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CHB Tables of Contents: 3132333435363738394041

Computers in Human Behavior 41

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-12 Volume 41

CHB 2014-12 Volume 41

Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: The effect of parental behavior and self-control BIBAKFull-Text 1-7
  Caina Li; Jianning Dang; Xiaoling Zhang; Qianqian Zhang; Jingjing Guo
A cross-sectional study of a large, middle-school student sample (N = 966) was presented in this paper aiming to examine how parental behavior and self-control influence Internet addiction (IA) among Chinese adolescents. Fifty-one adolescents (the top 5% of IA score distribution) were categorized as at high risk. Males were more likely addicted to Internet than females. MANOVA demonstrated that, compared with non-IA group, adolescents with IA revealed lower mean score for parental positive support behavior and higher for parental negative control behavior and had lower capacity of self-control. SEM analyses revealed that low capacity of self-control had a negative correlation with parents' positive support and a positive correlation with negative control. More importantly, Internet addiction was explained negatively by parents' positive support and positively by parents' negative control and individual low capacity of self-control. Further mediating analyses indicated that self-control accounted for an indirect role between parental behavior and adolescents' Internet addiction. The findings of the present study are of significance in investigating adolescents' problem behaviors and very helpful to provide educational advice for intervening in these behaviors. Moreover, the present finding's potential relevance to Confucian styles of filial parenting was discussed.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Adolescent; Parental behavior; Self-control
Video games and prosocial behavior: A study of the effects of non-violent, violent and ultra-violent gameplay BIBAKFull-Text 8-13
  Morgan J. Tear; Mark Nielsen
Experimental evidence has pointed toward a negative effect of violent video games on social behavior. Given that the availability and presence of video games is pervasive, negative effects from playing them have potentially large implications for public policy. It is, therefore, important that violent video game effects are thoroughly and experimentally explored, with the current experiment focusing on prosocial behavior. 120 undergraduate volunteers (Mage = 19.01, 87.5% male) played an ultra-violent, violent, or non-violent video game and were then assessed on two distinct measures of prosocial behavior: how much they donated to a charity and how difficult they set a task for an ostensible participant. It was hypothesized that participants playing the ultra-violent games would show the least prosocial behavior and those playing the non-violent game would show the most. These hypotheses were not supported, with participants responding in similar ways, regardless of the type of game played. While null effects are difficult to interpret, samples of this nature (undergraduate volunteers, high male skew) may be problematic, and participants were possibly sensitive to the hypothesis at some level, this experiment adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that violent video game effects are less clear than initially thought.
Keywords: Video game violence; Prosocial; Social behavior; Behavioral priming
"Maybe you don't want to face it" -- College students' perspectives on cyberbullying BIBAKFull-Text 14-20
  Katie Crosslin; Mandy Golman
Cyberbullying is a growing phenomenon in our society with the technological advances that are occurring. This type of bullying can transpire at all hours via text message, email, or social networking sites. According to several studies, college students are being affected by cyberbullying, with prevalence rates ranging from 8% to 21%. Many psychological ramifications exist as a result of cyberbullying among victims and bullies. It is crucial to learn more about how this phenomenon is affecting the social and learning environments in college, as well as how college students view cyberbullying. First and second-year students at a southern university were recruited to participate in this qualitative study. The researchers conducted six focus groups with 54 students. The participants reported reasons for cyberbullying in the college environment, such as retaliation in relationships. Independence and autonomy were discussed as reasons why college students do not report cyberbullying to others when it occurs. Participants discussed future interventions to reduce cyberbullying that included coping strategies, utilizing university services, and engaging in legal action. The authors recommend utilizing a multi-level Socio-Ecological approach to reduce cyberbullying rates. Additionally, evaluation research needs to be conducted on what works and what does not in the prevention of cyberbullying.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; College students; Interventions; Qualitative; Digital
An eye movement analysis of highlighting and graphic organizer study aids for learning from expository text BIBAKFull-Text 21-32
  Hector R. Ponce; Richard E. Mayer
This study uses eye tracking technology to examine how study aids such as highlighting and graphic organizers affect cognitive processing during learning. Participants were 130 college students randomly assigned to one of five experimental conditions. In the control group, students read a plain text; in two behaviorally passive conditions, students read a text with key words colored in red or read the same text along with a filled-in graphic organizer; and in two behaviorally active conditions, students either highlighted key words in a text or filled in an empty graphic organizer. Students took tests of rote memory (cloze test) and comprehension (summary test). Asking students to fill in a graphic organizer or providing a filled-in graphic organizer resulted in improvements in performance on both tests, whereas asking students to highlight the text or providing highlighted text improved performance only in the rote memory test compared to students who did not receive any study aids. Eye tracking measures showed that highlighting (in both conditions) primed the cognitive process of selecting: students spent more time fixating on those words colored in red compared with the control condition. In contrast, eye tracking measures showed that graphic organizers (in both conditions) primed the cognitive processes of selecting, organizing and integrating since the inclusion of an organizer substantially affected both where their eyes fixated and moved (i.e. transitions) within the text.
Keywords: Highlighting; Graphic organizers; Study strategies; Eye tracking; Computer-based learning
Glancing up or down: Mood management and selective social comparisons on social networking sites BIBAKFull-Text 33-39
  Benjamin K. Johnson; Silvia Knobloch-Westerwick
Social networking sites (SNS) provide opportunities for mood management through selective exposure. This study tested the prediction that negative mood fosters self-enhancing social comparisons to SNS profiles. Participants were induced into positive or negative moods and then browsed manipulated profiles on an experimental SNS. Profiles varied in a 2 × 2 within-subjects design along two dimensions, ratings of career success and attractiveness, allowing for upward comparisons (high ratings) and downward comparisons (low ratings). Selective exposure was measured in seconds spent viewing profiles. Negative mood led to less exposure to upward comparisons and more to downward comparisons than positive mood. The comparison dimension did not influence selective exposure. Thus, in a negative mood, SNS users prefer self-enhancing social comparisons to manage their mood.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Mood management; Selective exposure; Social comparison; Self-enhancement
Promote physical activity among college students: Using media richness and interactivity in web design BIBAKFull-Text 40-50
  Yu Lu; Youjeong Kim; Xue (Yuki) Dou; Sonali Kumar
Recently with widely available access, the web has emerged as a medium for new interventions. However, as yet, little is known about what makes some websites more effective than others. This study investigated an approach to developing websites that utilized two media characteristics -- media richness and interactivity -- to promote physical activity among college students. Four forms of websites were developed and tested in a 2 × 2 between-subject experiment (high vs. low richness; high vs. low interactivity) that was conducted among 205 participants. Overall, media richness had a significant main effect on college students' intention to visit the fitness center while interactivity influenced the likelihood they would recommend it. Although media richness did not have a significant main effect on recommendation, a significant interaction effect was observed that rich media led to higher recommendation intention when interactivity level was low. In addition, knowledge, attitude and trustworthiness of the fitness center mediated the effects of media richness and interactivity on behavioral intentions. These findings support the efficacy of utilizing these media characteristics to design web-based health interventions promoting college students' physical activity.
Keywords: Media richness; Interactivity; Physical activity; College student; Web-based health intervention
Review on teaching and learning of computational thinking through programming: What is next for K-12? BIBAKFull-Text 51-61
  Sze Yee Lye; Joyce Hwee Ling Koh
Programming is more than just coding, for, it exposes students to computational thinking which involves problem-solving using computer science concepts like abstraction and decomposition. Even for non-computing majors, computational thinking is applicable and useful in their daily lives. The three dimensions of computational thinking are computational concepts, computational practices and computational perspectives. In recent years, the availability of free and user-friendly programming languages has fuelled the interest of researchers and educators to explore how computational thinking can be introduced in K-12 contexts. Through an analysis of 27 available intervention studies, this paper presents the current trends of empirical research in the development of computational thinking through programming and suggests possible research and instructional implications. From the review, we propose that more K-12 intervention studies centering on computational practices and computational perspectives could be conducted in the regular classroom. To better examine these two dimensions, students could be asked to verbalize their thought process using think aloud protocol while programming and their on-screen programming activity could be captured and analyzed. Predetermined categories based on both past and recent programming studies could be used to guide the analysis of the qualitative data. As for the instructional implication, it is proposed that a constructionism-based problem-solving learning environment, with information processing, scaffolding and reflection activities, could be designed to foster computational practices and computational perspectives.
Keywords: Programming; Scratch; Computer science education; K-12; Computational thinking
Emergent behaviors in computer-based learning environments: Computational signals of catching up BIBAKFull-Text 62-70
  Erica L. Snow; G. Tanner Jackson; Danielle S. McNamara
Self-regulative behaviors are dynamic and evolve as a function of time and context. However, dynamical fluctuations in behaviors are often difficult to measure and therefore may not be fully captured by traditional measures alone. Utilizing system log data and two novel statistical methodologies, this study examined emergent patterns of controlled and regulated behaviors and assessed how variations in these patterns related to individual differences in prior literacy ability and target skill acquisition. Conditional probabilities and Entropy analyses were used to examine nuanced patterns manifested in students' interaction choices within a computer-based learning environment. Forty high school students interacted with the game-based intelligent tutoring system iSTART-ME, for a total of 11 sessions (pretest, 8 training sessions, posttest, and a delayed retention test). Results revealed that high and low reading ability students differed in their patterns of interactions and the amount of control they exhibited within the game-based system. However, these differences converged overtime along with differences in students' performance within iSTART-ME. The findings from this study indicate that individual differences in students' prior reading ability relate to the emergence of controlled and regulated behaviors during learning tasks.
Keywords: Intelligent tutoring systems; Individual differences; Self-regulated learning; Agency; Log data; Dynamic analyses
Reading this may harm your computer: The psychology of malware warnings BIBAKFull-Text 71-79
  David Modic; Ross Anderson
Internet users face large numbers of security warnings, which they mostly ignore. To improve risk communication, warnings must be fewer but better. We report an experiment on whether compliance can be increased by using some of the social-psychological techniques the scammers themselves use, namely appeal to authority, social compliance, concrete threats and vague threats. We also investigated whether users turned off browser malware warnings (or would have, had they known how).
Keywords: Malware; Persuasion; Human computer interaction; Psychology
Comparing the effects of worked examples and modeling examples on learning BIBAKFull-Text 80-91
  Vincent Hoogerheide; Sofie M. M. Loyens; Tamara van Gog
Example-based learning is an effective instructional strategy for students with low prior knowledge, and is increasingly being used in online learning environments. However, examples can take many different forms and little is known about whether and how form affects learning outcomes. Therefore, this study investigated whether worked examples and modeling examples with and without a visible model would be equally effective in fostering learning of a problem-solving task. In Experiment 1, secondary education students (N = 78) learned how to solve a probability calculation problem by watching two videos that, depending on the assigned condition, provided worked examples (written text, pictures of problem states), modeling examples with a visible model (spoken text, a demonstration of the task), or modeling examples without a visible model (spoken text, pictures of problem states). Results showed that all three conditions were equally effective at fostering learning, near transfer, effort reduction, self-efficacy, and perceived competence. Experiment 2 (N = 134) replicated these results with a younger student population that only studied one example. These findings suggest that the format of examples does not affect learning outcomes for this task; future research should investigate whether this would generalize to other problem-solving tasks.
Keywords: Cognitive load theory; Example-based learning; Multimedia learning; Modeling; Problem solving
Word sense disambiguation using evolutionary algorithms -- Application to Arabic language BIBAKFull-Text 92-103
  Mohamed El Bachir Menai
Natural language processing is related to human-computer interaction, where several challenges involve natural language understanding. Word sense disambiguation problem consists in the computational assignment of a meaning to a word according to a particular context in which it occurs. Many natural language processing applications, such as machine translation, information retrieval, and information extraction, require this task which occurs at the semantic level. Evolutionary computation approaches can be effective to solve this problem since they have been successfully used for many real-world optimization problems. In this paper, we propose to solve the word sense disambiguation problem using genetic and memetic algorithms, and apply them to Modern Standard Arabic. We demonstrate the performance of several models of our algorithms by carrying out experiments on a large Arabic corpus, and comparing them against a naïve Bayes classifier. Experimental results show that genetic algorithms can achieve more precise prediction than memetic algorithms and naïve Bayes classifier, attaining 79%.
Keywords: Natural language processing; Word sense disambiguation; Modern Standard Arabic; Evolutionary algorithms; Genetic algorithms; Memetic algorithms
Examining WeChat users' motivations, trust, attitudes, and positive word-of-mouth: Evidence from China BIBAKFull-Text 104-111
  Che Hui Lien; Yang Cao
WeChat is a mobile instant text and voice messaging communication service and has become an important social media platform in China. The objectives of this article are to examine the effects of psychological motivations (entertainment, sociality, and information) and trust on WeChat users' attitudes and to assess the influence of users' attitudes and their trust on positive word-of-mouth. This study represents one of the few that empirically investigates WeChat users' motives, attitudes, trust, and their associated behavior. The research model was tested using data randomly collected from the database of Sojump. The numbers of valid observations were 264. Structure equation modeling was employed to verify and validate the research model. The outcomes confirm the path effects showing that entertainment, sociality, information, and trust positively influence WeChat users' attitudes and users' trust and their attitudes significantly affect positive WOM. The research results provide insight into how WeChat can motivate users and build their trust to improve their attitudes which in turn will increase WeChat users' willingness in making positive comments on products and services.
Keywords: Motivation; Trust; Attitude; Word-of-mouth; Social networking site
Effects of luminance and illuminance on visual fatigue and arousal during digital reading BIBAKFull-Text 112-119
  Simone Benedetto; Andrea Carbone; Véronique Drai-Zerbib; Marco Pedrotti; Thierry Baccino
We investigated the conjoint effect of screen luminance and ambient illuminance on visual fatigue and arousal during prolonged digital reading (one hour) by means of a multidimensional approach based on eye, performance and subjective measures. Two levels of screen luminance (low, high) and two levels of ambient illuminance (low, high) were tested in a 2 × 2 between-subjects design in which participants were arbitrarily allocated to four groups, one for each combined level of luminance and illuminance. Results showed that reading under high levels of screen luminance increases visual fatigue, as reflected by a decrease of eye blinks. Concerning arousal, exposure to higher levels of either luminance or illuminance increased alertness and performance. Faster saccades, increased reading speed and less microsaccades were found under high screen luminance. Fewer regressive saccades and shorter reaction times were observed under high ambient illuminance. However, the reason why some of these measures are sensitive to screen luminance while other to ambient illuminance remains unknown. These findings might have practical implications for the implementation of adaptive brightness solutions and for the online detection of both visual fatigue and arousal levels during digital reading.
Keywords: Electronic visual display; Screen luminance; Ambient illuminance; Visual fatigue; Arousal
Effects of visual feedback on medical students' procrastination within web-based planning and reflection protocols BIBAKFull-Text 120-136
  Kristin Wäschle; Andreas Lachner; Björn Stucke; Sabine Rey; Cornelius Frömmel; Matthias Nückles
Procrastination is a very common problem among students that results from ineffective self-regulation. In two field-experimental studies (N = 18 and N = 49), we investigated whether visual feedback on students' previous procrastination was effective in provoking a decrease in students' future procrastination as well as improvements in self-regulated learning. The visual feedback was implemented as a dynamic line chart in a web-based planning and reflection protocol used once a week by medical students to record their class preparation and homework once a week. In the protocols, the students planned and reflected on their personal learning processes and they estimated retrospectively their inclination to procrastinate. The results of both studies consistently showed that presenting students a line chart that adaptively visualizes the course and extent of their self-reported previous procrastination led to a statistically significant and practically relevant decrease in their future procrastination. Furthermore, the visualization had positive effects on other variables central to self-regulated learning. The studies provide converging evidence that the inclination to procrastinate can successfully be counteracted both by a parsimonious and easy-to-implement method. They are suggestive of ways how Internet technology can be used support students' self-regulated learning.
Keywords: Web-based learning protocols; Procrastination; Self-monitoring; Visual feedback; Self-regulated learning
Association between online harassment and exposure to harmful online content: A cross-national comparison between the United States and Finland BIBAKFull-Text 137-145
  Matti Näsi; Pekka Räsänen; Atte Oksanen; James Hawdon; Teo Keipi; Emma Holkeri
The key focus in this article study is to examine the association between online harassment and exposure to websites related to self-harm or negative self-image, along with several other independent variables. Our data were collected from two countries, the U.S. and Finland, thus providing a chance for a cross-national comparison regarding these associations. According to the results, significant association between online harassment and most notably exposure to websites relating to eating disorders was found. Furthermore, subjective wellbeing (SWB), age and gender were significantly associated with online harassment. There were only minor differences between U.S. and Finland, indicating certain levels of cultural homogenization regarding the online space.
Keywords: Internet; Cross-national comparison; Survey; Online behavior; US; Finland
Who am I? Representing the self offline and in different online contexts BIBAKFull-Text 146-152
  Lia Emanuel; Greg J. Neil; Chris Bevan; Danaë Stanton Fraser; Sarah V. Stevenage; Monica T. Whitty; Sue Jamison-Powell
The present paper examines the extent to which self-presentation may be affected by the context in which is it undertaken. Individuals were asked to complete the Twenty Statements Test both privately and publicly, but were given an opportunity to withhold any of their personal information before it was made public. Four contexts were examined: an offline context (face-to-face), an un-contextualized general online context, or two specific online contexts (dating or job-seeking). The results suggested that participants were willing to disclose substantially less personal information online than offline. Moreover, disclosure decreased as the online context became more specific, and those in the job-seeking context disclosed the least amount of information. Surprisingly, individual differences in personality did not predict disclosure behavior. Instead, the results are set in the context of audience visibility and social norms, and implications for self-presentation in digital contexts are discussed.
Keywords: Self-concept; Self-presentation; Offline and online disclosure; Social network sites
The effects of individual differences on e-learning users' behaviour in developing countries: A structural equation model BIBAKFull-Text 153-163
  Ali Tarhini; Kate Hone; Xiaohui Liu
The main objective of our study is to (1) empirically investigate the factors that affect the acceptance and use of e-learning in Lebanon, and (2) investigate the role of a set of individual differences as moderators (e.g., age, gender, experience, educational level) in an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). A quantitative methodology approach was adopted in this study. To test the hypothesized research model, data was collected from 569 undergraduate and postgraduate students studying in Lebanon via questionnaire. The collected data were analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique based on AMOS methods in conjunction with multi-group analysis. The result revealed that perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), subjective norms (SN) and Quality of Work Life (QWL) positively affect students' behavioural intention (BI). We also found that experience moderates the relationship between PEOU, PU and SN on e-learning use intention, and that age difference moderates the effects of PEOU, SN and QWL on BI. In addition, educational level moderates the effects of PEOU, SN on BI, and gender moderates the effects of PU, SN and QWL on BI. Contrary to expectations, a moderating role of age on the relationship between PU and BI was not found. Similarly, gender was not found to affect the relationship between PEOU and BI, and educational level did not moderate the relationship between PU or QWL and BI. In light of these findings, implications to both theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Individual differences; Technology acceptance; TAM; e-learning; Structural equation modeling; Developing countries
With a little help of my peers. The supportive role of online contacts for the unemployed BIBAKFull-Text 164-176
  Christian Fieseler; Miriam Meckel; Severina Müller
Unemployment is an unfortunate reality, whose overcoming often depends on social support, among other factors. Online social media, such as social network sites and communities, may offer an additional source of such support for unemployed people. This paper posits that online social support plays an important role in unemployed people's ability to cope with unemployment and search for new employment. The paper develops and tests a structural equation model of the influence of online-mediated, enabling and caring social support on job search self-efficacy, which may foster the job search behaviour of unemployed persons. In addition, we control for gender, age, user experience, and attitude towards the Internet. Based on 1322 telephone interviews with unemployed individuals in Germany, we find that online social support drives job search behaviour. Our results show that social support derived from new information and communication technology counteracts the adverse effect of being unemployed to a certain degree. Enabling support and caring support experienced through social media both lead to higher job search self-efficacy, which, in turn, fosters job search behaviour. Furthermore, our model shows that these relationships differ by gender, age, user experience, and attitude towards the Internet.
Keywords: Unemployment; Social media; Social support; Self-efficacy
The sending and receiving of sexually explicit cell phone photos ("Sexting") while in high school: One college's students' retrospective reports BIBAKFull-Text 177-183
  Donald S. Strassberg; Jordan E. Rullo; Julia E. Mackaronis
The sending and receiving of sexually explicit photographs via cell phone, sexting has received much publicity in the popular media and increasing attention in the scientific literature. The research is being fueled, in part, by the several potentially problematic psychosocial and legal consequences of sexting, particularly when the person pictured in the photograph is a minor. Despite the surveys (those published in peer-reviewed journals and elsewhere) that have been conducted, their methodological limits have left us without a clear sense of even how many male and female teens are sending, receiving, and forwarding these sexually explicit photos via cell phone. The present study surveyed over 1100 undergraduate students from a single university regarding their experience with sexting while in high school. Results revealed that over 19% of the students reported having sent nude picture of themselves to others via cell phone (i.e., sexting), over 38% reported having received such a picture from someone else, and nearly 7% admitted to having forwarded such a picture to one or more others. Sex differences regarding sexting as well as its targets and its relationship to religiosity were also explored.
Keywords: Sexting; Explicit cell phone pictures; Adolescents
Professional or interactive: CEOs' image strategies in the microblogging context BIBAKFull-Text 184-189
  Ibrahim A. Alghawi; Jun Yan; Chuan Wei
Microblogging platforms are gaining popularity among corporations and their top management in recent years. Although microblogging services like Twitter and Sina Weibo are now prevalently used for managing CEOs' images and public relations, few studies have examined the effects of these practices on the loyalty of target audiences. This study examined the effect of CEO image strategy on follower loyalty in the microblogging context. Based on the self-presentation theory, four types of CEO image strategies were identified, namely the Expert, Friend, Textbook, and Daybook strategies. These categories were identified based on the levels of interactivity and professionalism of the CEOs on their microblogs. An online survey was used to collect data from microblog users, that is, the CEOs' followers. The results showed that CEO image strategy influences follower loyalty in the microblogging context and that Chinese microblog users are fondest of CEOs who present themselves as experts rather than as friends (H1). The results also showed that usage orientation moderates the effect of CEO image on follower loyalty (H2) and that goal orientation positively influences CEOs with a highly professional image.
Keywords: Uses and gratifications; Image strategy; Microblogging; Interactivity; Professionalism; Loyalty
The measurement of Internet addiction: A critical review of existing scales and their psychometric properties BIBAKFull-Text 190-202
  Stéphanie Laconi; Rachel Florence Rodgers; Henri Chabrol
Internet addiction is a recently recognized disorder which has received increasing attention worldwide over the past two decades. This focus has led to the development of several screening tools measuring different aspects of Internet use, and more particularly Internet addiction. However, a synthesis of the information regarding the validity and usefulness of these different scales is lacking and would help inform researchers and clinicians in their choice of measures when assessing for Internet addiction. The main goal of this study was therefore to identify all the existing measures of Internet addiction and to review the psychometric properties of the most frequently used ones. Five electronic databases were searched using the key words: internet use disorder, Internet addiction, problematic internet use, pathologic internet use, cyber dependence, and scale, test, questionnaire, tool, assessment and inventory. Forty-five tools assessing Internet addiction were identified, of which only seventeen had been evaluated more than once in terms of their psychometric properties. Most of the existing scales for Internet addiction require further validation work but some of them already demonstrate promising psychometric properties. Given the interest in this phenomenon, it seems important for the field to promote the use of validated and well-established measures.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Psychometric properties; Review; Scales
The effect of gratifications derived from use of the social networking site Qzone on Chinese adolescents' positive mood BIBAKFull-Text 203-211
  Vanessa Apaolaza; Jiaxun He; Patrick Hartmann
Drawing from Uses and Gratifications Theory, this study explores the influence of the gratifications derived from use of the social networking site Qzone on Chinese adolescents' positive mood. Qzone is the social networking site that is most preferred and used by Chinese adolescents. Hypothesized relationships are analyzed by structural equation analysis in a sample of 220 Chinese adolescents aged 14-19 with an online Qzone profile. Gratifications that Chinese adolescents receive from use of the online social network Qzone, such as socializing, information-seeking, and entertainment are found to have a significantly positive influence on their positive mood. Findings of this study extend the existing theoretical framework on the application of the Uses and Gratifications Theory to social networking sites. In addition, findings are in line with those of a number of authors who suggest that social networking site use may have positive consequences for teenagers. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Online social networking; Qzone; Adolescents; Mood; Gratifications
Competent or clueless? Users' knowledge and misconceptions about their online privacy management BIBAKFull-Text 212-219
  Ricarda Moll; Stephanie Pieschl; Rainer Bromme
In this empirical paper we investigate how much users of Online Social Networks know about their self-disclosures. We conducted standardized interviews in which we asked students in what Facebook profile categories they had disclosed information and to which audience they had made each piece of information visible. Additionally we collected ratings on how confident students were about the correctness of their answers. Subsequently students logged into their Facebook accounts to let us check the correctness of their assumptions. Results show that students knew fairly well if they had disclosed information in a category, but not to which audience it was visible. Furthermore, students had difficulties to accurately judge their own knowledge, indicating a metacognitive deficit with regard to their own privacy management in Online Social Networks.
Keywords: Self-disclosure; Online Social Networks; Knowledge; Metacognitive accuracy
Everyday deception or a few prolific liars? The prevalence of lies in text messaging BIBAKFull-Text 220-227
  Madeline E. Smith; Jeffrey T. Hancock; Lindsay Reynolds; Jeremy Birnholtz
With the recent and dramatic changes to communication patterns introduced by new information technologies it is increasingly important to understand how deception is produced in new media. In the present study we investigate deception production in text messaging, focusing on how often people lie, about what and to whom. This study uses a novel data collection method that allows for the examination of individuals' communication records at the message level, which may provide a more accurate account of deception behavior than diary or survey methods. We find that the majority of our participants practiced deception in text messaging. Although lying was a relatively infrequent occurrence for the majority of our participants, there were a small number of prolific liars who told a disproportionately large number of lies using this medium. Additionally, we found some support for the argument that deception occurs less frequently in closer relationships, and we observed how the micro-coordination goals of text messaging change the properties of deceptive text messages relative to face-to-face lies.
Keywords: Deception; Lying; Text messaging; Computer-mediated communication
Social network site use, mobile personal talk and social capital among teenagers BIBAKFull-Text 228-235
  Wenjing Xie
Social network sites (SNSs) and mobile phones are becoming increasingly important in teenagers' lives. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey (N = 800), this study explores the variation of social capital by SNS adoption, different SNS activities, and mobile personal talk among teenagers. The results indicate that SNS adoption and mobile personal talk can not only enhance teenagers' close ties with friends, but also jointly promote teenagers' civic engagement. Among SNS users, mobile personal talk also increase teens' network capital. Different SNS activities such as commenting on friend's Facebook pictures and joining Facebook groups have different relationships with social capital, and such relationships are moderated by mobile personal talk.
Keywords: Social network site; Social media; Facebook; Mobile communication; Mobile phone; Smartphone; Social capital; Teenager
What's going on? Age, distraction, and multitasking during online survey taking BIBAKFull-Text 236-244
  Lara Zwarun; Alice Hall
Nearly 6000 adults from 7 countries participated in an online survey about what other activities they engaged in while taking the survey and how distracted they felt. Younger people were more likely than older ones to engage in electronic and non-electronic multitasking. Engaging in a wider range of tasks was associated with feeling more distracted. However, once the variety of tasks was taken into account, interruptions associated with checking or talking on one's phone made participants feel less distracted. The relationship between age, multitasking, and feeling distraction was curvilinear, with middle-aged respondents being more affected by multitasking than either younger or older survey takers. The findings suggest that people of all ages are often deliberate multitaskers who choose their distractions intentionally, at least some of the time. This bodes well for researchers seeking to administer online surveys, because it suggests that survey takers will set themselves up with the type and amount of distractions they are comfortable with. The finding that a high degree of electronic multitasking may decrease the perception of distraction should be followed by experiments verifying if this perception corresponds to actual task performance.
Keywords: Multitasking; Distraction; Computer; Survey; Data collection
Getting close from far away: Mediators of the association between attachment and blogging behavior BIBAKFull-Text 245-252
  Leora Trub; Tracey A. Revenson; Stephen Salbod
Since their inception in the 1990s, blogs continue to play a major role in online culture, having increased fivefold in the last six years. Blogs may serve unique functions for individuals with higher levels of attachment avoidance and anxiety. The study tests a theoretically grounded mediational model of the associations between attachment anxiety and avoidance with the outcome variable of blogging intensity. Desired anonymity and motivations for blogging are proposed to mediate that relationship. One hundred and forty-three adult bloggers completed online questionnaires that contained standard measures of attachment anxiety and avoidance (ECR; Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998) and measures of blogging behavior developed for the study. Path analysis was used to test the meditational model. The meditational hypotheses were partially supported. Attachment anxiety was related to greater blogging intensity, and personal and interpersonal motivational factors mediated this relationship. Attachment avoidance was associated with lower levels of blogging intensity and higher levels of anonymity, but anonymity did not mediate the relationship between attachment avoidance and blogging intensity. The findings suggest that attachment offers a useful lens for understanding online behavior and how it meets interpersonal needs.
Keywords: Blog; Attachment; Facebook; Internet; Anxiety; Avoidance
Cyberbullying among high school students in Japan: Development and validation of the Online Disinhibition Scale BIBAKFull-Text 253-261
  Reinis Udris
Recent research has revealed some factors that contribute to cyberbullying, but the role of online disinhibition remains an area for further clarification. This study examined online disinhibition and cyberbullying behavior among Japanese adolescents. A sample of 887 high school students (mean age 16.31) were administered a survey about their cyberbullying experience. The questionnaire included the Online Disinhibition Scale (ODS), a new 11 item instrument developed to assess online disinhibition levels. In order to validate ODS, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted. EFA yielded two factors subsequently named "benign disinhibition" and "toxic disinhibition". Results from CFA supported the two factor solution as an acceptable model fit. Logistic regression analyses showed that online disinhibition was significantly associated with cyberbullying.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Online disinhibition; Online Disinhibition Scale; Internet; Factor analysis
Increasing exergame physical activity through self and opponent avatar appearance BIBAKFull-Text 262-267
  Jorge Peña; Eunice Kim
We investigated how manipulating self and opponent avatar weight (normal vs. obese) affected people's physical activity in real life as they played an exergame. While playing virtual tennis, female players operating a normal weight self avatar were more physically active relative to those using an obese self avatar. Participants physically exerted themselves the most when both self and opponent had normal weight avatars, implying increased physical activity when self and opponent avatars look equally fit. The study also identified conditions that discouraged physical activity (e.g., normal weight self avatar vs. an obese opponent). The findings were congruent with priming and social comparison models, and illustrated how virtual social cues can be leveraged to influence health behaviors via exergames.
Keywords: Avatars; Physical activity; Exergames; Priming; Social comparison
How do typically developing children and children with autism perceive different social robots? BIBAKFull-Text 268-277
  Andreea Peca; Ramona Simut; Sebastian Pintea; Cristina Costescu; Bram Vanderborght
This study investigates the way children categorize different robots and their preferences for certain robots. For this aim, a matching pictures game in which 6 social robots are to be matched to one of the categories: machines, humans, animals and toys, was developed and implemented on a tablet device. A mixed factorial design with one within-subjects variable (type of robots) and two between-subjects variables (type of development and gender) was used. The data suggest that both TD and ASD children perceive robots mainly as toys, while children with ASD also perceive robots as machines. A high diversity of preferences for different robots was revealed, but also a high preference for simplified designs, with exaggerated facial features. This study provides an innovative instrument for studying children's perception about social robots, and offers valuable information, with implications on the design of social robots.
Keywords: Assistive robots; Perception; Appearance; Autism; Children
Social impacts in social media: An examination of perceived truthfulness and sharing of information BIBAKFull-Text 278-287
  Huaye Li; Yasuaki Sakamoto
Twitter, Facebook, and other social media display the combined opinion of users as collective opinion. The purpose of the work reported here was to examine how collective opinion might influence the perceived truthfulness and the sharing likelihood of health-related statements on social media. Experiment 1 revealed that, when evaluating the truthfulness of a statement, participants adopted the collective truthfulness rating associated with the statement. Similarly, Experiment 2 showed that the likelihood that participants would share a statement followed the collective sharing likelihood associated with the statement. These social impacts were extensive, taking place for statements perceived as true, debatable, and false. These results contribute new insights into how people perceive and share information on social media as well as how collective opinion might affect the quality of information on social media.
Keywords: Collective opinion; Social impact; Truthfulness; Information sharing; Social media
The future of online therapy BIBAKFull-Text 288-294
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Anat Brunstein Klomek; Doron Friedman; Oren Zuckerman; Tal Shani-Sherman
The digital world, and the Internet in particular, have a significant impact on almost all aspects of our lives. The realm of psychotherapy is an area in which the influence of the Internet is growing rapidly. This paper suggests a model for comprehensive online therapy online with a therapist at its center. We start by explaining the main components of both traditional therapy and online therapy. We discuss the principal criticisms leveled against online therapy and assess the efficacy of various responses. The paper moves on to explain the advantages of online therapy, focusing on the unique aspects of this approach. The paper proposes that online therapy should exploit other online resources, including online techniques for information gathering. This is true both in the therapeutic session and outside of it. In addition, the paper suggests that therapists incorporate online role play, online CBT and intervention techniques using the smartphone. All of these tools are suggested as important components in a process of comprehensive therapy run by a therapist working online.
Keywords: Internet; E-therapy; Clinical psychology
Does social capital affect SNS usage? A look at the roles of subjective well-being and social identity BIBAKFull-Text 295-303
  Sung-joon Yoon
This study views social capital as a precursor of SNS (Social Network Service) use, which departs from the previous thoughts that considered social capital as the outcome of SNS activities. Drawing upon the theoretical premises regarding network-based social capital, this study examines the roles of subjective well-being and social identity in terms of their moderating as well as mediating influences on SNS use. This study sought to sub-categorize social capital and SNS use with a view to providing more refined theoretical and practical implications. The study's main objectives are three-fold: First, the study verifies whether social capital, categorized into bridging and bonding capital, influences one's SNS use as measured by qualitative use and quantitative use. Second, the study aims to confirm whether subjective well-being mediates between social capital and SNS use. Third, it examines whether social identity moderates the relationship between social capital and SNS use.
   The study result indicates that bridging capital only had a significant impact on qualitative use. However, subjective well-being did not mediate the relationship between social capital and SNS use. Finally, the cognitive identity caused significant difference in the effect of social capital on quantitative SNS use, whereas cognitive and affective identities caused significant differences in regards to the effects of bridging capital on qualitative SNS use.
Keywords: Social capital; Bridging; Bonding; Subjective well-being; Social identity; Social network service
Pathological video game playing in Spanish and British adolescents: Towards the exploration of Internet Gaming Disorder symptomatology BIBAKFull-Text 304-312
  Olatz Lopez-Fernandez; Ma Luisa Honrubia-Serrano; Thom Baguley; Mark D. Griffiths
Research into problematic video gaming has increased greatly over the last decade and many screening instruments have been developed to identify such behaviour. This study re-examined the Problematic Videogame Playing [PVP] Scale. The objectives of the study were to (i) examine its psychometric properties in two European countries, (ii) estimate the prevalence of potential pathological gaming among adolescents in both countries, and (iii) assess the classification accuracy of the PVP Scale based on its symptomatology as a way of exploring its relationship with both the behavioural component model of addiction and the proposed Internet Gaming Disorder. The data were collected via a survey administered to 2356 adolescents aged between 11 and 18 years from Spain (n = 1132) and Great Britain (n = 1224). Results indicated that the reliability of both versions was adequate, and the factorial and construct validity were good. Findings also showed that the prevalence of pathological gamers estimated with a rigorous cut-off point was 7.7% for Spanish and 14.6% for British adolescents. The scale showed adequate sensitivity, specificity and classification accuracy in both countries, and was able to differentiate between social and potential pathological gamers, and from their addictive symptomatology. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Video game playing; Internet Gaming Disorder; Adolescence; Prevalence; Symptoms; Classification accuracy
Be careful what you wish for: The impact of advertisement choice on viewers' expectations BIBAKFull-Text 313-318
  Stephen C. Nettelhorst; Whitney K. Jeter; Laura A. Brannon
Advertisement choice is an online marketing technique where viewers of videotaped content are allowed to choose the advertisement they want to watch during a commercial break. The purpose of this study was to examine how this choice influenced viewers' expectations of the content they were about to witness. Two hundred seventy-one students participated in a between-participant quasi-experimental study. After watching a YouTube video, one group of participants chose to watch a MP3 advertisement instead of an advertisement for a digital camera. The other group of participants was not given a choice and watched the same advertisement. Participants' expectations were measured using six 7-point Likert items. The results of the study found that participants who chose to watch the MP3 option had significantly higher expectations of the upcoming advertisement than the participants who did not get a choice. These results parallel previous findings for female but not male online viewers. As a result, female viewers may go through a different series of cognitive processes when encountering advertisement choice compared to their male counterparts. Regardless of any cognitive differences, increases in advertisement expectations could potentially influence other important online marketing outcomes such as advertisement avoidance behaviors.
Keywords: Advertisement choice; Viewer expectations; Sex differences; Online marketing; Quasi-experiment; Selective exposure
How people do relational reasoning? Role of problem complexity and domain familiarity BIBAKFull-Text 319-326
  Shikhar Kumar; Iliano Cervesato; Cleotilde Gonzalez
The goal of this paper is to study how people do relational reasoning, such as selecting the grade of all students in a class with GPA (Grade Point Average) greater than 3.5. Literature in the field of psychology of human reasoning offer little insight as to how people solve relational problems. We present two studies that look at human performance in relational problems that use basic relational operators. Our results present the first evidence toward the role of problem complexity on performance as determined by the accuracy and discrimination rates. We also look at the role of familiarity with tabular representation of information, as found in spreadsheets for example, and other factors for relational reasoning, and show that familiarity does not play a significant role in determining performance in relational problem solving, which we found counterintuitive.
Keywords: Relational reasoning; Problem solving; Spreadsheet; Domain familiarity; Problem complexity
Exploring factors related to primary school pupils' ICT self-efficacy: A multilevel approach BIBAKFull-Text 327-341
  Koen Aesaert; Johan van Braak
The aim of this study was to identify factors that are related to pupils' ICT self-efficacy. More specifically, a multilayered framework was used to identify which pupil, classroom and school level factors are associated with primary school pupils' self-perceived competence in digital information processing and communication. Information on pupils' ICT self-efficacy and the pupil level factors was gathered through a questionnaire administered to 2421 sixth grade pupils (and their parents) in 92 Flemish primary schools. A questionnaire was also administered to the teachers (n = 141) and the schools' ICT coordinators (n = 86) in order to gather information on classroom and school level factors. The results of the multilevel analysis indicate that ICT self-efficacy can be considered as a pupil, rather than a class or school, phenomenon. The results indicate that the pupil level factors ICT experience, ICT attitude, parental ICT attitude, controlling learning style, analytic intelligence and amotivation, are related to primary school pupils' ICT self-efficacy.
Keywords: ICT self-efficacy; Multilevel; ICT competences; Primary education
Emotional disclosure on social networking sites: The role of network structure and psychological needs BIBAKFull-Text 342-350
  Han Lin; William Tov; Lin Qiu
We conducted three studies to understand how online emotional disclosure is influenced by social network structure on Facebook. Results showed that emotional disclosure was associated with both the density and size of users' personal networks. Facebook users with denser networks disclosed more positive and negative emotions, and the relation between network density and emotional disclosure was mediated by stronger need for emotional expression. Facebook users with larger networks on Facebook disclosed more positive emotions, and the relation between network size and emotional disclosure was mediated by a stronger need for impression management. Our study extends past research by revealing the psychological mechanisms through which personal social network structure influences emotional disclosure. It suggests that social network size and density are associated with different psychological needs, which in turn lead to different patterns of emotional disclosure.
Keywords: Facebook; Emotion; Self-disclosure; Social networking; Motivation; Network structure
Measuring cognitive load in practicing arithmetic using educational video games on a shared display BIBAKFull-Text 351-356
  Vagner Beserra; Miguel Nussbaum; Macarena Oteo; René Martin
The benefits of introducing educational video games in the classroom are many. Due to the widely available number and sizes of screens, and the learning outcomes shown by the Interpersonal Computer make this an emerging technology that should be considered for the classroom, technology that shares display characteristics with tabletops. An important factor to consider in this sort of technology is the position and amount of information displayed. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of the position on the screen of displayed information and the amount of information received by each of the students who share the workspace with respect to the acquired knowledge. We learned that students that worked with more objects and had more neighbors improved significantly less in their learning, a result that can be explained through the Cognitive Load Theory.
Keywords: Cognitive Load Theory; Shared display; Interpersonal Computer; Game-based learning; Arithmetic practice
Exposure to sexualized media content and selective attention for sexual cues: An experimental study BIBAKFull-Text 357-364
  Suzan M. Doornwaard; Regina J. J. M. van den Eijnden; Adam Johnson; Tom F. M. ter Bogt
This study examined whether exposure to sexualized media influences the subconscious process of attention allocation to subsequently encountered stimuli. One hundred twenty-three participants (61 females) between 18 and 23 years (Mage = 19.99 years) watched a 3-min video clip containing either neutral, sexually more explicit, or sexually less explicit imagery, before completing a dot detection task measuring selective attention for explicitly displayed sexual stimuli and a word search task measuring attention toward hidden sexual cues. Results of the dot detection task indicated that participants in all conditions were slower to detect the dot in trials including sexual stimuli, suggesting absorption by these stimuli. Results of the word search task indicated that participants in the two sexual video conditions, compared to participants in the neutral video condition, were quicker to detect a sexual word in the matrix, albeit only if they completed this task before the dot detection task. There were no differences in the number of sexual words found between video conditions. Our findings point out the importance of studying effects of sexualized media exposure on subconscious cognitive processes in young people, as such effects can provide us insights into how sexualized media content is processed and how sexual schemas are formed and strengthened.
Keywords: Sexualized media content; Selective attention; Attention bias; Dot detection; Word search task; Cognitive process
Hyperaudio learning for non-linear auditory knowledge acquisition BIBAKFull-Text 365-373
  Joerg Zumbach; Neil Schwartz
In this research, we present the concept of Hyperaudio as non-linear presentation of auditory information in the context of underlying theoretical assumptions of how Hyperaudio differs from existing non-linear information media. We present a study comparing text and auditory represented information either in a linear or non-linear manner and the interaction of these presentation formats with different underlying text types. Learners had to learn from two different text sorts either from text only in linear or non-linear manner from a computer screen or the same information presented as audio files also presented either in linear or non-linear manner. Results show overall advantages of linear information presentation compared with non-linear information presentation, and the advantages of written text versus auditory text on learning performance assessed with an essay task and a multiple-choice test. Interaction effects indicate that non-linearity increases cognitive load assessed with a self-report measure in auditory instruction compared to linear information presentation while cognitive load in processing written text is not affected by linearity. Further, effects reveal that the text type (ex-pository vs. linear text type) interacts with presentation format showing that expository text leads to comparable learning outcomes in linear and non-linear formats, while presenting linear text type as hypertext or Hyperaudio is here rather unbeneficial.
Keywords: Hypermedia; Mobile learning; Hyperaudio
Mapping virtual communities by their visual productions: The example of the Second Life Steampunk community BIBAKFull-Text 374-383
  Cécile Cristofari; Matthieu J. Guitton
In the digital age, the identities and structures of virtual communities develop outside the traditional definitions of geography and physical constraints. Among the best models to study the identification process in virtual communities are the communities of fans of imaginary universes. Steampunk -- neo-Victorian fiction with a science fiction twist -- has for instance given rise to a large community, which is very active both in real life and in virtual spaces, for instance in the online 3D immersive platform Second Life. By collecting and analysing hundreds of visual artifacts generated by members of the steampunk community of Second Life, we found a repertoire of visual and lexical characteristics with which to identify the community. In addition, examining the characteristics displayed by visual productions from other communities allowed us to map relationships between different communities based on their aesthetics. This data suggests that the quantification of visual clues points out to interlocking relationships between different community aesthetics, forming a network where differences are visible, but fluidity still dominates. Furthermore, our results could serve as a model to study how communities in different media (immersive universes, games, social media based on visual materials such as Pinterest or Instagram) generate their own visual identity.
Keywords: Community identification; Self-identification; Steampunk; Virtual artifact; Virtual communities
From paper to web: Mode equivalence of the ARHQ and NEO-FFI BIBAKFull-Text 384-392
  Gyda Bjornsdottir; Anna B. Almarsdottir; Ingunn Hansdottir; Fanney Thorsdottir; Maria Heimisdottir; Hreinn Stefansson; Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson; Patricia F. Brennan
Mixed-mode questionnaires are increasingly used in research. Psychological measures, developed for paper-and-pencil (paper) administration require measurement equivalence testing when administered in an alternative mode. Here, Icelandic translations of the NEO-FFI personality measure and Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) were tested for equivalence of measurement and data quality between paper and web mode. Perceived sensitivity of data and preference for survey mode were also assessed. One hundred adults were recruited to answer both modes in a randomized, crossover design. Eighty-eight participants completed both administrations with an average of 63.8 days (SD = 2.2) between them. Within-subjects comparisons of means between modes demonstrated measurement equivalence for both measures. However, differing invalidity coefficients by mode observed by multi-trait multi method (MTMM) analysis suggested systematic effects not captured by traditional psychometric evaluation. Of note was a greater tendency for acquiescence responding to the NEO-FFI observed in web mode. Neither personality traits nor ARHQ reading difficulty scores were associated with preference for survey mode. However, 36% of participants who considered their personality data moderately to highly sensitive scored higher in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness compared to those rating their personality data of low sensitivity.
   While the Icelandic NEO-FFI and ARHQ have demonstrated measurement equivalence in paper and web mode, mode equivalence of psychometric measures may require ongoing evaluation as perceptions of web privacy continue to evolve.
Keywords: Mode effects; NEO-FFI; ARHQ; Web survey; Measurement equivalence; MTMM
Online social networking behaviors among Chinese younger and older adolescent: The influences of age, gender, personality, and attachment styles BIBAKFull-Text 393-402
  Yang Ji; Guang-Ji Wang; Qi Zhang; Zhuo-Hong Zhu
Risks associated with adolescents' uses of social networking sites (SNSs) propelled investigations concerning how online privacy and security behaviors are related to young people's general activities online. To explore adolescents' SNS behaviors, among a group of 531 volunteered adolescent participants during their junior or senior middle school years in Beijing, this study ran exploratory factor analysis based on statements from non-structured interview targeting their Renren SNS uses, and further investigated the levels of and the associations between SNS behaviors based on developmental factors of age, gender, personality, and attachment styles. Results suggest most Chinese younger and older adolescents were likely disclosing real names and photos on SNSs, and their latent utilization, socializing, and privacy disclosure SNS behaviors were influenced by age, gender, personality, or attachment styles. Moreover, the negative associations of privacy disclosure with utilization or socializing behaviors were likely affected by personality and attachment categories. Although Chinese adolescents showed some levels of concerns in their SNS privacy disclosure, education of SNS privacy and security along with adolescent care in general are perhaps helpful for providing a better online experience for young people.
Keywords: Privacy disclosure; Adolescents; Age; Gender; Personality; Attachment
Introduction to the special issue on designing social media for change BIBFull-Text 403-404
  Noreen Kamal; Sean Munson; Vasilis Vlachokyriakos; Michael Fergusson; Sidney Fels
Does offline political segregation affect the filter bubble? An empirical analysis of information diversity for Dutch and Turkish Twitter users BIBAKFull-Text 405-415
  Engin Bozdag; Qi Gao; Geert-Jan Houben; Martijn Warnier
From a liberal perspective, pluralism and viewpoint diversity are seen as a necessary condition for a well-functioning democracy. Recently, there have been claims that viewpoint diversity is diminishing in online social networks, putting users in a "bubble", where they receive political information which they agree with. The contributions from our investigations are fivefold: (1) we introduce different dimensions of the highly complex value viewpoint diversity using political theory; (2) we provide an overview of the metrics used in the literature of viewpoint diversity analysis; (3) we operationalize new metrics using the theory and provide a framework to analyze viewpoint diversity in Twitter for different political cultures; (4) we share our results for a case study on minorities we performed for Turkish and Dutch Twitter users; (5) we show that minorities cannot reach a large percentage of Turkish Twitter users. With the last of these contributions, using theory from communication scholars and philosophers, we show how minority access is missing from the typical dimensions of viewpoint diversity studied by computer scientists and the impact it has on viewpoint diversity analysis.
Keywords: Twitter; Diversity; Polarization; Politics; Turkey; Netherlands
Design challenges in motivating change for sustainable urban mobility BIBAKFull-Text 416-423
  Silvia Gabrielli; Paula Forbes; Antti Jylhä; Simon Wells; Miika Sirén; Samuli Hemminki; Petteri Nurmi; Rosa Maimone; Judith Masthoff; Giulio Jacucci
In recent years, the design and deployment of persuasive interventions for inducing sustainable urban mobility behaviors has become a very active research field, leveraging on the pervasive usage of social media and mobile apps by citizens in their daily life. Several challenges in designing and assessing motivational features for effective and long-lasting behavior change in this area have also been identified, such as the focus of most solutions on targeting and prescribing individual (versus collective) mobility choices, as well as a general lack of large-scale evaluations on the impact of these solutions on citizens' life. This paper reports lessons learnt from three parallel and complementary user studies, where motivational features for sustainable urban mobility, including social influence strategies delivered through social media, were prototyped, tested and refined. By reflecting on our results and design experiences so far, we aim to provide better guidance for future development of more effective solutions supporting citizens' adoption of sustainable mobility behaviors in urban settings.
Keywords: Persuasive sustainability; User studies; Behavior change; Social media; Urban mobility interventions
Multilingual use of Twitter: Social networks at the language frontier BIBAKFull-Text 424-432
  Irene Eleta; Jennifer Golbeck
Social media is international: users from different cultures and language backgrounds are generating and sharing content. But language barriers emerge in the communication landscape online. In the quest for language diversity and universal access, the vision of a cosmopolitan Internet has stumbled over the language frontier.
   In the microblogging site Twitter, information spreads across languages and countries. Expatriates, minorities, diaspora communities, and language learners play an important role in forming transnational networks, creating social ties across borders. This research investigates how multilingual users of Twitter mediate between language groups in their social network, focusing on social connections and language choice.
   This research contributes an original classification of network types based on the patterns of connections between language groups within the social networks of multilingual users. Also, it applies the novel idea of modeling the influence of network factors in the language choices of the user. The results can inform the design of social media platforms seeking to foster global connectivity and international communication flows.
Keywords: Social media; Twitter; Social network analysis; Multilingualism; Language choice
BallotShare: An exploration of the design space for digital voting in the workplace BIBAKFull-Text 433-443
  Vasilis Vlachokyriakos; Paul Dunphy; Nick Taylor; Rob Comber; Patrick Olivier
Digital voting is used to support group decision-making in a variety of contexts ranging from politics to mundane everyday collaboration, and the rise in popularity of digital voting has provided an opportunity to re-envision voting as a social tool that better serves democracy. A key design goal for any group decision-making system is the promotion of participation, yet there is little research that explores how the features of digital voting systems themselves can be shaped to configure participation appropriately. In this paper we propose a framework that explores the design space of digital voting from the perspective of participation. We ground our discussion in the design of a social media polling tool called BallotShare; a first instantiation of our proposed framework designed to facilitate the study of decision-making practices in a workplace environment. Across five weeks, participants created and took part in non-standard polls relating to events and other spontaneous group decisions. Following interviews with participants we identified significant drivers and limitations of individual and collective participation in the voting process: social visibility, social inclusion, commitment and delegation, accountability, influence and privacy.
Keywords: Decision making; e-voting; Social voting; HCI
Online social networks for health behaviour change: Designing to increase socialization BIBAKFull-Text 444-453
  Noreen Kamal; Sidney Fels; Michael Fergusson
Positive health behaviour by eating nutritious foods and performing physical activity has been shown to have significant benefit. Furthermore, theoretical models show that social factors contribute to health behaviour. However, social technology for health behaviour has provided limited social interaction. This paper presents an online social network for health behaviour change called VivoSpace that was designed from a theoretical foundation. The results from a field study (n = 35) are presented that include participants from both clinical and non-clinical settings. The results show that there was a significant change in some of the individual determinants for health behaviour change; however, social determinants did not change. Furthermore, the social features such as commenting were under utilized. Two follow-up focus groups (n = 7 and 8) were conducted to determine how the design should be iterated to increase socialization on VivoSpace. The results suggest that the posts need to add interest through system intelligence and allowing the user to add photos and other information to the post.
Keywords: Online social networks; Health behaviour; User-centered design; Conceptual framework; Theoretical foundation
Students' perceptions of creativity in learning Information Technology (IT) in project groups BIBAKFull-Text 454-463
  Chunfang Zhou; Hongbing Chen; Lingling Luo
This paper explores students' perceptions of creativity in learning Information Technology (IT) in project groups and the implications of better educating creative IT students for the future. Theoretically, the extension of social psychology research into creativity lays the basis of bringing creativity, learning and IT education into one framework. Empirically, qualitative interviews were carried out with 48 students from three disciplines, including Computer Science (n = 16), Electronic Systems (n = 15) and Medialogy (n = 17) at Aalborg University (AAU) in Denmark, which has a tradition of using problem-based learning (PBL) in student project groups. According to the findings, the students' perceptions of creativity reflect their domain-related conceptualization and tacit learning experience, with different levels of confidence of being creative persons. As IT plays multiple roles in developing students' creativity, it can be regarded as a 'learning partner'. This implies that in the future creativity should be taught more explicitly, helping students to become creative IT talents as a part of their professional identity. It also requires teaching efforts to build a learning environment that stimulates creativity more effectively through more interactions between learners, learning tasks and learning tools.
Keywords: Creativity; Project group; Information Technology (IT); Problem-based learning (PBL); IT education
Graduate students' creative professional virtual community behaviors and their creativity BIBAKFull-Text 464-470
  Chaoying Tang; Xuechen Ding
With the development of internet technology, professional virtual community (PVC) is becoming the valuable external knowledge source for graduate students. Students search information and knowledge in specific domain, share research experiences and weave their social network in these professional virtual communities (PVCs). How to use PVC to increase graduate students' creativity should be an important researching issue. Although students' online behaviors have got researchers' attention, students' PVC behaviors and their impacts on creativity keeps less comprehensively understood. The empirically analysis of totally 930 graduate students in this study turns out that graduate students' PVC behaviors include 17 categories which then are clustered into three dimensions: Knowledge & Networking Behavior, Behave Manner and Interactivity. To test their impacts on graduate students' creativity, the regression results demonstrate that after controlling students' intrinsic motivation and creative self-efficacy, Knowledge & Network Behavior and Behavior Manner both significantly predict students' creativity. However Interactivity does not affect students' creativity. Implications and future research are discussed.
Keywords: Professional virtual community; Online behavior; Intrinsic motivation; Creative self-efficacy; Creativity
Adoption of e-book among college students: The perspective of an integrated TAM BIBAKFull-Text 471-477
  Chang-Hyun Jin
This study explored factors that affect consumer acceptance of e-book use by applying a model that incorporates the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the theoretical basis of the hypotheses. The model differentiated external factors -- compatibility, relative advantage, self-efficacy, and subjective norms -- from internal factors -- perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, satisfaction with e-book usage, and intention to continue using e-books. The study (n = 1030) found statistically significant support for the hypothesized model, indicating that the tested relationships between the revised TAM and user intention to continue using e-books were positive and statistically significant. The study's findings provide potentially significant implications that can be used to develop guidelines and a framework for assessing e-book users' behavior.
Keywords: College Students; E-book; TRA; TPB; TAM; DIT
Exploring students learning behavior with an interactive etextbook in computer science courses BIBAKFull-Text 478-485
  Eric Fouh; Daniel A. Breakiron; Sally Hamouda; Mohammed F. Farghally; Clifford A. Shaffer
We present empirical findings from using an interactive electronic textbook (eTextbook) system named OpenDSA to teach sophomore- and junior-level Computer Science courses. The web-based eTextbook infrastructure allows us to collect large amounts of data that can provide detailed information about students' study behavior. In particular we were interested in seeing if the students will attempt to manipulate the electronic resources so as to receive credit without deeply going through the materials. We found that a majority of students do not read the text. On the other hand, we found evidence that students voluntarily complete additional exercises (after obtaining credit for completion) as a study aid prior to exams. We determined that visualization use was fairly high (even when credit for their completion was not offered). Skipping to the end of slideshows was more common when credit for their completion was offered, but also occurred when it was not. We measured the level of use of mobile devices for learning by CS students. Almost all students did not associate their mobile devices with studying. The only time they accessed OpenDSA from a mobile device was for a quick look up, and never for in depth study.
Keywords: eTextbook; Learning behavior; Mobile learning; Computing education
Process mining analysis of conceptual modeling behavior of novices -- empirical study using JMermaid modeling and experimental logging environment BIBAKFull-Text 486-503
  Gayane Sedrakyan; Monique Snoeck; Jochen De Weerdt
Previous studies on learning challenges in the field of modeling focus on cognitive perspectives, such as model understanding, modeling language knowledge and perceptual properties of graphical notation by novice business analysts as major sources affecting model quality. In the educational context outcome feedback is usually applied to improve learning achievements. However, not many research publications have been written observing the characteristics of a modeling process itself that can be associated with better/worse learning outcomes, nor have any empirically validated results been reported on the observations of modeling activities in the educational context. This paper attempts to cover this gap for conceptual modeling. We analyze modeling behavior (conceptual modeling event data of 20 cases, 10.000 events in total) using experimental logging functionality of the JMermaid modeling tool and process mining techniques. The outcomes of the work include modeling patterns that are indicative for worse/better learning performance. The results contribute to (1) improving teaching guidance for conceptual modeling targeted at process-oriented feedback, (2) providing recommendations on the type of data that can be useful in observing a modeling behavior from the perspective of learning outcomes. In addition, the study provides first insights for learning analytics research in the domain of conceptual modeling.
Keywords: Teaching/learning conceptual modeling; Process-oriented feedback; Conceptual modeling pattern; Information systems education; Process mining; Learning data analytics
The benefits and dangers of flow experience in high school students' internet usage: The role of parental support BIBAKFull-Text 504-513
  Shuiqing Yang; Yaobin Lu; Bin Wang; Ling Zhao
Flow has been identified as a desirable phenomenon because it can lead to a favorable attitude toward specific information technologies. In the present study, we argue that it can also result in potential adverse consequences such as Internet addiction. Based on the flow theory, the present study examines the dual effects of flow experience on high school students' Internet addiction and exploratory behavior. The present study also examines the effects of parental interventions on the dual causal processes. A research model was developed and empirically tested on data collected from 1203 high school students in central China. The structural equation modeling analysis demonstrates that flow experience has positive impacts on both high school students' Internet addiction and exploratory behavior. In addition, parental support significantly lessens high school students' Internet addiction and enhances their exploratory behavior. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
Keywords: Flow experience; High school student; Internet addiction; Exploratory behavior; Parental support
The influence of using affective tutoring system in accounting remedial instruction on learning performance and usability BIBAKFull-Text 514-522
  Hao-Chiang Koong Lin; Chih-Hung Wu; Ya-Ping Hsueh
Current research on computerized learning has steered toward combining personalized e-learning with an affective tutoring system (ATS) to enable assisted teaching and strengthen students' learning effectiveness. This study develops a novel ATS which includes four modules: affective recognition (combines facial emotion recognition and semantic emotion recognition), tutor agent, content, and instruction strategies for examining the influence of ATS in Accounting remedial instruction on learning effectiveness and usability. Triangulation research methods -- quantitative data (questionnaire survey and score) and qualitative data (participant observation and interview) have adopted in this study to evaluate the students' learning performance and system usability. This study recruited 80 students (40 students for traditional teaching group, 40 students for ATS group) from a technology university in Southern Taiwan who attained low academic achievements in Accounting and possess business backgrounds. The research results revealed that the benefits of using the ATS for Account remedial curriculum are good usability of system and high learning performance. Finally, we proposed several prospects for future study.
Keywords: Affective tutoring system (ATS); Accounting remedial instruction; Learning effectiveness; Affective computing
Youth science identity, science learning, and gaming experiences BIBAKFull-Text 523-532
  John Fraser; Christina Shane-Simpson; Jodi Asbell-Clarke
This study explored the relationships between identity, science learning, and gaming. A survey of 1502 teenagers assessed gaming preferences, habits, science learning, science and gamer identities. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that enjoyment of problem-solving games and identifying as a gamer were the strongest predictors for teens' science understanding. Teen preferences for games with science-related features, and competence in problem-solving games were significant predictors of teens' understanding of science. Teens who preferred collaborative social games over science-oriented games were less likely to understand the nature of science. Teens with a stronger science identity were more likely to negatively evaluate their gaming groups, preferred problem-solving games, and claimed greater competence in games with science-related features when compared to those who do not self-identify as science thinkers. Results suggest that games that seek to support those who do not feel successful in science learning should focus on social interaction and involve activities and experiences that could be utilized in the real world rather than problem solving games. Results suggest that science-focused games may reinforce perceived self-efficacy and sense of competence in real world scientific reasoning situations for those already predisposed to feel confident as science thinkers.
Keywords: Identity; Video games; Gaming; Science learning; Education; Teens
Learner reflections in virtual vs. blended EAP classes BIBAKFull-Text 533-543
  Maryam Asoodar; S. Susan Marandi; Mahmood Reza Atai; Shahin Vaezi
This study compared students' group work experiences in virtual and blended classes in an EFL context. The study was conducted during an academic semester and the participants comprised of two groups of Iranian EAP students in mainstream education system and virtual education context. To probe the factors influencing student group work experiences and how these factors might affect student performances in virtual and blended environments, we adopted a mixed-method approach. For the collection of quantitative data, a survey adapted from Smith et al. (2011) was used. For further investigation, data were gathered through comments the participants made, semi-structured interviews, and teacher observations. The findings revealed that students in the virtual class proved significantly more enthusiastic about collaborative work compared to students in the blended class. Our analysis of qualitative data confirmed that anticipation of problems and development of communication plans were found in the learners in the virtual group, whereas personality clashes were commonly observed among the learners in the blended environment. The results promise implications for teachers in order to identify challenges the English learners may face in online instructional environments and think of strategies to help them overcome problems and engage in active participation in online activities.
Keywords: Cooperative/collaborative learning; EFL instruction; Blended classes; Virtual learning
Understanding collaborative learning activities in an information ecology: A distributed cognition account BIBAKFull-Text 544-553
  Christina Vasiliou; Andri Ioannou; Panayiotis Zaphiris
Collaborative learning encloses a diversity of activities, interactions, and practices. Thus, designing a learning environment, potentially enhanced with technology, to support collaborative learning, is not an easy task. Using an in-class exploration involving four multidisciplinary teams, this research seeks to understand collaborative design activities within "InfoSpace" -- an information ecology. That is, a collocated space enriched with a multiple interlinked heterogeneous technologies. The aim of the study is to explore how an information ecology works as an integrated cognitive system, through the lenses of distributed cognition. Through the analysis we constructed a detailed account of the information flow, physical layout and artefact models. We claim that distributed cognition framework can provide a lens for understanding interactions among learners, tasks, and tools in collocated technology enhanced learning environments. Furthermore, the analysis provides valuable insights on how the design of the information ecology supports collaboration and coordination.
Keywords: Information ecology; Shared workspaces; Collaborative learning; Distributed cognition; Collocated learning