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Computers in Human Behavior 33

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-04 Volume 33

CHB 2014-04 Volume 33

Clerk agent promotes consumers' ethical purchase intention in unmanned purchase environment BIBAKFull-Text 1-7
  Atsushi Kimura; Naoki Mukawa; Masahide Yuasa; Tomohiro Masuda; Mana Yamamoto; Takashi Oka; Yuji Wada
This study examined the effect of the presence of an artificial individual in a purchase environment on purchase intention for products with fair-trade labels among Japanese consumers. By manipulating the presence of an artificial individual, we assessed consumers' intentions to purchase fair-trade products under two different experimental unmanned purchase environments: the agent condition, in which task instructions were given by a female clerk-like computer graphic agent throughout the task (N = 118), and the control condition in which task instructions were given through a text box (N = 106). Results demonstrated that participants under the agent condition valuated fair trade higher than those under the control condition, although participants in both the agent and the control conditions were instructed that their responses would remain anonymous. These findings suggest that the implication of the presence of an artificial individual, such as a clerk-like agent in an unmanned purchase environment, enhances the ethicality of purchase intentions as with manned purchase environments.
Keywords: Human-agent interaction; Human interface; Reputation; Ethical consumption; Pro-social behavior
When adolescents receive sexual messages on the internet: Explaining experiences of risk and harm BIBAKFull-Text 8-15
  Sonia Livingstone; Anke Görzig
This article reports new findings on the incidence of risk and the associated experience of harm reported by children and adolescents aged 11-16, regarding receipt of sexual messages on the internet (known popularly as sexting). Findings showed that the main predictors of the risk of seeing or receiving sexual messages online are age (older), psychological difficulties (higher), sensation seeking (higher) and risky online and offline behavior (higher). By contrast, the main predictors of harm resulting from receiving such messages were age (younger), gender (girls), psychological difficulties (higher) and sensation seeking (lower), with no effect for risky online or offline behavior. The findings suggest that accounts of internet-related risks should distinguish between predictors of risk and harm. Since some exposure to risk is necessary to build resilience, rather than aiming to reduce risk through policy and practical interventions, the findings can be used to more precisely target those who experience harm in order to reduce harm overall from internet use.
Keywords: Sexual messages; Online risk; Harm; Sensation seeking; Risk behavior; Adolescence
Knowledge sharing and ERP system usage in post-implementation stage BIBAKFull-Text 16-22
  Huey-Wen Chou; Yu-Hsun Lin; Hung-Sheng Lu; Hsiu-Hua Chang; Shyan-Bin Chou
Many organizations have adopted enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems in recent years to integrate information and information-based processes within and across functional areas. Because of the under-utilization of ERP systems, most of these organizations are disappointed in reaching the anticipated business goals. It is imperative to explore how to facilitate the usage of ERP systems for organizations. This study aims to develop an understanding of the effect of knowledge sharing on ERP system usage and the factors affecting employees' knowledge sharing after the initial implementation of an ERP system. Selected social oriented theories were employed to develop our conceptual model. By means of a survey of 804 ERP users from 53 Taiwan companies, we confirmed our research model to some extent and found that social capital, intrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy all have significant impacts on knowledge sharing. However, contrary to common belief, we found a negative, though insignificant, effect of extrinsic motivation on knowledge sharing. The implications for research, practice, and future research directions are discussed herein.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing; ERP system usage; Social capital; Intrinsic motivation; Extrinsic motivation; Self-efficacy
Acceptance of socially assistive humanoid robot by preschool and elementary school teachers BIBAKFull-Text 23-31
  Marina Fridin; Mark Belokopytov
This study examined the first-time acceptance of (SAR) by preschool and primary school teachers. A modified Unified Theory of Acceptance and the Use of Technology model was applied using the questionnaires filled out by 18 teachers following interactions with a robot. The participants demonstrated positive reactions and acceptance accompanied by a variety of answers. The lack of consolidated views in the tested population of teachers and the need for an adaptation of the model are suggested. The future intensive research of teacher-acceptance of SAR will avoid the gap between technology and the end-user.
Keywords: Social assistive robotics; Unified Theory of Acceptance and the Use of Technology; Teacheracceptance
Parental mediation, peer norms and risky online behavior among adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 32-38
  Hagit Sasson; Gustavo Mesch
Previous studies have shown that parental mediation of adolescents online is associated with the latter's participation in risky behavior online and being a victim of online harassment and bullying. However, there is a paucity of studies investigating the differential contribution of peers' norms and parental mediation on adolescents' engagement in risky online behavior. To fill this gap in the literature, we collected data from a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade students in a large city in Israel. Participants responded to an online survey measuring three types of parental mediation: active guidance, restrictive supervision and non-intervention. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting massage and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. In addition, respondents reported their perceptions about their peers' attitudes toward various risky online behaviors. Multivariate findings show that after controlling for age, gender, time spent online and online activities, only restrictive parental supervision had a significant effect. However, such supervision actually increased adolescents' risky behavior online. Perceptions that one's peers approve of such behavior reduced the effect of restrictive parental supervision, leading to increased risky actions online. The results emphasize the importance of peer networks in youngsters' engagement in risky online activities.
Keywords: Parental mediation; Injuctive norms; Information and communication technologies; Youth
The affective outcomes of using influence tactics in embodied conversational agents BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Douglas C. Derrick; Gina Scott Ligon
In this study, we highlight the theoretical underpinnings of human impression management tactics and link them to current research in embodied conversational agents. Specifically, we incorporated impression management behaviors into an embodied conversational agent in order to show that different influence strategies affect user perceptions, and how those perceptions might be moderated by user gender. We programmed the agent to use two human impression management techniques (ingratiation and self-promotion) and had the agent interact with 88 users. After the interaction, users reported their perceptions of the system's power, trustworthiness, expertise, and attractiveness. The impression management techniques altered users' perceptions and these perceptions were moderated by gender differences.
Keywords: Embodied agents; Influence; Impression management; Gender differences
Effects of cooperative gaming and avatar customization on subsequent spontaneous helping behavior BIBAKFull-Text 49-55
  Igor Dolgov; William J. Graves; Matthew R. Nearents; Jeremy D. Schwark; C. Brooks Volkman
Cooperative gaming is quickly becoming the preferred form of entertainment among children and teens. Although game content is typically violent, often producing negative social outcomes, cooperative game play ameliorates its anti-social impact in future formal instances of cooperation. The present study examined the influence of cooperative and competitive game play on subsequent spontaneous helping in a pair of experiments. The mitigating role of playing with a customized or generic avatar was also evaluated. In Experiment 1, participants played doubles tennis in Wii Sports either cooperatively or competitively with a confederate. Results revealed that participants who cooperated picked up significantly more pens spilled by the confederate after gameplay than those that competed, but only when they customized their avatars. In Experiment 2, cooperative game play in Wii Sports Resort canoeing engendered significantly more spontaneous helping regardless of avatar customization. These findings are generally consistent with recent gaming research and suggest that in-game cooperation and competition have more bearing on social outcomes than game content.
Keywords: Cooperation; Spontaneous helping; Prosocial; Video game; Gaming; Avatar
The capacity for pain empathy among urban Internet-addicted left-behind children in China: An event-related potential study BIBAKFull-Text 56-62
  Ting Wang; Ying Ge; Jinfu Zhang; Jin Liu; Wenbo Luo
For the purpose of developing an event-related potential (ERP) method to study the differences in the capacity for pain empathy between urban Internet-addicted left-behind children and urban left-behind children with no such addiction, thirty participants (14 years of age) were selected from two middle schools in Chongqing, China to participate in the ERP experiment carried out over ten successive days in normal status. The study used the experimental paradigm of pain empathy experiment by Jackson, and 2 × 2 two-factor mixed experimental design. The results showed that for the N1 component (autonomic processing), the effect of pain was induced in both the Internet-addicted group and non-addicted group; this supports that the two groups of participants did not have differences during autonomic processing. The interaction between Internet addiction, non-addiction and pain was significant (for P2 and N2), i.e., the effect of pain was not significant in the Internet-addicted group but was significant in the non-addicted group. This finding supports that Internet addiction influenced the cognitive processing of empathy for pain in the urban left-behind children; P2 and N2 might reflect the cognitive processing and assessment of empathy for pain. During the last 550-850 ms, a larger LPC was induced in the two groups of participants for both pain and non-pain related images. This finding suggests that Internet addiction did not influence the processing since LPC reflected the reasonable judgment of participants, based on common sense, during the last experimental period. The final conclusion from the study was that Internet addiction influenced the capacity for pain empathy among urban left-behind children; in particular, it affected cognitive processing and assessment.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Urban left-behind children; Pain empathy; Event-related potential (ERP)
Perspectives of human factors in designing elderly monitoring system BIBAKFull-Text 63-68
  Mohammad Anwar Hossain
This paper studies the perspectives of human factors in the context of an elderly monitoring system. Such a system is designed to continuously monitor older adults and support them with various services. It also helps the caregiver with on-the-spot updates based on elderly monitoring. However, how the elderly and human caregiver perceive and interact with such system as an integral part of it, can greatly influence their understanding of the purpose and usefulness of the system. In this paper, we highlight several core functions of an elderly monitoring system and show how human factors can influence the design of the system. Experimental results show improvements with respect to efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction.
Keywords: Human factors; Elderly monitoring system; Assisted living; Elderly; Caregiver
Predicting self-monitoring skills using textual posts on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  Qiwei He; Cees A. W. Glas; Michal Kosinski; David J. Stillwell; Bernard P. Veldkamp
The popularity of the social networking site Facebook (FB) has grown unprecedented during the past five years. The research question investigated is whether posts on FB would also be applicable for the prediction of users' psychological traits such as self-monitoring (SM) skill that is supposed to be linked with users' expression behavior in the online environment. We present a model to evaluate the relationship between the posts and SM skills. The aim of this study is twofold: first, to evaluate the quality of responses to the Snyder's Self-Monitoring Questionnaire (1974) collected via the Internet; and secondly, to explore the textual features of the posts in different SM-level groups. The prediction of posts resulted in an approximate 60% accuracy compared with the classification made by Snyder's SM scale. The variable "family" was found the most significant predictor in structured textual analysis via Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). The emoticons and Internet slangs were extracted as the most robust classifiers in the unstructured textual analysis. We concluded that the textual posts on the FB Wall could partially predict the users' SM skills. Besides, we recommend that researchers always check the validity of Internet data using the methodology presented here to ensure the data is valid before being processed.
Keywords: Facebook; Self-monitoring; Text mining; Item response theory; Data validation; Natural language processing
The interaction of political behaviors in information systems implementation processes -- Structuration Theory BIBAKFull-Text 79-91
  Christina Ling-hsing Chang
Political behavior is one of the most important factors determining success or failure in the information systems implementation processes (ISIP). This study relies on qualitative case methodology, data collected from the company herein designated as Tahao (anonym), a family-owned, traditional manufacturer in Taiwan. This paper has found 16 kinds of political behavior patterns in ISIP. The paper identifies how these interact and affect the organization and IS outcome, and then how they reproduced the signification, domination and legitimation structure of Tahao, analyzed by Gidden's Structuation Theory. On a practical level, the detailed descriptions used in this study to describe the political behavior in ISIP can be applied to other organizations which need to build new IS or undertake migration. Moreover, the research finding of this study provides management with fresh insight into political behavior in the ISIP context.
Keywords: Political behavior; Information systems implementation processes; Structuration Theory
User-switching behavior in social network sites: A model perspective with drill-down analyses BIBAKFull-Text 92-103
  Yu-Lung Wu; Yu-Hui Tao; Ching-Pu Li; Sheng-Yuan Wang; Chi-Yuan Chiu
Social network sites (SNSs) are considered the most representative and influential Web 2.0 applications. Users frequently switch between SNSs and user devices because of the intense SNS market competition and the increasing mobile-device user base. However, the switching behavior of SNS users is yet to be explored to gain new knowledge and practical suggestions. This study uses a higher level research model and lower level switching pattern drill-down analysis to understand the actual switching behavior of SNS users. Users of major SNSs filled out an online questionnaire, which yielded 343 valid samples. The partial least square (PLS) results of the proposed research model show that both service quality and switching cost indirectly influence the switching intention of users through the satisfaction and switching barriers, respectively. Convenience and peer pressure are the top reasons for switching SNS platforms, whereas mobile capabilities and real-time access are the top motivations for switching to mobile SNSs. Six managerial implications are derived from the research model and the switching pattern analysis. Two research limitations are also provided with the conclusions.
Keywords: Social network sites; Service quality; Switching cost; Switching intention
Implicit user behaviours to improve post-retrieval document relevancy BIBAKFull-Text 104-112
  Vimala Balakrishnan; Xinyue Zhang
The collection of user feedback as indications of users' interests resulted in a growing interest in improving users' search experiences. In this article, we describe a method that integrates multiple implicit feedback approaches to unobtrusively monitor users' interactions to improve document search results relevancy. The study gathered users' feedback based on the dwell time, click-through data, page review, and also text selection. An experiment was conducted to assess the performance of the proposed integrated model. Collected data were analysed and compared at three ranking levels, that is, top 10, 15 and 25. Both the mean average precisions and normalised discounted cumulative gain values indicate the integrated model to significantly outperform the baseline (TF-IDF) at each of the varying levels. Moreover, a comparison across all the models also show the integrated model to have the best search performance further indicating that merging multiple feedback techniques improves the overall document relevancy. Results also show page review and text selection have the lowest and highest precisions, respectively among all the four implicit feedback models, however the differences are insignificant. Overall it can be concluded that integrated implicit feedback significantly improves post-retrieval document relevancy compared to stand-alone feedback, and also when no feedback is available.
Keywords: Document relevancy; Text selection; Page review; Dwell time; Click-through
Dispositional factors predicting use of online dating sites and behaviors related to online dating BIBAKFull-Text 113-118
  Ginette C. Blackhart; Jennifer Fitzpatrick; Jessica Williamson
Although prior research has examined how individual difference factors are related to relationship initiation and formation over the Internet (e.g., online dating sites, social networking sites), little research has examined how dispositional factors are related to other aspects of online dating. The present research therefore sought to examine the relationship between several dispositional factors, such as Big-Five personality traits, self-esteem, rejection sensitivity, and attachment styles, and the use of online dating sites and online dating behaviors. Rejection sensitivity was the only dispositional variable predictive of use of online dating sites whereby those higher in rejection sensitivity are more likely to use online dating sites than those lower in rejection sensitivity. We also found that those higher in rejection sensitivity, those lower in conscientiousness, and men indicated being more likely to engage in potentially risky behaviors related to meeting an online dating partner face-to-face. Further research is needed to further explore the relationships between these dispositional factors and online dating behaviors.
Keywords: Online dating; Self-esteem; Rejection sensitivity; Attachment; Personality
Motivational characteristics of Turkish MMORPG players BIBAKFull-Text 119-125
  Muhterem Dindar; Yavuz Akbulut
Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs) attract millions of online gamers all over the world. However, very few studies have addressed the nature of participants in these games through a robust theoretical background. Thus, the need for theory-based attempts to understand the characteristics of players in different contexts is urgent. The current study adapted a contemporary scale on gamer motivations with Turkish MMORPG members. Confirmatory factor analyses with 307 Turkish MMORPG players revealed that the scale worked effectively. Furthermore, the proposed factor structure and the structural equation model sheltering the interrelationships among the motivation components were supported with a theoretical background on the Self-determination Theory (SDT). It was observed that Turkish MMORPG players were mostly non-working and young males who demonstrated unique playing patterns. Their playing time was correlated with the level of education, body mass index and age. Advancement in the game, game mechanics and socializing were the leading motivations whereas teamwork has been given less importance. The study also revealed that the autonomy, competence and relatedness needs which are proposed by the SDT are not mutually exclusive components. Findings were discussed followed by implications and suggestions for further studies.
Keywords: Online gaming; Virtual reality; MMORPG; Self-determination Theory
An investigation of social casino gaming among land-based and Internet gamblers: A comparison of socio-demographic characteristics, gambling and co-morbidities BIBAKFull-Text 126-135
  Sally M. Gainsbury; Alex Russell; Nerilee Hing
Social casino games are free-play online games that feature gambling themes, but do not payout winnings in monetary form. These games are distinct from Internet gambling; however, the cross-over between these consumer markets is not well understood. This study compared the use of social casino games among a population of 2010 Australian adult Internet and land-based gamblers who completed a nationally representative telephone survey. The most popular social casino games were poker, gaming machines and casino table games and this popularity differed by gender. Social casino game players were more likely to be younger than non-social casino game players and had more similarities with Internet than land-based gamblers. Internet gamblers were more likely to also play social casino games than land-based gamblers, and use of these games was related to high engagement with gambling. Social casino gamers were more likely to smoke and use illicit drugs, and to have higher levels of psychological distress and gambling problems compared to non-social casino game players. This study is highly significant as it is one of the first comprehensive studies to examine the relationship between social casino game play and gambling in a representative adult population. Consumer protection measures should be strengthened where social casino games are offered in close proximity to gambling and when social casino players are encouraged to migrate to gambling opportunities.
Keywords: Internet gambling; Social casino games; Problem gambling; Addiction; Mental health
Should I trust him? The effects of reviewer profile characteristics on eWOM credibility BIBAKFull-Text 136-144
  Qian Xu
For online consumer reviews to serve as decision-making aids, users have to first trust the reviewer. However, unlike face-to-face communication, where trust develops overtime, consumers have to rely on personal profile information to establish confidence in the reviewer in online shopping context. These personal profile characteristics may serve as cues of source credibility. This study adopts a 2 (number of trusted members: small, large) × 2 (profile picture: without, with) × 2 (review valence: negative, positive) between-participants experiment to explore how two personal profile characteristics, reputation cue and profile picture, influence cognitive trust and affective trust towards the reviewer and perceived review credibility respectively and in a combinatory manner. The findings of the study showed that reputation cue and profile picture cue contributed differently to users' affective trust and cognitive trust towards the reviewer. Reputation cue, generated by the system, was found to influence both affective and cognitive dimensions of trust, whereas the self-generated cue of profile picture affected only affective trust. Reputation cue had a direct influence on perceived review credibility, whereas the influence of profile picture on perceived review credibility was dependent upon review valence. The implications of these findings are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Cognitive trust; Affective trust; Credibility; Profile characteristics; Bandwagon perception; Social presence
Effects of texting on satisfaction in romantic relationships: The role of attachment BIBAKFull-Text 145-152
  Shanhong Luo
This study sought to overcome some of the methodological limitations in previous studies and clarify the role of attachment in the associations between texting and romantic relationship satisfaction. Specifically, a new, relative measure of texting usage was created to estimate the share of texting in communication compared to other channels (e.g., face-to-face, phone, and etc.), in addition to using the traditional, absolute measure of texting usage (i.e., the number of texts sent to partners). A sample of 395 participants completed an online survey regarding texting behavior. Background variables were controlled for in all analyses, particularly the physical distance between partners, which was often overlooked in previous research. The results suggested that texting share showed positive links with both attachment dimensions and a negative link with relationship satisfaction, whereas the sheer volume of texts had little association with attachment dimensions or satisfaction.
Keywords: Texting; Attachment; Anxiety; Avoidance; Romantic relationship
Teens' concern for privacy when using social networking sites: An analysis of socialization agents and relationships with privacy-protecting behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 153-162
  Yang Feng; Wenjing Xie
U.S. teens are spending substantial time on social networking sites (SNSs). Yet, only a few studies have documented teens' privacy-protecting behaviors on SNSs. Using data of Facebook teen users and their parents in the U.S. from the Pew Internet's Teens & Privacy Management Survey (N = 622), this study investigated the socialization agents of teens' level of online privacy concern, and the relationship between teens' level of online privacy concern and their privacy-protecting behaviors on SNSs. Based on path analysis results, this study identified parents and SNS use as the two significant socialization agents. In particular, this study revealed the role of parents' privacy concern and the role of SNS use in motivating teens to increase online privacy concern, which, in turn, drives teens to adopt various privacy-setting strategies on SNSs and to set their Facebook profiles to private. Implications for policymakers and educators were discussed.
Keywords: Privacy-protecting behaviors; Parental influence; Social networking site (SNS) use; Privacy concern; Teen
Beyond Facebook: The generalization of social networking site measures BIBAKFull-Text 163-170
  Lisa Jo Elliott; Vera Polyakova
Purpose: Previous research on social networking sites (SNSs) suggests several factors that contribute to SNS use. However, the factors were specific to a particular website. We wished to know if similar factors could predict the use of a new SNS in terms of usefulness and satisfaction with the goal of creating factors that would generalize across SNSs.
   Results: Participants reported their SNS Diet and performed five tasks using a new SNS. Then, participants reported which of the five tasks was most frustrating. Participants also reported if the usefulness of the SNS would affect their future use of the site. Participants with a high SNS Diet used SNSs once a day or more. The SNS Diet was predictive of a participant's satisfaction rating and a participant's perception of usefulness.
   Conclusion: The differences suggest that different groups of social networking users will respond differently based on their SNS Diet. This study finds support for both the Rational Actor Perspective and the Web Acceptance Model. We outline a new continuous measure of SNS use which generalizes across different social networks.
Keywords: Social media; Social networking site; Facebook; Web Acceptance Model; Rational Actor Perspective
Being unfriended on Facebook: An application of Expectancy Violation Theory BIBAKFull-Text 171-178
  Jennifer L. Bevan; Pei-Chern Ang; James B. Fearns
This study considered being unfriended on Facebook as an expectancy violation that could vary in valence, importance, and expectedness according to a number of relationship and Facebook involvement characteristics. Facebook users who had been unfriended responded to a variety of quantitative scales via an online survey. Being unfriended constituted a moderately expected and negative, and moderately-to-highly important, expectancy violation. Whether ties with the unfriender were close versus weak best predicted valence and importance and the extent to which the unfriended individual used Facebook to connect with existing contacts best explained violation expectedness. Violation importance also predicted whether or not the unfriended individual contacted the former friend about being unfriended. Results supported Expectancy Violation Theory and extended knowledge about Facebook unfriending.
Keywords: Social networking; Facebook; Unfriending; Expectancy Violation Theory
Can you tell who I am? Neuroticism, extraversion, and online self-presentation among young adults BIBAKFull-Text 179-183
  Minas Michikyan; Kaveri Subrahmanyam; Jessica Dennis
The present study examined the link between neuroticism, extraversion, as well as presentation of the real, the ideal, and the false self on Facebook. Self-reports were collected from 261 young adults (ages 18-30) about personality, online self-presentation, and Facebook use. Level of extraversion was positively associated with Facebook activity level. A series of regression analyses revealed that young adults high in neuroticism reported presenting their ideal and false self on Facebook to a greater extent whereas those low in extraversion reported engaging in greater online self-exploratory behaviors. Findings suggest that young adults who are experiencing emotional instability may be strategic in their online self-presentation perhaps to seek reassurance, and those who have self-doubt further explore their self online.
Keywords: Self-presentation; Personality; Neuroticism; Extraversion; Facebook; Social networking sites
Scan and click: The uses and gratifications of social recommendation systems BIBAKFull-Text 184-191
  Ji won Kim
An online survey was used to the examine college students' uses and gratifications of social recommendation systems such as "like" on Facebook. By presenting numerical values, these systems display the volume (i.e., how many users) and valence (i.e., like/dislike) of collective opinions within a specific e-community that users are involved with. Consequently, these systems offer the chance for users to scan the climate of opinions within a specific online community. More importantly, these systems have introduced a new mode of speaking out online. Due to social recommendation systems' significance in the public opinion domain, the study attempted to understand why and how people use them to express opinions. Results showed that social recommendations were used for expression, information, socialization, and entertainment purposes. Above all, users primarily viewed them as potential expressive tools and actually use them to express their opinions. While internet use had no significant relationships with either motives or system uses, social media uses were closely related with both motives and actual uses. The findings suggest that social recommendation systems seem to play an important role in the public opinion domain by offering an additional way to scan collective opinions and express opinions.
Keywords: Online survey; Uses and gratification; Opinion expression; Social media use; Internet use; Social recommendation system
"PIN" pointing the motivational dimensions behind Pinterest BIBAKFull-Text 192-200
  Ian R. Mull; Seung-Eun Lee
This study examined the user gratifications obtained from Pinterest, an image-sharing social networking site, by applying the traditional mixed-method approach of the uses and gratifications framework (U&G). In the first phase of the study, using a qualitative questionnaire, a preliminary list of descriptive terms was collected from 27 college students who use Pinterest. From the list, an item analysis extracted 54 descriptive terms, which served as the basis for the item generation in the second phase of the study. In the second phase, using a quantitative online survey method, data was analyzed from 243 college students who use Pinterest. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed five dimensions of uses and gratifications obtained from the image-sharing SNS: 'fashion', 'creative projects', 'entertainment', 'virtual exploration', and 'organization'. Furthermore, the results propose new measures for the uses and gratifications of Pinterest.
Keywords: Pinterest; Uses and gratifications; Motivations
Investigations on empathy towards humans and robots using fMRI BIBAKFull-Text 201-212
  Astrid M. Rosenthal-von der Pütten; Frank P. Schulte; Sabrina C. Eimler; Sabrina Sobieraj; Laura Hoffmann; Stefan Maderwald; Matthias Brand; Nicole C. Krämer
Although robots are starting to enter into our professional and private lives, little is known about the emotional effects they elicit. In line with the Media Equation, humans may react towards robots as they do towards humans, making it all the more important to carefully investigate the preconditions and consequences of contact with robots. Based on assumptions on the socialness of reactions towards robots, we conducted a study that provides further insights into the question of whether humans show emotional reactions towards a robot and whether these reactions differ from those towards a human. To explore emotionality in human-robot interaction we conducted an fMRI study (n = 14). Participants were presented videos showing a human, a robot and an inanimate object, being treated in either an affectionate or in a violent way. Self-reported emotional states and functional imaging data revealed that participants indeed reacted emotionally when seeing the affectionate and violent videos. While no different neural activation patterns emerged for the affectionate interaction towards both, the robot and the human, we found differences in neural activity when comparing only the videos showing abusive behavior indicating that participants experience more emotional distress and show negative empathetic concern for the human in the abuse condition. This was supported by similar findings with regard to participant's self-reported emotional states.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; Empathy; Psychophysiological measures; Functional magnetic resonance imaging; Experimental study
Social media for learning: A mixed methods study on high school students' technology affordances and perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 213-223
  Jin Mao
Using an explanatory sequential mixed methods design, the study investigated high school students' affordances for social media, their attitudes and beliefs about these new technologies, and related obstacles and issues. The affordance findings indicate that students depend on social media in their daily lives for leisure and social connections. Educational uses by teachers for classroom teaching and learning are sporadic, while uses by students on their own for learning purposes seem to be abundant but also incidental and informal. Quantitative results suggest that in general, students show positive attitudes and beliefs about social media use in education. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three components that explained a total of 65.4% of the variance: (a) benefits of social media use, (b) disadvantages of social media use, and (c) current social media use in education. Three issues emerged from the interview data: Conceptual understanding of social media for learning; close-minded, acquired uses versus open-minded, innate uses of social media; and changed concepts of learning. The study results suggest that for social media to be used as effective learning tools and to adjust students' prior affordances with these tools, complicated efforts in designing, scaffolding, and interacting with students during the process are necessary.
Keywords: Social media; Technology affordances; Attitudes and beliefs; Learning design
Understanding the link between organizational learning capability and ERP system usage: An empirical examination BIBAKFull-Text 224-234
  Joseph Nwankpa; Yaman Roumani
Although significant research attention has been directed at understanding ERP system adoption and deployment, very little attention has been paid to understanding ERP system usage among these adopting firms. This paper seeks to fill this void. We examine the concept of organizational learning capability (OLC), defined by dimensions of managerial commitment, systems perspective, openness and experimentation and transfer and integration to understand how firms can appropriate ERP systems to capture their potential benefits. Specifically, we examine the impact of OLC on ERP systems usage. We also incorporate the concept of user satisfaction to argue that OLC has an indirect effect on user satisfaction as well as a direct effect on ERP system usage. The empirical results show that OLC has a positive effect on user satisfaction. Besides, managerial commitment was found to have a positive effect on both user satisfaction and ERP system usage. Finally, user satisfaction was found to be a strong predictor of ERP system usage.
Keywords: ERP system usage; Organizational learning capability; User satisfaction
Internet use and verbal aggression: The moderating role of parents and peers BIBAKFull-Text 235-241
  Markus Appel; Barbara Stiglbauer; Bernad Batinic; Peter Holtz
This research investigated the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the relationship between adolescents' Internet use and verbal aggression. Adolescents (N = 363, age range 10-16, MT1 = 12.84, SD = 1.93) were examined twice with a six-month delay. Controlling for social support in general terms, moderated regression analyses showed that Internet-related communication quality with parents determined whether Internet use is associated with an increase or a decrease in adolescents' verbal aggression scores over time. A three way interaction indicated that high Internet-related communication quality with peers can have disadvantageous effects if the communication quality with parents is low. Implications on resources and risk factors related to the effects of Internet use are discussed.
Keywords: Internet use; Verbal aggression; Parental mediation; Communication quality; Peers; Longitudinal design
Click versus drag: User-performed tasks and the enactment effect in an interactive multimedia environment BIBAKFull-Text 242-255
  Ruth N. Schwartz; Jan L. Plass
Does learner performance of specific tasks in an interactive multimedia environment affect learning outcomes? Within a multimedia environment, users may engage in a range of actions, or interactive tasks, from tapping a keyboard to executing large motor movements. To investigate the impact of particular performance tasks on learning, we first introduce an approach to classifying interactive multimedia tasks as enactive, iconic or symbolic. We then describe a study in which university students (N = 112) used a computer program that presented a series of action phrases in 4 different conditions, each condition requiring performance of a different task: listen (audio only), look (audio with static graphic), click (audio with animation triggered by a click), or drag (audio with click-and-drag graphic). Participants were tested on free recall and recognition of phrases immediately after treatment and again after 3 weeks. At immediate testing, recall was best for drag (iconic) items, followed by click (symbolic), look, and listen items, in that order, with significant differences between each pair of conditions. For immediate recognition, as well as for delayed free recall and delayed recognition, mean scores followed the same pattern, with some variations in significance. Results support our proposed classification of interactive behaviors, extend previous findings on the enactment effect into a computer environment, and suggest the importance of considering the design of interactive tasks in the development of multimedia learning materials.
Keywords: Multimedia; Interactivity; Enactment effect; User-performed tasks; Embodiment
Why smartphone advertising attracts customers: A model of Web advertising, flow, and personalization BIBAKFull-Text 256-269
  Yoo Jung Kim; JinYoung Han
Thirty-five percent of US adults own a smartphone and more than seventy-three percent of the population in South Korea owns a smartphone in the first quarter of 2013. The number of people that use a smartphone has radically increased. Smartphone users always maintain connectivity, and frequent and swift communication with others. As the mobile advertising market is drastically expanded, advertisers and companies should be more attentive to effective smartphone advertising. This study suggests a comprehensive advertising model that combines a Web advertising model, personalization and flow theory in understanding the antecedents of purchase intention and influence processes in the context of smartphone advertisements. The results show that personalization has a positive association with informativeness, credibility, and entertainment of the advertising message while having a negative association with irritation. Purchase intention is increased by advertising value and flow experience. Advertising value has a positive relationship with credibility, entertainment, and incentives. Flow experience is positively associated with credibility, entertainment, incentives. Irritation negatively affects flow experience but advertising value. This study theoretically contributes to the application of the smartphone advertising model and practically contributes influential factors for effective advertising to marketers and advertisers.
Keywords: Advertising effectiveness; Advertising value; Flow; Personalization; Smartphone advertising
Gravitating towards Facebook (GoToFB): What it is? and How can it be measured? BIBAKFull-Text 270-278
  Adel M. Aladwani
In its current state, the Facebook literature speaks very little about metrics developed specifically for this important social networking service. This study tries to fill part of this gap by conceptualizing, developing and validating a new Facebook use construct, "Gravitating towards Facebook" (GoToFB). Unlike traditional Facebook usage views that have focused on lean usage measures, the one presented in the current study offers a broader conceptualization of the same by taking into account the interaction among three elements: the user, Facebook features, and task. This investigation has put extensive efforts to validate the new Facebook instrument using a series of exploratory and confirmatory scale development techniques and found that it exhibits adequate measurement properties. The resultant scale consists of eight dimensions: connecting, sharing, relaxing, organizing, branding, monitoring, expressing, and learning. The instrument would be useful for businesses looking for deeply understanding how potential customers use Facebook and for researchers seeking to develop and test Facebook success models.
Keywords: Social media; Social networking applications; Gravitating towards Facebook; Usage measurement; Scale development; Metrics
Loafing in the digital age: The role of computer mediated communication in the relation between perceived loafing and group affective outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 279-285
  Lucas Monzani; Pilar Ripoll; Jose María Peiró; Rolf Van Dick
Virtual work has become an increasingly central practice for the organization of the 21st century. While effective virtual workgroups can create synergies that boost innovation and performance, ineffective workgroups become a great burden for organizations. Empirical research has shown that some negative behaviors, such as social loafing, negatively influence a group's affective outcomes, in both collocated (face-to-face) and virtual workgroups. In this study, we explore if working through low fidelity computer mediated communication (CMC) increases the negative impact of perceived loafing over cohesion and work satisfaction. On this rationale, we conducted a laboratory study with 44 groups of four members each, who worked on a project in four sessions over a one-month period, in either face-to-face or low fidelity CMC conditions. Results show that the communication media condition moderates the effect of perceived loafing in the expected direction, meaning that, in the low fidelity CMC condition perceived loafing had an increased negative effect on group cohesion and satisfaction with the work process and its results.
Keywords: Virtual teams; Perceived loafing; Work satisfaction
Millennial engineers: Digital media and information ecology of engineering students BIBAKFull-Text 286-301
  Aditya Johri; Hon Jie Teo; Jenny Lo; Monique Dufour; Asta Schram
Media significantly shape how and what we learn. To date there is limited understanding of digital media and information use by engineering students. We comprehensively review existing literature and present findings from a research study investigating digital media and information use of 'millennial' engineers who purportedly possess distinctive experience, habits, and perceptions about technology. We administered a multiple-item survey to a cohort of first year engineering students who entered a large public university in the United States in August 2009. Self-reported information on the frequency of media device usage, participation in social networking, academic activities and information seeking tendencies, was received from 204 participants. Similar to other youth, millennial engineers use technology extensively and are frequent users of both commonly used digital devices as well as applications. Students' device ownership was marked by a relatively low use of desktop computers and significant use of mobile devices. Students reported using the Internet extensively for both entertainment and school related work. Facebook™ use was common but Twitter™ use was limited. Multitasking was common and its self-reported effectiveness varied across participants. Gender differences were found across several items. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed.
Keywords: Media and information ecology; First year engineering students; Facebook; Twitter; Social networking; Survey study
Do shy people feel less communication apprehension online? The effects of virtual reality on the relationship between personality characteristics and communication outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 302-310
  Jin K. Hammick; Moon J. Lee
This study examines the effect of 3D virtual worlds on an individual's communication experience in comparison with Face-to-Face communications (FtFCs). Using 2 × 2 posttest only group design where subjects were asked to discuss over a given topic. This study investigated whether individuals' different personality characteristics (i.e. shyness) influence communication experiences (i.e. communication apprehension). The data suggest that shy individuals felt less of communication apprehension during the discussion conducted online than FtFC. On the other hand, FtFC turned out to be more effective in influencing individuals' intention to change behavior compared to virtual worlds. The results suggest that lack of visual/auditory cues in virtual reality is the major factor that influenced the outcome.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; Second Life; Shyness; Communication apprehension; Communication competence; Virtual reality
Introduction to #SocialMedia2 BIBFull-Text 311-313
  Ashleigh K. Shelton; Kristy M. Najarian
Sexism in online video games: The role of conformity to masculine norms and social dominance orientation BIBAKFull-Text 314-320
  Jesse Fox; Wai Yen Tang
Sexism toward women in online video game environments has become a pervasive and divisive issue in the gaming community. In this study, we sought to determine what personality traits, demographic variables, and levels of game play predicted sexist attitudes towards women who play video games. Male and female participants (N = 301) who were players of networked video games were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey. Social dominance orientation and conformity to some types of masculine norms (desire for power over women and the need for heterosexual self-presentation) predicted higher scores on the Video Game Sexism Scale (i.e., greater sexist beliefs about women and gaming). Implications for the social gaming environment and female gamers are discussed.
Keywords: Video games; Sex role stereotypes; Gender roles; Masculinity; Sexual harassment; Social identity model of deindividuation effects
What makes good games go viral? The role of technology use, efficacy, emotion and enjoyment in players' decision to share a prosocial digital game BIBAKFull-Text 321-329
  Elizabeth L. Cohen
Serious digital games may be an effective tool for prosocial message dissemination because they offer technology and experiences that encourage players to share them with others, and spread virally. But little is known about the factors that predict players' willingness to share games with others in their social network. This panel study explores how several factors, including sharing technology use, emotional responses, and game enjoyment, contribute to players' decision to share the game Darfur is Dying, with others. College students played the game and completed questionnaires that assessed whether they had shared the games at two different time points: during game play and after game play. Positive emotions predicted sharing while students played the game, but negative emotions predicted whether the game was shared after initial game play. Game enjoyment predicted players' intentions to share the game, but it did not predict actual sharing behavior. Neither players' general use of sharing technologies nor their satisfaction related to sharing digital content predicted sharing intentions or behavior. These findings have implications for the study of viral social marketing campaigns, and serious game design and theory.
Keywords: Serious games; Content sharing; Viral marketing; Enjoyment; Emotion; Campaigns
A motivation-based typology of social virtual world users BIBAKFull-Text 330-338
  Diana Hassouneh; Malaika Brengman
The past years have witnessed a rapid increase in the use of social media networks, including virtual worlds, across broad segments of Internet users. Several researchers have investigated the motivations behind social media use, however, few studies have attempted to explain the use of free-form/social virtual worlds (SVWs). Using both, qualitative and quantitative approaches, the current study aims to identify these motives and classify SVW users according to motivation-based user segments. Furthermore, the current paper examines the link between SVW users' motivations and their demographics. Our findings suggest that SVW users are motivated to use the platform seeking the following: 'Friendship', 'Escapism', and 'Role-playing'; followed by 'Achievement', a 'Relationship' and 'Manipulation'. Seven types of SVW users were identified based on their motivations, namely, 'Role-Players', 'Relationship Seekers', 'Manipulators', 'Achievement Seekers', 'Friendship seekers', 'Uninvolved', and 'Escapists'. Users' motivations to use the platform differ based on their 'age' and 'gender', and some notable differences in demographics among user types were identified.
Keywords: Motivations; Factor analysis; Social virtual worlds; Second Life; SVW user typology
Blinded by the light: Illuminating the dark side of social network use through content analysis BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
  Ashleigh K. Shelton; Paul Skalski
The present study reveals the results of a content analysis of the descriptive, textual communication, and photo content found in 208 college student Facebook profiles. An a priori coding scheme was developed for this investigation based on (1) news reports and stories on controversies surrounding online social network use, (2) research on social uses of the Internet, and (3) insights from the author, a longtime Facebook user. Results show that all categories of controversial content were more frequent than any of the prosocial content categories, suggesting that there is an overrepresentation of negative content on Facebook, even though many of the specific frequencies are low. In addition, the vast majority of students did not disclose personal contact information on their profiles, and males and females differed in the amount of personal contact information and controversial content disclosed. The study results document the nature of online social network content and point to possible effects of displaying and/or being exposed to controversial content online.
Keywords: Facebook; Social networking sites; Content analysis; Controversial content; Gender differences
Parents' of adolescents use of social networking sites BIBAKFull-Text 349-355
  Jennifer Doty; Jodi Dworkin
The use of social networking sites (SNSs) has increased exponentially, especially among adolescents. While parents use SNS more than the general population of adults, very little is known about parents' of adolescents behaviors in a social networking environment. Guided by a uses and gratification perspective, the purpose of this study was to examine parents' of adolescents (N = 649) use of SNSs to monitor and connect with their children's life. Analyses revealed that parents of adolescents used SNSs for parenting more often than other online social activities such as instant messaging, Skype, chat rooms, or blogging. The top two reasons for using SNSs were to communicate with children and extended family. Hierarchical logistic regression results indicated that parents of adolescents who used a greater number of SNS activities were more likely to use SNSs to communicate with their children, their children's friends, and the parents of their children's friends. Those parents who had positive attitudes toward technology were more likely to use SNSs to communicate with their children's friends but less likely to communicate with parents of their children's friends. Parents of older adolescents were more likely to use SNSs to communicate with their children.
Keywords: Social networking site; Parenting; Adolescence; Monitoring; Use; Gratification
Late adolescent identity definition and intimate disclosure on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 356-366
  Zayira Jordán-Conde; Brian Mennecke; Anthony Townsend
During the last decade, online social networks such as Facebook™ (Facebook) grew rapidly in popularity and this was due in no small measure to use of these media by adolescents. For many teenagers and young adults, Facebook represents a social institution that can be used by adolescents not only for sharing basic information and for connecting with others, but also as a platform for exploring and divulging information about their identities. To examine issues related to questions about the formation and disclosure of identity-related information by late adolescents, this study investigates the relationship between disclosures of intimate information by late adolescents through Facebook and their stage of psychosocial development. To examine disclosure behaviors of young college students on Facebook, we conducted focus groups in conjunction with a content analysis of Facebook profiles. Findings point to an extended adolescence period resting on the identity construction dilemma posed by digital social networks.
Keywords: Facebook; Adolescent; Identity; Intimacy; Disclosure; Social networking site
The impact of self-selected identity on productive or perverse social capital in social network sites BIBAKFull-Text 367-371
  Rozan O. Maghrabi; Richelle L. Oakley; Hamid R. Nemati
Social network sites can provide a person with the freedom to represent themselves in various ways, thus exhibiting multiple variations of their identity. Research states that an individual's identity is self-monitored depending on the contextual situation that they are in. The type of social capital that one derives from social network sites can be impacted by this self-monitoring ability. Current research has addressed how productive social capital can be gained in social network sites. However, limited research has addressed the issue of perverse social capital, especially in social network sites. We argue that social network sites are a particularly unique environment that can affect an individual's representation of their identity, thus increasing the likelihood of producing perverse social capital. We examine how technology affects an individual's selected self-identity, as measured through their self-monitoring ability, and how this altered behavior leads to productive or perverse social capital in social network sites.
Keywords: Self-selected identity; Social network sites; Social capital
Is that a bot running the social media feed? Testing the differences in perceptions of communication quality for a human agent and a bot agent on Twitter BIBAKFull-Text 372-376
  Chad Edwards; Autumn Edwards; Patric R. Spence; Ashleigh K. Shelton
Due to the growth and popularity of Twitter, automated programs that can tweet are increasingly developed and employed. In line with the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) paradigm (Reeves & Nass, 1996), findings suggest that Twitterbots are perceived as credible, attractive, competent in communication, and interactional. Additionally, there were no differences in the perceptions of source credibility, communication competence, or interactional intentions between the bot and human Twitter agents. However, the source of the human Twitter agent was rated higher in attraction (social and task) than was the Twitterbot. Results are discussed in light of CASA. Implications for organizations that might employ Twitterbots are also addressed.
Keywords: Bot; Twitter; CASA; Credibility; Communication competence; Attraction
If you are quick enough, I will think about it: Information speed and trust in public health organizations BIBAKFull-Text 377-380
  Kenneth A. Lachlan; Patric R. Spence; Autumn Edwards; Katie M. Reno; Chad Edwards
Social media continues to gain prominence as an information resource. However, little is known about how people perceive trust and credibility in social media messages, particularly in terms of abstract dispositions toward organizations. The current experiment examines the role of speed of updates on a twitter feed with perceptions of trust. The experiment is also used to address the convergent validity of the RAND Public Health Disaster Trust Scale. The results do not provide evidence of a direct relationship between speed of twitter feed updates and trust, but do support a mediation model in which cognitive elaboration mediates the relationship. Further, the convergent validity of the RAND Public Health Disaster Trust Scale is discussed, along with its utility for future studies of this type.
Keywords: Twitter; Credibility; Social media; Health messages
Corrigendum to "Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation for using a booth recommender system service on exhibition attendees' unplanned visit behavior" [Comput. Hum. Behav. 30 (2014) 59-68] BIBFull-Text 381
  Namho Chung; Chulmo Koo; Jae Kyeong Kim