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CHB Tables of Contents: 303132333435363738394041

Computers in Human Behavior 40

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-11 Volume 40

CHB 2014-11 Volume 40

Facebook use and depressive symptomatology: Investigating the role of neuroticism and extraversion in youth BIBAKFull-Text 1-5
  Teague E. Simoncic; Kate R. Kuhlman; Ivan Vargas; Sean Houchins; Nestor L. Lopez-Duran
The popularity of social networking sites, such as Facebook, has increased rapidly over the past decade, especially among youth. Consequently, the impact of Facebook use on mental health problems (e.g., depressive symptomatology) has become a recent area of concern. Yet, evidence for such a link has been mixed and factors that contribute to heterogeneity of findings have not been identified. In this study, we examined whether the association between Facebook use and depressive symptoms is moderated by individual factors (i.e., personality and sex). To this end, we measured Facebook use, depressive symptoms, and personality domains (i.e., extroversion and neuroticism) among 237 young adults. No direct association was found between Facebook use and depressive symptoms. However, for females with high neuroticism, more frequent Facebook use was associated with lower depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest a complex relationship between Facebook use and depressive symptomatology that appears to vary by sex and personality. Facebook use may be protective against depressive symptoms for female users with high levels of neuroticism, while Facebook use may be unrelated to depressive symptoms among males.
Keywords: Depression; Facebook; Extraversion; Neuroticism; Sex
Understanding families' motivations for sustainable behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 6-15
  Mary L. Barreto; Agnieszka Szóstek; Evangelos Karapanos; Nuno J. Nunes; Lucas Pereira; Filipe Quintal
While interest in eco-feedback technologies has peaked over the last decade, research increasingly highlights that simply providing information to individuals regarding their consumption behaviors does not guarantee behavior change. This has lead to an increasing body of work that attempts to characterize individuals' latent motivations that drive sustainable behaviors. With this paper we aim at expanding this body of work by analyzing such motivations in the context of families. We report findings from interviews with 15 families who used an eco-feedback interface over a period of 2 years. Our study reveals that motivations for sustainable behavior were not only rooted in individuals' environmental concerns and need for expense management but they also regarded: (i) individuals' and families' need for a sense of control and security, (ii) parents' self-perceived responsibility of their role as parents and (iii) the perception of individual as well as family identity. We argue that in order for eco-feedback technologies to attain long-lasting behavioral changes in the domestic environment they need to address basic family needs that go beyond individual ideals of pro-environmental behavior.
Keywords: Sustainability; Motivations; Behavior change; Family dynamics; Energy consumption; Eco-feedback
Presentation on Facebook and risk of cyberbullying victimisation BIBAKFull-Text 16-22
  Rebecca Dredge; John Gleeson; Xochitl de la Piedad Garcia
Facebook is an environment in which adolescents can experiment with self-presentation. Unfortunately, Facebook can also be an environment in which cyberbullying occurs. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether specific self-presentation behaviours in Facebook were associated with cyberbullying victimisation for adolescents. The contents of 147 adolescent (15-24 years) Facebook profile pages were recorded and used to predict cyberbullying victimisation. Coded contents included the presence or absence of Facebook profile features (e.g., relationship status) and the specific content of certain features (e.g., type and valence of wall posts). Participants completed measures of cyberbullying victimisation and traditional bullying victimisation and perpetration. More than three out of four participants reported experiencing at least one victimisation experience on Facebook in the preceding 6 months. A series of Facebook features and experiences of traditional bullying victimisation/perpetration were found to be associated with an increased risk of cyberbullying victimisation. Number of Facebook friends and traditional bullying victimisation were also significant predictors of cyberbullying victimisation. These results support the hypothesis that self-presentation on Facebook can increase the likelihood of eliciting negative attention from potential perpetrators. This has important implications for the development of cyberbullying prevention and education programs that teach adolescents about measures they may take to decrease their risk for cyberbullying victimisation within social networking sites like Facebook.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Victimisation; Adolescents; Risk; Prevention; Facebook
Technology addiction's contribution to mental wellbeing: The positive effect of online social capital BIBAKFull-Text 23-30
  Kate Magsamen-Conrad; China Billotte-Verhoff; Kathryn Greene
This research examines the effect of online social capital and Internet use on the normally negative effects of technology addiction, especially for individuals prone to self-concealment. Self-concealment is a personality trait that describes individuals who are more likely to withhold personal and private information, inhibiting catharsis and wellbeing. Addiction, in any context, is also typically associated with negative outcomes. However, we investigate the hypothesis that communication technology addiction may positively affect wellbeing for self-concealing individuals when online interaction is positive, builds relationships, or fosters a sense of community. Within these parameters, increased communication through mediated channels (and even addiction) may reverse the otherwise negative effects of self-concealment on wellbeing. Overall, the proposed model offers qualified support for the continued analysis of mediated communication as a potential source for improving the wellbeing for particular individuals. This study is important because we know that healthy communication in relationships, including disclosure, is important to wellbeing. This study recognizes that not all people are comfortable communicating in face-to-face settings. Our findings offer evidence that the presence of computers in human behaviors (e.g., mediated channels of communication and NCTs) enables some individuals to communicate and foster beneficial interpersonal relationships, and improve their wellbeing.
Keywords: Technology addiction; Wellbeing; Online social capital; Self-concealment
Online and hybrid university-level courses with the utilization of Second Life: Investigating the factors that predict student choice in Second Life supported online and hybrid university-level courses BIBAKFull-Text 31-43
  Nikolaos Pellas; Ioannis Kazanidis
The radical restructure of hybrid and online learning course delivery methods at university-level held in Second Life has been widely and positively acknowledged from a large academic literature body. However, it is still absent the clarification of students' socio-cognitive factors that predict their choice to attend at least in one of these course delivery methods. The main purpose of this study is to examine the relation between several personal factors and students' choice to participate in these contemporary methods. A targeted sample of 325 voluntary students (170 who participated in hybrid sessions and 155 who participated in online sessions) completed a survey to assess socio-cognitive factors (self-efficacy, metacognitive self-regulation and task value), achievement-related emotions (pride, anger, relief and shame) in academic settings (before and after finishing various learning activities) and satisfaction levels of each method with also final grades from their examination processes to be included. Logistic regression confirmed higher levels of students' self-efficacy and satisfaction in learning outcomes for those who took part in (fully) online rather than those who enrolled in hybrid courses. The study results revealed that students would prefer to take further courses in the online course delivery method. Conclusive remarks may provide meaningful information to the educational community in order to understand better how the socio-cognitive constructs of motivation are related to the students' participation in future-driven educational activities held in Second Life by using the online or hybrid course delivery methods.
Keywords: Second Life; Socio-cognitive conceptual model; Online course delivery method; Blended course delivery method
E-readiness of website acceptance and implementation in SMEs BIBAKFull-Text 44-55
  Wei-Hsi Hung; Li-Min Chang; Chieh-Pin Lin; Chun-Hao Hsiao
This study aims to make a deep exploration into e-readiness from the viewpoints of technology, management, organization, and environment in order to understand how these dimensions affect the acceptance intention and degree of implementation of a corporate website. A mail survey was conducted. A total of 753 questionnaires were distributed and collected from SMEs' senior executives, generating 163 usable replies with a total response rate of 21.65%. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique and partial least squares (PLS) software were used to conduct a path analysis for related variables in the research model. Results of the data analysis show that (1) the variables that have a significant positive effect on the intention to accept a corporate website in SMEs are an awareness of corporate website, enterprise resources, technological resources, government e-readiness, market force e-readiness, and supporting industries e-readiness and (2) the variables that have a significant effect on the degree of corporate website implementation in SMEs are an awareness of corporate website, senior executive commitment, corporate website governance, human resources, technological resources, government e-readiness, and market force e-readiness. Through the empirical results, this study provides contributions for SME managers and researchers.
Keywords: Small- and medium-sized enterprises; Corporate website; E-readiness; Acceptance of information technology
Evaluating mobile apps for breathing training: The effectiveness of visualization BIBAKFull-Text 56-63
  Luca Chittaro; Riccardo Sioni
Deep and slow breathing exercises can be an effective adjunct in the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, chronic pain and depression. Breathing techniques are traditionally learned in courses with trainers and/or with materials such as audio CDs for home practice. Recently, mobile apps have been proposed as novel breathing training tools, but to the best of our knowledge no research has focused on their evaluation so far. In this paper, we study three different designs for breathing training apps. The first employs audio instructions as in traditional training based on audio CDs, while the other two include visualizations of the breathing process, representative of those employed in current breathing training apps. We carry out a thorough analysis, focusing on users' physiological parameters as well as subjective perception. One visualization produces better results both objectively (measured deepness of breath) and subjectively (users' preferences and perceived effectiveness) than the more traditional audio-only design. This indicates that a visualization can contribute to the effectiveness of breathing training apps. We discuss which features could have allowed one visualization (but not the other) to obtain better results than traditional audio-only instructions.
Keywords: Training; Mobile devices; Evaluation; Breathing; Visualization; Health
Suboptimal facial expression primes in textual media messages: Evidence for the affective congruency effect BIBAKFull-Text 64-77
  Niklas Ravaja; Jari Kätsyri
The effectiveness of suboptimal affective primes in real media applications has remained debatable. We investigated the effects of suboptimally (at 10-ms exposure) presented facial expression primes on emotional responses to, and cognitive evaluations of, textual (business news) messages ranging from slightly unpleasant to slightly pleasant among 33 participants. Facial expression primes were presented repeatedly on a simulated small screen of a mobile device during a news reading task. Facial electromyography (EMG) recordings were used as physiological indices of positive and negative emotions. Our results showed affective congruency effects between news messages and facial expression primes: joyful facial expressions, compared to angry primes or no priming, elicited higher positive affect evaluations and more positive facial EMG responses, as well as higher interest, when embedded in affectively more positive news. On the other hand, the mere presence of suboptimal primes was detrimental to the perceived trustworthiness of news. These results suggest that embedding suboptimal facial expression primes into textual media messages may exert an influence on affectively congruent messages; at the same time, our results highlight the potential hazards and difficulties of utilizing such primes.
Keywords: Suboptimal affective priming; Digital media; Mobile devices; Emotions; Facial expressions
Factors affecting application developers' loyalty to mobile platforms BIBAKFull-Text 78-85
  Min Ho Ryu; Junghwan Kim; Seongcheol Kim
Mobile platform providers, including Apple and Google, have grown quickly to become central players in the mobile ecosystem. They now act as gatekeepers of information among multiple niche players in the mobile ecosystem. Many players from different industry sectors have tried to build their ecosystem centered on their own mobile platform, but only a few have succeeded so far. In the so called 'ecosystem war', one of the key issues for platform providers is how to retain a sustainable relationship with other niche players in the ecosystem. This paper investigates the factors influencing application developers' loyalty to mobile platforms. To do this, this paper develops a model with key variables based on loyalty theory and adds variables that reflect the specific context of mobile platforms. The empirical analysis that was conducted in South Korea shows that satisfaction is a direct antecedent of application developers' loyalty to a mobile platform. The results also show that the quality of a mobile platform's software development kit (SDK) is one of the important determinants of application developers' satisfaction with a particular mobile platform and also of the platform's credibility. However, there is no significant relationship between the credibility and loyalty, which is not consistent with previous studies in different research settings. This provides us a clue to understand how the mobile platform market works and that mobile platform providers have less incentive to create a fair relationship with developers when they have a large customer base.
Keywords: Mobile platform; Application developers; Loyalty; Mobile platform neutrality; PLS
Child-robot interaction across cultures: How does playing a game with a social robot compare to playing a game alone or with a friend? BIBAKFull-Text 86-100
  Suleman Shahid; Emiel Krahmer; Marc Swerts
The present study investigates how children from two different cultural backgrounds (Pakistani, Dutch) and two different age groups (8 and 12 year olds) experience interacting with a social robot (iCat) during collaborative game play. We propose a new method to evaluate children's interaction with such a robot, by asking whether playing a game with a state-of-the-art social robot like the iCat is more similar to playing this game alone or with a friend. A combination of self-report scores, perception test results and behavioral analyses indicate that child-robot interaction in game playing situations is highly appreciated by children, although more by Pakistani and younger children than by Dutch and older children. Results also suggest that children enjoyed playing with the robot more than playing alone, but enjoyed playing with a friend even more. In a similar vein, we found that children were more expressive in their non-verbal behavior when playing with the robot than when they were playing alone, but less expressive than when playing with a friend. Our results not only stress the importance of using new benchmarks for evaluating child-robot interaction but also highlight the significance of cultural differences for the design of social robots.
Keywords: Children; Robot; iCat; Evaluation paradigm; Cross-cultural differences; Age groups
Impacts of decision-making biases on eWOM retrust and risk-reducing strategies BIBAKFull-Text 101-110
  Ya-Ching Lee
This study examined the role of decision-making biases (i.e., inertia, overconfidence, illusion of control) in consumer retrust in electronic word of mouth (eWOM) recommendations and the risk-reducing strategies of consumers. An online survey was conducted. Of the 592 questionnaires collected, 567 responses were suitable for analysis. The response rate was 95.78%. This study revealed that inertia and overconfidence biases affect retrust in word-of-mouth recommendations. In addition, consumers with a stronger illusion of control bias place less trust in eWOM after having a negative experience. Furthermore, the results indicated that the associations between risk-reducing strategies and retrust in eWOM differ. On the theoretical level, this paper provides an understanding of the effects of inertia, overconfidence, and the illusion of control on eWOM retrust. In addition, this paper fills a gap in the literature, thus advancing knowledge on how and why consumers retrust eWOM. The results of the current study provide useful knowledge enabling firms to understand decision-making biases and, thus, manage relationships with potential customers and improve the quality of their products and services. For example, relying on an eWOM Web site image was determined to be the primary risk-reducing strategy in retrusting eWOM. Firms should continually track the flow of eWOM on eWOM-posting Web sites.
Keywords: Decision-making biases; Illusion of control; Inertia; Overconfidence; Risk; Word of mouth (WOM)
Individual differences in social networking site users: The interplay between antecedents and consequential effect on level of activity BIBAKFull-Text 111-118
  Archana Krishnan; David Atkin
Based on the notion that individual users would utilize Social Networking Sites (SNSs) in characteristic ways, we tested a structural model hypothesizing that personality traits, communicative and social variables, attitudes, and motives would affect level of SNS activity. Participants (n = 674) completed measures of personality, communication apprehension, self-esteem, need for affiliation, attitudes, motives of SNS use, and level of SNS activity. Results offered support for the hypothesized model of SNS motivations and activity, illustrating that SNSs were primarily used to maintain relational connections with others. In addition, support was found for the contention that SNSs offer beneficial social tools for all individuals; however, this effect was highest for individuals already proficient in face-to-face social and communicative behaviors.
Keywords: Social networking; Personality; Communication apprehension; Need for affiliation; Self-esteem; Attitudes
The effects of various multimedia instructional materials on students' learning responses and outcomes: A comparative experimental study BIBAKFull-Text 119-132
  Yi-Hsuan Lee; Chan Hsiao; Chin-Husan Ho
We examine whether an e-learning curriculum involving various multimedia instructional materials (MIMs) can stimulate learners' socialness perceptions, and whether the difference in style has a specific effect on the students' emotional states (arousal, pleasure, and flow experience) that consequently affect the students' learning motivations and learning outcomes. We apply an experimental design to three groups of students and compared three types of presentation methods: (a) a PowerPoint presentation (b) a PowerPoint presentation guided by a human-like animated character; (c) a PowerPoint presentation guided by a monster-like animated character. The analysis results show that various types of MIMs result in various social cues that have a significant effect on the students' socialness perceptions, arousal, pleasure, flow experience, learning motivation, and learning outcome. We contribute to the field of e-learning by integrating MIM, social response theory, flow theory, and learning theory into an innovative model, which sheds light on the perspective that the three groups of various MIMs stimulate an emotional state of students and maximize their learning outcomes. Therefore, when designing the e-learning curricula with animated characters, we recommend that teachers consider how these designs affect students' emotional responses to ensure the best learning outcomes.
Keywords: Animated characters; Multimedia instructional materials; Flow experience; Socialness perceptions; Learning motivation; Learning outcome
Measuring flow in gamification: Dispositional Flow Scale-2 BIBAKFull-Text 133-143
  Juho Hamari; Jonna Koivisto
This paper measures flow in the context of gamification and investigates the psychometric properties of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2). We employ data gathered from users of an exercise gamification service (N = 200). The results show that the original DFS-2 factorial structure does result in a similar model fit as the original work. However, we also present a factorial respecification that satisfies more recent model fit thresholds. Beyond validating the original DFS-2 instrument in the context of gamification, the psychometric analysis and the respecifications suggest that the components of flow divide into highly correlated conditions of flow (which were also found to be more salient in the context of gamification: autotelic experience, balance of skill and challenge, control, clear goals, and feedback) and into possible outcomes (merging action-awareness, concentration, loss of sense of time, and loss of self-consciousness) from achieving flow.
Keywords: Flow; DFS-2; Gamification; Games for health; Exergames; Persuasive technology
Exploring online social behavior in crowdsourcing communities: A relationship management perspective BIBAKFull-Text 144-151
  Xiao-Liang Shen; Matthew K. O. Lee; Christy M. K. Cheung
With the popularity of social media, crowdsourcing innovation provides new ways to generate original and useful content. It offers a unique opportunity for online crowds to communicate and collaborate on a variety of topics of mutual interest. This study presents an initial attempt to explore and understand online social behavior in crowdsourcing communities, with the insights from both plural subject theory and commitment-trust theory. In particular, two different types of collective intention (i.e., we-mode collective intention, which refers to acting as a group member, and I-mode collective intention, which refers to acting interdependently to contribute to the group goal) were proposed. The research model was empirically examined with longitudinal data collected from 202 wiki users. Findings indicated that, although both I-mode and we-mode collective intentions significantly predicted online social behavior in wiki communities, we-mode collective intention exerted a greater effect on users' behavior. In addition, relationship-orientated factors (e.g., trust and commitment) only affected we-mode, instead of I-mode, collective intention. This study finally yields several implications for both research and practice.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; Collective intention; Commitment-trust theory; Plural subject theory; Mass collaboration; Wiki community
Cyberslacking, engagement, and personality in distributed work environments BIBAKFull-Text 152-160
  Thomas A. O'Neill; Laura A. Hambley; Gina S. Chatellier
The modern workplace is becoming increasingly reliant on distributed work arrangements, in which employees work part- or full-time from home, coffee shops, satellite offices, and elsewhere rather than at a centralized location. There are questions about the role of personality in shaping work behavior during distributed work, particularly with respect to cyberslacking and work engagement as indicators of distributed work effectiveness. Cyberslacking can be viewed as an extension of typical counterproductive workplace behavior, and it involves distraction and putting off work to "surf the Internet." Engagement can be viewed as the intensity of physical, cognitive, and emotional involvement with work activities. We found that non-Big Five personality traits, Honesty and Procrastination, were important predictors of these outcomes. Moreover, we developed three sets of intermediary behaviors linking personality to distributed work effectiveness: regular upward communication, self-management tactics, and conscious socialization efforts. Finally, personality profiles were identified with latent profile analyses in order to determine which "types" of people are more successful than others in distributed work.
Keywords: Personality; Telework; Remote work; Mobile work; Cyberslacking; Latent profile analysis
The effects of technostress within the context of employee use of ICT BIBAKFull-Text 161-170
  Anna Mette Fuglseth; Øystein Sørebø
The main purpose of the present study is to help managers cope with the negative effects of technostress on employee use of ICT. Drawing on transaction theory of stress (Cooper, Dewe, & O'Driscoll, 2001) and information systems (IS) continuance theory (Bhattacherjee, 2001) we investigate the effects of technostress on employee intentions to extend the use of ICT at work. Our results show that factors that create and inhibit technostress affect both employee satisfaction with the use of ICT and employee intentions to extend the use of ICT. Our findings have important implications for the management of technostress with regard to both individual stress levels and organizational performance. A key implication of our research is that managers should implement strategies for coping with technostress through the theoretical concept of technostress inhibitors.
Keywords: Technostress; User satisfaction; Continuance intention; Formative instruments
Photo-messaging: Adopter attributes, technology factors and use motives BIBAFull-Text 171-179
  Daniel S. Hunt; Carolyn A. Lin; David J. Atkin
The purpose of this study was to develop a model of technology diffusion and impression management variables on photo-messaging behavior. Diffusion variables, such as innovativeness and technology clusters, were demonstrated to be predictors of sending photo messages and online sharing. Impression management motives -- self-expression and self-presentation -- were also indicators of photo-messaging. The perceived usefulness of mobile technology for sending and sharing was identified as an important influence of photo-messaging frequency; while perceived ease of use was not a predictor. Taken together, the findings indicate the importance of integrating technological adoption factors and motives for impression management in social media research.
Cross-cultural comparison of hand gestures of Japanese and Germans for tabletop systems BIBAKFull-Text 180-189
  Jacqueline Urakami
Goal was to study cultural differences between Japanese and Germans gesture use when interacting with a map and a video walkthrough application for a table top system. Japanese and Germans' choice of gestures was compared in a quasi-experimental design. Gestures had to be generated for two different scenarios, an electronic map and a video walkthrough. Data revealed that physical aspects of hand gestures such as hand shape, focus on motion pattern, and preference of simple, one-hand gestures are similar between Japanese and Germans. However, Japanese and Germans differed in the choice of symbolic and metaphorical gestures and in the frame of reference and perspective taken for performing gestures. Furthermore, differences between Germans and Japanese were larger for the map application than for the video walkthrough. Culture partly affects the choice of hand gestures for table top systems. Designers of gesture vocabularies for tabletop systems have to carefully consider which referents are carried out by hand gestures alone. Gesture input appears to be appropriate for the direct manipulation of objects or real world applications. However, abstract functions or artificial realities should not be handled by gestures alone. Also, designers should consider the development of culture-centered interfaces.
Keywords: Cultural differences; User study; Surface gestures; Hand gestures; Japanese; German