online learning BIBAKFull-Text 313-323
  Thomas Lehmann; Inka Hähnlein; Dirk Ifenthaler
Self-regulated learning is regarded as a critical component of successful online education. Hence, the development of effective online education requires an orchestration of external control and freedom for self-regulation. Prompts are regarded as effective means for promoting such personalised and adaptive learning processes in online education. Within two experimental studies, the effectiveness of preflective and reflective prompts is tested. Additionally, personal characteristics such as motivation and learning preferences are controlled. Results indicate that directed preflective prompts work best for novice learners. Such prompts also activate positive motivation within online learning environments. Still, more research is needed for investigating personalised and adaptive realisation of preflective prompts as well as automated feedback for SRL.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning; Online education; Preflection; Reflection; Prompting
Information Seeking, Information Sharing, and going mobile: Three bridges to informal learning BIBAKFull-Text 324-334
  Leila A. Mills; Gerald Knezek; Ferial Khaddage
This paper introduces a new perspective on information behavior in Web 2.0 environments, including the role of mobile access in bridging formal to informal learning. Kuhlthau's (1991, 2007) Information Search Process (ISP) model is identified as a theoretical basis for exploring Information Seeking attitudes and behaviors, while social learning and literacy concepts of Vygotsky (1962, 1978), Bruner (1962, 1964) and Jenkins (2010) are identified as foundations for Information Sharing. The Guided Inquiry Spaces model (Maniotes, 2005) is proposed as an approach to bridging the student's informal learning world and the curriculum-based teacher's world. Research within this framework is operationalized through a recently validated Information and Communications Technology Learning (ICTL) survey instrument measuring learners' preferences for self-expression, sharing, and knowledge acquisition interactions in technology-pervasive environments. Stepwise refinement of ICTL produced two reliable and valid psychometric scales, Information Sharing (alpha = .77) and Information Seeking (alpha = .72). Cross-validation with an established Mobile Learning Scale (Khaddage & Knezek, 2013) indicates that Information Sharing aligns significantly (p < .05) with Mobile Learning. Information Seeking, Information Sharing, and mobile access are presented as important, complimentary components important, complimentary components in the shift along the formal to informal learning continuum. Therefore, measures of these constructs can assist in understanding students' preferences for 21st century learning.
Keywords: Information Seeking; Information Sharing; Mobile access; Formal to informal learning; Instrument development
Structural relationships among effective factors on e-learners' motivation for skill transfer BIBAKFull-Text 335-342
  Young Ju Joo; Sunyoung Joung; Hyun Soo Son
This study investigates the structural relationships among the following factors: e-learners' internal value, learning usefulness, learning environment, satisfaction, learner achievement, and motivation for skill transfer. To answer the research questions, the researchers administered online surveys to 584 students enrolled in two courses, Conflict Management and Negotiation and Communication Skills, at S Cyber University. According to the results of structural equation modeling, the structural relationships among e-learners' internal value, learning usefulness, learning environment, learner satisfaction, learner achievement, and motivation for skill transfer were significant and showed positive influence. However, the relationships among learning usefulness, learning environment, learner satisfaction, and learner achievement and those of learning environment, learner satisfaction, and motivation for skill transfer were not significant. Overall, the findings suggest specific strategies to improve e-learners' learning outcomes.
Keywords: Internal value; Learning usefulness; Motivation for skill transfer; e-Learner's achievement