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CHB Tables of Contents: 2829303132333435363738394041

Computers in Human Behavior 38

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-09 Volume 38

CHB 2014-09 Volume 38

Perceptions and attributions of bystanders to cyber bullying BIBAKFull-Text 1-7
  Brett Holfeld
Bystanders play a critical role in the maintenance or reduction of bullying behavior. The potentially unlimited audience in the online world suggests that the role of bystanders may be particularly important in cyber bullying. However, little is known about the perceptions of bystanders or the situational factors that can increase or decrease their support for victims. In this study, bystanders' perceptions of control, attributions of responsibility and blame for a hypothetical same-gender victim of cyber bullying were examined within a blog. Participants included 1105 middle school students who were assigned to one of three experimental conditions that manipulated the victim's response (passive, active, reactive). In all conditions, a negative outcome resulted (cyber bullying continued). A 3 × 2 MANCOVA tested effects of Response Type × Gender on bystanders' perceptions and attributions. Results indicate that passive responses elicited stronger perceptions of control, attributions of responsibility and blame than active or reactive responses, particularly for male bystanders. Bystanders may be less likely to offer assistance to victims of cyber bullying who respond passively to their experience. The findings have implications for understanding the factors that can increase or decrease bystander support in real-life cyber bullying situations.
Keywords: Cyber bullying; Bystanders; Attribution theory; Adolescents
Who does that anyway? Predictors and personality correlates of cyberbullying in college BIBAKFull-Text 8-16
  Zebbedia G. Gibb; Paul G. Devereux
Less is known about cyberbullying behaviors in college populations because studies on this topic traditionally have focused on adolescent populations, have not measured correlates of this behavior within college samples, or have methodological weaknesses limiting their findings. By using a more comprehensive measure of cyberbullying behaviors and examining what is associated with its occurrence, the current study aims to extend the knowledge about cyberbullying behaviors in college. Results showed that approximately 52% of college students report engaging in cyberbullying behaviors and indicated that victims of CBB and individuals high on a subclinical measure of psychopathy were more likely to report having engaged in CBB. It was also found that victims of CBB, men, and individuals high on subclinical psychopathy engaged in a wider range of cyberbullying behaviors. Age was the only factor associated with a decrease in CBB.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; College population; Dark Triad
The role of stereotypical beliefs in gender-based activation of the Proteus effect BIBAKFull-Text 17-24
  Brett Sherrick; Jennifer Hoewe; T. Franklin Waddell
Informed by the Proteus effect, the current study examined the moderating effect of belief in stereotypes on the relationship between avatar appearance and user behavior, via an interactive fiction. The results of a one-factor (avatar gender: male vs. female), between-subjects experiment revealed that female avatars elicited more frequent masculine behaviors (particularly among individuals high in feminine gender stereotypes) and that male avatars elicited more frequent feminine behaviors. Conversely, self-reported gender led to stereotypic behaviors as expected. A moderating effect of awareness of the avatar's influence on stereotypically gender-based decisions on frequency of gender-typed behavior was not found, suggesting individuals are not aware of the influence of avatars on their subsequent decisions.
Keywords: Proteus effect; Avatars; Stereotyping; Gender
To ban or not to ban: Differences in mobile phone policies at elementary, middle, and high schools BIBAKFull-Text 25-32
  Qiufeng Gao; Zheng Yan; Chongwei Zhao; Ying Pan; Lei Mo
The present study was to examine differences in mobile phone policies at elementary, middle and high schools. We surveyed 245 elementary, middle and high schools teachers in Shenzhen of China, using a specially designed 18-item questionnaire. Teachers' responses indicate that, across elementary, middle and high schools, significant differences exist in (1) students' percentages of using mobile phones among students, (2) students' dependence of mobile phones, (3) the number of schools banning students' mobile phone use, (4) oral and written forms used by schools to ban students' mobile phone use, and (5) policy reinforcement strategies used by schools. However, no school-level differences was found in (1) students' fondness of using mobile phones, (2) teachers' assessment of low-level effectiveness of mobile phone policies, and (3) teachers' policy improvement recommendations. Significance and implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Mobile phone; Mobile phone use policy; Elementary, middle, and high schools; Mobile phone behavior; School policy
Solving the privacy paradox: A counter-argument experimental approach BIBAKFull-Text 33-42
  Young Min Baek
This study investigates why ordinary online users highly concerned about the misuse of personal information do not adopt privacy-protective behaviors, or even engage in risky behaviors, on the Internet. Given that people have few chances to directly experience privacy infringement and tend to be unfamiliar with technical terms, their opinions as reflected in conventional polls tend to be instantaneous reactions to survey questionnaires, lacking thoughtfulness. By adopting a counterargument experimental technique, this study produced three important findings: (1) people's opinions about online privacy are swayed after being presented with a message containing a counterargument; (2) this persuasion effect is pronounced among people with a low level of online knowledge or who assess the presented message's argument as strong; and (3) the privacy paradox is found in conventional polls but disappears in counterargument conditions. These findings imply that opinions concerning online privacy should not be estimated through conventional polling. Rather, alternative polls (e.g., deliberative polls) should be adopted for online privacy policy-making.
Keywords: Online privacy opinions; Online privacy concerns; Privacy paradox; Counterargument experiment; Argument strength
Organizational balancing of website interactivity and control: An examination of ideological groups and the duality of goals BIBAKFull-Text 43-54
  Matthew L. Jensen; Norah E. Dunbar; M. Shane Connelly; William D. Taylor; Michael Hughes; Bradley Adame; Bobby Rozzell
Researchers have overwhelmingly concluded that substantial benefits can be achieved by organizations increasing the level of interactivity on their websites. However, interactivity, with its emphasis on facilitating visitors' unconstrained exchanges and control over website content, may undermine the communicative purpose of an organization's website. Taking a perspective based on the duality of goals, we argue that interactivity may not be desirable for some supporting organizations. We tested these ideas by examining the features of interactivity on 105 websites that are supported by national and international groups. Some of the websites are supported by ideological groups that have a strong interest in controlling their messages and clearly articulating their ideology to the public. A subset of the ideological groups also sanctions acts of violence in support of their ideology. As predicted, we found substantial differences in the level of interactivity between the violent groups and other ideological and non-ideological groups, with the greatest disparity occurring in social media. We conclude that for violent groups the need for control over website content and representation outweighs the benefits of interactivity. Surprisingly, we found little difference between nonviolent ideological and non-ideological groups. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Ideological groups; Duality of goals; Interactivity; Social media; Organization websites
Examining the adoption of KMS in organizations from an integrated perspective of technology, individual, and organization BIBAKFull-Text 55-67
  Wei-Tsong Wang; Yi-Ju Lai
Knowledge management systems (KMS) have been implemented by many organizations to aid in the management of the intellectual property and the development of sustainable competitive advantages. However, despite the efforts of academics and practitioners with regard to promoting the use of KMS, the rate of adoption remains relatively low. Based on the DeLone and McLean's information system success model, self-efficacy theory, and institutional theory, this study develops a multi-dimensional model to better understand KMS adoption among employees from an integrated perspective of technology, individual, and organization. Survey data collected from 295 employees of a petroleum corporation and its business partners were examined using structural equation modeling to verify the proposed research model. The results indicate that system quality factors, top management support, and organizational rewards are the key determinants of employee adoption of KMS, while KMS self-efficacy is far less important. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Knowledge management systems; D&M ISS model; Self-efficacy; Top management support
The moderating role of psychosocial well-being on the relationship between escapism and excessive online gaming BIBAKFull-Text 68-74
  Daniel Kardefelt-Winther
The purpose of this study was to empirically test the proposed theory of compensatory internet use, suggesting that people who play online games excessively are motivated to do so because they need to cope with psychosocial problems (Kardefelt-Winther, 2014a; Kardefelt-Winther, 2014b). The study used survey data from players of World of Warcraft (WoW), a popular MMO game. The indicators of psychosocial problems were high stress and low self-esteem and the motivation was escapism. The empirical analysis investigated interaction effects between indicators of psychosocial well-being and motivations. It was hypothesized that the relationship between escapism and negative outcomes would be positive for individuals with high stress or low self-esteem, which would be indicative of escapist online gaming as a coping strategy. However, this was only expected for individuals who experience more negative outcomes from their online gaming, which would highlight an important difference between those who experience many problems and those who experience few. The results showed that both stress and self-esteem moderated the relationship between escapism and negative outcomes as expected. In both cases, the relationship between escapism and negative outcomes was positive in the presence of more psychosocial problems (i.e. high stress or low self-esteem) for those who experience many negative outcomes, but not for those who experience few. The results support the theory of compensatory internet use and suggest that excessive online gaming may be a coping strategy for life problems rather than a mental disorder as proposed in DSM-V.
Keywords: Online gaming addiction; Excessive internet use; Internet addiction; Gaming motivations; Compensatory internet use
When stereotypes meet robots: The double-edge sword of robot gender and personality in human-robot interaction BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Benedict Tay; Younbo Jung; Taezoon Park
With the emerging application of social and psychological concepts to human-robot interaction, we investigated the effects of occupational roles (security vs. healthcare), gender (male vs. female), and personality (extrovert vs. introvert) on user acceptance of a social robot. In a laboratory experiment, a robot performed two different roles of a healthcare and security to address the potential usage of social robots at home. During the task, the robot manifested different genders and personalities via nonverbal cues. The results showed that participants (n = 164) preferred the robot with matching gender-occupational role and personality-occupational role stereotypes. This finding implies that the gender and personality of social robots do not monotonically influence user responses; instead, they interact with corresponding role stereotypes to affect user acceptance of social robots. In addition, personality-occupational role stereotypes showed a stronger effect on users' responses than gender-occupational role stereotypes. The overall results lay a foundation for designers to reduce the wide design spaces of social robots by grouping the various parameters under the big umbrella of social role stereotypes.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; Social robot; User acceptance; Social stereotypes; Robot gender; Robot personality
Mobile communication and political participation in South Korea: Examining the intersections between informational and relational uses BIBAKFull-Text 85-92
  Hoon Lee; Nojin Kwak; Scott W. Campbell; Rich Ling
This study aims to extend the literature on mobile communication by demonstrating that multifaceted mobile practices work in coordination with one another to predict enhanced engagement in public life. Using a national survey of adults in South Korea, we show that informational mobile phone use to gather and discuss content about news and public affairs is positively associated with political participation while the corresponding link for relational mobile phone use to enhance strong personal tie relationships being also significant. More importantly, the findings indicate that the two mobile usage patterns interact with each other to explain increased involvement in political activities. However, analysis of the three-way interaction points to a noteworthy caveat, namely that those who are already engaged, by virtue of their perceived capacity to produce desired outcomes in politics (i.e., self-efficacy), are even more likely to obtain motivational benefits from the manifold uses of mobile telephony.
Keywords: Mobile communication; New media; Political participation; South Korea; East Asia
Applying channel complementarity theory to new and traditional economic media usage patterns of U.S. investors BIBAKFull-Text 93-99
  Carroll J. Glynn; Michael E. Huge
The role communication processes within the realm of economic and financial activity is an important, yet relatively unexplored phenomenon. We define economic communication as the purposeful exchange of financial and economic ideas and messages by citizens, media, lawmakers and economic professionals intended to shape national, local, or personal finances. We use channel complementarity theory to examine the choices and combinations of communication outlets utilized by individuals seeking economic information, especially the differences between online and offline economic communication. Results indicate a high degree of complementarity across several modes of economic communication, including traditional and new media, interpersonal discussion, and professional communication.
Keywords: Complementarity theory; Online communication; Financial media; Information seeking; Biased media; Economic communication
"TV no longer commands our full attention": Effects of second-screen viewing and task relevance on cognitive load and learning from news BIBAKFull-Text 100-109
  Anna Van Cauwenberge; Gabi Schaap; Rob van Roy
Second-screen viewing -- the use of smartphones, tablets, and laptops while watching television -- has increased dramatically in the last few years. Using multiple resource theory and threaded cognition theory, this study investigated the effects of second-screen viewing on cognitive load, factual recall and comprehension of news. Second, we examined the effects of relevant (i.e., looking up information related to the news story) and irrelevant (i.e., looking up information unrelated to the story) second-screen viewing on learning from news. Results from an experiment (N = 85) showed that second-screen viewing led to lower factual recall and comprehension of news content than single-screen viewing. These effects were mediated by cognitive load: second-screen viewing led to a higher cognitive load than single-screen viewing, with higher cognitive load, in turn, leading towards lower factual recall and comprehension of news content. Contrary to our expectations, we found no statistically significant differences between effects of relevant and irrelevant second-screen viewing.
Keywords: Media multitasking; Cognitive load; Limited capacity; News learning; Second-screen viewing; Computer mediated communication
Understanding lurkers in online communities: A literature review BIBAKFull-Text 110-117
  Na Sun; Patrick Pei-Luen Rau; Liang Ma
In internet culture, lurkers are a special group of website users who regularly login to online communities but seldom post. This study aims to provide an overall understanding of lurkers by explaining the definition of lurkers, discussing the reasons for lurking and providing suggestions on de-lurking. To understand the reason for lurking, this study first explains why people participate in online communities by building an integrated model of motivational factors of online behaviors. This model classifies motivational factors into four categories: the nature of the online community, individual characteristics, the degree of commitment and quality requirement. Based on this model, four types of lurking reasons are identified: environmental influence, personal preference, individual-group relationship and security consideration. Finally, several strategies for motivating participation in online communities are provided, including external stimuli, improved user-friendliness, encouragement of participation and guidance for newcomers.
Keywords: Lurker; Online community; Motivational factor; Lurking reason; De-lurking strategy
Exploring differences in how men and women respond to threats to positive face on social media BIBAKFull-Text 118-126
  Gina Masullo Chen; Zainul Abedin
A three-condition (rejection, criticism, control) experiment (N = 78) with gender treated as an additional factor and moderating variable examined gender differences in response to two types of threats to positive face -- rejection and criticism -- on a social-networking site. Results showed it did not matter if men or women were rejected or criticized on a social-networking site; both threats to positive face lead to more retaliatory aggression, compared to the control. However, men retaliated to a greater extent than women to both types of threats. Also, men responded differently to criticism than to rejection, while women's results did not vary. Findings are discussed in relation to face theory and politeness theory, particularly in regard to computer-mediated communication.
Keywords: Face theory; Politeness theory; Computer-mediated communication
Social relationships and information dissemination in virtual social network systems: An attachment theory perspective BIBAKFull-Text 127-135
  Erez Yaakobi; Jacob Goldenberg
Web-based communication via social networking sites has become an integral method of communication, raising the question of whether the well-established Attachment Theory remains applicable to modern relationships. This communication shift is also likely to affect the information dissemination dynamic; i.e., how internal attachment working models relate to virtual modes of communication. Three studies (354 participants in total, median age 27) examined the applicability of Attachment Theory to web-based social network communications. Using self- report measures (Study 1) and an experimental simulation (Study 2), the results indicate that attachment security level predicts an individual's number of social ties and willingness to initiate web-based relationships. Secure individuals emerged as best situated to become social hubs. Study 3 reveals that a decrease in avoidance scores predicts an increased willingness to deliver information to others. Anxious participants exhibited less willingness to deliver highly threatening information but more willingness to deliver neutral information to others.
   These findings support the applicability of attachment internal working models to predicting web-based social network communication, and suggest that Attachment Theory can be a predictor of the dynamics of web-based dissemination of information.
Keywords: Attachment; Web-based social networks; Social media dissemination of information
A motives framework of social media website use: A survey of young Americans BIBAKFull-Text 136-141
  Joseph N. Luchman; Jennifer Bergstrom; Caitlin Krulikowski
Social media is increasingly important in daily life and is an especially important social interaction mechanism for young people. Although research has been conducted evaluating user types based on motives for using social media, no such framework has been extended to social media websites. We extend previous research by evaluating the underlying structure of social media website usage motivations using a 13 item survey and evaluations from 19 different social media websites administered to 1686 young Americans. Using a multidimensional scaling approach, we uncover 2 major motive dimensions underlying social media website use: fun-related and content-specific. Based on the derived dimensions, we generate a graphical "quadrant" system for classifying social media websites and depict all 19 social media sites based on their quadrant. We propose that our quadrant system can be used by other researchers to further refine understanding of social media website usage motives.
Keywords: Social media; Motives; Social media sites; Internet; Survey
The effects of dissociation, game controllers, and 3D versus 2D on presence and enjoyment BIBAKFull-Text 142-150
  Kevin D. Williams
Dissociative experiences create a feeling of being outside one's own body. Oftentimes, people experiencing these states claim to be off in another place and find they are losing time. Gamers who experience a high level of presence with their games echo these sorts of claims. A gaming experiment was conducted to determine if those people scoring high in having dissociative episodes experience presence more so than those scoring low in having dissociative episodes. The experiment also manipulated the variables of controller type (steering wheel versus traditional controller) and stereoscopic dimension (2D versus 3D) to determine if they interacted with ratings of dissociative episodes. Enjoyment of the game, which has been theoretically linked to presence, was also measured. After 146 participants played a racing game under the different manipulated conditions, the study confirmed that dissociation was highly related to sense of presence in a game and enjoyment. Playing the game with a steering wheel, as opposed to traditional controller, also created a greater sense of presence and enjoyment. 3D, as opposed to 2D, did not impact sense of presence or enjoyment. No interactions among the three variables occurred.
Keywords: Dissociation; Presence; Enjoyment; Game controllers; 3D; Video games
Generalized problematic Internet use and regulation of social emotional competence: The mediating role of maladaptive cognitions arising from academic expectation stress on adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 151-158
  Wan Har Chong; Stefanie Chye; Vivien S. Huan; Rebecca P. Ang
This study explored the relationships between adolescents' perceptions of their capacity for social-emotional regulation and generalized problematic Internet use (GPIU). It further examined if maladaptive thoughts from undue academic-related stress mediated this relationship in a school-going population in Singapore where educational achievement is heavily emphasized and expected from the family and school, and the pressure to succeed and do well academically is more acutely felt than that experienced in western contexts. A total of 1437 8th and 9th graders participated in a survey questionnaire. The results showed that adolescents who perceived higher regulatory competence were more likely to use the Internet to deal with the negative consequences of Internet use in appropriate ways. Also, the study found maladaptive thoughts that came from perceived academic expectations of parents and teachers partially mediated the effects of social-emotional regulatory competence and these youngsters' ability to control their online social interactions. Of interest was the unexpected finding that the respective relationships between social-emotional regulatory competence and compulsive Internet use, and withdrawal from Internet use became salient when such maladaptive thoughts were taken into account, suggesting the possibility of suppression rather than mediational effects. Implications arising from the study will be discussed.
Keywords: Social-emotional competence; Academic stress; Generalized problematic Internet use; Maladaptive cognitions; Mediation; Suppression effect
Rationality-based beliefs affecting individual's attitude and intention to use privacy controls on Facebook: An empirical investigation BIBAKFull-Text 159-173
  Aakash Taneja; Jennifer Vitrano; Nicolas J. Gengo
Online social networking sites like Facebook provides a fast and easy way to connect with friends and family. Users need to post and share their personal information in order to get the best possible experiences on Facebook. However, the spreading of private information can also lead to serious and harmful issues. Therefore, privacy becomes an important component in the use of Facebook and it is the user's responsibility to protect his or her profile. This study draws upon the theory of planned behavior and the rational choice theory to investigate the rationality-based beliefs affecting individual's attitude and intention to use privacy controls on Facebook. The results show that individual's attitude toward using privacy controls is influenced by benefit of using privacy controls, cost of using privacy controls, and cost of not using privacy controls. Further, benefits of using privacy controls is shaped by beliefs regarding intrinsic benefit and resource safety; cost of not using privacy controls is shaped by beliefs regarding resource vulnerability, threat severity, privacy risk and privacy intrusion; and cost of using privacy controls is shaped by beliefs about intrinsic cost and work impediment. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Facebook; Online social networking; Privacy control; Rational choice; Rationality-based beliefs; Theory of planned behavior
Reinforcing inspiration for technology acceptance: Improving memory and software training results through neuro-physiological performance BIBAKFull-Text 174-184
  James A. Rodger
This paper investigates the phenomenon of reinforcing inspiration for technology acceptance by improving memory and software training results Neuro-physiological performance. Monitoring of cortisol levels provided feedback for a decision support system that measured errors and elapsed time for training tasks completed by end-users of a health care application. The training success was measured utilizing statistics, SEM and a Fuzzy approach. The predictive model was implemented by comparing the regression, fuzzy logic and SEM results. Data collected from 338 health care workers were used to test a proposed model that inspiration, memory, and inspirational memory affect end user intention to adopt a digitized patient record software application. Structural equation modeling showed that, as expected, inspiration affected the individual behavior of the end users. Inspiration had an interactive impact through memory on collective acceptance of the technology, thereby affecting subsequent evaluations and behavior. The proposed model was nomologically validated through the use of a portable platform loaded with software for the electronic collection of operational-level health care data. Embedded metrics measured participants' memory as operationalized by task completion time, number of errors, and completeness of the data. In order to triangulate the results, salivary cortisol levels collected from 74 health care workers were used to measure whether inspiration improves memory and affects end user intention to adopt the application through reduced errors and decreased completion times. This paper contributes to the literature by introducing inspiration as a key driver that improves memory to affect end user intention to use digitized patient record technology.
Keywords: Inspiration; Adoption; Training; Emotion; Cortisol; Memory
User perceptions of e-quality of and affinity with virtual communities: The effect of individual differences BIBAKFull-Text 185-195
  Xianjin Zha; Jinchao Zhang; Yalan Yan; Zhiliang Xiao
Following the information systems (IS) success model, this study explores the effect of individual differences on users' perceptions of virtual communities in terms of e-quality (namely, information quality, system quality and service quality) of and affinity with virtual communities given individual differences are crucial in determining how individuals think and respond to the environment. This study examines the effect of individual differences on virtual community success dimensions from both physical and psychological perspectives, which we think presents a new view for virtual community research and practice alike. Data collected from users of virtual communities were used for data analysis. First, the cluster analysis was applied and five personality trait clusters were identified in terms of extraversion, agreeableness, openness to new experience, conscientiousness and neuroticism. Then, the independent sample t test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed. The effect of individual differences in terms of gender, age, position, experience with virtual communities as well as the five personality trait clusters on users' perceptions of e-quality of and affinity with virtual communities was explored and discussed.
Keywords: Information quality; System quality; Service quality; Affinity; Individual differences; Virtual communities
How does an intelligent agent infer and translate? BIBAKFull-Text 196-200
  Faria Nassiri-Mofakham
Recently, websites employ online guides to help the users exploring required materials and information. The guides are presented through exchanging online questions and answers. For a foreign language visitor, website tour guides not only need to provide background and justification for the argument, but also they are better to translate the interaction. This paper presents an automated and intelligent software agent that can answer the questions logically. Although people can somehow simply reason and argument in their daily life, the nature of the humans' reasoning is generally complex and nontrivial. To make the inference and reasoning automated, the agent is armed with first-order logic in artificial intelligence. This enables the agent to understand and answer questions. Implementation of the complex process and the results are shown through a simple example. In addition, to make the agent more trustable and user-friendly, the intermediary inference and justification steps are translated in the user's language.
Keywords: Software intelligent agent; Logical inference; Translation
How college students read and write on the web: The role of ICT use in processing online information BIBAKFull-Text 201-207
  Bu Zhong; Alyssa J. Appelman
The diffusion of information and communication technology (ICT) has enabled people to process more information than at any time in human history. Despite a growing body of scholarship in ICT use and information processing, we still know very little about how people process mediated information in an online environment. This study contributes to the understanding of this process by investigating the connection between ICT use and processing of online news information. Through an experiment (N = 114), several interesting relationships were detected. First, perceived credibility of a news article was significantly correlated with enjoyment, knowledge gain, and motivation. In addition, recall was significantly related to credibility, enjoyment, knowledge, and motivation. Implications and avenues for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Information and communication technology; Information processing; Power user; Online news; Credibility
Changes in technology use and adult attachment orientation from 2002 to 2012 BIBAKFull-Text 208-212
  William J. Chopik; Christopher Peterson
We have lived in an age of ever-increasing connection this past decade. Although technology and online social networking may not have increased psychological closeness, as some researchers suggest, it may have increased the perceived availability of other people in our social networks. The current study measures changes in comfort with closeness (attachment avoidance) and perceived availability of others (attachment anxiety) in a large Internet sample (N = 123,554) from 2002 to 2012. Attachment anxiety decreased from 2002 to 2012 and attachment avoidance exhibited no changes over the same time period. Further, these decreases were primarily driven by younger adults, presumably due to their heavy technology use. Attachment anxiety was negatively associated with mobile phone subscription rates and the number of Facebook users over this time period. Results from the current study suggest that the perceived availability of others has been increasing over time -- perhaps because technology has increased the accessibility of close others.
Keywords: Attachment; Technology; Cohort changes; Media; Anxiety
Self-disclosure on social networking sites, positive feedback, and social capital among Chinese college students BIBAKFull-Text 213-219
  Dong Liu; B. Bradford Brown
Drawing on social capital theory, this study examined whether college students' self-disclosure on a social networking site was directly associated with social capital, or related indirectly through the degree of positive feedback students got from Internet friends. Structural equation models applied to anonymous, self-report survey data from 264 first-year students at 3 universities in Beijing, China, indicated direct effects on bridging social capital and indirect effects on bonding social capital. Effects remained significant, though modest in magnitude, after controlling for social skills level. Findings suggest ways in which social networking sites can foster social adjustment as an adolescent transition to residential college environments.
Keywords: Self-disclosure; Social networking site; Social capital; Gender difference
Understanding personal use of the Internet at work: An integrated model of neutralization techniques and general deterrence theory BIBAKFull-Text 220-228
  Lijiao Cheng; Wenli Li; Qingguo Zhai; Russell Smyth
This paper examines the influence of neutralization techniques, perceived sanction severity, perceived detection certainty and perceived benefits of using the Internet for personal purposes on intention to use the Internet at work for personal use. To do so, we draw on a conceptual framework integrating neutralization theory and general deterrence theory. The study finds that both neutralization techniques and perceived benefits have a positive effect on personal use of the Internet. Perceived detection certainty is found to have a negative effect on personal use of the Internet, while the effect of perceived sanctions severity on personal use of the Internet is not significant. The effect of neutralization and perceived benefits are much stronger than perceived detection certainty. The findings suggest that people may think more about neutralization and perceived benefits than they do about costs, when deciding whether to use the Internet at work for personal purposes.
Keywords: Deterrence theory; Neutralization theory; Personal use of the Internet
One click away is too far! How the presentation of cognitive learning aids influences their use in multimedia learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 229-239
  Tatjana Ruf; Rolf Ploetzner
In an experimental study, we investigated how the presentation of cognitive learning aids, as well as the availability of self-monitoring questions affect the frequency of use of cognitive learning aids in a multimedia learning environment. The learning aids were presented either dynamically, statically, or they were initially collapsed and the students had to activate them by clicking on a button. The comparability of all three versions of the multimedia learning environment was assured by means of repeated usability testing. Self-monitoring questions were either presented to the learners or not. A total of 60 undergraduate students participated in the study. Their activities in the learning environment, together with their eye movements were recorded. The students took advantage of the learning aids most when they were dynamically presented, less when they were statically presented, and least when they were presented in a collapsed form. The differences in use of the learning aids were statistically significant with large effect sizes. The availability of self-monitoring questions had no significant effect on the use of learning aids.
Keywords: Multimedia learning; Cognitive learning aids; Interface design; Usability; Eye tracking
The effects of home page design on consumer responses: Moderating role of centrality of visual product aesthetics BIBAKFull-Text 240-247
  Jungmin Yoo; Minjeong Kim
This study examined the effect of home page design on consumer responses based on the Hierarchy of Effects model and impression formation theory. The design of the study was a one factor (home page design: image- vs. text-oriented) between-subjects design with two moderators, brand familiarity and the centrality of visual product aesthetics (CVPA). College women (N = 658) participated in this online experiment. The findings revealed that: (1) an image-oriented design is more effective in enhancing a home page's visual fluency, and (2) people in both high and low CVPA groups preferred an image-oriented home page to a text-oriented home page.
Keywords: Home page design; Visual fluency; Centrality of visual product aesthetics; Consumer behavior; Online retailing
A vacation from your mind: Problematic online gaming is a stress response BIBAKFull-Text 248-260
  Jeffrey G. Snodgrass; Michael G. Lacy; H. J. Francois, II Dengah; Scarlett Eisenhauer; Greg Batchelder; Robert J. Cookson
We present ethnographically-informed survey and interview data suggesting that problematic online gaming in the World of Warcraft (WoW) can be conceptualized as a response to pre-existing life stress, which for highly stressed individuals magnifies rather than relieves their suffering. In particular, we explore how relaxing and arousing in-game experiences and activities provide forms of cognitive diversion that can lead to problematic play among more highly stressed individuals. Our research supports what has been called a "rich get richer" model of problematic Internet use. In this instance, less stressed individuals manage to play WoW so as to enhance their offline lives. By contrast, more highly stressed players further magnify the stress and suffering in their lives by playing problematically the online game within which they sought refuge from their offline problems.
Keywords: Online computer games; Virtual worlds; Stress; Cognitive diversion; Engagement; Internet addiction
The impact of rotating summarizing roles in online discussions: Effects on learners' listening behaviors during and subsequent to role assignment BIBAKFull-Text 261-271
  Alyssa Friend Wise; Ming Ming Chiu
This study investigated whether assigning students summarizing roles in online discussions during specific weeks affects how they attend to the posts of others while playing the role, and in subsequent discussion weeks. Thirty-three students in a large undergraduate course on educational psychology were assigned one of two summarizing roles (Synthesizer, Wrapper) on a rotating basis during six week-long small-group online discussions; demographic and log-file data were collected (N = 198 student-weeks). Multilevel, cross-classification modeling revealed that assigning students summarizing roles increased the breadth of their listening during in-role weeks, but the effect was only weakly sustained after the role was completed. Students taking the Synthesizer role showed some increased depth of listening during in-role weeks but not post-role weeks. Other post-role behavior changes (a reduced number of sessions and review of posts) suggest unintended negative side effects of a role-rotation strategy, possibly due to post-role abdication of responsibility.
Keywords: Computer mediated communication; Asynchronous discussion groups; Scripting; Role taking; Quantitative analysis of computer-supported collaborative learning; Temporal analysis
Notification pending: Online social support from close and nonclose relational ties via Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 272-280
  Bobby Rozzell; Cameron W. Piercy; Caleb T. Carr; Shawn King; Brianna L. Lane; Michael Tornes; Amy Janan Johnson; Kevin B. Wright
Previous research has often assumed social support as a unique affordance of close relationships. Computer-mediated communication alters the availability of relationally nonclose others, and may to enable additional sources or social support through venues like social networking sites. Eighty-eight college students completed a questionnaire based on their most recent Facebook status updates and the comments those updates generated. Items queried participants' perception of each response as well as the participants' relationship closeness with the responder. Individuals perceived as relationally close provide significant social support via Facebook; however, individuals perceived to be relationally nonclose provided equal social support online. While SNSs has not eroded the importance of close relationships, results demonstrate the social media tools may allow for social support to be obtained from nonclose as well as close relationships, with access to a significant proportion of nonclose relationships.
Keywords: Network ties; Social support; Computer-mediated communication; Social media
Uses and gratifications and acceptance of Web-based information services: An integrated model BIBAKFull-Text 281-295
  Margaret Meiling Luo; William Remus
This study combines the technology acceptance model (TAM) and uses and gratifications theory (U&G) to create an integrated model that predicts usage and satisfaction with Web-based information services (WIS). Two pilot studies and three laboratory experiments were conducted to test and develop the concepts, measurements, and the integrated model. The results support the proposed integrated model. Behavioral intention and entertainment motive collectively predicted behavioral usage. Satisfaction was positively associated with the level of usage. The good structure fit with the merge model and data showed that the model explained more than 30% variance of behavioral usage. Although both theories are solid acceptance theories, U&G provides specific information and a more complete understanding of usage, whereas TAM constructs are easily used with Web-based applications. This study gives researchers and practitioners an interdisciplinary perspective for investigating the phenomenon of technology acceptance. In addition, it merges the strengths from the fields of information systems and communications.
Keywords: Information services; Technology acceptance model; Uses and gratifications; Technology adoption; Partial least squares
Understanding privacy knowledge and skill in mobile communication BIBAKFull-Text 296-303
  Yong Jin Park; S. Mo Jang
This study aims to examine mobile-based privacy literacy among young adults across characteristics of mobile use, basic mobile familiarity, and socio-demographic factors. We investigate privacy knowledge and skill among the African American young adults, adopting a mixed design of quantitative and qualitative inquiries. The results showed that less than half of the interviewed users possessed (1) basic information and locational privacy knowledge, (2) privacy skills, and (3) awareness of risk associated with commercial mobile environments. Interestingly, a high level of mobile familiarity did not translate into knowledge as the frequent daily mobile use was not associated with privacy knowledge and skill. In-depth interviews also indicated that functional confusion and misguided confidence confounded the low mobile knowledge and skills. These findings have implications for consumer policy and hint on the need that the FTC in its broader digital literacy initiative incorporates the information need of young adult users among underserved communities.
Keywords: Information control; Privacy protection; Mobile surveillance; Smartphone; African Americans
Security awareness of computer users: A phishing threat avoidance perspective BIBAKFull-Text 304-312
  Nalin Asanka Gamagedara Arachchilage; Steve Love
Phishing is an online identity theft, which aims to steal confidential information such as username, password and online banking details from its victims. To prevent this, anti-phishing education needs to be considered. Therefore, the research reported in this paper examines whether conceptual knowledge or procedural knowledge has a positive effect on computer users' self-efficacy to thwart phishing threats. In order to accomplish this, a theoretical model based on Liang and Xue's (2010) Technology Threat Avoidance Theory (TTAT) has been proposed and evaluated. Data was collected from 161 regular computer users to elicit their feedback through an online questionnaire. The study findings revealed that the interaction effect of conceptual and procedural knowledge positively impacts on computer users' self-efficacy, which enhances their phishing threat avoidance behaviour. It can therefore be argued that well-designed end-user security education contributes to thwart phishing threats.
Keywords: Usable security; Phishing threats; Security awareness; Security education; Procedural knowledge; Conceptual knowledge
Searching for the perfect fit: The interaction of community type and profile design in online communities BIBAKFull-Text 313-321
  Ulrike Cress; Eva Schwämmlein; Katrin Wodzicki; Joachim Kimmerle
In times of social networking and knowledge exchange on the Internet, we ask how different types of member profiles are perceived depending on the type of community, and how the interplay between community and profile affects the audience orientation of community members. We explored these questions in two laboratory experiments. Experiment 1 examined the suitability of profiles. It demonstrated that in common-bond communities people showed satisfaction with off-topic as well as on-topic profiles, whereas in common-identity communities they were less satisfied with off-topic than on-topic profiles. In common-bond communities, in addition, people perceived profiles, independent of the type of profile, as an important feature of the community, whereas in common-identity communities people devaluated the importance of the off-topic profiles. Experiment 2 dealt with the influence of profiles on audience orientation in the different community types. This study showed that in common-identity communities off-topic compared to on-topic profiles reduced group members' reflection about what is important to know for the group as a whole as well as their self-presentation goal of being accepted by the group. In sum, off-topic profiles are not only perceived as inappropriate in common-identity communities, they also diminish the orientation toward the group.
Keywords: Self-presentation; Satisfaction; Audience; Online communities; Goals
Personality and behavior in a massively multiplayer online role-playing game BIBAKFull-Text 322-330
  Narnia C. Worth; Angela S. Book
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) present new and important opportunities for studying the connections between personality and behavior. Players of the MMORPG World of Warcraft were surveyed on their personalities and frequency of different behaviors within the game. An exploratory principal components analysis of a World of Warcraft in-game behavior survey revealed six components: Player-versus-Player, Social Player-versus-Environment, Working, Helping, Immersion, and Core Content. Significant correlations with HEXACO personality traits were found for each component. Player-versus-Player activities were primarily related to low levels of Honesty-Humility and also to high levels of psychopathic traits. Social Player-versus-Environment activities were primarily positively correlated with Extraversion, Working activities were positively correlated with Conscientiousness, Helping and Immersion activities were positively correlated with Openness to Experience, and Core Content activities were positively correlated with Emotionality. The authors discuss the implications of these results for future research and game design.
Keywords: Video games; Massively multiplayer online role-playing games; Personality; Psychopathy; Online games
Does it matter with whom you slay? The effects of competition, cooperation and relationship type among video game players BIBAKFull-Text 331-338
  Julia Crouse Waddell; Wei Peng
Cooperation and competition have emerged as factors that may affect video game players. Competition consistently has been found to elicit increased aggression whilst cooperation has been found to mitigate aggression and increase cooperative behaviors after game play. Of interest is the effect of the relationship between players (friend vs. stranger) in cooperative and competitive multiplayer contexts. In this study, we considered how game goal structure -- competition or cooperation -- and relationships between players -- friend or stranger -- affect aggression and cooperative behaviors. Compared with competition, cooperative play resulted in significantly more cooperative behaviors in a modified Prisoner's Dilemma task. However, neither competitive nor cooperative goal structures significantly increased state hostility, suggesting that altering players' gaming goals (e.g. competition or cooperation) may not be enough to elicit strong affective aggression. Additionally, cooperative game play was found to predict increased cooperative behaviors and trust in their partner. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Video game; Cooperation; Competition; Affective aggression; Friendship; Relationship
Understanding the adoption of mobile innovation in China BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
  Jinzhu Song
China has already become the largest mobile communication market in the world. Yet research into what factors drive Chinese consumers adoption of mobile innovation is limited. This study makes efforts to investigate Chinese consumers' intentions to adopt mobile innovation, with consideration of their cultural characteristics. Face, a core concept in Chinese cultural values is introduced and its effects on innovation adoption are firstly tested. The study develops and empirically tests a theoretical model incorporated four sets of adoption factors representing general perceptions and perceived social outcomes from using mobile innovation, social influences and perceived barriers. The findings identify utilitarian perception, hedonic perception, face gains, face loss avoidance, interpersonal influence, cost and quality concern as influential factors affecting adoption intention in Chinese context. This study also provides theoretical and practical implications for academics and practitioners.
Keywords: Mobile innovation; Chinese consumers; Adoption intention; Face; Factors
Social relationship on problematic Internet use (PIU) among adolescents in South Korea: A moderated mediation model of self-esteem and self-control BIBAKFull-Text 349-357
  Seungmin Park; Minchul Kang; Eunha Kim
Despite previous research efforts on identifying the risk and protective factors of problematic Internet use (PIU), the specific mechanism among these factors are largely unknown. Thus, the present study examined the effect of adolescents' social relationships on their PIU, as well as the effect of self-esteem as a mediator and the effect of self-control as a moderator. Survey data from 750 South Korean middle and high school students in Seoul and Gyeonggi areas were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results are as follows. First, PIU is significantly associated with relationship with peers and with mother. Second, self-esteem did not mediate the effect of communication with mother on PIU, but was found to partially mediate the effect of peer relationship on PIU. Third, adolescents' self-control significantly moderated the indirect effect of peer relationship on PIU via self-esteem. Through detailed analyses, this study identified self-esteem as a mediator and self-control as a moderator in the relationship between social relationships and PIU. Implications of these results for understanding the relationship among social relationships, self-esteem, self-control, and PIU are discussed.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; Self-esteem; Self-control; Communication with mother; Peer relationship
The effects of source cues on online news perception BIBAKFull-Text 358-367
  Eun Go; Eun Hwa Jung; Mu Wu
Among various interface cues, expertise, identity, and bandwagon cues have been consistently found to have significant effects on media users' perceptions of online news content. To examine the effects of these three types of heuristic cues in the context of online news consumption, the current study involved a 2 (expertise cue: low vs. high) × 2 (identity cue: in-group vs. out-group) × 2 (bandwagon cue: low vs. high) online experiment. A total of 121 undergraduate students participated in the study. Significant two-way interaction effects between the expertise and bandwagon cues on perceived credibility suggested the positive combined effect of these two cues. Moreover, significant three-way interaction effects among expertise, identity and bandwagon cues indicated that the interaction effects between expertise and bandwagon cues tend to work as a function of the identity cue. While confirming the importance of the identity cue in users' perceptions of online news, three-way interaction effects confirmed the co-occurrence of heuristic and systematic processing. The interaction effects also suggested that people process news systematically when the recommenders are out-group members, whereas they process news heuristically when the recommenders are in-group members. Theoretical as well as practical implications have also been discussed in this article.
Keywords: Online news perception; Expertise cue; Identity cue; Bandwagon cue
An investigation of the effects of cultural differences on physicians' perceptions of information technology acceptance as they relate to knowledge management systems BIBAKFull-Text 368-380
  Hsien-Cheng Lin
The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of national cultural differences on physicians' perceptions of knowledge management systems acceptance. Data is collected from 106 physicians in the United States and 255 physicians in Taiwan who agreed to participate in the investigation, and a t-test is used to compare the path coefficients for each moderator. Cultural differences were found to impact knowledge management system acceptance. The results reveal that individualism/collectivism, power distance, and high-context/low-context cultural characteristics account for the significant differences between the U.S. and Taiwan in this regard. Theoretical issues related to technology acceptance which lay beyond the scope of this investigation and other issues related to cultural differences may have had an impact on the research findings. This study can assist in the management of healthcare organizations by adding to the knowledge regarding the acceptance and development of management systems. The findings provide insight into the cultural differences which influence physicians' perceptions about knowledge management systems acceptance, and have implications for improving the knowledge relating to management systems acceptance in healthcare organizations.
Keywords: Knowledge management systems; Cultural differences; Technology acceptance model; Healthcare organizations