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Computers in Human Behavior 30

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-01 Volume 30

CHB 2014-01 Volume 30

Digital educational game value hierarchy from a learners' perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1-12
  Hong-Wen Lin; Yu-Ling Lin
Although much research in the past has pointed out that SimCity offers many learning opportunities, few have focused on how these were derived from game attributes and the personal value they offered. In this research, the means-end chain theory and ladder interview were chosen as the approach to explore the structure of SimCity's game attribute -- learning effect -- terminal value chain from learners' perspective. Findings from the study indicate that through attributes such as Construction of simulated city, Become the mayor, Offer incidents of simulated disasters and Table of information overview, learners were able to benefit from the learning effects of Cultivate imagination and creativity, Cultivate problem-solving ability, Strengthen sense of responsibility, Increase planning experience, Cultivate organizational thinking, Strengthen leadership decision-making and Improve control ability in their pursuit of values such as Sense of achievement, Fun and enjoyment of life, Self-fulfillment and Self-respect. The research has taken one step further to explore the differences in value hierarchies for respondents of different majors and levels of education for a discussion in management significance. The findings revealed the key points that learners focus on when playing digital educational games and provide useful guidelines for improvements and teaching strategies for digital educational game developers and educators.
Keywords: Digital game-based learning; Media in education; Simulation games; Means-end chains theory
Giving and receiving emotional support online: Communication competence as a moderator of psychosocial benefits for women with breast cancer BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Woohyun Yoo; Kang Namkoong; Mina Choi; Dhavan V. Shah; Stephanie Tsang; Yangsun Hong; Michael Aguilar; David H. Gustafson
This study examines the moderating role of emotional communication competence in the relationship between Computer-Mediated Social Support (CMSS) group participation, specifically giving and receiving emotional support, and psychological health outcomes. Data were collected as part of randomized clinical trials for women diagnosed with breast cancer within the last two months. Expression and reception of emotional support was assessed by tracking and coding the 18,064 messages that 236 patients posted and read in CMSS groups. The final data used in the analysis was created by merging (a) computer-aided content analysis of discussion posts, (b) action log data analysis of system usage, and (c) baseline and 6-month surveys collected to assess change. Results of this study demonstrate that emotional communication competence moderates the effects of expression and reception of emotional support on psychological quality of life and breast cancer-related concerns in both desired and undesired ways. Giving and receiving emotional support in CMSS groups has positive effects on emotional well-being for breast cancer patients with higher emotional communication, while the same exchanges have detrimental impacts on emotional well-being for those with lower emotional communication competence. The theoretical and practical implications for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-mediated social support groups; Emotional support; Emotional communication competence; Breast cancer
Adding self-explanation prompts to an educational computer game BIBAKFull-Text 23-28
  Harold F. O'Neil; Gregory K. W. K. Chung; Deirdre Kerr; Terry P. Vendlinski; Rebecca E. Buschang; Richard E. Mayer
Proponents envision a role for computer games in improving student learning of academic material, including mathematics and science. Asking learners to engage in self-explanations during learning has been found to be an effective instructional method. In the present experiment, we examined the effects of adding a self-explanation prompt -- asking players to answer one of three questions after completing each level of the game -- within a children's math game on addition of fractions. Middle-school participants played either a base version of the game (n = 57) or the base version with a self-explanation instructional feature (n = 57). Participants' learning was measured by a fractions posttest and their learning processes measured via in-game measures of game progress and errors. When we separated the self-explanation condition into participants who used a focused self-explanation strategy versus those who did not, the focused participants had significantly fewer game level deaths, game level resets, and progressed significantly farther in the game, compared to the control group, than participants not using a focused self-explanation strategy. The major new contribution of this study is that self-explanation can help the process of playing educational games in some situations and hurt in others. In particular, the most effective self-explanation prompts were aimed at helping learners make connections between game terminology and mathematics terminology, whereas the least effective self-explanation prompts asked very simple or very abstract questions.
Keywords: Educational games; Computer games; Self-explanation; Fractions
Evaluating multiple aspects of a digital educational problem-solving-based adventure game BIBAKFull-Text 29-38
  Huei-Tse Hou; Ming-Chaun Li
This study aims to evaluate multiple aspects of a problem-solving-based educational adventure game, Boom Room©. The learning effectiveness, game acceptance, and flow experience of the game were empirically investigated. The game was designed and developed for teaching knowledge of computer assembly. Sixty-seven university students in Taiwan were asked to complete a pre-test before playing the game and a post-test after playing the game. These students also provided evaluations of not only the usefulness, ease of use, and design elements of the game but also their experience with various flow dimensions of the game. A 2-stage cluster analysis was also conducted to explore the potentially different groups of students by categorizing them in accordance with their performance, degree of game acceptance and flow states. The results suggest that this game is beneficial for students with insufficient background knowledge of computer assembly, allowing these students to obtain vital knowledge of this topic if they achieved a sufficient acceptance of the game and an adequate flow experience from their game-playing experiences. The various dimensions of flow that were experienced by these students were significantly correlated with game acceptance. Suggestions for future study, game design, and instructional practice are discussed.
Keywords: Game-based learning; Adventure game; Problem-solving; Technology acceptance; Flow; Cluster analysis
Expressive participation in Internet social movements: Testing the moderating effect of technology readiness and sex on student SNS use BIBAKFull-Text 39-49
  Juan D. Borrero; Shumaila Y. Yousafzai; Uzma Javed; Kelly L. Page
An understanding of students' use of social networking sites (SNS) for expressive participation in Internet Social Movements (ISMs) is absent in the literature on the social psychology of student social networking behavior. Using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as a theoretical framework and survey data collected from 214 students in Spain, we empirically test the UTAUT theory in this context. Our results confirm that effort expectancy, social influence, and performance expectancy significantly affect students' intentions to use SNS for expressive participation in Internet social movements. We also test the moderating effect of students' sex and Technology Readiness (TR) on these UTAUT relationships. Our results show that the intention to use SNS is strongly influenced by effort expectancy for female students and students with self-reported low-levels of technology readiness. For male students and students with self-reporting high-levels of technology readiness, the relationship is strongly influenced by social influence. The implications of our findings for theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Internet social movement; UTAUT; Gender; Sex; Technology readiness
Facebook self-disclosure: Examining the role of traits, social cohesion, and motives BIBAKFull-Text 50-58
  Erin E. Hollenbaugh; Amber L. Ferris
Facebook has been shown to be the most popular social network in the United States. Facebook not only has implications in the online world, but face-to-face connections are also affected by this medium. This study explores the uses of Facebook for self-disclosure behavior utilizing the uses and gratifications perspective. Using a convenience sample of Facebook users, this study examines individual and sociological factors as well as Facebook motives to discover the impact on depth, breadth, and amount of user self-disclosure. Path analyses showed that the Big Five personality factors, self-esteem, social cohesion, and motives contribute to self-disclosure dimensions. However, demographic variables did not impact disclosiveness. Limitations are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.
Keywords: Facebook; Self-disclosure; Uses and gratifications; Big five; Motives
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation for using a booth recommender system service on exhibition attendees' unplanned visit behavior BIBAKFull-Text 59-68
  Namho Chung; Chulmo Koo; Jae Kyeong Kim
Our study on unplanned behavior theory examines the effect of the booth recommender system (BRS) service on exhibitions arising from either extrinsic or intrinsic motivation. Previous studies have ignored the importance of the unplanned behavioral effectiveness through a BRS service that joins extrinsic and intrinsic motivations to deliver unexpected outcomes at exhibitions. In this paper, we propose a model for the impact of BRS service in which the perception of usefulness and the threats to freedom of choice mediate the effect of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation on unplanned booth visit behavior. We collected data from 101 exhibition visitors and analyzed the data using the partial least squares (PLS) method. Our findings indicate that intrinsic motivations (escape, event attractions) are significantly related to both the perceived usefulness of the BRS service and the threats to freedom of choice, while extrinsic motivation (information gain) were not significantly related to those characteristics. The perceived usefulness of the BRS service directly mediates the effect of escape and event attractions on unplanned booth visit behavior. The results and implications of these findings are further discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Booth recommendation system service; Unplanned visit behavior; Motivation; Perceived usefulness; Threats to freedom of choice
How does online social networking enhance life satisfaction? The relationships among online supportive interaction, affect, perceived social support, sense of community, and life satisfaction BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  Hyun Jung Oh; Elif Ozkaya; Robert LaRose
The purpose of this study is to examine whether supportive interactions on social networking sites mediate the influence of SNS use and the number of SNS friends on perceived social support, affect, sense of community, and life satisfaction. Employing momentary sampling, the current study also looked at the relationship between supportive interaction and immediate affect after the interaction over a period of 5 days. An analysis of 339 adult participants revealed a positive relationship between supportive interaction and positive affect after the interaction. A path model revealed positive associations among the number of SNS friends, supportive interactions, affect, perceived social support, sense of community, and life satisfaction. Implications for the research of online social networking and social support are discussed.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Social support; Affect; Sense of community; Life satisfaction; Momentary sampling
Visiting theories that predict college students' self-disclosure on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 79-86
  Chen-Wei Chang; Jun Heo
This study explores factors that may explain information disclosure behavior on Facebook and provides understanding of each factor's contribution in explaining such behavior. Factors tested in this study are drawn from theories (e.g., social contract theory and uses and gratification theory) and constructs (e.g., trust/self-disclosure relationships, time spent on Facebook, number of Facebook friends, and gender difference). Findings suggest the potential of all the factors examined in this study as frameworks to explain self-disclosure behavior on Facebook. This social media-specific study offers evidence that these theories may have implications that are different from the current e-commerce literature on self-disclosure. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Self-disclosure; Social networking sites; Uses and gratifications; Social contract theory; Trust; Facebook
Emergence and predictors of alcohol reference displays on Facebook during the first year of college BIBAKFull-Text 87-94
  Megan A. Moreno; Jonathan D'Angelo; Lauren E. Kacvinsky; Bradley Kerr; Chong Zhang; Jens Eickhoff
The purpose of this study was to investigate the emergence of displayed alcohol references on Facebook for first-year students from two universities. Graduated high school seniors who were planning to attend one of the two targeted study universities were recruited. Participants' Facebook profiles were evaluated for displayed alcohol references at baseline and every four weeks throughout the first year of college. Profiles were categorized as Non-Displayers, Alcohol Displayers or Intoxication/Problem Drinking Displayers. Analyses included logistic regression, univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis and multi-state Markov modeling. A total of 338 participants were recruited, 56.1% were female, 74.8% were Caucasian, and 58.8% were from University A. At baseline, 68 Facebook profiles (20.1%) included displayed alcohol references. During the first year of college, 135 (39.9%) profiles newly displayed alcohol. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, university (University B versus A, HR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28-0.77, p = 0.003), number of Facebook friends (HR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.09-1.28, p < 0.001 for every 100 more friends), and average monthly status updates (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.002-1.05, p = 0.033) were identified as independent predictors for new alcohol display. Findings contribute to understanding the patterns and predictors for displayed alcohol references on Facebook.
Keywords: Facebook; College student; Alcohol
Authenticity and well-being on social network sites: A two-wave longitudinal study on the effects of online authenticity and the positivity bias in SNS communication BIBAKFull-Text 95-102
  Leonard Reinecke; Sabine Trepte
In offline settings, authentic behavior has frequently been linked to increased well-being. Social network sites (SNSs) provide a new venue for authenticity, yet the effects of online authenticity are largely unknown. The present study investigated the reciprocal effects of authenticity on SNSs and the psychological well-being of SNS users in a two-wave longitudinal study (N = 374). The results demonstrate that online authenticity had a positive longitudinal effect on three indicators of subjective well-being. The data further illustrate that this beneficial effect of SNS use is not equally accessible to all users: participants with low levels of well-being were less likely to feel authentic on SNSs and to benefit from authenticity. We propose that the results can be explained in light of a "positivity bias in SNS communication" that favors positive forms of authenticity over negative ones.
Keywords: Social network sites; Authenticity; Psychological well-being; Positivity bias; Self-presentation; Longitudinal study
More than search? Informational and participatory eHealth behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 103-109
  Wenhong Chen; Kye-Hyoung Lee
Few studies in the eHealth literature have paid attention to participatory eHealth behaviors. Addressing this gap, the present study examines how informational and participatory eHealth behaviors are related to eHealth literacy, Internet use and Facebook interaction, as well as user characteristics. Drawing on a sample of college students (N = 540), results from Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis show that eHealth literacy has a positive direct effect on informational eHealth behaviors. It also serves as a mediator suppressing the negative relationship between excellent mental health status and eHealth behaviors. While both instrumental Internet use and Facebook interaction are related to participatory eHealth behaviors, only instrumental Internet use is associated with informational eHealth behaviors. There are significant eHealth disparities by health status, gender, and class. Implications for health communication and promotion are discussed.
Keywords: eHealth literacy; Online health information search; Informational eHealth behaviors; Participatory eHealth behaviors; Facebook; Health 2.0
The impact of hyperlink affordance, psychological reactance, and perceived business tie on trust transfer BIBAKFull-Text 110-120
  Kun Chang Lee; Sangjae Lee; Yujong Hwang
This study investigates the impact of hyperlink affordance, psychological reactance, perceived loss of freedom, perceived business tie between sites, and trust in source site, on trust in target site. Hyperlink affordance represents the extent that the Web encourages users' behavior. Perceived loss of freedom is based on psychological reactance, which refers to the extent that users react to hyperlink affordance. In order to examine the research model, this study used 305 responses from Korean users to conduct three experiments: (1) evaluate trust transfer from the online source Web site to another online target site (Experiment 1), (2) evaluate trust transfer from an online site to an offline target site (Experiment 2), and (3) evaluate trust transfer from an offline site to an online target site (Experiment 3). Trust is transferred from source to target site in the test results of all three models. The hyperlink affordance affects trust transfer in the test results of Experiment 1. Perceived loss of freedom based on psychological reactance negatively affects trust transfer in the test results of Experiments 2 and 3, which decreases the effect of hyperlink affordances on trust transfer. The perceived business tie between sites affects trust transfer in the test results of Experiment 3. The study provides insights into the application of trust transfer in various settings of source and target site in online and offline business.
Keywords: Hyperlink affordance; Loss of freedom; Perceived business tie between the sites
Qualitatively different cognitive processing during online reading primed by different study activities BIBAKFull-Text 121-130
  Hector R. Ponce; Richard E. Mayer
This article uses eye-tracking technology to examine how study activities such as taking notes or filling in a graphic organizer affect cognitive processing during learning. College students read a computer-presented passage that compared the characteristics of eastern steamboats (top section) and western steamboats (bottom section), either by reading it twice (read-only group), typing notes into a textbox on the right side of the screen (note-taking group), or typing characteristics of the two types of steamboats into a compare-and-contrast graphic organizer on the right side of the screen (graphic organizer group). Compared to the note-taking group, the graphic organizer group displayed more eye movements between the top and bottom of the passage (i.e., integrative saccades, d = 1.03), more eye movements between the text and the type-in window on the right side (i.e., constructive saccades, d = 0.79), fewer constructive saccades during initial reading (d = -0.64), and less time looking to the right side during initial reading (d = -0.81); and scored higher on a comprehension test given afterwards (d = 1.17), although both study groups outscored the read-only group. Results suggest that students in the note-taking group (and read-only group) tended to use a linear learning strategy in which their eyes followed the text in the order presented whereas students in the graphic organizer group tended to use a generative learning strategy in which their eyes searched for connections between specific information across the passage required to make comparisons.
Keywords: Graphic organizer; Note-taking; Eye tracking; Learning strategy; Reading
Activity theory as a framework for building adaptive e-learning systems: A case to provide empirical evidence BIBAKFull-Text 131-145
  Alejandro Peña-Ayala; Humberto Sossa; Ignacio Méndez
We apply activity theory (AT) to design adaptive e-learning systems (AeLS). AT is a framework to study human's behavior at learning; whereas, AeLS enhance students' apprenticeship by the personalization of teaching-learning experiences. AeLS depict users' traits and predicts learning outcomes. The approach was successfully tested: Experimental group took lectures chosen by the anticipation AT principle; whilst, control group received randomly selected lectures. Learning achieved by experimental group reveals a correlation quite significant and high positive; but, for control group the correlation it is not significant and medium positive. We conclude: AT is a useful framework to design AeLS and provide student-centered education.
Keywords: Activity theory; Adaptive e-learning systems; Proactive student model; Anticipation principle; Teaching-learning experience
The effects of controlling visual attention to handbags for women in online shops: Evidence from eye movements BIBAKFull-Text 146-152
  Hong-Fa Ho
This study investigates how e-consumers perceive online pictures of women's handbags, whether they are motivated to observe specific parts of the picture, and the sequence of their fixations on each handbag areas. The author conducted a task-free eye-tracking experiment in which 33 female participants look at 74 randomly displayed pictures of handbags. Seven types of attention-based regions of interests (ROIs) were coded for data analyses. Based on statistical analysis, the data yielded the following findings: (1) the main body ROI first attracts the attention of the participants; (2) the handle ROI receives the most attention; (3) the featured area ROI has the greatest capacity to hold attention; and (4) the handle and strap ROIs have a stronger visual attraction than any other ROI. This study provides eye-tracking evidence that may be applied to future empirical research and the theory construction of visual behavior in consumers.
Keywords: Eye tracker; Visual attention; Visual behavior; Women's handbag; Fashion product picture
Beauty is more than screen deep: Improving the web survey respondent experience through socially-present and aesthetically-pleasing user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 153-163
  Tristan W. Casey; Arthur Poropat
Web surveys are rapidly becoming standard issue in many researchers' toolkits; however, measurement error has been shown to affect web surveys to a greater extent than paper-and-pencil surveys (Couper, 2000; Manfreda & Vehovar, 2002). Principles of aesthetic design and social presence have been applied to web surveys to reduce the prevalence of such error with promising results, which were further investigated in this research. A sample of 181 first-year psychology undergraduate students participated in this study. Participants were randomly allocated to view one of eight web survey interfaces, which varied by aesthetic quality and social presence. Exploratory structural equation modeling using the partial least squares method revealed that classical aesthetic quality and social presence were both positively related to perceived ease of use of the web survey interface and positive state affect; social presence and perceived ease of use were positively related to trust in the web survey researcher; classical aesthetic quality was negatively related to negative state affect; and, expressive aesthetic quality was negatively related to perceived ease of use and positively related to positive state affect. Interestingly, expressive aesthetic quality was also positively related to negative state affect. These relationships between aesthetic quality and social presence should inform best practice web survey design recommendations, and future empirical work should extend and test the generalizability of these findings.
Keywords: Web surveys; Perceived ease of use; Aesthetics; Trust; Human-computer interaction
Loneliness, social contacts and Internet addiction: A cross-lagged panel study BIBAKFull-Text 164-170
  Mike Z. Yao; Zhi-jin Zhong
This study aims to examine the causal priority in the observed empirical relationships between Internet addiction and other psychological problems. A cross-lagged panel survey of 361 college students in Hong Kong was conducted. Results show that excessive and unhealthy Internet use would increase feelings of loneliness over time. Although depression had a moderate and positive bivariate relationship with Internet addiction at each time point, such a relationship was not significant in the cross-lagged analyses. This study also found that online social contacts with friends and family were not an effective alternative for offline social interactions in reducing feelings of loneliness. Furthermore, while an increase in face-to-face contacts could help to reduce symptoms of Internet addiction, this effect may be neutralized by the increase in online social contacts as a result of excessive Internet use. Taken as a whole, findings from the study show a worrisome vicious cycle between loneliness and Internet addiction.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Depression; Loneliness; Social isolation; Cross-lagged panel design
Compulsive internet use in adults: A study of prevalence and drivers within the current economic climate in the UK BIBAKFull-Text 171-180
  Cristina Quiñones-García; Nada Korak-Kakabadse
Compulsive Internet Use (CIU) refers to a maladaptive relationship with the tool, including a loss of control over the use, the use for mood change and withdrawal symptoms. Most studies have relied on student samples, thus little is known about its prevalence in adults. The first objective of this study was to examine CIU in adults that were either employed (N = 260) or unemployed within the last year (N = 256). Second, the drivers of CIU were examined, with a focus on attitudes that reflected the reality of long working hours and job insecurity that people experience in current workplaces. A high risk of CIU (63%) with no significant differences between employed and unemployed individuals was found. However, unemployed individuals were in the highest band of Internet use, a risk factor for CIU. Interestingly, unemployed 40-55 years old females experienced higher CIU than their male counterparts. Regarding drivers of CIU, the job attitudes working excessively and compulsively were the strongest predictors, beyond emotion stability. This was particularly true at high levels of social support. In view of this, organizations should proactively evaluate the risks associated with encouraging working excessively as ill-health consequences associated with CIU could outweigh the benefits.
Keywords: Compulsive internet use; Internet addiction; Problematic internet use; Technophiles; Workaholism; Employed/unemployed
Voluntary sexual exposure online among Swedish youth -- social background, Internet behavior and psychosocial health BIBAKFull-Text 181-190
  Linda S. Jonsson; Gisela Priebe; Marie Bladh; Carl Göran Svedin
Studies have described the phenomenon of voluntary sexual exposure among youth online but only a few focus on the typical young person who has this experience. The purpose of this study was to investigate Swedish youth with experience of voluntary sexual exposure online, with regard to Internet behavior, social background, and psychosocial health including parent-child relationships. A representative sample of 3503 Swedish youths in their third year of high school completed a survey about Internet behavior, Internet-related sexual harassment, sexuality, health, and sexual abuse. Out of those taking part in the survey, 20.9% (19.2% boys and 22.3% girls) reported experiences of voluntary sexual exposure online. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between voluntary sexual exposure online and a number of different forms of harassment online. Neither poorer psychosocial health nor problematic relationships with parents remained significant in the final model. The results underlined the fact that voluntary sexual exposure online is associated with vulnerability on the Internet among both boys and girls and that there is a need for parents and professionals to better understand what young people do on the Internet and the risks they may incur.
Keywords: Youth; Internet; Technology; Sexual exposure; Sexting
Do feelings matter? The effects of intrinsic benefits on individuals' commitment toward knowledge systems BIBAKFull-Text 191-198
  Hui Lin; Yujong Hwang
Knowledge management systems have been shown to increase creativity and innovation in the workplace. This study aims to find out if and how feelings matter in individuals' knowledge management practices in knowledge-intensive firms. We develop and test a research model that explores the effects of intrinsic benefits (knowledge self-efficacy and perceived self-worth) on users' commitment to knowledge systems. Theoretically grounded in the three-component model of commitment, the research model tests the relationships between the intrinsic benefit constructs and the affective, continuance, and normative dimensions of commitment. Survey results of 78 accounting professionals from both public and corporate accounting fields found support for the research model. Knowledge self-efficacy is positively associated with affective and continuance commitment. Perceived self-worth is positively related with affective and normative commitment. Knowledge self-efficacy significantly influences individuals' perceived self-worth. This study raises implications for researchers and practitioners interested in commitment in knowledge management for creativity generation and particularly for knowledge-intensive firms on how to tap into the power of commitment and intrinsic benefits to gain and sustain a competitive advantage.
Keywords: Affective commitment; Continuance commitment; Knowledge self-efficacy; Normative commitment; Self-worth
Reliability and usability of an internet-based computerized cognitive testing battery in community-dwelling older people BIBAKFull-Text 199-205
  D. G. Darby; J. Fredrickson; R. H. Pietrzak; P. Maruff; M. Woodward; A. Brodtmann
Cognitive decline is an early feature of neurodegenerative conditions. CogState has developed a game-like computerized test battery with demonstrated acceptability, validity, reliability, stability, efficiency and sensitivity to detecting cognitive decline in older people under supervised conditions. This study aimed to evaluate an internet-based version of this test when used remotely and self-administered in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older adults aged 55 and above over a 12 month period at 1-3 monthly intervals. Test usability and reliability was examined in terms of acceptability, stability and reliability. Of 150 participants (age: 63.6 ± 5.6, range 55-83 years), 143 (95%) successfully completed a valid baseline test. Of these, 67% completed 3 month and 43% 12 months of testing. Technical difficulties were reported by 9% of participants. For those participants who completed 12 months tests, all tasks showed moderate to high stability and test-retest reliability.
   This brief computerized test battery was shown to have high acceptability for baseline self-administered testing and moderate to high stability for repeated assessments over 12 months. Attrition was high between baseline and 3 months. These data suggest that this tool may be useful for high frequency monitoring of cognitive function over 6-12 months, and deserves further evaluation.
Keywords: Computerized testing; Elderly; Cognition; Usability; Screening; Community based
Don't miss your train! Just follow the computer screen animation: Comprehension processes of animated public information graphics BIBAKFull-Text 206-221
  Jonathan Groff; Jean-Michel Boucheix; Richard K. Lowe; Stéphane Argon; Laurent Saby; Aline Alauzet; Laurence Paire-Ficout
Computer graphic animated information displays have the potential to communicate public information in situations where normal announcement types are ineffective. This study used eye tracking techniques to analyze comprehension mechanism of event-related information on railway traffic disruptions presented via different graphic formats presented on computer screen. 86 participants were asked to understand series of traffic disruption messages delivered via four purely visual formats: Static simultaneous, Static sequential, Animated simultaneous and Animated sequential. Across these four conditions, and contrary to the most common materials used in the studies on animation comprehension, the sequentiality and the animated properties of the entities of the presentation were not confounded. Results revealed the Animated sequential displays were the most effective presentation type. Eye tracking data showed why an animation facilitates comprehension of public information graphics: it enhances processing strategies which provide the best condition for segmenting and composing the causal chain of the events provided in the message.
Keywords: Animation formats; Public information; Disruption messages; Comprehension; Eye movements
Emotional display behavior in different forms of Computer Mediated Communication BIBAKFull-Text 222-229
  Daejoong Kim; Mark G. Frank; Sung Tae Kim
The primary purpose of the current study is to explore whether emotional-display behavior varies on different forms of CMC in a context of one-to-one online chat. Eighty college students (40 males and 40 females) participated in this experiment, and participants were randomly and equally assigned to one of the four different chat conditions (i.e., joint-view, no-view, view-in, and view-out), manipulating visibility (whether or not participants could see their chat partner) and monitorability (whether or not participants could be monitored by their chat partner). In an assigned chat condition, participants were asked to read, consecutively, two different emotional (happy and disgusting) stories typed by their chat partner. The emotional behavior participants displayed while reading the emotional stories was measured by self-reports and a facial-action coding system. Results reveal (1) no main effects for visibility and monitorability on the degree of social presence; (2) significant differences in the use of emotion-management techniques in response to happy and disgust emotions, respectively; and (3) less likelihood of a facial expression of disgust in the monitored conditions than in the unmonitored conditions. The results indicate that there are some differences between text-based chat and video-based chat in terms of emotional-display behavior. These findings make meaningful contributions to the ongoing debate regarding communication behavior in CMC.
Keywords: Computer Mediated Communication; Text-based CMC; Video-based CMC; Social presence theory; Social information processing theory; Emotional display behavior
Computers work for women: Gender differences in e-supported divorce mediation BIBAKFull-Text 230-237
  Katalien N. L. Bollen; Alain-Laurent Verbeke; Martin C. Euwema
Despite the increasing use of e-mediated services to settle divorce, research on its effectiveness is limited. In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of an asynchronous e-supported tool to mediate divorces in the Netherlands. In order to do so, we rely on (a) the number of agreements reached and (objective) (b) with the help of a survey, we ask men and women about their perceptions of justice when involved in an e-mediated divorce (subjective). Results show that in more than 75% of the cases parties reach an agreement. Furthermore, findings indicate that both Dutch men and women evaluate e-supported divorce mediation favorably with high levels of perceived distributive, procedural, interpersonal as well as informational justice. Although men and women do not differ regarding perceptions of distributive and informational justice, women perceive significantly more procedural and interpersonal justice than men. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: E-supported mediation; Divorce; Gender; Justice; Mediation effectiveness; Computer-mediated communication
The cognitive benefits of dynamic representations in the acquisition of spatial navigation skills BIBAKFull-Text 238-248
  Olurotimi Richard Akinlofa; Patrik O'Brian Holt; Eyad Elyan
A representational theory of the mind suggests that human experiences and activities are underpinned by mental representations. This abstract task representation paradigm may explain a cognitive benefit of dynamic instructional visualisations over static alternative in the acquisition of novel procedural motor skills. In this sequel work, we explore and extend this view through empirical investigations of novel skill acquisitions in a separate but related domain of spatial navigation. We compare the post-learning virtual maze navigational performance of sixty novel learners across two groups. After controlling for spatial orientation ability and prior video gaming experience, participants that learned the task using dynamic instructional visualisations recorded significantly better performance measures than those in the static group. Additionally, within-group comparisons also show that the beneficial advantage of dynamic instructional visualisations over statics remained consistent across different task complexities. These findings provide further evidence to support the view that dynamic instructional visualisations afford more efficient transfer of novel procedural skills through computer based training than static visualisations. This has implications for instructional design especially when rapid novel situational awareness is desired such as in briefings for emergency firefighting or tactical military operations.
Keywords: Instruction design; Spatial navigation; Procedural skill transfer; Computer based training
Sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with a learning management system in post-adoption stage: A critical incident technique approach BIBAKFull-Text 249-261
  A. K. M. Najmul Islam
This study investigates the factors that generate user satisfaction and the factors that generate user dissatisfaction during post-adoption usage of an information system. Drawing on the theoretical assumptions from Oliver's expectation-confirmation theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory and Kano's satisfaction model, we propose a generic theoretical framework that argues environmental factors and job-specific outcome factors may generate satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The framework extends our understanding of user satisfaction and dissatisfaction and helps to clarify and categorize the factors that are salient for generating user satisfaction and dissatisfaction. By collecting text data responses using open-ended survey questions following critical incident technique and analyzing them, we identify a list of factors that generate user satisfaction and a list of factors that generate dissatisfaction in a learning management system utilization context. The results of our research are that satisfaction is generated by both environmental and job-specific factors, while dissatisfaction is generated only by environmental factors. Overall, the results suggest that sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction mostly differ in a particular context.
Keywords: Two-factor theory; Kano's satisfaction model; Learning management system; Expectation-confirmation theory; Dissatisfaction; Satisfaction
Kindergarten social assistive robot: First meeting and ethical issues BIBAKFull-Text 262-272
  Marina Fridin
Kindergarten Social Assistive Robot (KindSAR) is an innovative tool that promotes children's development through social interaction. In this report we describe how KindSAR was introduced to a group of preschool children in a one-to-many setup, and how it engaged the children in play-like interactions. Ethical guidelines were successfully implemented.
   Children's (N = 11) reactions and performance were video-recorded for analysis. Most of the children interacted positively with the robot, exhibited heightened attention, performed motor and cognitive tasks, and reported a high degree of enjoyment of the interaction. A relationship was observed between children's poor social skills and their refusal to participate in interaction with the robot. A many-to-one setup was found to be preferable to a one-to-one setup. This study demonstrates the feasibility and potential benefit of incorporating KindSAR in preschool education.
Keywords: Humanoid; Social Assistive Robotics; Educational robotics; Interaction; Ethical guidelines
We are so close, less than 4 degrees separating you and me! BIBAKFull-Text 273-285
  Eman Yasser Daraghmi; Shyan-Ming Yuan
Nowadays, the glory of social networking sites is unprecedented. Thus, we are so close; the world is even smaller than you thought; a friend of your friend probably knows a friend of others friend; Facebook shrunk the gap between us. The six degrees of separation theory proposed in 1967 stated that we are all just six degrees of separation apart. This paper addresses the research problem of identifying the degree of separation from a different viewpoint by considering not only the degree of separation between two normal-persons or famous-persons, but also between two persons with very rare-special features. We re-evaluate and extend the six degrees of separation theory by using a real social searching Facebook tool "We R So Close". Experiments were performed on Facebook platform; and the graph database was used to store the collected data. Results add a new phase to the research that cemented the phrase "six degrees of separation", it reported that the average number of acquaintances separating any two people no matter who they are even with rare-special features, i.e. those who work in rare jobs, is not six but 3.9.
Keywords: Six degrees of separation theory; Small world experiment; Facebook; Graph database; Special-rare features; We are so close
Learning programming via worked-examples: Relation of learning styles to cognitive load BIBAKFull-Text 286-298
  Siti-Soraya Abdul-Rahman; Benedict du Boulay
This paper describes an experiment that compared learners with contrasting learning styles, Active vs. Reflective, using three different strategies for learning programming via worked-examples: Paired-method, Structure-emphasising, and Completion. The quality of the learners' acquired cognitive schemata was assessed in terms of their post-test performance. The experiment investigated variations in learners' cognitive load, taking both the learning strategies and the learners' learning styles into account. Overall, the results of the experiment were inconsistent. In comparing the effects of the strategies during the learning phase, the study found significant differences in cognitive load. Unexpectedly, no differences were then detected either in cognitive load or in performance during the post-test (post-test). In comparing the effects of the learning styles during the learning phase and the transfer phase, medium effect sizes suggested that learning style may have had an effect on cognitive load. However, no significant difference was observed in performance during the post-test.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Learning styles; Worked-example strategies; Programming
The role of disclosure of personal information in the evaluation of risk and trust in young peoples' online interactions BIBAKFull-Text 299-306
  Jo Bryce; James Fraser
This study examined the relationship between the evaluation of risk, trust and disclosure of personal information in young peoples' online interactions. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted with young people aged 9-19 years old. The results suggested that the majority of young people have a high level of awareness of the risks and potential outcomes associated with their online behaviour. Participants perceived disclosure of personal information to be important for the development of online relationships, and discussed associated strategies for evaluating trust and verifying identity. The study suggests that the perceived benefits associated with the disclosure of personal information and interacting with 'strangers' online may outweigh the perceived risks associated with these behaviours as the result of the importance of peer relationships and the exploration of identity during adolescence. Identified age-related differences and similarities in relation to the themes are explored, and areas for future research discussed.
Keywords: Adolescence; Risk; Trust; Internet
Positive affect predicting worker psychological response to cyber-bullying in the high-tech industry in Northern Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 307-314
  Jon-Chao Hong; Lin Chien-Hou; Ming-Yueh Hwang; Ru-Ping Hu; Yi-Ling Chen
Online cyber-bullying has become a frequent occurrence in organizations. To understand individual dispositions and the organizational factors that effect online cyber-bullying, the present study investigates the relationship among positive affect, the perceived organizational innovation climate, and psychological responses to cyber-bullying. The research samples for this study are staff members from the high-tech manufacturing industry in Northern Taiwan. A total of 396 responses were validated for confirmatory factor analyses, correlation coefficient, and structural equation modeling (SEM). The research results revealed that a positive affect (PA) has a positive influence on perceived organizational innovation climate. Moreover, the perceived organizational innovation climate has a negative influence on psychological responses to cyber-bullying. Finally, the experience of cyber-bullying was positively correlated to the psychological response of being cyber-bullied, i.e., the more an individual had experienced cyber-bullying, the higher psychological response. The results further indicated an interesting finding for the mediating role of perceived organizational innovation climate between positive affect and psychological responses to cyber-bullying. Therefore, organizations can enhance the positive affect for employees and foster an effective organization innovation climate, so those workers are better adaptable to cope with cyber-bullying.
Keywords: Positive thinking; Organizational innovation climate; Psychological response; Cyber-bullying; Workplace bullying
Perceived control and gender difference on the relationship between trialability and intent to play new online games BIBAKFull-Text 315-320
  Edward Shih-Tse Wang
With the growing number of online game players and the increasing of new online games development, it is imperative for marketers to develop a better understanding of players' new game adoption decisions. This study examines perceived control as a mediator of trialability-product adoption relationship, and gender difference as a moderator of the relationship between trialability-product adoptions. A field survey was conducted to test the hypotheses of the study. Respondents were graduate students from Taiwan universities. A total of 411 undergraduate students with massively multiplayer online gaming (MMOGs) experience participated in this study. The structural equation model (SEM) method was employed to analyze the data. The findings indicate that perceived product trialability has a direct influence on intent to play new games, and indirect effects through perceived process control. Gender differences also moderate the trialability effects on the adoption of new online games. Perceived trialability had more of an effect on intention to play new online games for female players than for male players. To develop an effective product development and communication strategy, the finding suggests that online game firms should focus on new product characteristics and consider consumer gender differences.
Keywords: Massively multiplayer online gaming; Trialability; Perceived control; Behavioral intention; Gender difference
The attraction of online games: An important factor for Internet Addiction BIBAKFull-Text 321-327
  Hui-Jie Tone; Hao-Rui Zhao; Wan-Seng Yan
This study examined the attraction of online games and their contribution to Internet Addiction (IA) among college students in China in a series of cross-sectional studies. Study 1 tested the theoretical framework of the online games attraction and developed an assessment instrument: the Online Game Attraction Inventory (OAI). Study 2 surveyed 635 students using a battery of questionnaires that included the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) to assess IA levels and determine which predictor contributed the most to IA. The results indicated the OAI to be a psychometrically sound tool with acceptable levels of reliability and validity. The OAI score was positively related to the CIAS score (r = .397, p < .01), and the structural equation modeling results revealed that online game attraction mediates the relationships among personality, family function, life events, social support and IA. Thus, the attraction of online games may affect the IA of college students; therefore, more attention should be paid to this issue.
Keywords: Internet Addiction; Online games; Attraction; Structural equation modeling
Investigating consumer attitude and intention toward free trials of technology-based services BIBAKFull-Text 328-334
  Dong Hong Zhu; Ya Ping Chang
Offering free trials can be an effective strategy to promote the diffusion of technology-based services. However, few studies have focused on the adoption of free trials toward technology-based services. This study examined the antecedents of consumer attitude and intention toward free trial of technology-based services under the framework of the technology acceptance model (TAM). The proposed model was tested by using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. Results indicate that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived risk and social influence are some of the important determinant factors. In addition, significant differences exist between female and male consumers.
Keywords: Technology-based service; Free trial; Consumer attitude; Trial intention; Gender differences; Technology acceptance model
An assessment of equivalence between paper and social media surveys: The role of social desirability and satisficing BIBAKFull-Text 335-343
  Jiaming Fang; Chao Wen; Victor Prybutok
Investigation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for measurement variance has received little attention. The primary objective of this study is to examine whether paper and social media surveys produce convergent results and investigate the underlying psychological mechanisms for the potential measurement nonequivalence. Particularly, we explored the role of social desirability and satisficing on the measurement results. We collected data via five different survey modes, including paper survey, ad hoc Web survey, online forum (message boards)-based, SNS-based and microblog-based surveys. The findings show that socially desirable responding does not lead to inconsistent results. Rather we found that satisficing causes inconsistent results in paper versus online surveys. Sociability reduces the possibility of engaging in satisficing that results in inconsistent results between traditional Web surveys and social media-based Web surveys.
Keywords: Social media; Social media surveys; Web survey; Measurement invariance; Social desirability; Satisficing
New members' online socialization in online communities: The effects of content quality and feedback on new members' content-sharing intentions BIBAKFull-Text 344-354
  Sungwook Lee; Do-Hyung Park; Ingoo Han
Online communities' viability and success are dependent on current members' active participation and content contribution, as well as on the sustainable community registration of new members. Based on the member-life cycle perspective, this study attempted to discover mechanisms that might be employed to increase new members' community participation. This study focused on user-generated content (UGC) sharing. The results of this study suggest that UGC quality gaps that exist between current and new members are important factors that might affect new members' socialization. In addition, the results demonstrated that feedback provided by members can affect new members' participation when UGC quality gaps exist. The results revealed that new members preferred an equivalent UGC community to either a superior or inferior community when they were unable to derive benefits from those communities. However, an investigation of the types of feedback provided revealed that new members expressed preferences for superior UGC communities to obtain learning opportunities and expressed preferences for inferior UGC communities to develop social relationships. This study can help researchers better understand how UGC communities' elements can affect new members' behaviors. In addition, the results can help community managers devise differentiated approaches.
Keywords: Online socialization; Online community; Member life-cycle; User generated content
Exploring the positive side of personal internet use at work: Does it help in managing the border between work and nonwork? BIBAKFull-Text 355-360
  Cornelius J. König; Mariette E. Caner de la Guardia
Many employees use the internet at work for personal reasons, and it has been suggested that this behavior can be understood as an attempt to manage the border between work and nonwork. Using data from 190 office workers, the study aims to test how well work/family border theory can explain personal internet use. The results only partly support work/family border theory, as only the amount of private demands and identification with work at work were significant predictors of personal internet use (which was found to be unrelated to work-nonwork balance). These findings suggest that work/family border theory offers only a limited perspective for the explanation of why people use the internet at work for personal business.
Keywords: Cyberloafing; Cyberslacking; Non-work-related computing; Work/life balance; Work/family border theory
Special issue on Information and communication technologies for human capital development BIBFull-Text 361
  Miltiadis D. Lytras; Eugenijus Kurilovas
Improving e-learning communities through optimal composition of multidisciplinary learning groups BIBAKFull-Text 362-371
  Maria-Iuliana Dascalu; Constanta-Nicoleta Bodea; Miltiadis Lytras; Patricia Ordoñez de Pablos; Alexandru Burlacu
The current study proposes an intelligent approach to compose optimal learning groups in which the members have different domain backgrounds. The approach is based on a well-known evolutionary algorithm -- Particle Swarm Optimization. The authors claim that quantifying various indicators, such as background diversity and similarity between the type of interest of the participants, within a group and between groups can positively impact on building learning groups.
   The algorithm is integrated in an ontology-based e-learning system, designed to create self-built educating communities, in which a trainees goes through the education process, gains points through achievements and ultimately becomes a trainer. When creating a new account, the newly created trainee is asked to self asses himself by filling out a form. The resulting profile is used to assign the user to the most suitable learning group. We propose to assign him by the following rule: maximizing the diversity within a group (due to the fact that multidisciplinary teams are more challenging) and minimizing the diversity between groups (all the groups should have similar composition), meaning a group will have members with similar interests.
   The study is presented in the context of group building strategies in adults' education.
Keywords: Multidisciplinary learning groups; Particle Swarm Optimization; E-learning communities
Analysis of assessment opportunities of learning spaces: On-line versus face to face methodologies BIBAKFull-Text 372-377
  Ana Salomé García; María Teresa García-Álvarez; Blanca Moreno
In the last decade, new methodologies have been introduced in higher education, based on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), with the aim of promoting a new teaching based on learning. Moreover, the new standards under the European Higher Education Area, show the relevance of using the concept of competences as a basis for learning outcomes. In order to measure and evaluate the students' learning outcomes, assessment methods become a key tool in teaching and learning systems.
   In this context, several forms of assessment have been introduced in higher education where ICTS have changed the traditional assessment. Therefore, a key concept is to detect the implications of the different teaching methodologies (face to face and on-line) and assessment activities in the learning process of students.
   This paper develops a methodology, based on information theory measures, that allows us to determine which assessment activity involves a better discrimination of students' levels of acquired competences in a subject of Business Administration and Management degree. The results show that continuous assessment methodology, based on ICTs, have a positive impact in the learning process and in the obtained grades in the final exam.
Keywords: Information and communication technologies; Economic statistic; European Higher Education Area; Assessment activities; Information theory measures
Exploiting location information for Web search BIBAKFull-Text 378-388
  Jie Zhao; Peiquan Jin; Qingqing Zhang; Run Wen
Most Web pages contain location information, which are usually neglected by traditional search engines. Queries combining location and textual terms are called as spatial textual Web queries. Based on the fact that traditional search engines pay little attention in the location information in Web pages, in this paper we study a framework to utilize location information for Web search. The proposed framework consists of an offline stage to extract focused locations for crawled Web pages, as well as an online ranking stage to perform location-aware ranking for search results. The focused locations of a Web page refer to the most appropriate locations associated with the Web page. In the offline stage, we extract the focused locations and keywords from Web pages and map each keyword with specific focused locations, which forms a set of <keyword, location> pairs. In the second online query processing stage, we extract keywords from the query, and computer the ranking scores based on location relevance and the location-constrained scores for each querying keyword. The experiments on various real datasets crawled from nj.gov, BBC and New York Time show that the performance of our algorithm on focused location extraction is superior to previous methods and the proposed ranking algorithm has the best performance w.r.t different spatial textual queries.
Keywords: Ranking algorithm; Spatial textual query; Web search; Location extraction
Towards federated interoperable bridges for sharing educational remote laboratories BIBAKFull-Text 389-395
  Pablo Orduña; Philip H. Bailey; Kimberly DeLong; Diego López-de-Ipiña; Javier García-Zubia
Educational remote laboratories are software and hardware tools that allow students to remotely access real equipment located in the university as if they were in a hands-on-lab session. Different initiatives have existed during the last two decades, and indeed toolkits (e.g. iLabs, WebLab-Deusto or Labshare Sahara) have been developed to ease their development by providing common management features (e.g. authentication or scheduling). Each of these systems was developed aiming particular constraints, so it could be difficult to migrate the labs built on top of one system to other. While there is certainly some overlap among these systems, with bridges among them they become complimentary. Given that these systems support web services based federation protocols for sharing labs, it is possible to achieve this goal, and share labs among different universities through different systems. The impact of this goal is that different institutions can increase the experiential activities of their students, potentially improving their learning goals. The focus is the integration of WebLab-Deusto labs inside the iLab Shared Architecture, as well as the integration of iLab batch labs inside WebLab-Deusto, detailing limitations and advantages of both integrations and showing particular cases.
Keywords: Remote laboratories; Federation; Interoperability
Modeling and exploiting collaborative traces in web-based collaborative working environment BIBAKFull-Text 396-408
  Qiang Li; Marie-Hélène Abel; Jean-Paul A. Barthès
In a Web-based Collaborative Working Environment (CWE), traces are always produced by past activities or interactions. Although every trace derives from the stored information, the modeled trace not only represents knowledge but also experience from the interactive actions among the actors or between an actor and the system. Normally, with the increasing complexity of group structure and frequent collaboration needs, the existing interactions become more difficult to grasp and analyze. This article focuses on defining, modeling and exploiting the various traces in the context of CWE, in particular Collaborative Traces (CTs) left in the shared/collaborative workspace. A model of collaborative trace that can efficiently enrich group experience and facilitate group collaboration is proposed and explained in details. Furthermore, we introduce and define a type of complex filter as a possible approach to exploit the traces. Four basic scenarios of collaborative trace exploitation are presented to describe its effects and advantages in CWE. A general model and framework of CT-based SWOT Analysis is discussed with examples. For practical applications, the validation of our model is examined in the context of the collaborative platform E-MEMORAe2.0. In addition, a remark concerning recommendations based on collaborative traces is given in the conclusion.
Keywords: Collaborative working environment; Trace-based system; Collaborative trace; Collaborative engineering; Experience Management
A new e-learning tool for cognitive democracies in the Knowledge Society BIBAKFull-Text 409-418
  José María Moreno-Jiménez; Jesús Cardeñosa; Carolina Gallardo; Miguel Ángel de la Villa-Moreno
Cognitive democracies can be defined as new models of e-democracy that are based on the evolutionism of living systems and deal with their vital (cognitive) process by means of the continuous education of citizens with regards to one of the essential characteristics of humankind: decision making. The education is provided by the social democratisation of the knowledge. This corresponds to the proportion of the arguments that support the positions. These arguments are extracted from the opinions expressed in the discussion stages included in the e-democracy models. (Moreno-Jiménez et al., 2012) presented a collaborative platform which is currently being used as the methodological support for the cognitive democracy known as e-cognocracy (Moreno-Jiménez, 2003a, 2004, 2006; Moreno-Jiménez & Polasek, 2003, 2005) and for identifying and classifying the messages or opinions that favour the different individual positions through the employment of quantitative (data mining) and qualitative (text mining) approaches. This paper represents the next step in the phase concerned with extraction of the policy-making arguments. Using opinion analysis techniques, the new e-learning tool extracts the arguments that support the different opinions. This tool has been applied to the discussion stage of a case study developed at the University of Zaragoza concerning the possible location of Europe's biggest leisure complex (Gran Scala) in Aragon (Spain).
Keywords: E-democracy; E-cognocracy; Cognitive democracy; Knowledge extraction; Learning; Opinion mining; Sentiment analysis
Performance optimality enhancement algorithm in DDBS (POEA) BIBAKFull-Text 419-426
  Hassan I. Abdallaha; Ali A. Amer; Hassan Mathkour
Proper data allocation is a key performance factor for an efficient functionality of Distributed Database Systems (DDBSs). Therefore, if data allocation across sites is performed accurately while preserving the issues of communication and site constraints, an optimal solution for DDBS performance in a dynamic distributed environment will be achieved.
   In this paper, a new dynamic data allocation algorithm for non-replicated DDBS is presented, the proposed Performance Optimality Enhancement Algorithm (POEA) explores and improves some concepts used in previously developed algorithms to reallocates fragments to different sites given the changing data access patterns, time and sites constraints of the DDBS. Moreover, the POEA adopts the shortest path between the old location and the new anticipated location for the transferred fragments when migration decision is made. Experimental results show that POEA has efficiently reduced the transmission cost subsequently minimizing the frequency and the time spent on fragment migration over the network sites resulting to a great improvement in the overall DDBS performance.
Keywords: Allocation; DDBS; Fragment; Redistribution; Algorithm
A synchronized design technique for efficient data distribution BIBAKFull-Text 427-435
  Hassan I. Abdalla
One of the important features of database fragmentation and allocation techniques is the fact that they depend not only on the entries of a database relation, but also on their empirical frequencies of use. Distributed processing is an effective way to improve performance of database systems. However, for a Distributed Database System (DDBS) to function efficiently, fragments of the database need to be allocated carefully at various sites across the relevant communications network. Therefore, fragmentation and proper allocation of fragments across network sites is considered as a key research area in distributed database environment. However, fragments allocation to the most appropriate sites is not an easy task to perform. This paper proposes a synchronized horizontal fragmentation, replication and allocation model that adopts a new approach to horizontally fragment a database relation based on attribute retrieval and update frequency to find an optimal solution for the allocation problem. A heuristic technique to satisfy horizontal fragmentation and allocation using a cost model to minimize the total cost of distribution is developed. Experimental results are consistent with the hypothesis and confirm that the proposed model can efficiently solve dynamic fragmentation and allocation problem in a distributed relational database environment.
Keywords: Synchronization; Distribution; Fragmentation; Replication; Allocation
Agriculture satellite image segmentation using a modified artificial Hopfield neural network BIBAKFull-Text 436-441
  Rachid Sammouda; Nuru Adgaba; Ameur Touir; Ahmed Al-Ghamdi
Beekeeping plays an important role in increasing and diversifying the incomes of many rural communities in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. However, despite the region's relatively good rainfall, which results in better forage conditions, bees and beekeepers are greatly affected by seasonal shortages of bee forage. Because of these shortages, beekeepers must continually move their colonies in search of better forage. The aim of this paper is to determine the actual bee forage areas with specific characteristics like population density, ecological distribution, flowering phenology based on color satellite image segmentation. Satellite images are currently used as an efficient tool for agricultural management and monitoring. It is also one of the most difficult image segmentation problems due to factors like environmental conditions, poor resolution and poor illumination. Pixel clustering is a popular way of determining the homogeneous image regions, corresponding to the different land cover types, based on their spectral properties. In this paper Hopfield neural network (HNN) is introduced as Pixel clustering based segmentation method for agriculture satellite images.
Keywords: Beekeeping; Hopfield neural network; Satellite image segmentation; Pixel clustering
School networks to promote ICT competences among teachers. Case study in intercultural schools BIBAKFull-Text 442-451
  Marcelo Careaga Butter; Laura Jiménez Pérez; María Graciela Badilla Quintana
The aim of this quantitative, exploratory and descriptive research is to know if teachers that work in intercultural contexts develop ICT competences by using virtual platforms. The innovation of the teaching-learning processes is promoted through the virtual platform, keeping a connection by forming school networks among schools in indigenous contexts. 51 teachers from 10 schools from the Bío-Bío and Araucanía regions in Chile were part of the development of the networks. The main results show that the participant teachers increased their ICT competences in the different dimensions of the use of the ICT: pedagogical management, knowledge management, deepening of knowledge; and social, ethic and legal dimensions, by applying the knowledge and talent management models.
Keywords: ICT competences; Virtual platforms; Teachers; Interculturality; School networks
Comparing student competences in a face-to-face and online business game BIBAKFull-Text 452-459
  Àngels Fitó-Bertran; Ana Beatriz Hernández-Lara; Enric Serradell-López
In today's globalized environment, universities and business schools need to incorporate elements and tools to obtain high-performance capabilities. Curricular schooling can benefit from the usage of educational business games. We analyzed the evolution and performance of two group of students who have followed a business simulation during some academic semesters. Data from a questionnaire answered by 146 students were analysed and compared with the European Tuning Project competence ranking. The results showed that the level of generic and specific competences obtained using business games is quite high. Moreover, the study have found that the assessment of competences acquired by students with a business game is not the same in the case of on-campus students than in the case of online students, in most cases the online group values specific competences higher than the face-to-face group. Our results suggest that the use of business games and can be considered a useful tool to improve student's achievements and to foster a good level of competences.
Keywords: Business game; Competences; Face-to-face learning; Online learning
Otsopack: Lightweight semantic framework for interoperable ambient intelligence applications BIBAKFull-Text 460-467
  Aitor Gómez-Goiri; Pablo Orduña; Javier Diego; Diego López-de-Ipiña
In Ambient Intelligence environments machines proactively and transparently work on behalf of humans. The nature of these machines and the communication protocols they use is multifarious. Therefore, the applications running on top of them remarkably demand interoperability. The Triple Space Computing (TSC) paradigm addresses that problem by sharing information represented in a semantic format through a common virtual space. As long as application developers use standard ontologies, different applications using the same spaces will interact automatically. The focus of this paper is to present Otsopack, a fully distributed TSC middleware designed to meet the needs of mobile and resource constrained devices. Otsopack defines a simple HTTP interface for the TSC operations. This interface focuses on simplicity and modularity, so that two implementations that support different modules can still interact. To assess the middleware we provide time and load measurements, and we analyze two independent implementations.
Keywords: Ambient intelligence; Semantic web; Web of things; Tuple space; Internet of things; Space-based computing
Evaluating the impact of a cloud-based serious game on obese people BIBAKFull-Text 468-475
  Atif Alamri; Mohammad Mehedi Hassan; M. Anwar Hossain; Muhammad Al-Qurishi; Yousuf Aldukhayyil; M. Shamim Hossain
This paper describes the process of monitoring obese people through a cloud-based serious game that promotes them to engage in physical exercises in a playful manner. The monitoring process focuses on obtaining various health and exercise-related parameters of obese during game-play, such as heart rate, weight, step count and calorie burn, which contributes to their weight loss. While the obese are engaged in the game session, therapists/caregivers can access their health data anytime, anywhere and from any device to change the game complexity level and accordingly provide on the spot recommendation. In our study, we evaluate how the different physical activities performed through this game impact their cognitive behavior in terms of attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. The evaluation was based on the participation of 150 undergraduate obese and overweight students who were asked to play the game and fill a questionnaire after game-play. The data analysis conducted on their feedback showed that they were self-aware and motivated to play the game for weight loss.
Keywords: Obesity; Serious game; Cloud computing; Health monitoring and cognitive behavior
An analysis of the determinants of students' performance in e-learning BIBAKFull-Text 476-484
  David Castillo-Merino; Enric Serradell-López
Previous studies show empirical evidence on the positive effect on students' performance from the adoption of innovations in the technology of teaching and learning. These innovations do not affect all teaching methods and learning styles equally. Rather, it depends on some variables, such as the strategy of a university towards adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), students' abilities, technology uses in the educational process by teachers and students, or the selection of a methodology that matches with digital uses. This paper provides answers to these questions with data from an experimental set-up performed within the eLene-EE project, and using an empirical model based on structural equations. Our results show that motivation is the main variable affecting performance of online students, confirming the importance of this factor as a source of educational efficiency. Motivation appears in our model as a latent variable receiving the influence of students' perception of efficiency, which is, in turn, a driver for the indirect positive and significant effect on students' performance from students' ability in ICT uses.
Keywords: E-learning; Efficiency in higher education; Students' performance; Determinants of efficiency; Structural equations
Automated and user involved data synchronization in collaborative e-health environments BIBAKFull-Text 485-490
  M. Shamim Hossain; Mehedi Masud; Ghulam Muhammad; Majdi Rawashdeh; Mohammad Mehedi Hassan
This paper presents a data synchronization model using automated and user involved process during execution of conflicting updates. Data synchronization is performed using three techniques, namely, (i) auto synchronization, (ii) semi-automatic synchronization, and (iii) user-involved synchronization. We have evaluated and measured users' acceptability of the proposed data synchronization approach in an e-health environment. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: e-Health; Collaborative environment; Data synchronization; User interaction
The impact of m-learning technology on students and educators BIBAKFull-Text 491-496
  Hamid R. Abachi; Ghulam Muhammad
This paper addresses the notion of the impact of mobile learning technology from the learner's as well as educator's point of view. The authors have outlined the application of the e-learning in smart classes, which is followed by a similar argument with regard to the m-learning technology. This is followed by a statistical evaluation of the m-learning which through multiple surveys is conducted among the undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as the academics. In conclusion, the outcomes of these surveys are presented in graphical forms that highlight the merits and demerits of the m-learning technology.
Keywords: E-learning; m-Learning; Learning system; Smart class; Learning management system
Breaking the walls of social exclusion of women rural by means of ICTs: The case of 'digital divides' in Galician BIBAKFull-Text 497-507
  Isabel Novo-Corti; Laura Varela-Candamio; María Teresa García-Álvarez
This paper examines the digital divides for women in rural areas within the Information Society, referring particularly to the Galician experience (Autonomous Region in the North West of Spain). In order to explore the barriers to social and labor exclusion it was elaborated a survey relating with the use and impact of ITC in social and labor experiences of rural women. The results showed that rural women are aware of the key role played for ITC on their way to achieve the participation on decision making process as well as in social life and labor. The main barriers to the Internet penetration in women social life were employment, education and income. From an individual point of view, the existence of non-users was explained by a combination of access problems, lack of ICT skills or rather negative attitudes towards ITC. Finally, a bunch of policy recommendations is proposed focus on providing better Internet access in rural areas and to sensitize the population, particularly the oldest, about the importance of gender equality in access to technology in order to avoid digital barriers for rural women and reduce social exclusion of this group.
Keywords: Information Society; ITC; Digital divides; Digital literacy; Rural women; Social inclusion
Another look at 'being there' experiences in digital media: Exploring connections of telepresence with mental imagery BIBAKFull-Text 508-518
  Inma Rodríguez-Ardura; Francisco J. Martínez-López
Substantial multidisciplinary research has established foundational support for the consumer behaviour phenomenon that underlies the experience of telepresence within online social networks and other digital media products that provide hedonistic value. A review of major perspectives in this field provides justification of the important role mental imagery processes play in the phenomenon of telepresence. In line with this, we propose to extend existing approaches to mental imagery to reach the context of user experiences in digital media, and to theoretically connect telepresence with mental imagery. On this basis, and in conjunction with investigations bringing to light processes that intervene in the terrain of mental imagery, we present an integrative conceptual framework concerned with telepresence, and discuss the role of telepresence within a user's hedonistic usage of digital media products.
Keywords: Sense of telepresence; Mental imagery; Thought-imagery; Imagination-imagery; Cognitive elaboration; Narrative transportation theory
Social career management: Social media and employability skills gap BIBAKFull-Text 519-525
  Vladlena Benson; Stephanie Morgan; Fragkiskos Filippaios
Social capital theorists have established decades ago that better connected people do better in life. The emergence of online social networking sites have given a new impetus to building and exploiting connections for career management. While professionals acknowledge that social networking is essential for business and development, new graduates coming into the corporate world are not equipped with the uptodate skill set. Through the lens of the improved employability objectives, this paper draws conclusions from a recent study of UK business graduates and their use of social networking. The paper presents for discussion an employability skill set for contemporary business professional and calls for higher education to address the skill gap. Further research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Educational technology; Employability; Knowledge management; Higher education; Student lifecycle
Expert centred vs learner centred approach for evaluating quality and reusability of learning objects BIBAKFull-Text 526-534
  Eugenijus Kurilovas; Silvija Serikoviene; Riina Vuorikari
The aim of the paper is to present and compare so-called bottom-up and top-down approaches for evaluating quality and reusability of learning objects (LOs). The paper proposes bottom-up methodology that outlines the central role of learners' individual and social behaviour while working with LOs. This includes social tagging and some parameters of interaction for measuring context to describe LOs usage, attention, and other aspects of the context as well as helps to exploit context data towards making LOs repositories more useful, and thus enhance the reuse. The paper also presents top-down methodology for the expert evaluation of LOs quality and reusability. This methodology consists of consecutive application of several scientific approaches, methods, and principles. The authors investigate how these two different, however complimentary approaches for evaluating LOs quality and reusability can be better applied for the aims of eQNet project in order to select reusable ("travel well") LOs for implementing in different educational contexts and countries. These approaches could be considered as suitable applications of information and communication technologies (ICT's) for development of human capital. The examples of practical application of these approaches for evaluating LOs quality and reusability in eQNet project are also presented in the paper.
Keywords: ICT's for human capital; Learning objects; Learners' behaviour; Social tagging; Quality criteria; Reusability
Affective command-based control system integrating brain signals in commands control systems BIBAKFull-Text 535-541
  Ghada Al-Hudhud
Speech interaction systems are currently highly demanded for quick hands-free interactions. Conventional speech interaction systems (SISs) are trained to the user's voice whilst most modern systems learn from interaction experience overtime. However, because speech expresses a human computer natural interaction (HCNI) with the world, SIS design must lead to interface computer system that can receive spoken information and act appropriately upon that information. In spite of significant advancements in recent years SISs, there still remain a large number of problems which must be solved in order to successfully apply the SISs in practice and also comfortably accepted by the users. Among many other problems, problems of devising and efficient modeling are considered the primary and important step in the speech recognition deployment in hands-free applications. Meanwhile, the brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow users to control applications by brain activity. The work presented in this paper emphasizes an improved implementation of SIS by integrating BCI in order to associate the brain signals for a list of commands as identification criteria for each specific command for controlling the wheelchair with spoken commands.
Keywords: Human computer natural interaction; Speech interaction modality; Affective computing applications; SISs interface design requirements
What can we learn from advertisements of logistics firms on YouTube? A cross cultural perspective BIBAKFull-Text 542-549
  Yen-Chun Jim Wu; Taih-cherng Lirn; Tse-Ping Dong
The current leading third party logistics industry players have all experienced a shift towards an increasingly retail consumer point of contact, therefore facilitating the need to appeal to the retail consumer through advertising and brand management. With the rise in word-of-mouth (WOM) advertising in online, Web 2.0 contexts, this empirical work represented a first attempt to investigate the correlation between the placement of corporate ads on a user-generated Web 2.0 platform with the bottom line of the logistics firms involved, with a focus on the express package industry. The study further investigated whether there were common characteristics of effective advertisements in Web 2.0 environments as rated by viewers, and whether such assessments would hold across cultural and demographic boundaries, given the global nature of Web 2.0 content. It was found that both page hit popularity and respondent agreement on effective advertisement characteristics related positively to sales, with results being consistent cross-culturally. Firms are strongly advised to take note of the massive potential for highly low cost or free advertising such platforms can provide. Conversely, firms must become aware of both the benefits and risks of Web 2.0 environments, including damage caused by potential saboteurs to their brand control and image.
Keywords: Web 2.0; Social media; Market intelligence; Performance measurement; Case studies; Survey methods
Recommending suitable learning scenarios according to learners' preferences: An improved swarm based approach BIBAKFull-Text 550-557
  Eugenijus Kurilovas; Inga Zilinskiene; Valentina Dagiene
The paper presents a new approach for recommending suitable learning paths for different learners groups. Selection of the learning path is considered as recommendations to choosing and combining the sequences of learning objects (LOs) according to learners' preferences. Learning path can be selected by applying artificial intelligence techniques, e.g. a swarm intelligence model. If we modify and/or change some LOs in the learning path, we should rearrange the alignment of new and old LOs and reallocate pheromones to achieve effective learning recommendations. To solve this problem, a new method based on the ant colony optimisation algorithm and adaptation of the solution to the changing optimum is proposed. A simulation process with a dynamic change of learning paths when new LOs are inserted was chosen to verify the method proposed. The paper contributes with the following new developments: (1) an approach of dynamic learning paths selection based on swarm intelligence, and (2) a modified ant colony optimisation algorithm for learning paths selection. The elaborated approach effectively assist learners by helping them to reach most suitable LOs according to their preferences, and tutors -- by helping them to monitor, refine, and improve e-learning modules and courses according to the learners' behaviour.
Keywords: ICT's for human capital; Learning paths; Learners' behaviour; Learning objects; Swarm intelligence; Ant colony optimisation algorithm
Text mining approach for knowledge extraction in Sahîh Al-Bukhari BIBAKFull-Text 558-566
  Fouzi Harrag
The areas of information retrieval (IR) and information extraction (IE) are the subject of active research for several years in the community of Artificial Intelligence and Text Mining. With the appearance of large textual corpora in the recent years, we felt the need to integrate modules for information extraction in the existing information retrieval systems. The processing of large textual corpora leads needs that are situated at the border of information extraction and information retrieval areas. Our work in this paper, focus on the extraction of the surface information, i.e. information that not requires complex linguistic processing to be categorized. The goal is to detect and extract passages or sequences of words containing relevant information from the prophetic narrations texts. We propose Finite state transducers-based system that solves successively the problem of texts comprehension. Experimental evaluation results demonstrated that our approach is feasible. Our system achieved encouraging precision and recall rates, the overall precision and recall are 71% and 39% respectively.
Keywords: Text mining; Information extraction; Named entity extraction; Prophetic narrations texts; Finite state transducer
Enhancing enterprise training performance: Perspectives from knowledge transfer and integration BIBAKFull-Text 567-573
  Jingyuan Zhao; Zhongying Qi; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos
Training is a way to achieve knowledge transfer among enterprise employees. This study designs an enterprise training system facilitating knowledge transfer so that enterprise training is more responsive to employees' demand through reasonable classification of staff. The individual tacit knowledge can be explicit by means of the selection of trainers, as well as the sorting and preparation of training contents by trainers in the process of training, while the individual explicit knowledge can become collective explicit knowledge through the explanation by trainers and the learning by trainees, and then trainees improve individual skills and apply them in practice to achieve the transformation from collective explicit knowledge to individual tacit knowledge when trainees master and digest knowledge. When an enterprise acquires knowledge through training, the acquired knowledge will be diffused and accumulated to become a valuable asset through a knowledge integration mechanism including human bridge, organizational bridge and procedural bridge, accordingly, the training performance will be enhanced.
Keywords: Enterprise training; Knowledge transfer; Knowledge integration
Assessing social construction of knowledge online: A critique of the interaction analysis model BIBAKFull-Text 574-582
  Margarida Lucas; Charlotte Gunawardena; António Moreira
The growing adoption of communication technologies to mediate teaching and learning processes fostered the study of asynchronous communication as an activity that can reveal students' behavior during learning processes. Much of the research conducted on this topic focuses on the application of interaction models to analyze the content of asynchronous discussions and assess their quality. Despite the existence of different models, the one developed by Gunawardena, Lowe, and Anderson (1997) remains as one of the most used in the study of online interaction. In this respect, the present work focuses on studies that mention the application of this model in its analysis and discusses the extension of its application as well as its limitations. Results reinforce the adequacy of the model to analyze knowledge construction in different types of communication tools, but they also suggest the need to look at how learning is orchestrated and the importance of re-defining some aspects of the model in question.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Social knowledge construction; Asynchronous discussions; Interaction analysis model; Content analysis
Understanding users' behavior with software operation data mining BIBAKFull-Text 583-594
  Stella Pachidi; Marco Spruit; Inge van de Weerd
Software usage concerns knowledge about how end-users use the software in the field, and how the software itself responds to their actions. In this paper, we present the Usage Mining Method to guide the analysis of data collected during software operation, in order to extract knowledge about how a software product is used by the end-users. Our method suggests three analysis tasks which employ data mining techniques for extracting usage knowledge from software operation data: users profiling, clickstream analysis and classification analysis. The Usage Mining Method was evaluated through a prototype that was executed in the case of Exact Online, the main online financial management application in the Netherlands. The evaluation confirmed the supportive role of the Usage Mining Method in software product management and development processes, as well as the applicability of the suggested data mining algorithms to carry out the usage analysis tasks.
Keywords: Software usage; User behavior; Software operation knowledge; Software analytics; Log data; Data mining
Do studies level and age matter in learning and social relationship in the assessment of web 3.0? A case study for 'digital natives' in Spain BIBAKFull-Text 595-605
  Laura Varela-Candamio; Isabel Novo-Corti; María Barreiro-Gen
In the recent years, a growing body of research calls into question the homogeneity of digital natives in the knowledge and use of the web. This paper studies the assessment of the current web 3.0 by youth in terms of social networks and the Internet reliability using a model based on univariate and multivariate analysis with structural equations. A sample of 152 young people was interviewed in Spain between August and September 2012 and divided into different subsamples: a sample of Higher Education Students (HES) and a mixed group of young people (MGS) used as the control group. A double analysis is presented using both statistical-descriptive and a comparison between means between the two groups and then a structural equation multivariate analysis is implemented to complete the analysis. This paper concludes that whilst there are strong age and level of education related variations between both samples in the assessment of web 3.0. In particular, higher education students increase the assessment of the web 3.0, not only for purposes of social relationship and friendship but as an important role of knowledge and learning, whether formal or informal and they are able to better harness the Internet resources and social networks, combining both academic and social uses.
Keywords: Internet reliability; Social networks; Semantic web; Digital natives; Age; Educational level
Social media utilization in business-to-business relationships of technology industry firms BIBAKFull-Text 606-613
  Jari J. Jussila; Hannu Kärkkäinen; Heli Aramo-Immonen
Even today, it is a fairly common argument in business-to-business companies, especially in traditional industrial companies, that social media is only useful in the business-to-consumer sector. The perceived challenges, opportunities and social media use cases in business-to-business sector have received little attention in the literature. Therefore, this paper focuses on bridging this gap with a survey of social media use cases, opportunities and challenges in industrial business-to-business companies. The study also examines the essential differences between business-to-consumer and business-to-business in these respects. The paper starts by defining social media and Web 2.0, and then characterizes social media in business, and social media in business-to-business. Finally, we present and analyze the results of our empirical survey of 125 business-to-business companies in the Finnish technology industry sector. This paper suggests that there is a significant gap between the perceived potential of social media and social media use with customers and partners in business-to-business companies, and identifies potentially effective ways to reduce the gap.
Keywords: Social media; Business-to-business; Customer interface; Partner interface; Technology industry; Survey
Adapting the Technology Acceptance Model to evaluate the innovative potential of e-learning systems BIBAKFull-Text 614-622
  Donatella Persico; Stefania Manca; Francesca Pozzi
This paper describes an experience where the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been adapted for use in the evaluation of methodological and technological innovations determined by the introduction of a new e-learning system in an Italian online university. While the original TAM allows one to assess acceptance and adoption of a new technology, in this case there was also a need to consider all the phases of use of the system (course design, running and evaluation), all the users of the system (students, teachers and e-learning management), and all the system's components (the e-learning platform, the learning resources and mostly the underlying pedagogical approach). The resulting model, which is an extension of the original TAM, is a three-dimensional one, with three aspects to be considered on each axis (phases of use, users and components). For each of the 27 combinations of these aspects, indicators of usefulness and ease-of-use have been identified. When available, data concerning actual use (derived from the tracking functions of the platform) and effectiveness (based on teachers' adoption of new tools and students' learning outcomes) have also been used to complement the data.
Keywords: E-learning; Evaluation; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Tracking; Learning outcomes; Educational innovation
Assessment frequency in introductory computer programming disciplines BIBAKFull-Text 623-628
  Miguel A. Brito; Filipe de Sá-Soares
Introductory computer programming disciplines commonly show a significant failure rate.
   Although several reasons have been advanced for this state of affairs, we argue that for a beginner student it is hard to understand the difference between know-about disciplines and know-how-to-do-it disciplines, such as computer programming. This leads to failure because when students understand they are not able to solve a programming problem it is usually too late to catch all the time meanwhile lost.
   In order to make students critically analyse their progress, instructors have to provide them with realistic indicators of their performance.
   To achieve this awareness and to trigger corrective actions in a timely manner there is a need to increase assessment frequency. This paper discusses how this can be done, analyses benefits of the proposed approach and presents data on the effects of changes in assessment frequency for a university first year course in fundamentals of computer programming.
Keywords: Assessment frequency; Computer programming; Constructivism; Learning; Novice students; Programming education
E-mentoring: The effects on pedagogical training of rural teachers with complex geographical accesses BIBAKFull-Text 629-636
  María Graciela Badilla Quintana; Eduardo Parra Zambrano
Considering multi difficulties that determine the labor of rural teachers who perform their teaching practices in semi-isolated contexts, it is necessary to provide them a supportive system which favors their pedagogical performances to benefit rural students' education. The aim of this phenomenological study is to describe and analyze how e-mentoring can strengthen pedagogical performances of primary rural teachers with complex geographical accesses in Chile, exploring the subjective experiences of four couples of teachers and mentors that take place in this process by e-mail relationship. Results show the necessity of considering the accompaniment as a horizontal pedagogical assistance which can be influenced by the technological resources availability, identifying an adequate profile of e-mentor to influence teacher adherence to the process, such as his communicative style, empathy, pedagogical and cognitive skills. Finally, this investigation allows projecting a viable model to be applied as support for rural education with access to Internet resource.
Keywords: E-mentoring; Teaching practices; Rural education; ICT; Pedagogical accompaniment
Global social knowledge management -- Understanding barriers for global workers utilizing social software BIBAKFull-Text 637-647
  Henri Pirkkalainen; Jan M. Pawlowski
Utilizing social software as a part of a global knowledge management strategy has raised increasing interest in enterprises as well as in the educational domain. Rather than being proactive, organizations tend to face barriers related to knowledge management after the problems occur. When dealing with social technologies in a distributed setting, organizations and individuals face a variety of barriers currently unrecognized in knowledge management literature. Within the study, we analyze knowledge management literature extending the body of knowledge with barrier analysis regarding global challenges as well as social software. Our focus is especially on knowledge exchange and globally distributed collaboration activities in organizations. We argue for contextualized understanding of the barriers, recognizing the challenges studied in similar activities. The paper concludes with a synthesis of these interrelated components, proposing a Global Social Knowledge Management-barrier framework that demonstrates the wide spectrum of possible challenges in globally distributed, social software supported knowledge management activities.
Keywords: Barriers; Knowledge management; Knowledge sharing; Social software; Global collaboration
Copyright for web content using invisible text watermarking BIBAKFull-Text 648-653
  Nighat Mir
Digital watermarking is a copyright protection technique used to embed specific data in a cover file to prevent illegal use. In this research invisible digital watermarking based on the text information contained in a webpage has been proposed. Watermarks are based on predefined semantic and syntactic rules, which are encrypted and then converted into whitespace using binary controlled characters before embedding into a webpage. Structural means of HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) are used as a cover file to embed the formulated watermarks. Proposed system has been validated against various attacks to find optimum robustness.
Keywords: Digital watermarking; HTML; Copyrights; HASH; Invisible; Embedding
Web 3.0 -- Based personalisation of learning objects in virtual learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 654-662
  Eugenijus Kurilovas; Svetlana Kubilinskiene; Valentina Dagiene
The paper aims at research on Web 3.0 -- based personalisation of learning objects (LOs) while learning in virtual learning environments. Learning personalisation is analysed in terms of suitability of LOs and VLEs to particular learning styles. The novel sets portrait analysing interconnections between students' learning styles, their preferred learning activities, relevant teaching/learning methods, and LOs types is presented in more detail. The well-known standardised vocabularies of teaching/learning methods and LOs types were used to establish these interconnections. The sets portrait of these interconnections is followed by the appropriate ontology. The ontology is considered as an appropriate tool to create learners' personalised learning environments consisting of LOs, suitable teaching/learning methods and activities according to their preferred learning styles. The ontology should help the learner to find suitable LOs according to preferred learning methods/activities, and vice versa, and thus to personalise learning. The presented Web 3.0 -- based approaches are the typical cases of information and communication technologies (ICT's) application for development of human capital.
Keywords: ICT's for human capital; Learning objects; Virtual learning environments; Personalisation; Learners' behaviour; Learning styles
Elicitation of latent learning needs through learning goals recommendation BIBAKFull-Text 663-673
  Nicola Capuano; Matteo Gaeta; Pierluigi Ritrovato; Saverio Salerno
The aim of a recommender system is to estimate the relevance of a set of objects belonging to a given domain, starting from the information available about users and objects. Adaptive e-learning systems are able to automatically generate personalized learning experiences starting from a learner profile and a set of target learning goals. Starting form research results of these fields we defined a methodology and developed a software prototype able to recommend learning goals and to generate learning experiences for learners using an adaptive e-learning system. The prototype has been integrated within IWT: an existing commercial solution for personalized e-learning and experimented in a graduate computer science course.
Keywords: Adaptive learning; Recommender systems; Intelligent tutoring systems
Empowering the access to public procurement opportunities by means of linking controlled vocabularies. A case study of Product Scheme Classifications in the European e-Procurement sector BIBAKFull-Text 674-688
  Jose María Alvarez-Rodríguez; José Emilio Labra-Gayo; Alejandro Rodríguez-González; Patricia Ordoñez De Pablos
The present paper introduces a method to promote existing controlled vocabularies to the Linked Data initiative. A common data model and an enclosed conversion method for knowledge organization systems based on semantic web technologies and vocabularies such as SKOS are presented. This method is applied to well-known taxonomies and controlled vocabularies in the business sector, more specifically to Product Scheme Classifications created by governmental institutions such as the European Union or the United Nations. Since these product schemes are available in a common and shared data model, the needs of the European e-Procurement sector are outlined to finally demonstrate how Linked Data can address some of the challenges for publishing and retrieving information resources. As a consequence, two experiments are also provided in order to validate the gain, in terms of expressivity, and the exploitation of this emerging approach to help both expert and end-users to make decisions on the selection of descriptors for public procurement notices.
Keywords: e-Procurement; Product Scheme Classifications; Linked open data; Semantic web; Expert systems
Text classification using a few labeled examples BIBAKFull-Text 689-697
  Francesco Colace; Massimo De Santo; Luca Greco; Paolo Napoletano
Supervised text classifiers need to learn from many labeled examples to achieve a high accuracy. However, in a real context, sufficient labeled examples are not always available because human labeling is enormously time-consuming. For this reason, there has been recent interest in methods that are capable of obtaining a high accuracy when the size of the training set is small.
   In this paper we introduce a new single label text classification method that performs better than baseline methods when the number of labeled examples is small. Differently from most of the existing methods that usually make use of a vector of features composed of weighted words, the proposed approach uses a structured vector of features, composed of weighted pairs of words.
   The proposed vector of features is automatically learned, given a set of documents, using a global method for term extraction based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation implemented as the Probabilistic Topic Model. Experiments performed using a small percentage of the original training set (about 1%) confirmed our theories.
Keywords: Text mining; Text classification; Term extraction; Probabilistic topic; Model; Data mining
Towards healthcare business intelligence in long-term care: An explorative case study in the Netherlands BIBAKFull-Text 698-707
  Marco Spruit; Robert Vroon; Ronald Batenburg
This research contributes to the domain of long-term care by exploring knowledge discovery techniques based on a large dataset and guided by representative information needs to better manage both quality of care and financial spendings, as a next step towards more mature healthcare business intelligence in long-term care. We structure this exploratory research according to the steps of the CRoss Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM) process. Firstly, we interview 22 experts to determine the information needs in long-term care which we, secondly, translate into 25 data mining goals. Thirdly, we perform a single case study at a Dutch long-term care institution with around 850 clients in five locations. We analyze the institution's database which contains information from April 2008 to April 2012 to identify patterns in incident information, patterns in risk assessment information, the relationship between risk assessments and incident information, patterns in the average duration of stay, and we identify and predict Care Intensity Package (ZZP) combinations. Fourth and finally, we position all data mining goals in a two-by-two matrix to visualize the relative importance of each goal in relation to both quality of care and financial state of care institutions.
Keywords: Healthcare business intelligence; Knowledge discovery; Data mining; Crisp-dm; Long-term care
A study of the social networking website service in digital content industries: The Facebook case in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 708-714
  Tse-Ping Dong; Nai-Chang Cheng; Yen-Chun Jim Wu
In recent years, a social networking service (SNS) not only thrives in digital content industries but also functions as a platform that focuses on facilitating the building of social interactions among people. Based on the DeLone and McLean model (2003), this study develops a modified model to examine the effect of the three website technology characteristics on user satisfaction, benefits of social interaction, and continuance usage. Based on a survey of 346 participants, the study uses a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach as the research model to investigate the above issues. The results provide an expanded understanding of the factors that measure SNS success. The results also indicate that system quality, information quality and privacy protection service had a significant effect on the continuance usage of a SNS in relation to user satisfaction and benefits of social interaction. In conclusion, implications of the research and practice are discussed, as well as future research directions; furthermore, research finding implies that psychological rather than technical factors are more important in digital content industries. Privacy protection and the increased benefits of social networking can ensure better website services.
Keywords: DeLone and McLean's model; Social networking; User satisfaction; Social interaction; Continuance usage; Digital content industries
Supporting Human Capital development with Serious Games: An analysis of three experiences BIBAKFull-Text 715-720
  Jeffrey Earp; Michela Ott; Maria Popescu; Margarida Romero; Mireia Usart
Serious Games (SGs) are increasingly being used in formal educational settings and it is almost universally acknowledged that they have strong potential for bringing innovation to education and for enhancing learning, this way also contributing to the development of Human Capital. This paper proposes some reflections on the usefulness and effectiveness of SGs when used in formal learning contexts. The considerations are derived from a set of SG-based educational experiences carried out in three European countries: Italy, Spain and Romania. The paper briefly summarizes the key aspects of the three research experiences and, by referring to the main lessons learnt, it also draws some general conclusions as to the potential of SGs to support the development of Human Capital both from the cognitive and from the affective/behavioural standpoint.
Keywords: Human Capital; Serious Games; Formal education; Technology enhanced learning; Game-based learning; Learning scenarios
Knowledge management acquisition improvement by using software engineering elicitation techniques BIBAKFull-Text 721-730
  Diana-Marcela Vásquez-Bravo; María-Isabel Sánchez-Segura; Fuensanta Medina-Domínguez; Antonio Amescua
The knowledge externalization phase involves acquiring and transferring the knowledge of individuals to an abstract and effective representation, to organize it, to model it and finally to express this knowledge in an understandable and reusable format. This phase presents some difficulties at the moment to choose the technique that best fit with the knowledge type to be elicited, and sometimes the selected technique is not complete enough to capture all the relevant knowledge for a specific domain. In sum, there are not mechanisms that can be used as a discernment element at the moment to choose the knowledge elicitation technique that better adjust to a particular situation. This paper presents the results obtained from an empirical validation developed to determine the efficiency of knowledge acquisition in the externalization phase of Nonaka's model, using a set of software engineering elicitation techniques. Efficiency compared with quality of the knowledge acquired can provide a good mechanism to select the most suitable technique to knowledge externalization for each situation.
Keywords: Knowledge elicitation; Requirements elicitation techniques; Knowledge externalization; Knowledge acquisition efficiency
Developing a NFC-equipped smart classroom: Effects on attitudes toward computer science BIBAKFull-Text 731-738
  Chien-wen Shen; Yen-Chun Jim Wu; Tsung-che Lee
This study describes a smart classroom system that integrates near field communication (NFC) technology to automate attendance management, locate students, and provide real-time student feedback. The proposed system's attendance management feature can conserve time and reduce paper-work because students use their NFC-enabled smartphones or NFC smart cards to register their attendance automatically. Also, the system's student-positioning feature is particularly useful for teaching large classes because teachers typically experience difficulties in both recognizing students and familiarizing themselves with their students' learning progress. In addition, the real-time feedback function could be beneficial especially for Asian students because they are usually reluctant to express their opinions during class. This study also evaluates the proposed system's effect on students' attitude toward science education by applying relevant theories. Our case study of a computer science course shows that the attitudes of students toward computer science generally improved following the implementation of the proposed system. Because more than half of the measures from the aspects of learning computer science at school and importance of computer science are positive and significant, this indicates that students find computer science more interesting, expecting, exciting, beneficial, helpful, and appealing after the using the proposed system.
Keywords: Learning technology; E-classroom; Near field communication; Science education
Using films to develop the critical thinking competence of the students at the Open University of Catalonia (UOC): Testing an audiovisual case methodology in a distance e-learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 739-744
  Inés González-González; Eva Gallardo-Gallardo; Ana Isabel Jiménez-Zarco
The aim of this paper is to set out a teaching innovation project that seeks to advance in the development and assessment one of the fundamental students' competencies from any Business Administration Degree, such as: critical thinking. We are going to adapt an audiovisual case methodology, developed and already proved in traditional universities, in order to help the students develop and boost one of the competencies required to improve the efficiency and efficacy of their daily activity in organizations, and which previously has been highlighted as fundamental by the academia when the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) was designed.
   This methodology uses short clips of films -- usually, true stories -- to help students to understand the practical implications of the theoretical concepts explained at class. We are going to evaluate the implementation of this methodology, and also its impact on the students' learning process in an Open University.
Keywords: Audiovisual cases; Competencies; Critical thinking; E-learning; Open University
Establishing agent trust for contradictory evidence by means of fuzzy voting model: An ontology mapping case study BIBAKFull-Text 745-752
  Maria Vargas-Vera; Miklos Nagy
This paper introduces a novel trust assessment formalism for contradicting evidence in the context of multi-agent ontology mapping. Evidence combination using the Dempster rule tend to ignore contradictory evidence and the contemporary approaches for managing these conflicts introduce additional computation complexity i.e. increased response time of the system. On the Semantic Web, ontology mapping systems that need to interact with end users in real time cannot afford prolonged computation. In this work, we have made a step towards the formalisation of eliminating contradicting evidence, to utilise the original Dempster's combination rule without introducing additional complexity. Our proposed solution incorporates the fuzzy voting model to the Dempster-Shafer theory. Finally, we present a case study where we show how our approach improves the ontology mapping problem.
Keywords: Ontology mapping; Semantic Web; Multi-agent systems; Uncertain reasoning
Information management from social and documentary sources in organizations BIBAKFull-Text 753-759
  Étienne Deparis; Marie-Hélène Abel; Gaëlle Lortal; Juliette Mattioli
The wide adoption of social and connected tools in organizations leads them to think again about their behavior regarding how they manage their resources. They now consider the resources users can produce on various social media and how correctly index them in the organization knowledge base. We present in this paper the model of a digital ecosystem, which permits the indexing of either documentary resources or those produced on a social platform with the help of an ontology.
Keywords: Ontology; Web 2.0; Social networks; Knowledge ecosystem
Music students' behavior on using learning objects closer to the domain characteristics and the social reality BIBAKFull-Text 760-770
  Fernando Pinhati; Sean W. M. Siqueira
In this paper we analyze the behavior of music students on using learning objects that are closer to the domain characteristics and to the learners' digital social reality. A model for supporting the development of learning objects with these characteristics is described and a case study was conducted with high school students that performed a music activity that was created using the proposed model in order to demonstrate the applicability and benefits of our approach. Results show the importance of considering the proposed model on guiding courseware development for education, especially on the music education context. Moreover, we noticed through a qualitative analysis that the students seemed to be more motivated when using social and sound manipulation integrated resources because of their perception of learning opportunities, social influence, ease of use, hedonic motivation, facilitating conditions and usage intention.
Keywords: Students' behavior; Learning objects; C(L)A(S)P Model; Social networks; Usage Intention; Social networks; MEDS Methodology; Qualitative Research; Technology Acceptance Model
Social computing in travel, tourism and hospitality BIBFull-Text 771-772
  Marianna Sigala; Evangelos Christou
Ambient affiliates in virtual cross-organizational tourism alliances: A case study of collaborative new product development BIBAKFull-Text 773-786
  Demosthenes Akoumianakis
The paper presents intrinsic properties of cross-organizational collaboration in shared information spaces and motivates the concept of ambient communities with particular reference to the tourism sector. Our approach is informed by an ethnographic analysis of assembling innovative information-based products for tourists. Qualitative data collection methods combined with online 'tells' reveal that in cross-organizational settings togetherness stems from ambient affiliates' recurrent co-engagement in computer-mediated distributed collective practices. Intriguing aspects of such practices are its boundary function, an underlying emergent knowledge process and its entanglement with socio-material realities of partners.
Keywords: Ambient communities; Practice environments; Distributed collective practice toolkits; Tourism alliances
The effects of perceived relevance of travel blogs' content on the behavioral intention to visit a tourist destination BIBAKFull-Text 787-799
  Yu-Chen Chen; Rong-An Shang; Ming-Jin Li
The tourism industry is characterized by ever-increasing competition, causing destinations to seek new methods to attract tourists. Traditionally, a decision to visit a destination is interpreted, in part, as a rational calculation of the costs/benefits of a set of alternative destinations, which were derived from external information sources, including e-WOM (word-of-mouth) or travelers' blogs. There are numerous travel blogs available for people to share and learn about travel experiences. Evidence shows, however, that not every blog exerts the same degree of influence on tourists. Therefore, which characteristics of these travel blogs attract tourists' attention and influence their decisions, becomes an interesting research question. Based on the concept of information relevance, a model is proposed for interrelating various attributes specific to blog's content and perceived enjoyment, an intrinsic motivation of information systems usage, to mitigate the above-mentioned gap. Results show that novelty, understandability, and interest of blogs' content affect behavioral intention through blog usage enjoyment. Finally, theoretical and practical implications are proposed.
Keywords: Travelers' information search; Blog; Behavioral intention; Information relevance; Perceived enjoyment; Interesting content
Investigating the exploitation of web 2.0 for knowledge management in the Greek tourism industry: An utilisation-importance analysis BIBAKFull-Text 800-812
  Marianna Sigala; Kalotina Chalkiti
The paper investigates the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and specifically of the web 2.0 in supporting knowledge management (KM) processes. A literature review analyses how the web 2.0 transforms the implementation of KM by supporting conversational and collaborative KM processes that in turn divert KM from a technology-centric to a people-centric approach. The discussion also reveals how different ways of exploiting web 2.0 reflect different levels of technology supported KM practices. The study also investigated the type and the level of web 2.0 exploitation for KM purposes in the Greek tourism industry by collecting empirical data from tourism professionals. The data was analysed by performing an utilisation-importance analysis that compared data measuring the actual utilisation of web 2.0 with the perceived utilisation importance of web 2.0 for KM purposes. The analysis identified several gaps and opportunities in relation to web 2.0 exploitation for KM purposes. The paper concludes by providing practical and theoretical implications for enhancing the exploitation of web 2.0 for KM purposes.
Keywords: Knowledge management; Web 2.0; Greece; Tourism; Social media; Utilisation-importance matrix
The effect of searching and surfing on recognition of destination images on Facebook pages BIBAKFull-Text 813-823
  Sung-Bum Kim; Dae-Young Kim; Kevin Wise
Social networking sites (SNSs) are playing an increasingly important role as information sources for tourists. Among the various types of SNSs, Facebook has become the leading site in terms of number of users and volume of content. Despite the proliferation of Facebook, however, there has been little research on its users' cognitive processes as they acquire visual images from photos. Particularly in the context of tourism and hospitality, one largely ignored area that warrants examination is individuals' recognition accuracy when acquiring visual information via Facebook. Based on LC4MP, this study examines users' ability to encode tourism information acquired from Facebook by differentiating the two types of information-search processing conditions, surfing and searching. After employing a visual-recognition test, the findings of this study indicated that participants recognized the photos they acquired from searching more accurately than the photos they acquired from surfing on destination Facebook pages. Further discussion and implications are provided in the text.
Keywords: Facebook; LC4MP; Searching; Surfing; Visual-recognition test
When is a picture not worth a thousand words? The psychological effects of mediated exposure to a remote location BIBAKFull-Text 824-831
  Jennifer Marlow; Laura Dabbish
The Internet has radically decreased the influence of physical distance by allowing people to share images and information about distant places at the click of a button. But we still do not understand how exposure to this information influences our mental conception of places that are far away, and how these effects may change our attitudes towards distant locations. This has implications for both tourism marketers and travelers consulting social media sites for information on destinations. We conducted an experiment to see if exposing participants to one of four mediated representations of an unfamiliar environment impacted their attitudes towards the location. We found that mediated exposure to a distant place positively influenced desire to visit the location through different routes: 3D panoramas heightened feelings of spatial presence which translated into more positive attitudes towards the place, while textual descriptions decreased psychological distance which in turn was associated with more positive attitudes.
Keywords: Immersion; Construal; Psychological distance; Social media; Travel destination