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Computers in Human Behavior 31

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-02 Volume 31

CHB 2014-02 Volume 31

An investigation of information sharing and seeking behaviors in online investment communities BIBAKFull-Text 1-12
  Jae Hong Park; Bin Gu; Alvin Chung Man Leung; Prabhudev Konana
Social networks have attracted significant attention in academic research. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of research on simultaneous information seeking and sharing behaviors in online social networks. In this research, we investigate why and how weakly connected members participate in online investment communities. We propose a theoretical model to simultaneously analyze two types of user behavior -- information seeking and information sharing. Based on a survey of 502 members of one of the largest online investment communities in South Korea, we validate our model. We find that sense of belonging, entertainment value, and perceived usefulness are significant antecedent factors of both intention to share and intention to seek, which subsequently lead to information sharing and information seeking behaviors. Also, reputation seeking enhances intention to share while perceived knowledge reduces intention to seek. Furthermore, intention to seek is positively related to information seeking behavior; however, negatively related to information sharing behavior, and intention to share is positively related to only information sharing behavior. Our research enriches extant literature on social networks by providing new insights to help understand user participation behaviors in online communities.
Keywords: Weak-tie network; Information seeking and sharing behaviors; Behavioral intentions; Stock message boards; Social-psychological theory
Relationships among personality traits, Facebook usages, and leisure activities -- A case of Taiwanese college students BIBAKFull-Text 13-19
  Tingya Kuo; Hung-Lian Tang
With 1.11 billion active users worldwide, Facebook usages may have some impacts on our social lives. The purpose of this research is to investigate possible relationships among personality traits, Facebook usages, and leisure activities. Three hypotheses were proposed: users with different personality traits may have different Facebook usages, users with different personality traits may have different leisure activities, and users with different Facebook usages may have different leisure activities. A questionnaire with 30 items was developed and the convenient sampling technique was used to collect data from 500 college students in Taiwan. Statistics methods such as descriptive statistics, independent t tests, ANOVA were used to analyze the data with a statistical significance of p < .05. The hypotheses were partially supported. Participants with high extraversion, low agreeableness and high openness tended to spend more times on Facebook and have more number of friends and photos. The findings confirmed that high extraversion and high openness people liked to socialize on Facebook (more time, more friends, more photos) also liked to socialize in real life (more time on team sports and recreational activities), but low agreeableness and low emotional stability people liked to use Facebook for socializing in lieu of real life socializing.
Keywords: Personality; Facebook usages; Leisure activities
An integrated approach to untangling mediated connectedness with online and mobile media BIBAKFull-Text 20-26
  Chih-Hui Lai
With the growth and convergence of mobile and social computing technology, mobile media are accorded new social meaning manifested in different aspects of our everyday life. This paper employs multiple theoretical frameworks -- including the theory of the niche, the framework of media repertoires, and the communication infrastructure model -- to examine individual-technology relationship as manifested through media repertoires and media connectedness. It argues that individuals tend to construct a set of media options and build connectedness with media technologies by engaging in a wide scope of activities through these media. In turn, this media repertoire and media connectedness may facilitate the performance of social and cultural practices in the public space. To investigate this conceptualization empirically, this study conducted a secondary analysis of data collected by the Pew Research Center in the United States. The results showed that multidimensional use of mobile apps was predicted by multidimensional Internet use, along with the scope of regular apps used and monetary investment by users. Additionally, multidimensional Internet use and the use of media repertoires consisting of mobile media and social media for socio-cultural activities facilitate public socio-cultural engagement. These results bring to light a new way of understanding how humans appropriate multiple types of technologies for activities in everyday life.
Keywords: Mobile apps; Social media; Media repertoires; Public engagement; Theory of niche; Communication infrastructure
Technical proficiency for IS Success BIBAKFull-Text 27-36
  Fred K. Weigel; Benjamin T. Hazen
The Information System (IS) Success model implies that IS users possess baseline technical abilities; an assumption that, if not met, may adversely affect the constructs and relationships proposed by the model. We propose that the level of users' technical proficiency should be accounted for when considering deployment of information systems. However, considering the extant literature, it is unclear precisely what constitutes technical proficiency in today's business environment. Using a Delphi method approach, we develop the technical proficiency construct to uncover what competencies indicate technically proficiency, what business needs such proficiencies address, and how technical proficiency can be assessed. We uncover 16 qualities of technical proficiency, 14 common technology business needs, and 13 methods to assess proficiency. This research lays the groundwork for future research regarding IS Success and technical proficiency. Practitioners can use these findings to help better prepare their workforce for IS deployment.
Keywords: Technical proficiency; Delphi method; Information system success; Computer self-efficacy; Computer-mediated communication
The effect of variations in banner ad, type of product, website context, and language of advertising on Internet users' attitudes BIBAKFull-Text 37-47
  William Flores; Jeng-Chung Victor Chen; William H. Ross
Bilingual college students in Ecuador were presented with a Spanish-language website (either a video website or an online newspaper website). Each website contained a banner ad. The ad was for either a high-involvement product (a smartphone) or a low-involvement product (a news magazine). The type of ad (display ad with photograph vs. text-only, Google-style search ad), shape of ad (horizontal vs. vertical ad), and language of the ad (English vs. Spanish) varied for each type of website. The high-involvement product was seen as significantly more appealing than the low-involvement product, regardless of the type of ad. An interaction suggested that the high-involvement product was seen as somewhat more appealing if advertised with display ads rather than text-only ads; the low-involvement product was slightly more appealing if advertised with text-only ads. Both products -- but especially the high-involvement product -- attracted higher ratings if advertised with Spanish-language ads rather than English ads. Finally, products were somewhat more appealing if advertised on 'highly congruent' websites, where the advertised product was similar to the theme of the website (e.g., a smartphone that plays videos advertised on a video website; a news magazine advertised on a newspaper website).
Keywords: Internet advertising; Banner ad; Language of advertisement; High-involvement product; Display ads vs. text-only ads; Visual information
My privacy is okay, but theirs is endangered: Why comparative optimism matters in online privacy concerns BIBAKFull-Text 48-56
  Young Min Baek; Eun-mee Kim; Young Bae
It is easy to trace and compile a record of individuals' online activities, and cases of online privacy infringement (i.e., improper use of personal information) have been reported in advanced societies. Based on existing risk perception research, this study examines comparative optimism regarding online privacy infringement (i.e., users tend to believe privacy infringement is less likely to happen to oneself than to others) and its antecedents and consequences. Relying on large-scale online survey data in South Korea (N = 2028), this study finds: (1) comparative optimism is higher when the comparison targets are younger; (2) online knowledge and maternalistic personality traits increase comparative optimism mainly by influencing perceived risk to others, while prior experience of privacy infringement increases comparative optimism mainly by influencing perceived personal risk; and (3) comparative optimism is related to both greater adoption of privacy-protective behaviors and a higher level of support for government policies to restrict the use of online information. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings, along with potential limitations, are discussed.
Keywords: Online privacy; Privacy infringement; Comparative optimism; Privacy policy
Integration of peer support and computer-based CBT for veterans with depression BIBAKFull-Text 57-64
  C. Beau Nelson; Kristen M. Abraham; Heather Walters; Paul N. Pfeiffer; Marcia Valenstein
Depressive disorders are a serious public health concern and treatment priority for the Veterans Health Administration. Computer-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (cCBT) is an effective intervention for patients with major depressive disorders; however, rates of program completion are an area of concern, which may be improved through the assistance of peers. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of a Veteran-peer assisted cCBT intervention. Participants were patients diagnosed with depression at an Outpatient Mental Health (OMH) or Primary Care Mental Health (PCMH) clinic at a single VHA facility. Participants were paired with a Veteran-peer and given access to a widely used cCBT program via the Internet. Measures of depressive symptoms were obtained at baseline, 4-, and 8-weeks follow-up. Completion rates and program satisfaction were also assessed. At 8 weeks, symptom reductions and completion rates were comparable to study results of brief individual, group CBT, and staff assisted computerized CBT interventions. Significant reductions in depressive symptoms were observed in patients from both clinics, although ratings of program usefulness, relevance, and ease of use were higher for individuals recruited from the PCMH clinic. Peer-assisted cCBT for depression is feasible but further research is needed to determine the clinical efficacy of this approach.
Keywords: Mental health; Computer-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; Peer support; Cognitive behavioral therapy; Major depressive disorder; Self-help approaches
Time, place, technology: Twitter as an information source in the Wisconsin labor protests BIBAKFull-Text 65-72
  Aaron S. Veenstra; Narayanan Iyer; Mohammad Delwar Hossain; Jiwoo Park
Recently, Twitter has become a prominent part of social protest movement communication. This study examines Twitter as a new kind of citizen journalism platform emerging at the aggregate in the context of such "crisis" situations by undertaking a case study of the use of Twitter in the 2011 Wisconsin labor protests. A corpus of more than 775,000 tweets tagged with #wiunion during the first 3 weeks of the protests provides the source of the analyses. Findings suggest that significant differences exist between users who tweet via mobile devices, and thus may be present at protests, and those who tweet from computers. Mobile users post fewer URLs overall; however, when they do, they are more likely to link to traditional news sources and to provide additional hashtags for context. Over time, all link-posting declines, as users become better able to convey first-hand information. Notably, results for most analyses significantly change when restricted to original tweets only, rather than including retweets.
Keywords: Twitter; Protest mobilization; Citizen journalism; Labor; Wisconsin protests
Extending multimedia research: How do prerequisite knowledge and reading comprehension affect learning from text and pictures BIBAKFull-Text 73-84
  Katharina Scheiter; Anne Schüler; Peter Gerjets; Thomas Huk; Friedrich W. Hesse
The present study aimed at extending research on multimedia design principles by investigating their validity as a function of learners' reading comprehension and scientific literacy. Students (N = 125; age: M = 15.11 years) learned about cell reproduction during their regular Biology lessons in one of six conditions resulting from cross-varying multimedia (text only vs. text plus animations) and text modality (spoken vs. written vs. spoken and written). Recall and transfer were assessed immediately after learning and again 1 week later. Overall, adding animations to text as well as using spoken rather than written text improved only immediate recall; in addition, a multimedia effect for delayed recall was observed for learners with higher levels of scientific literacy. A redundant presentation of text proved harmful especially for delayed performance measures. Reading comprehension did not moderate multimedia design effects. Students with more suitable cognitive prerequisites were better able to maintain performance from the immediate to the delayed tests. Future multimedia research should further investigate the boundary conditions that moderate multimedia effectiveness.
Keywords: Multimedia effect; Modality effect; Redundancy effect; Delayed testing; Reading comprehension; Prerequisite knowledge; Scientific literacy
Does the offline bully-victimization influence cyberbullying behavior among youths? Application of General Strain Theory BIBAKFull-Text 85-93
  Hyunseok Jang; Juyoung Song; Ramhee Kim
The current study attempts to examine the relationship between traditional bullyvictimization and cyberbullying behavior based on General Strain Theory perspectives. Offline bullyvictimization can create negative emotional strains. This negative strain combined with the anonymity in cyber space may lead youths to be engaged in cyberbullying behavior as the externalized response to the strain. Using longitudinal Korean National Youth Survey data, this study empirically tested the above theoretical explanation. First, this study found the declining trend of cyberbullying engagement among Korean youths. Secondly, consistent with GST, offline bully-victimization was significantly related to the cyberbullying engagement. Youths who were victims of traditional bullying showed a higher tendency of becoming cyberbullying assaulters with externalizing their strain in cyberspace.
Keywords: Traditional bully-victimization; Cyberbullying behavior; General Strain Theory
Death of a salesman: Webpage-based manipulations of mortality salience BIBAKFull-Text 94-99
  William J. Chopik; Robin S. Edelstein
Most people are accustomed to ignoring the advertisements that they encounter while surfing the Internet, despite the profound effects such advertisements can have on behavior. We showed that webpage advertisements can remind people of their mortality (Study 1) and lead them to invest in culturally valued behavior (Studies 2-4). Specifically, individuals in the "mortality salience" condition reported greater worldview defense (Study 2) and spent more money on luxury items (Studies 3 and 4) than those in the control condition, consistent with proposals set forth by terror management theory. In Study 4, death-related thoughts mediated the relationship between mortality salience and willingness to spend money on luxury items. Findings are discussed in the context of online consumer behavior.
Keywords: Terror management; Advertisement; Consumer behavior; Internet methods
Prevalence and determinants of Internet addiction among adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 100-110
  Ikenna Adiele; Wole Olatokun
Background: Globally, it is agreed that the internet can serve as a tool that enhances well-being but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes problematic internet use and internet use relationship with offline behavioural addictions. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents and to determine whether it is a distinct disorder from offline behavioural addictions.
   Methods: Using survey design, a total of 1022 University adolescents comprising undergraduates and postgraduates were selected using stratified random sampling. Data were collected using the Revised Internet Addiction Test (RIAT), a questionnaire made up of EPQR-S Lie Scale, Internet Addiction Test (IAT), Internet Use Reasons, Hypersexual Behaviour Inventory and Problem Video Game Playing Scale.
   Results: There was prevalence of IA among the adolescents; the prevalence rate was 3.3%, in a male to female ratio of approximately 3:1. Adolescents' online addiction was mainly influenced by extrinsic reasons for internet use, although there were few whose reasons for going online were mainly intrinsic. Using the internet to communicate on important matters, getting sex-oriented materials, and making money (especially amongst females) seemed to dominate addicts' minds; thus, majority were 'addicts on the internet' and not 'addicts to the internet'.
   Conclusions: Offline behavioural addictions was not an IA causal factor but rather a motivating factor, while intrinsic reasons for internet use was not found to be a reliable factor for distinguishing addicts from non-addicts.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Intrinsic reason; Extrinsic reason; Offline behavioural addiction; Negative outcome
New media and the changing face of information technology use: The importance of task pursuit, social influence, and experience BIBAKFull-Text 111-117
  Michael Workman
The technology adoption and use question has been extensively researched; however, gaining synthesis in the literature has been challenging owing to the myriad of theoretical frameworks and study contexts. A consolidation was surmised by the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), although recent studies have yielded new questions as technologies and societies change. We sought to determine whether factors grounded by the UTAUT would be predictive of the use of "new" media. To do this, we conducted a field study of non-work related and discretionary use of "social media" and "smart device" applications. Using linear regression with interactions, we learned that technology use may evolve on a continuum, and that use may depend on the technology itself. Moreover, our research indicated that perhaps age and gender may not play as significant a role in new technology use and adoption as previously reported in the literature. We concluded that each medium is reflected in differential use characteristics and may not be accurately predicted by a unified use concept. Our findings have both research and practical implications.
Keywords: Social media; Media use; Technology adoption and use; UTAUT
Problematizing excessive online gaming and its psychological predictors BIBAKFull-Text 118-122
  Daniel Kardefelt-Winther
This study problematizes the common methodology in studies on excessive internet use where psychological characteristics are sought as unique predictors of negative outcomes. It suggests that some predictors may be significant only by virtue of being examined in isolation. In an attempt to add to this methodology the present study explored motivations for a particular online activity, MMO gaming, and the association with excessive use. The study used survey data from players of World of Warcraft (WoW), a popular MMO game. The psychological characteristics investigated were based on previous studies of excessive internet use and included social anxiety, loneliness and stress. The motivations were achievement, escapism and social interaction. The results revealed that although loneliness and social anxiety were correlated with excessive use, they lost significance when stress was controlled for. Furthermore, all psychological predictors lost significance when escapism and achievement were controlled for. These results suggest that psychological characteristics only have an indirect effect on negative outcomes and that this relationship can be better explained by motivations acting as a mediating variable. Based on these results an alternative conceptualization was offered, termed compensatory internet use, emphasizing that excessive use may be more usefully framed and investigated as a coping strategy rather than compulsive behaviour.
Keywords: Online gaming addiction; Excessive internet use; Internet addiction; Gaming motivations; Compensatory internet use
An epidemiological assessment of online groups and a test of a typology: What are the (dis)similarities of the online group types? BIBAKFull-Text 123-133
  Matt C. Howard
A vast multitude of online groups exist, and authors have been rapidly investigating their dynamics. Extant studies have provided great information on the effects of online group membership, but limitations are often noted in these studies. Amongst the most concerning limitations are issues of generalizability. Authors are often unsure whether their results are able to generalize to other online groups, including those that are seemingly similar. For this reason, some researchers have created typologies of online groups, in hopes that online groups that fall within the same category will be generalizable; however, no study has analyzed the merit of an online group typology, and conclusions are based upon speculation. For this reason, the current study analyzed the dynamics of three different online groups, which fall within separate categories of an online group typology: a cancer support forum, a LGBT forum, and a Harry Potter fan forum. The results demonstrate that these groups vary in their properties, including group members' group identity, well-being, and social support. These results provide support for an online group typology, and precisely demonstrate in what manner these groups differ. Additionally, the results offer valuable information about the individual groups, as some variables were previously unstudied in some group types. The discovery of these previously unknown dynamics leads to the potential of new studies, which is discussed. Therefore, the current study provides important implications for future studies, as well as the interpretation of future research results.
Keywords: Online groups; Group identity; Self-presentation; Well-being; Social support
Using social media for work: Losing your time or improving your work? BIBAKFull-Text 134-142
  Ioannis Leftheriotis; Michail N. Giannakos
Social Media have been gaining in popularity worldwide over the last years at an increasingly growing rate. The introduction of social media in companies enables a new method of communication among colleagues and with customers. Although social media are in the top of the agenda for many companies to date, there seems to be very limited understanding of the usage of social media for work purposes. In this study, we investigate whether employees make use of social media for work purposes, what values increase this usage, and if that usage is related with their performance. Responses from 1799 employees in the insurance industry were used to examine the impact of social media on work. Results confirmed that in the case of social media for work, employees make extended use of them no matter their age. We found also that both utilitarian and hedonic values influence employees to use more social media for their work, at least in the insurance sector. Last but not least, this study confirms that there is an important relation between the use of social media and the work performance.
Keywords: Social media; Workplace; Insurance industry; Social networks; Work performance; Motivations
Intentions to hide and unfriend Facebook connections based on perceptions of sender attractiveness and status updates BIBAKFull-Text 143-150
  Jorge Peña; Nicholas Brody
We investigated how intentions to hide and unfriend Facebook contacts were linked to perceived sender attractiveness and face-threating messages (FTAs). Intention to hide was higher than intention to unfriend contacts, implying that unfriending is harsher. Low social attractiveness predicted hiding and unfriending intentions, but low physical attractiveness was only linked to hiding. Disrespectful messages were linked to hiding contacts, while updates that made the receiver look bad were linked to unfriending. FTAs also mediated the influence of social and physical attractiveness on hiding and unfriending contacts. Overall, managing online relationships relied on independent and interdependent perceptual and behavioral processes.
Keywords: Unfriending; Hiding; Politeness; Social networking sites; Facebook; Status updates
Problematic online experiences among Spanish college students: Associations with Internet use characteristics and clinical symptoms BIBAKFull-Text 151-158
  Eva González; Begoña Orgaz
Internet access is almost universal among Spanish young people, and university students appear particularly vulnerable to developing problematic use patterns. This study examined the prevalence of a broad range of problematic online experiences in this population, and their associations with diverse Internet use characteristics and clinical symptoms. A sample of 493 students completed an online survey including the Index of Problematic Online Experiences (I-POE) by Mitchell, Sabina, Finkelhor, and Wells (2009), five subscales of the Trauma Symptom Inventory, and questions regarding Internet use characteristics. One in ten participants met criteria for problematic online use. Boys showed higher levels of problems in most I-POE domains. Spending more hours a day online predicted more problems related to overuse, daily obligations, and interactions with people online, whereas using dating websites predicted more problems with online behavior (e.g. identity deception). Higher concerns about own Internet use predicted higher levels of most clinical symptoms. In conclusion, although a minority of students may be considered problematic Internet users, this should be cause for concern and encourage preventative measures. Consistently with the cognitive-behavioral model (Davis, 2001) maladaptive cognitions seem to play a relevant role in the understanding of problematic Internet use. Besides, this study supports the utility of the I-POE as a quick assessment tool to identify problematic online experiences.
Keywords: Problematic online experiences; Internet use; I-POE; Clinical symptoms
An empirical examination of factors affecting college students' proactive stickiness with a web-based English learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 159-171
  Yi-Cheng Chen
Drawing on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and Uses and Gratifications (U&G) theory, this study develops a conceptual model to investigate the determinants of college students' proactive "stickiness" with a web-based English learning (WBEL) environment. The model was validated using a cross-sectional survey of 306 college students. The partial least squares (PLS) method was applied to validate the measurement properties and proposed hypotheses. Overall, the empirical results show that computer self-efficacy, system characteristics, digital material features, interaction, learning outcome expectations and learning climate are critical affecting factors in determining student learning gratifications with WBEL, which is crucial to a college student's proactive stickiness with the WBEL system. This study demonstrates the value in integrating findings from cognitive science and mass communication research to understand the WBEL processes involved. The findings provide initial insights into those factors that are likely critical antecedents for promoting college students' English learning effectiveness through web-based technologies.
Keywords: Proactive stickiness; Uses and gratifications theory; Social cognitive theory; Learning gratifications; Web-based English learning
How does interactivity in videos affect task performance? BIBAKFull-Text 172-181
  Martin Merkt; Stephan Schwan
Computer-based video environments allow for the implementation of features such as stop, browsing, table of contents, and index that enable the recipients to engage in activities comparable to activities that were shown to be associated with superior performance with text-based learning materials. Whereas the availability of features such as stop and browsing has frequently been shown to result in superior learning outcomes with videos and animations, no benefits of a table of contents and an index in videos were observed to date. However, the tasks used in these rare studies could be considered too complex and did not allow for explicit semantic mapping between the wording of the task and the items included in the interactive features. In the current laboratory study with 81 university students, we addressed both of these points. It was observed that the availability of a table of contents and an index resulted in superior performance in a search task. However, in a more comprehensive essay task that allowed for semantic mapping between the task and the video's index, the availability of interactivity only had positive effects on the frequency of naming the signaled information. Implications of these results are discussed.
Keywords: Digital videos; Learning with videos; Learning with media; Task requirements
Value co-creation and purchase intention in social network sites: The role of electronic Word-of-Mouth and trust -- A theoretical analysis BIBAKFull-Text 182-189
  Eric W. K. See-To; Kevin K. W. Ho
This study uses the theories in trust and value co-creation to analyze how electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) affects purchase intention in social network sites (SNSs). In particular, we develop a theoretical model by blending cutting-edge research in consumers' trust, value co-creation, and eWOM to study how these factors interact with each other through a systematic review. From the theoretical analysis, we note that eWOM has a direct impact on purchase intention, and has an indirect impact on purchase intention which is moderated by consumers' trust on the underlying product. eWOM also has an impact on value co-creation, and value co-creation has an effect on purchase intention. Consumers' trust on a product has an impact on value co-creation, and the message source in the SNSs moderates the impacts of eWOM on consumers' trust on a product, value co-creation, and purchase intention. This study provides a theoretical ground for future empirical research into issues related to the inter-relationship between value co-creation and eWOM within the SNS context. Practitioners can also develop a deeper understanding on developing SNS-based customer relationship management strategy from this work.
Keywords: Electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM); Purchase intention; Social media; Social network sites (SNSs); Trust; Value co-creation
Initial interactions online-text, online-audio, online-video, or face-to-face: Effects of modality on liking, closeness, and other interpersonal outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 190-197
  Susan Sprecher
In a social interaction study, pairs of unacquainted college students engaged in a two-part get-acquainted interaction. In a first interaction, modality was manipulated and was either: computer mediated communication (CMC)-text, CMC-audio, CMC-video, or face-to-face (FtF). The pairs then engaged in a second interaction, in which all pairs interacted via CMC-video (Skype). After the first interaction, dyads in the CMC-text condition had lower scores on affiliative outcomes (e.g., liking) than the other dyads, particularly compared to dyads in the FtF condition. However, dyads in the CMC-text condition "caught up" in their positive reactions once they had the second interaction, which was conducted via CMC-video. The results of this study have implications for relationships that begin on the Internet, which is becoming increasingly common.
Keywords: Computer mediated communication; Get-acquainted interactions; Communication modalities; Liking; Initial interactions
An investigation of teachers' beliefs and their use of technology-based assessments BIBAKFull-Text 198-210
  Sung-Pei Chien; Hsin-Kai Wu; Ying-Shao Hsu
The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' beliefs about technology-based assessments (TBAs) and investigate the possible interplay between their beliefs and their usage of TBAs in classrooms. Forty technology-experienced science teachers participated in the study. Their beliefs about and use of TBAs were examined using semi-structured interviews, which were analyzed based on a coding scheme adapted from the decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) model (Taylor & Todd, 1995). The analysis showed that ten components were substantial in the behavioral, control, and normative beliefs. While 85% teachers (34 out of 40) perceived TBAs as useful tools and identified a variety of usefulness, nearly 40% of the participants indicated the difficulties in using TBAs and their beliefs of ease of use were mainly negative. Also, teachers' control beliefs about TBA focused on the social and external components such as time, supporting personnel, and infrastructure rather than the personal factors. In their normative beliefs, teachers tended to view school policies and parents' opinions as constraints, whereas they also realized the benefits of using TBAs for learning. Furthermore, three groups of teachers were identified and characterized based on their usage of TBAs. Although some frequent users did not teach in resource-rich schools and faced constraints similar to those encountered by the occasional users, they seemed to actively look for more supports and solutions to overcome the lack of resources and the disapproval from the school administration. The findings extend the DTPB model of technology users by adding important beliefs about teaching and learning.
Keywords: Technology-based assessments; Teachers' beliefs; The decomposed theory of planned behavior model
Understanding of computers and procrastination: A philosophical approach BIBAKFull-Text 211-223
  Nick Breems; Andrew Basden
Computer procrastination is a complex problem that is under-researched. After identifying a number of key characteristics of it, we survey five existing fields of research that may contribute insights into this interdisciplinary problem, and demonstrate that none of these areas can provide satisfactory insight on their own. A philosophical framework for understanding computer use is introduced, and applied to a case study to demonstrate its potential in understanding the richness of computer procrastination. We then show how this framework can reveal the ways in which each of the existing fields is limited in its ability. The result is both an understanding of why existing research has not directly addressed this issue, and suggestions for a way forward for further research into computer procrastination.
Keywords: Computer procrastination; Philosophical framework
Using brain signals patterns for biometric identity verification systems BIBAKFull-Text 224-229
  Ghada Al-Hudhud; Mai Abdulaziz Alzamel; Eman Alattas; Areej Alwabil
In the natural human computer interaction filed, researchers started to consider the other interaction modalities for diversity of applications. Among these modalities are the speech interaction systems, eye gaze interaction systems and recently Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI) systems. In BCI systems, the tools are deployed to manipulate the brain activity to produce signals that can be used to control computers or communication devices. Implementing this technology in real life varies from: entertainment systems to control layers through the user thoughts, to disability assistive devices to reduce care given. Currently the BCI technologies are developed for the purposes of boosting the disability assistive devices especially in the command controlled systems. In addition, the currently demanding research emphasis is to use brain signals for personal identifications and verification; known as biometric verification. Biometric verification was first used in as an authentication technique for systems operating devices in real environment. At that time, authentication was based on unimodal biometric identity verification systems, which compare only one trait or biometrical feature (such as voice, iris, or fingerprint) to a previous sample. However, the performance of such modals varies depending on the presence of outside factors such as background noises in a speech recognition system, or the illumination problems for a face recognition system. Another cause of pitfalls in these models is their dependency on the health of the authenticated user. In order to overcome the weaknesses of the unimodal biometric system, a multimodal biometric system was introduced.
Keywords: Brain activities; Identity verification; Brain signals patterns
Sexting among undergraduate students BIBAKFull-Text 230-241
  Pouria Samimi; Kevin G. Alderson
The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the relationship between sexual attitudes (i.e., permissive vs. conservative) and the practice of sexting; and (b) whether men had more positive attitudes toward sexting than women. Results revealed that students with permissive sexual attitudes were more likely to engage in sexting practices than those who had conservative attitudes. The main finding of the present study was that relationship status is more important than gender. When relationship status was incorporated into the analysis, the differences between males and females on some of the components extracted from principal components analysis disappeared, but females were still more likely to have higher ratings on the components labeled Control and Prevention and Negative Consequences.
Keywords: Sexting; University students; Cellphones; Pornography; Sexual attitude; Gender differences
Content or context: Which matters more in information processing on microblogging sites BIBAKFull-Text 242-249
  Lun Zhang; Tai-Quan Peng; Ya-Peng Zhang; Xiao-Hong Wang; Jonathan J. H. Zhu
With a framework based on the heuristi-systematic model of information processing, this study examined the effects of both content and contextual factors on the popularity of microblogging posts. The popularity of posts was operationalized as the re-tweeting times and number of comments received by posts, which are users' behavioral outcomes after processing information. The data of the study were 10,000 posts randomly drawn from a popular microblogging site in China. Content factors were found to outperform contextual ones in accounting for the variance in post popularity, which suggests that systematic strategy dominates users' information processing in comparison with heuristic strategy. Our findings implied that re-tweeting and commenting are distinct types of microblogging behaviors. Re-tweeting aims to disseminate information in which the source credibility (e.g., users' authoritativeness) and posts' informativeness play important roles, whereas commenting emphasizes social interaction and conversation in which users' experience and posts' topics are more important.
Keywords: Microblogging; Heuristic-systematic model; Information processing; Post popularity
Determining consumers' most preferred eWOM platform for movie reviews: A fuzzy analytic hierarchy process approach BIBAKFull-Text 250-258
  Jasmine A. L. Yeap; Joshua Ignatius; T. Ramayah
In light of the sheer number of movie releases each week, consumers seek out online reviews to help them decide which movies to watch. Although there are numerous Web 2.0 platforms offering online reviews, the standard of some platforms leaves much to be desired. Accordingly, this research aims to determine consumers' most preferred electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) platform for movie reviews and examine the criteria that form an effective eWOM platform. The Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) was used to evaluate the eWOM present in a personal blog, review site, social networking site and instant messaging site according to two global criteria: information quality and source credibility. A decision tree containing the two global criteria and their sub-criteria was evaluated in a systematic manner through subjective ratings by actual movie-goers. Source credibility was found to be more important than information quality with review sites emerging as the most preferred eWOM platform. The results showed that FAHP provides a non-biased and transparent assessment approach for ranking platforms and determining the platform that individuals prefer when receiving their information. FAHP also identified the important attributes of an effective eWOM platform, thus rendering it a useful and valuable tool for decision makers.
Keywords: Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM); Online reviews; Movies; Information quality; Source credibility; Fuzzy AHP
Cyberbullying on social network sites. An experimental study into bystanders' behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully BIBAKFull-Text 259-271
  Sara Bastiaensens; Heidi Vandebosch; Karolien Poels; Katrien Van Cleemput; Ann DeSmet; Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
Cyberbullying on social network sites poses a significant threat to the mental and physical health of victimized adolescents. Although the role of bystanders in solving bullying instances has been demonstrated repeatedly in research on traditional bullying, their role in cyberbullying remains relatively understudied. Therefore, we set up an experimental scenario study in order to examine the influence of contextual factors (severity of the incident, identity and behaviour of other bystanders) on bystanders' behavioural intentions to help the victim or reinforce the bully in cases of harassment on Facebook. Four hundred and fifty-three second year students of Flemish secondary schools participated in the study. The results on the one hand showed that bystanders had higher behavioural intentions to help the victim when they witnessed a more severe incident. Incident severity also interacted with other bystanders' identity in influencing behavioural intentions to help the victim. On the other hand, bystanders had higher behavioural intentions to join in the bullying when other bystanders were good friends rather than acquaintances. In addition, an interaction effect was found between other bystanders' identity and behaviour on behavioural intentions to join in the bullying. Furthermore, both helping and reinforcing behavioural intentions differed according to gender.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Social network site; Bystander behaviour; Experimental study; Incident severity; Peer influence
Physical and social presence in collaborative virtual environments: Exploring age and gender differences with respect to empathy BIBAKFull-Text 272-279
  Anna Felnhofer; Oswald D. Kothgassner; Nathalie Hauk; Leon Beutl; Helmut Hlavacs; Ilse Kryspin-Exner
Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) hold the immense potential of enhancing social inclusion and social support not only in younger but especially also in older people. However, there is still considerably little knowledge about the experiences of elderly when using CVEs. Additionally, there is reason to assume that men and women regardless of their age might also differ in their perceptions of CVEs, with this difference very likely being mediated by empathic abilities. Consequently, the main objective of the current study was to evaluate gender specific experiences of social and physical presence in a group of older (N = 62) and younger adults (N = 62) with respect to possible mediating influences of empathy. Results indicate no differences in physical and social presence between the two age groups, yet they support past findings that men experience more spatial presence, involvement and a higher sense of being there than women. Also, the empathy scale Fantasy considerably mediated gender differences in spatial presence, thus strengthening the theoretical assumption of a relationship between presence and empathy. Implications and future directions of these findings are discussed in detail.
Keywords: Physical presence; Social presence; Age; Gender; Empathy; Collaborative virtual environment
Effectiveness of clickers: Effect of feedback and the timing of questions on learning BIBAKFull-Text 280-286
  Michael E. Lantz; Angela Stawiski
Individual response devices or "clickers" are now being used in many classrooms as an active-learning component of courses. Educators may wonder whether clickers are truly beneficial to learning. This study was designed to examine whether clickers increase retention of lecture material over two days in a more controlled situation than the live classroom. Participants watched a video lecture and were either given clicker questions about the video or no clicker questions with a 'test' occurring two days later. The effect of immediate feedback and the timing of the questions (either throughout the video or all at the end) were assessed. It was found that clicker questions improved memory for material two days later compared to no-clicker controls, provided that immediate feedback was given about each question. Scores two days later actually improved compared to scores on the day of the video when feedback was given about the correct answers. The timing of clicker questions did not affect scores. Results are consistent with studies that took place in more ecologically valid but less controlled live classroom situations. The results may guide educators in the effective use of clickers.
Keywords: Clickers; Individual response device; Active learning; Immediate feedback
Social media, social causes, giving behavior and money contributions BIBAKFull-Text 287-293
  Rita S. Mano
In the present study we examine the effect of online social networks on voluntary engagement, giving behavior and online money contributions. The study is a secondary analysis based on the PEW data set (2008). We draw upon a combination between pro-social theories of voluntary engagement and communication theories of the Internet and show that (a) participation in social media and networking-blogging, Face book and journaling-significantly increase both online, and offline money contributions; (b) social causes moderate the link between socio-demographic characteristics and money contributions. We conclude that social media and networking are an effective means to increase "ethical consumption" both online and offline enhancing voluntary engagement and money contributions. These results assess the social diversification hypothesis suggesting that online behavior complements, and in some cases reinforces offline behavior. Differences in the type of affiliated social cause moderate the effects of social media on online pro-social behavior and giving behavior.
Keywords: Internet communication; Money contributions; Social media; Social causes
SNS flow, SNS self-disclosure and post hoc interpersonal relations change: Focused on Korean Facebook user BIBAKFull-Text 294-304
  Kyu Tae Kwak; Se Kyoung Choi; Bong Gyou Lee
This study empirically investigates how the flow experiences when using SNS have impacted SNS interaction and interpersonal relationships. Using a survey of Facebook users, this study examines how the SNS flow as an intrinsic motivation have an impact on the self-disclosure on SNS and the post hoc interpersonal relations changes after using SNS. In addition, this study examines the moderating effect, how these relationships are affected by times which people spent in using mobile media for SNS. The survey was conducted for 263 users on two SNS communities in Korea from June 20 to July, 2012. As a result of this study, SNS flow has a close relationship with the increase of self-disclosure on SNS and impacts the post hoc interpersonal relations change positively. In addition, the result shows the positive effect between the self-disclosure on SNS and the post hoc interpersonal relations change. The result supports the interpersonal relationships are changed positively when SNS flow as an intrinsic motivation is incorporated with self-disclosure on SNS as an extrinsic motivation. Furthermore the result of moderating effect shows that the mobile SNS use impacts the relationship between the SNS flow and the self-disclosure on SNS.
Keywords: Social Network Service; SNS; Flow; Self-disclosure; Interpersonal relations; Facebook
Adolescent simulated gambling via digital and social media: An emerging problem BIBAKFull-Text 305-313
  Daniel L. King; Paul H. Delfabbro; Dean Kaptsis; Tara Zwaans
Recently, there has been significant expansion in the range of gambling activities supported by digital technology. The convergence of gambling and digital media is of particular concern with respect to the immense potential for earlier age of gambling involvement, and development of positive attitudes and/or behavioral intentions toward gambling. This study examined the prevalence of adolescent involvement in a range of digital and social media gambling activities, and the association between exposure to, and involvement in, simulated gambling and monetary gambling and indicators of pathological gambling risk. A total of 1287 adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited from seven secondary schools in Adelaide, South Australia. The results indicated that a significant proportion of young people engage in a range of simulated gambling activities via internet gambling sites, social media, smartphone applications, and video-games. A logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents with a history of engagement in simulated gambling activities appear to be at greater risk of endorsing indicators of pathological gambling. These findings highlight the need for further research on the potential risks of early exposure to simulated gambling activities, as well as greater consideration of the need for regulation and monitoring of gambling activity via digital technologies.
Keywords: Convergence; Pathological gambling; Social media; Adolescence; Addiction
Texting everywhere for everything: Gender and age differences in cell phone etiquette and use BIBAKFull-Text 314-321
  Deborah Kirby Forgays; Ira Hyman; Jessie Schreiber
The majority of research on cell phone use has focused on adolescent and young adult users with less attention on cell phone use by those older than 25 years of age. In this study, adult participants from 18 to 68 years completed a survey about their own use of cell phones and the contexts in which they considered cell phone use appropriate. There were age and gender differences in beliefs about the etiquette as to when cell phone use was appropriate. Older participants and women advocated for more restricted cell phone use in most social situations. Men differed from women in that they viewed cell phone calls as more appropriate in virtually all environments including intimate settings. Across all age groups in all communication settings, cell phones were used to text. The only exception was that romantic partners were more likely to receive a call than a text. In the younger age groups, texting communication is so normative that over 25% had dumped or were dumped by a romantic partner. The preponderance of gender similarities point to cell phone usage as a stable communication vehicle for maintaining social contact.
Keywords: Cell phone; Texting; Gender; Age
My avatar is pregnant! Representation of pregnancy, birth, and maternity in a virtual world BIBAKFull-Text 322-331
  Anna M. Lomanowska; Matthieu J. Guitton
Despite the potential for limitless creativity, many activities observed in the increasingly popular multi-user virtual worlds involve recreating real-life experiences. This is particularly evident in the social domain, as individuals reenact activities that reflect real human social needs, such as interpersonal intimacy. Surprisingly, one aspect of virtual experience tied to intimate relationships that has emerged in this context involves the reenactment of pregnancy, birth and maternity. The aim of this study was to examine how pregnancy, birth, and maternity are represented in a virtual world. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected over a 10 month period in the popular virtual world of Second Life to investigate the individual, social, and environmental aspects of these activities. Four different themes related to pregnancy, birth, and maternity were identified, including medical clinic services, family activities, sexual activities, and retail, with participation varying between female and male avatars. Analysis of related online media external to the virtual world provided further insight into the way that virtual pregnancy, birth, and maternity were constructed and experienced by the participating individuals. These insights are particularly valuable for understanding how intimate aspects of social interactions can be represented in immersive virtual applications for health care and related domains.
Keywords: Avatars; Intimacy; Second Life; Online social interactions; Virtual world; Virtual anthropology
Artificial vs. enhanced intelligence: Computer or human behavior? BIBFull-Text 332-333
  Matthieu J. Guitton
Using the Internet to recruit employees: Comparing the effects of usability expectations and objective technological characteristics on Internet recruitment outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 334-342
  Garett N. Howardson; Tara S. Behrend
Research shows that technological characteristics influence important outcomes of Internet recruitment, such as organizational attractiveness perceptions. This is thought to be the result of more positive perceptions about the technology. However, few studies acknowledge the role of pre-use cognitions on post-use technology perceptions and recruitment outcomes. In this study, we argue that objective technological characteristics do indeed influence organizational attractiveness perceptions by making technology perceptions more positive. However, we also argue that pre-use expectations have a stronger indirect effect on organizational attractiveness perceptions because they make the technology seem even more usable. Bootstrapped indirect effects results from 354 role-playing job seekers show that both objective technological characteristics and usability expectations relate to attractiveness perceptions indirectly through post-use technology perceptions. However, the indirect effect of expectations was significantly more positive than the effect of objective technological characteristics. Our results show that job seekers' expectations play a significant role in determining subsequent recruitment outcomes. These findings support contingency theories of media/technology use and suggest that organizations may want to consider the applicant pool's pre-use technology beliefs when designing recruitment strategies.
Keywords: Attraction; Web-based recruitment; Interactive technology; Usability; Technology expectations
The relationship between cell phone use, academic performance, anxiety, and Satisfaction with Life in college students BIBAKFull-Text 343-350
  Andrew Lepp; Jacob E. Barkley; Aryn C. Karpinski
While functional differences between today's cell phones and traditional computers are becoming less clear, one difference remains plain -- cell phones are almost always on-hand and allow users to connect with an array of services and networks at almost any time and any place. The Pew Center's Internet and American Life Project suggests that college students are the most rapid adopters of cell phone technology and research is emerging which suggests high frequency cell phone use may be influencing their health and behavior. Thus, we investigated the relationships between total cell phone use (N = 496) and texting (N = 490) on Satisfaction with Life (SWL) in a large sample of college students. It was hypothesized that the relationship would be mediated by Academic Performance (GPA) and anxiety. Two separate path models indicated that the cell phone use and texting models had good overall fit. Cell phone use/texting was negatively related to GPA and positively related to anxiety; in turn, GPA was positively related to SWL while anxiety was negatively related to SWL. These findings add to the debate about student cell phone use, and how increased use may negatively impact academic performance, mental health, and subjective well-being or happiness.
Keywords: Mobile phones; GPA; Anxiety; Satisfaction with Life; Technology; Post-secondary education
A conceptual and methodological critique of internet addiction research: Towards a model of compensatory internet use BIBAKFull-Text 351-354
  Daniel Kardefelt-Winther
Internet addiction is a rapidly growing field of research, receiving attention from researchers, journalists and policy makers. Despite much empirical data being collected and analyzed clear results and conclusions are surprisingly absent. This paper argues that conceptual issues and methodological shortcomings surrounding internet addiction research have made theoretical development difficult. An alternative model termed compensatory internet use is presented in an attempt to properly theorize the frequent assumption that people go online to escape real life issues or alleviate dysphoric moods and that this sometimes leads to negative outcomes. An empirical approach to studying compensatory internet use is suggested by combining the psychological literature on internet addiction with research on motivations for internet use. The theoretical argument is that by understanding how motivations mediate the relationship between psychosocial well-being and internet addiction, we can draw conclusions about how online activities may compensate for psychosocial problems. This could help explain why some people keep spending so much time online despite experiencing negative outcomes. There is also a methodological argument suggesting that in order to accomplish this, research needs to move away from a focus on direct effects models and consider mediation and interaction effects between psychosocial well-being and motivations in the context of internet addiction. This is key to further exploring the notion of internet use as a coping strategy; a proposition often mentioned but rarely investigated.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Compulsive internet use; Problematic internet use; Compensatory internet use; Motivations for internet use
The importance of studying the dark side of social networks BIBFull-Text 355
  Matthieu J. Guitton
When do consumers buy online product reviews? Effects of review quality, product type, and reviewer's photo BIBAKFull-Text 356-366
  Eun-Ju Lee; Soo Yun Shin
A web-based experiment (N = 201) examined (a) how the quality of online product reviews affects the participants' acceptance of the reviews as well as their evaluations of the sources and (b) how such effects vary depending on the product type and the availability of reviewers' photos. For the product type, an experience good (computer game) whose quality is difficult to assess before firsthand experience and a search good (vitamin) whose quality can be easily evaluated by reading a product description were compared. After reading overall positive reviews, those exposed to the high-quality (vs. low-quality) reviews evaluated the product more positively, which in turn, led to a stronger purchase intention. However, review quality also had a negative direct effect on the purchase intention for the experience good, with no corresponding effect for the search good. High-quality reviews induced more positive evaluations of the reviewers (primary source), but they enhanced website evaluation (secondary source) only when the reviewers' photos were present, suggesting that such visual cues may facilitate systematic message processing.
Keywords: Experience vs. search goods; Electronic word of mouth (eWOM); Online product review; Product type; Review quality; Reviewer photo
Expressing the "True Self" on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 367-372
  Gwendolyn Seidman
The present research examined correlates of "true self" expression to offline friends on Facebook. The "true self" (McKenna et al., 2002) consists of qualities an individual currently possesses but does not normally express to others. In Study 1, 184 undergraduates completed an online survey assessing "true self" expression to their friends online and reported the frequency of various Facebook activities. True self expression was positively correlated with using Facebook for communicating with others, general self-disclosure, emotional disclosure, attention-seeking, and acceptance-seeking, but was unrelated to seeking connection with and expressing caring for others. In Study 2, 41 undergraduates completed the "true self" measure and their Facebook profiles were saved and coded. True self expression was positively correlated with frequency of posting on others' walls, but not posting on one's own wall or receiving posts from others. Finally, true self expression was positively associated with the level of personal disclosure of participants' wall posts. These results suggest that those who feel able to express their "true self" online are more active on Facebook, have more self-oriented motivations for posting, and post more personally revealing and emotional content.
Keywords: "True self"; Facebook; Social networking websites; Self-presentation
The dark side of smartphone usage: Psychological traits, compulsive behavior and technostress BIBAKFull-Text 373-383
  Yu-Kang Lee; Chun-Tuan Chang; You Lin; Zhao-Hong Cheng
Smartphones have become necessities in people' lives. Along with its obvious benefits, however, the smartphone has other effects that are not all that glorious. This study investigates the dark side of the smartphone trend. We examine the link between psychological traits and the compulsive behaviors of smartphone users, and look further into the stress caused by those compulsive behaviors. We conducted an empirical study consisting of 325 participants and compared Structural Equation Modeling with competing models. The results suggest that compulsive usage of smartphone and technostress are positively related to psychological traits including locus of control, social interaction anxiety, materialism and the need for touch. Gender differences are also found in the aforementioned relationships. The results have practical implications to user-oriented smartphone design and operation companies as well as government agencies as they combat the social ills brought on by smartphones.
Keywords: Compulsive usage of smartphones; Technostress; Locus of control; Social interaction anxiety; Need for touch; Materialism
The Nintendo Wii as a tool for neurocognitive rehabilitation, training and health promotion BIBAKFull-Text 384-392
  Tamires Marinho Pessoa; Danielle Sousa Coutinho; Valeska Martinho Pereira; Natalia Pinho de Oliveira Ribeiro; Antonio Egidio Nardi; Adriana Cardoso de Oliveira e Silva
Health professionals have used virtual reality as an aid for several types of treatment. Given that virtual reality systems are expensive and not always available, a more accessible type of virtual reality technology is video games. The Nintendo Wii™ (NW) is a video game system that uses virtual reality technology, as defined by Deutsch, Borbely, Filler, Huhn, and Guarrera-Bowlby (2008), which may be used for health promotion. The Nintendo Wii™ also provides an opportunity for social interaction; thus, it is a promising tool with great potential for the treatment of specific disorders.
   The aim of this article is to evaluate the ways in which the Nintendo Wii has been used to treat specific disorders or to promote cognitive or physical improvements through a review of the literature. The results have shown that the NW is a potentially useful tool in some therapeutic treatments that can be used with people of diverse social statuses and tastes. Despite the positive initial results, further studies are required to provide a better evaluation of video game usage in therapeutic programs.
Keywords: Video game; Mental health; Therapeutics; Rehabilitation; Cognitive therapy
Family factors in Internet addiction among Chinese youth: A review of English- and Chinese-language studies BIBAKFull-Text 393-411
  Wen Li; Eric L. Garland; Matthew O. Howard
Approximately 513 million Chinese citizens used the Internet in 2011, with adolescents reporting comparatively high levels of use. Although numerous studies (reviewed herein) indicate that Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU) is endemic among Chinese youth and trending upward, no prior review has examined family correlates of IA/PIU in Chinese youth. Thus, our principal aim was to evaluate methodological features and substantive findings of all studies examining family correlates of IA/PIU in Chinese youth. Internet, demographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric/behavioral correlates of IA/PIU, and prevalence estimates for adolescent IA/PIU, were also examined using the large set of studies evaluated in association with our principal aim. Comprehensive bibliographic searches identified 42 pertinent investigations. Youth with IA/PIU reported greater global dissatisfaction with their families; less organized, cohesive and adaptable families; greater inter-parental and parent-child conflict; and perceived their parents as more punitive, and less supportive, warm, and involved compared to non-IA youth. IA/PIU youth were significantly more likely to have divorced parents, live with a single parent, and be an only child than non-IA/PIU youth. IA/PIU is prevalent among Chinese youth and associated with diverse family, psychosocial and psychiatric/behavioral impairments, but rarely is the focus of prevention and treatment interventions.
Keywords: Chinese youth; Family factors; Internet addiction; Pathological Internet Use; Review article
Unwanted but consensual sexting among young adults: Relations with attachment and sexual motivations BIBAKFull-Text 412-418
  Michelle Drouin; Elizabeth Tobin
A wide body of research has examined unwanted but consensual sex in a face-to-face context, focusing on intercourse, petting, kissing, and other sexual activity that people consent to even though they do not want to. Recent research has shown many people engage in sexual interactions via computer-mediated mediums; yet, to date, there are no studies that have investigated whether unwanted but consensual sexual activity exists in these contexts. In this study, we examined the extent to which 93 women and 62 men had consented to unwanted sexting within committed relationships and the attachment characteristics and motivations that are associated with this behavior. Approximately one half of the sample (52.3%) had engaged in unwanted but consensual sexting with a committed partner, and most did so for flirtation, foreplay, to fulfill a partner's needs, or for intimacy. Among men, neither of the attachment dimensions was related to unwanted but consensual sexting. However, among women, anxious attachment was significantly related to frequency of consenting to unwanted sexting, and consenting to avoid an argument was a mediator in the relationship between anxious attachment and consenting to unwanted sexting. These results are compared to previous work on unwanted but consensual sex, and future directions are discussed.
Keywords: Unwanted but consensual sex; Sexting; Attachment; Motivations; Undergraduates
Do pokers players know how good they are? Accuracy of poker skill estimation in online and offline players BIBAKFull-Text 419-424
  T. L. MacKay; N. Bard; M. Bowling; D. C. Hodgins
This study was a collaborative investigation between the disciplines of computing and social sciences to determine whether poker players accurately assess their relative skill level. Of particular interest was whether online poker players exhibit higher degrees of distorted thinking about skill when compared to offline gamblers, in the absence of superior proficiency. Two hundred and seventy-eight gamblers played a simulated game of Texas Hold'em poker against a computer controlled opponent. The computer program has been used in artificial intelligence simulated games against actual poker players and can mathematically estimate skill. Information was collected about player demographics, poker experience, cognitive distortions, and subjective perception of poker skills. The results of study revealed that online gamblers had a greater perception of perceived skill when compared to offline gamblers, despite showing no superiority in poker ability. General gambling-related cognitions and subjective rating of poker skill contributed to categorization as an online gambler. Gambling more frequently in offline formats and playing for longer periods significantly influenced the perception of poker skill for online gamblers. From a treatment perspective, it is more difficult to address games like poker because the chance component is equivocal and interpretive biases may be especially difficult to combat.
Keywords: Gambling; Poker; Internet; Online; Cognitive distortions
Enhancing human capital in TEL research: A case study from the STELLAR Network of Excellence BIBAKFull-Text 425-431
  Francesca Pozzi; Rosa Maria Bottino; Donatella Persico
This paper analyses the case of the Theme Teams, i.e. one of the instruments used within the STELLAR Network of Excellence to develop human capital and support research capacity in the Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) field. Qualitative and quantitative data about how this instrument worked are presented in the paper, with the aim to demonstrate its ability to promote integration of researchers in different countries and with different backgrounds, and to develop the researchers' human capital by overcoming the traditional fragmentation of this specific research field.
Keywords: Theme Team (TT); Human capital; Cooperation; Research capacity; Integration; Interdisciplinarity
Human behaviors in computer-based education systems BIBFull-Text 432-433
  Francisco J. Garcia-Peñalvo; Lluís Vicent Safont
Relationship between student profile, tool use, participation, and academic performance with the use of Augmented Reality technology for visualized architecture models BIBAKFull-Text 434-445
  David Fonseca; Nuria Martí; Ernesto Redondo; Isidro Navarro; Albert Sánchez
In this study, we describe the implementation and evaluation of an experiment with Augmented Reality (AR) technology in the visualization of 3D models and the presentation of architectural projects by students of architecture and building engineering. The proposal is based on the premise that the technology used in AR, such as mobile devices, is familiar to the student. When used in a collaborative manner, the technology is able to achieve a greater level of direct engagement with the proposed content, thereby improving academic outcomes. The objective was to assess the feasibility of using AR on mobile devices in educational environments and to investigate the relationship between the usability of the tool, student participation, and the improvement in academic performance after using AR. The validation was performed through a case study in which students were able to experience a virtual construction process overlapped onto real environments. Results were obtained by students' pre-tests and post-tests. In line with our assumptions, the use of mobile devices in the classroom is highly correlated with motivation, and there is a significant correlation with academic achievement. However, the difficulty of using and generating content is a complex factor that suggests difficulty when implementing more complicated models.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; Technology acceptance; Academic motivation; Architecture visualization; Mobile learning; User experience
Enhancing neuroanatomy education using computer-based instructional material BIBAKFull-Text 446-452
  Pablo Ruisoto Palomera; Juan A. Juanes Méndez; Alberto Prats Galino
The understanding of spatial relationships between brain structures taken from conventional sectional images is a major problem in learning anatomy. However, scientific literature has suggested that higher visuospatial abilities and computer-based instructional 3D visualizations may facilitate learning anatomy. This paper aims (1) to develop a computer-based tool to explore neuroanatomy based on three-dimensional images and (2) to compare whether the educational value assigned by students varies according to their visuospatial ability. An anatomical and functional viewer was developed with Positron Emission Tomography images to visualize three-dimensional models of real brain structures. Students assigned a high educational value to this tool, regardless of their visuospatial skills. The discussion section analyzes the implications of this technique in neuroanatomy training.
Keywords: Medical informatics; Training; Evaluation; Neuroanatomy
Student perception and usage of an automated programming assessment tool BIBAKFull-Text 453-460
  Manuel Rubio-Sánchez; Päivi Kinnunen; Cristóbal Pareja-Flores; Ángel Velázquez-Iturbide
Automated assessment systems are gaining popularity within computer programming courses. In this paper we perform an empirical evaluation of Mooshak, an online judge that verifies program correctness, in order to determine its usefulness in classroom settings. In particular, we provide a detailed study on how students use the tool, analyze their opinions and critiques about it, and measure other features like its capability to reduce dropout rates. The experience was carried out within a course on algorithm design and analysis where we collected information through several questionnaires and data generated by the tool during the course. Among the main findings we highlight: (1) the usage of the tool was adequate in relation to students' own testing; (2) its feedback needs to be richer in order to improve its acceptance among students; and (3) there was no statistical evidence to claim Mooshak reduced the dropout rate.
Keywords: Computer science education; Automated assessment system; Mooshak; Online judge
Modeling storytelling to be used in educational video games BIBAKFull-Text 461-474
  Natalia Padilla-Zea; Francisco L. Gutiérrez; José Rafael López-Arcos; Ana Abad-Arranz; Patricia Paderewski
Including storytelling in educational video games is currently a highly studied field as it is one element with which to maintain students' motivation. From previous studies, we have confirmed that including changes in the story changes the way in which students perceive the video game. In this paper, we present an extension of our previously defined VGSCL (a reference model for educational game development incorporating collaborative activities), in which balanced ludic and educative contents were designed. With this extension we focus on the storytelling itself, highlighting elements included in the story composition, attributes to be defined and relationships to be specified in order to integrate this proposal in the existing model. In addition, due to our target group being aged from 3 to 7, we have introduced some considerations to adapt the general rules to these children. Finally, we present the process followed to incorporate digital storytelling in the educational videogame "Ato's Adventure", the educational goal of which is to train grapho-motor skills.
Keywords: Digital storytelling; Educational videogames; Game-based learning
Assessing the effectiveness of new devices for accessing learning materials: An empirical analysis based on eye tracking and learner subjective perception BIBAKFull-Text 475-490
  Ana I. Molina; Miguel A. Redondo; Carmen Lacave; Manuel Ortega
Mobile device usage has become part of our daily routine. Our interest is centered on their use in teaching-learning contexts: the so-called m-learning. In this work we try to empirically analyze the use of these portable devices for accessing learning materials. To this end, two empirical studies have been conducted with the aim of analyzing the effectiveness of several interaction devices for supporting study tasks. In an initial experiment we compared conventional access, by means of a desktop computer, with the access through mobile phones. A replica of this first experiment was conducted to compare these two devices with the use of tablet devices. In both experiments we use several sources of information: subjective perception of the students, their profiles, their performance on a study task, as well as the physical evidence provided by an eye tracker. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the use of devices with visualization limitations (such as mobile phones) is not suitable to access and visualize learning materials, due to the fact that they impose an additional cognitive load. The results also indicate positive perception of the use of PCs and iPads for studying, although the latter is considered more motivating for learners.
Keywords: m-Learning; Empirical study; Eye tracking; Learning efficiency; Learner subjective perception
Culture effects on the knowledge sharing in multi-national virtual classes: A mixed method BIBAKFull-Text 491-498
  Xi Zhang; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos; Qingkun Xu
In multi-national and cross-cultural virtual classes, students' cultural values have significant impacts on knowledge sharing process. According to Hofstede's cultural dimensions, we conducted a mixed method to investigate how national cultural values effect on explicit and implicit knowledge sharing within a multi-national virtual class. First, we adopted a qualitative case study with 6 semi-structure interviews to explore the culture effects on knowledge sharing. Second, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to examine the interaction effects of culture and different knowledge sharing motivations. These findings suggest some cultural values (i.e., collectivism) directly impact knowledge sharing, while most cultural values (i.e., power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and Confucian dynamism) have interactive effects with knowledge sharing motivations. Furthermore, we also found some cultural values, like concern for face, have complex effects on knowledge sharing. This research contributes to the knowledge sharing literature, and provides practical implications for the organization work of computer-based education systems.
Keywords: National culture; Hofstede's dimensions; Virtual classes; Knowledge sharing
An evaluation of students' motivation in computer-supported collaborative learning of programming concepts BIBAKFull-Text 499-508
  Luis Miguel Serrano-Cámara; Maximiliano Paredes-Velasco; Carlos-María Alcover; J. Ángel Velazquez-Iturbide
Motivation is a very important factor for successful instruction. This factor is especially relevant in collaborative learning contexts, where social interaction plays an important role. In this paper we present an evaluation of motivation in 139 students who were instructed under four pedagogical approaches: traditional lecture, collaborative learning, collaborative learning guided by CIF (an instructional framework for collaborative learning), and collaborative learning guided by CIF and supported by MoCAS (a collaborative learning tool). We considered the four dimensions of motivation according to self-determination theory. The statistical results show that, in global terms, students were more motivated by jointly using the collaborative instructional approach CIF and the MoCAS tool than by using a collaborative approach. Detailed analysis of the different kinds of motivation yields mixed results. Students who were instructed with CIF and especially those students instructed with CIF and MoCAS exhibited higher intrinsic motivation. Furthermore, students instructed with CIF and MoCAS were the most extrinsically motivated via identified regulation. With respect to extrinsic motivation via external regulation, students instructed in a traditional, individual way were more motivated than students instructed collaboratively. Finally, high levels of amotivation were also associated to instruction using CIF and MoCAS. In summary, our results suggest that CIF and MoCAS are associated with high levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, a finding that can aid in improving the learning processes, but they are also, unexpectedly, associated with amotivation, suggesting an overall increase in activation in the students who show mixed motivators.
Keywords: CSCL; Bloom's taxonomy; Computer programming; Evaluation; Motivation
Teachers' attitude regarding the use of ICT. A factor reliability and validity study BIBAKFull-Text 509-516
  J. Pablo Hernández-Ramos; Fernando Martínez-Abad; Francisco J. García Peñalvo; M. Esperanza Herrera García; M. José Rodríguez-Conde
Current research examines the need for design and validation of a unifactorial scale to measure attitudes of university teachers with regard to ICT. The main goal of this study is to achieve a simple scale, composed of a single factor contributing a clearly reliable measure with acceptable content and factorial validity. A case study is presented, which has been developed with the teaching staff of the University of Salamanca (Spain). In this case study, an expert content validation was done at a first stage. After that, an attitude scale regarding the usage of ICT in teaching was applied with a representative sample of teachers (N = 2329; n = 161). An individual analysis of the items was made with the obtained results and then a Cronbach's alpha based reliability test was carried out to show the internal consistency of the survey. Finally, an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was applied to prove its structural soundness and unifactoriality. The main conclusion of this paper is to offer to the scientific community a tool with adequate psychometric properties that gives added pedagogical value to the introduction of ICT in higher education teaching.
Keywords: Higher education; Information and Communication Technologies; Psychometric analysis; Education technology
Perceived openness of Learning Management Systems by students and teachers in education and technology courses BIBAKFull-Text 517-526
  Miguel A. Conde; Francisco García; María J. Rodríguez-Conde; Marc Alier; Alicia García-Holgado
The emergence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) make new tools available for users to manage information and knowledge. These tools are used in different contexts, with varying degrees of success. One of these potential application contexts are teaching and learning processes supported by learning platforms. Learning platforms are a way for institutions to provide teachers and learners with a wide range of educational applications and services. However, students' learning is not only limited to a specific institution or period of time; instead, learning is a lifelong process and encompasses the use of many different tools. Therefore institutional learning environments should be open in order to enable the export of functionalities and import of information and interaction from outside the institution. In order to do so, this study proposes a service-based framework, which uses interoperability specifications and web services to facilitate opening of the institutional learning systems. Such framework has been tested in educational and technical scenarios with similar results, learning platforms can be open and the exportation of functionalities from them to personal contexts can enrich students learning and increase their participation.
Keywords: LMS; PLE; Interoperability; Services; Learning; Open
Sentiment analysis in Facebook and its application to e-learning BIBAKFull-Text 527-541
  Alvaro Ortigosa; José M. Martín; Rosa M. Carro
This paper presents a new method for sentiment analysis in Facebook that, starting from messages written by users, supports: (i) to extract information about the users' sentiment polarity (positive, neutral or negative), as transmitted in the messages they write; and (ii) to model the users' usual sentiment polarity and to detect significant emotional changes. We have implemented this method in SentBuk, a Facebook application also presented in this paper. SentBuk retrieves messages written by users in Facebook and classifies them according to their polarity, showing the results to the users through an interactive interface. It also supports emotional change detection, friend's emotion finding, user classification according to their messages, and statistics, among others. The classification method implemented in SentBuk follows a hybrid approach: it combines lexical-based and machine-learning techniques. The results obtained through this approach show that it is feasible to perform sentiment analysis in Facebook with high accuracy (83.27%). In the context of e-learning, it is very useful to have information about the users' sentiments available. On one hand, this information can be used by adaptive e-learning systems to support personalized learning, by considering the user's emotional state when recommending him/her the most suitable activities to be tackled at each time. On the other hand, the students' sentiments towards a course can serve as feedback for teachers, especially in the case of online learning, where face-to-face contact is less frequent. The usefulness of this work in the context of e-learning, both for teachers and for adaptive systems, is described too.
Keywords: Sentiment analysis; Social networks; User modeling; Adaptive e-learning
Can we predict success from log data in VLEs? Classification of interactions for learning analytics and their relation with performance in VLE-supported F2F and online learning BIBAKFull-Text 542-550
  Ángel F. Agudo-Peregrina; Santiago Iglesias-Pradas; Miguel Ángel Conde-González; Ángel Hernández-García
Learning analytics is the analysis of electronic learning data which allows teachers, course designers and administrators of virtual learning environments to search for unobserved patterns and underlying information in learning processes. The main aim of learning analytics is to improve learning outcomes and the overall learning process in electronic learning virtual classrooms and computer-supported education. The most basic unit of learning data in virtual learning environments for learning analytics is the interaction, but there is no consensus yet on which interactions are relevant for effective learning. Drawing upon extant literature, this research defines three system-independent classifications of interactions and evaluates the relation of their components with academic performance across two different learning modalities: virtual learning environment (VLE) supported face-to-face (F2F) and online learning. In order to do so, we performed an empirical study with data from six online and two VLE-supported F2F courses. Data extraction and analysis required the development of an ad hoc tool based on the proposed interaction classification. The main finding from this research is that, for each classification, there is a relation between some type of interactions and academic performance in online courses, whereas this relation is non-significant in the case of VLE-supported F2F courses. Implications for theory and practice are discussed next.
Keywords: Interactions; Educational data; e-Learning; Learning analytics; Academic performance; Virtual learning environments
Picture perfect: Girls' and boys' preferences towards visual complexity in children's websites BIBAKFull-Text 551-557
  Wang Hsiu-Feng
This experiment examined children's aesthetic preferences for websites designed for them. It applied Berlyne's theory of aesthetic preference to these websites: a theory that suggests that people prefer a medium level of stimuli to a low or high level of stimuli. The experiment used a 2 × 3 between-subject design and involved 45 boys and 45 girls. In the experiment the children were asked to rate 12 children's learning websites for aesthetic preference. The websites had been classified according to whether they displayed a high, medium or low level of visual complexity. The results of the experiment showed that overall the children preferred websites that displayed a medium level of visual complexity to those that displayed a high or low level of visual complexity. Thus the results supported Berlyne's theory. However, when the children's ratings were analysed with respect to their gender, it was found that the boys preferred a high level of visual complexity and the girls preferred a medium or low level of visual complexity. In other words, Berlyne's theory was partly supported. Further analysis revealed other gender related aesthetic preferences. This paper should be of interest to anyone who designs learning websites for children.
Keywords: Visual complexity; Children's website; Aesthetic preference; Gender; Children
Serious games in tertiary education: A case study concerning the comprehension of basic concepts in computer language implementation courses BIBAKFull-Text 558-570
  Daniel Rodríguez-Cerezo; Antonio Sarasa-Cabezuelo; Mercedes Gómez-Albarrán; José-Luis Sierra
This paper describes Evaluators, a system for the development of educational serious games oriented to introductory computer language implementation courses similar to those included in Computer Science tertiary curricula. Evaluators lets instructors generate games from collections of exercises addressing basic concepts about the design and implementation of computer languages (in particular, the processing of artificial languages according to the model of attribute grammars). By playing the generated games, students interactively learn the fundamentals of the semantic evaluation process behind attribute grammars. Indeed, they implicitly find solutions to the exercises presented, and they receive immediate feedback about successful and incorrect actions. In addition, the games log students' actions, which can subsequently be analyzed by the instructors using a specialized analytic tool that is included in Evaluators. Assessment of the system, which was performed according to three different dimensions (the instructors' perspective, the students' perspective and educational effectiveness perspective), (a) indicates that the exercise-driven approach of Evaluators is a cost-effective approach amenable to extrapolation to other areas of Computer Science tertiary education, (b) shows a positive attitude of students toward the serious games built with Evaluators, and (c) evidences a positive effect of the system and its pedagogical strategy on long-term student performance.
Keywords: Serious game; Computer Science education; Authoring tool; Learning analytics; Attribute grammar
Designing videogames to improve students' motivation BIBAKFull-Text 571-579
  P. Molins-Ruano; C. Sevilla; S. Santini; P. A. Haya; P. Rodríguez; G. M. Sacha
The use of new technical tools as a mean to increase the motivation and improve the education of students is an intriguing and pressing issue. Specifically, great interest has been shown in the use of videogames since they constitute a common leisure-time activity of many young students, a circumstance that shows their motivational, if not their educational, potential. In this paper we suggest that the design of videogames can be a very effective activity. To demonstrate this, we have used game design as a test-bed for an experience involving Computer Science and History students: interdisciplinary teams have cooperated in the design of a video-game on an historical theme. The experience has been repeated along three academic years. The students' motivation has been evaluated in the last 2 years, demonstrating that it is higher when they use the interdisciplinary design of videogames as a way of learning instead of traditional learning methods.
Keywords: Serious games design; Interdisciplinary learning; Emotion detection; Motivation
Student-generated online videos to develop cross-curricular and curricular competencies in Nursing Studies BIBAKFull-Text 580-590
  Juanan Pereira; Leyre Echeazarra; Silvia Sanz-Santamaría; Julián Gutiérrez
In response to the necessity of implementing innovative strategies and new teaching methodologies for the design of University degrees curricula according to the new educational model put forward by the European Space of Higher Education, we launched a pilot project in the Department of Nursing Studies of a university of the north of Spain based on the use of three technological tools (Power point, OpenMeetings and Babelium). Nursing students (n = 29) were asked to create video recorded oral presentations about different techniques of diagnosis in medical imaging that were peer-, self- and teacher assessed. Self-report questionnaires were used to assess the effectiveness of the experiment and Kappa statistic analysis was used to determine the suitability of the assessment method. The results of the study showed that working with self and peer recorded videos proves to be a better didactic method to develop both cross-curricular competencies (intrapersonal, interpersonal and instrumental) and curricular specific competencies (in this case, knowledge about different techniques of diagnosis in medical imaging) than traditional methodologies. The data also suggest that there is an acceptable correspondence between self-, peer- and hetero-assessment.
Keywords: Nursing education; Multimedia; Video making; Cross-curricular competency; Self-assessment; Peer-assessment
Whiteboard: Synchronism, accessibility, protagonism and collective authorship for human diversity on Web 2.0 BIBAKFull-Text 591-601
  Lucila Santarosa; Débora Conforto; Rodrigo Prestes Machado
The Whiteboard is a synchronous and collaborative tool projected in line with the accessibility principals and universal design, whose objective is to increase the knowledge socialization and promote the real-time decision making. Aspects resulting from the Culture of Collaboration and Participation are discussed to delineate the Web 2.0, a perspective that will be concrete only with the guarantee of everybody's participation, specially the participation of people with diverse needs. This article considers the implications of the Whiteboard functions and discusses about the validation processes performed with real users in relation to the possible resources that are available to increase individual and collective authorship, to promote the virtual learning cycle and impel practices that value the human diversity.
Keywords: Socio-digital inclusion; Web 2.0; Accessibility; HTML5
Design and analysis of collaborative interactions in social educational videogames BIBAKFull-Text 602-611
  Carina González-González; Pedro Toledo-Delgado; Cesar Collazos-Ordoñez; José L. González-Sánchez
Children with serious illness face enormous challenges in their daily life. These individuals must not only deal with the direct consequences of their disease, but they must often cope with being in a hospital or at home, being unable in many cases go to school. Frequently, connections with classmates, neighbours, and sometimes even some with relatives are lost. Therefore, entertainment and enjoyment should be provided in order to avoid boredom and to improve their affective state. Currently, children in the HUC (University Hospital of the Canary Islands) have a classroom with computers, books and toys supervised by a teacher. Children in their individual rooms are isolated. Social videogames can be a solution by allowing students to enhance their communication, education and entertainment possibilities. In this paper, we present the design, development and evaluation of a collaborative educational videogame prototype for hospitalised children based on a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) engine. Moreover, we present a case study of students' social and affective interactions using said videogame. This work was developed as part of the Hospital Virtual Educative Service (SAVEH) project funded by the European program MAC 2007-2013.
Keywords: DGBL; CSCL; Playability; Videogames; Emotions
Learning management systems and cloud file hosting services: A study on students' acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 612-619
  Vladimir Stantchev; Ricardo Colomo-Palacios; Pedro Soto-Acosta; Sanjay Misra
The aim of this paper is to investigate the motivations that lead higher education students to replace several Learning Management Systems (LMS) services with cloud file hosting services for information sharing and collaboration among them. The research approach is based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). More specifically, the model is devoted to identifying barriers and enablers to the acceptance of these technologies. A questionnaire comprising three factors (Attitude toward using technology, Perceived ease of use and Perceived usefulness) was applied to a sample consisting of 121 higher education students. Results show that the perceived ease of use of cloud file hosting services is above that of LMS tools and services and that cloud file hosting services presented higher levels of perceived usefulness than standard learning management tools. In addition, attitude toward using cloud file hosting services is well above that of using LMS tools.
Keywords: Learning management systems; Technology acceptance model; Attitude toward using technology; Perceived ease of use; Perceived usefulness
A methodology and an authoring tool for creating Complex Learning Objects to support interactive storytelling BIBAKFull-Text 620-637
  Matteo Gaeta; Vincenzo Loia; Giuseppina Rita Mangione; Francesco Orciuoli; Pierluigi Ritrovato; Saverio Salerno
Knowledge of appropriate behavior during an earthquake is crucial for the prevention and mitigation of natural disaster. Several studies confirm that disaster-risk education should be part of the national primary and secondary school curricula. The school plays an important role in developing a positive attitude towards safety as well as in increasing young people's social responsibility. This can especially be achieved by "active educational methods based on real situations". Narrative learning, according to this pedagogical vision, is seen as an educational approach mostly suitable for the development of cognitive abilities and knowledge in action, supporting processes of meaning construction through risk education contexts. In this paper, we present a methodology to design digital storytelling, a "media rich" strategy able to support the learning process in a civil emergency context and an authoring tool for creating Storytelling Complex Learning Objects (SCLOs), as a complex learning resource characterized by an adaptive mechanism that exploits a template-based approach, which is focused on the design of teaching situations suitable for achieving specific learning goals. The integration of this new kind of learning object with an advanced e-learning platform, namely Intelligent Web Teacher (IWT), that allowed us to carry out a full experimentation of the overall learning process, from content creation, to learning path packaging and adaptive delivery. The experimentation results demonstrate the effectiveness of both SCLO and authoring tool from a pedagogical and usability point of view.
Keywords: Narrative learning; Risk education; Authoring tool; Digital storytelling; Adaptive learning; Intelligent tutoring system
Scalability of assessments of wiki-based learning experiences in higher education BIBAKFull-Text 638-650
  Manuel Palomo-Duarte; Juan Manuel Dodero; Antonio García-Domínguez; Pablo Neira-Ayuso; Noelia Sales-Montes; Inmaculada Medina-Bulo; Francisco Palomo-Lozano; Carmen Castro-Cabrera; Emilio J. Rodríguez-Posada; Antonio Balderas
In recent years, the focus on higher education learning has shifted from knowledge to skills, with interpersonal skills likely being the most difficult to assess and work with. Wikis ease open collaboration among peers. A number of these skills can be objectively assessed by using wikis in an educational environment: collaborative writing, conflict resolution, group management, leadership, etc. However, when the number of students increases, their interactions usually increase at a higher rate. Under these circumstances, traditional assessment procedures suffer from scalability problems: manually evaluating in detail the information stored in a wiki to retrieve objective metrics becomes a complex and time-consuming task. Thus, automated tools are required to support the assessment of such processes. In this paper we compare seven case studies conducted in Computer Science courses of two Spanish universities: Cádiz and Seville. We comment on their different settings: durations, milestones, contribution sizes, weights in the final grade and, most importantly, their assessment methods. We discuss and compare the different methodologies and tools used to assess the desired skills in the context of each case study.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Wikis; Higher education; Learning assessment
Master in Teacher Training: A real implementation of Active Learning BIBAKFull-Text 651-658
  Xavi Canaleta; David Vernet; Lluís Vicent; José Antonio Montero
Teaching methods based on lectures often result in student passivity rather than pro-activity with the only goal of the student being to pass the final exam. Consequently, content retention is temporary and true learning is not achieved. Lack of student motivation can be solved by using Active Learning methodologies: serious games, Project-Based Learning (PBL), blended learning, etc. In addition, these methodologies enhance the development of the competences of students and provide a better evaluation of outcomes, provided adequate tools are used. However, apart from this, a more profound use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is needed to improve the effectiveness of learning and to create a learning system adapted to our current society. Learning Management Systems (LMS), social networks and blogs are indispensable for the efficient application of innovative learning methodologies. The Master in Teacher Training (MTT) provides an ideal case study as the most relevant features of Active Learning are present. The main contributions to this learning environment have been the incorporation of Active Learning methodologies (using real scenarios and project-based collaborative learning), an innovative method for assessing the Master and the impact of technology in learning. All of these have resulted in very positive results in relative to academic marks, surveys and entrepreneurship.
Keywords: Active Learning; Project-based learning; Competence evaluation method; Technical impact
Analyzing the students' behavior and relevant topics in virtual learning communities BIBAKFull-Text 659-669
  Llanos Tobarra; Antonio Robles-Gómez; Salvador Ros; Roberto Hernández; Agustín C. Caminero
The constant development of new Internet platforms is shifting the users' role of such platforms, from viewers to main actors. In the field of education, faculty can take advantage of these new technologies for the design of pedagogical contents. The face-to-face observation of behavioral patterns allows faculty to detect and track new problems, and to apply possible corrections which would improve the learning/teaching process. However, with a distance methodology, these observations are not possible. When forums are created they are intended to discuss particular topics. It is relevant to monitor that the topics discussed are the intended ones in order to achieve course objectives. To tackle this shortcoming, our work studies the dynamics of relevant topics in on-line asynchronous discussion forums, and this is done by analyzing the large amount of students' interactions generated in the forums of our Learning Management System (LMS). In particular, we analyze the students' behavior patterns in the forums of a distance subject, and characterize the relevant topics and subtopics from the forums' messages belonging to two academic years. From the statistical and graphical results obtained, a set of valuable recommendations are also given.
Keywords: Learning analytics; Students' behavior; Topic characterization; Virtual communities