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Computers in Human Behavior 23

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2007-01 Volume 23 Issue 1
  2. CHB 2007-03 Volume 23 Issue 2
  3. CHB 2007-05 Volume 23 Issue 3
  4. CHB 2007-07 Volume 23 Issue 4
  5. CHB 2007-09 Volume 23 Issue 5
  6. CHB 2007-11 Volume 23 Issue 6

CHB 2007-01 Volume 23 Issue 1

Applied relaxation: an experimental analogue study of therapist vs. computer administration BIBAKFull-Text 2-10
  Per Carlbring; Eva Björnstjerna; Anna F. Bergström; Johan Waara; Gerhard Andersson
This experimental analog component study compared two ways of administrating relaxation, either via a computer or by a therapist. The second phase of applied relaxation was used, which is called "release-only relaxation". Sixty participants from a student population were randomized to one of three groups: computer-administered relaxation, therapist-administered relaxation, or a control group in which participants surfed on the Internet. Outcome was measures using psychophysiological responses and self-report. Objective psychophysiological data and results on the subjective visual analogue scale suggest that there was no difference between the two forms of administration. Both experimental groups became significantly more relaxed than the control group that surfed on the Internet. Practical applications and future directions are discussed.
Keywords: Applied relaxation; Computer administration; Internet; Psychophysiology
Online infidelity in Internet chat rooms: an ethnographic exploration BIBAKFull-Text 11-31
  Beatriz Lia Avila Mileham
Internet chat rooms have introduced unprecedented dynamics into marital relationships: never in history has it been so easy to enjoy both the stability of marriage and the thrills of the dating scene at the same time. This study examined the phenomenon of online infidelity in chat rooms, a process whereby individuals involved in a long-term committed relationship seek computer synchronous, interactive contact with opposite-sex members. The following factors were investigated: (a) what elements and dynamics online infidelity involves and how it happens; (b) what leads individuals specifically to the computer to search for a relationship "on the side"; (c) whether individuals consider online contacts as infidelity and why or why not; and (e) what dynamics chat room users experience in their marriages.
   The results revealed three theoretical constructs that represent married individuals' chat room experiences. The first construct, Anonymous Sexual Interactionism, refers to these individuals' predilection for anonymous interactions of a sexual nature in chat rooms. The allure of anonymity gains extra importance for married individuals, who can enjoy relative safety to express fantasies and desires without being known or exposed. The second, Behavioral Rationalization, denotes the reasoning that chat room users present for conceiving their online behaviors' as innocent and harmless (despite the secrecy and highly sexual nature). The third, Effortless Avoidance, involves chat room users' avoidance of psychological discomfort by exchanging sexual messages with strangers. Happily married individuals also join such rooms, a trend that is also discussed. Together, these constructs symbolize chat room dynamics and serve as a foundation upon which further studies can build.
Keywords: Cyber-relationships; Online relationships; Internet; Chat rooms; Sexual attraction; Interpersonal interactions
Computer-based tests: the impact of test design and problem of equivalency BIBAKFull-Text 32-51
  Petr Kveton; Martin Jelínek; Dalibor Voboril; Helena Klimusová
Nowadays, computerized forms of psychodiagnostic methods are often produced without providing appropriate psychometric characteristics, or without proving equivalency with conventional forms. Moreover, there exist tests with more than one computerized versions, which are mostly designed differently. Study I focused on the impact of test design. It was found that even simple change of color scheme (light stimuli on dark background vs. dark stimuli on light background) had a significant effect on subjects' performance. Study II examined equivalency of a computerized speeded test, which is broadly used within psychological practitioners in the Czech Republic; this form was found non-equivalent with its conventional counterpart.
Keywords: Computer-based assessment; Speeded test; Equivalency; Test design; Ergonomics
A Windows program to aid in MMPI-2 interpretation BIBAKFull-Text 52-57
  Barry A. Tanner
The MMPI-2 Assistant is designed and distributed to respond to certain criticisms of commercially available interpretation programs. The Assistant is intended for adult psychiatric patient profiles only. The Assistant does not send output directly to a printer, but rather writes output to a rich text format disk file, to encourage editing and inclusion of additional information. The rules for each interpretive hypothesis precede that hypothesis both on the screen and in the output file. The program is available only upon certification that the requestor meets the author's rules for its use, including professional licensure, appropriate training and target population. Finally, research is encouraged by making the program available to qualified psychologists at no charge.
Keywords: MMPI-2; Computer test interpretation
Opening up the black box in GSS research: explaining group decision outcome with group process BIBAKFull-Text 58-78
  Wayne Huang; D. Li
Group process, a central element of group interaction, has been frequently treated as a black box in many prior Group Support Systems (GSS) studies. Most prior GSS research focused on group outcome and efforts to study group process were relatively limited. As a result, effects of group process on group outcome in GSS use are not fully understood. This study focuses on group process and intends to explain variations in group decision outcome from group influence process. Group process variables investigated were informational influence, normative influence, and influence equality. Group decision outcome variable studied was group consensus. The role of task type was also examined. The research findings indicated that GSS had a complex impact on group decision outcome for two reasons. First, this impact was mediated by group influence process variables. Second, this impact was moderated by task type. The research findings provide an additional clue on why prior GSS empirical studies in the literature yielded inconsistent research findings. The implications of the research findings to GSS researchers and users are finally discussed.
Keywords: Group support systems; Group interaction process; Group decision outcome; Task type
Comparison of Internet addicts and non-addicts in Taiwanese high school BIBAKFull-Text 79-96
  Shu Ching Yang; Chieh-Ju Tung
This study investigated the difference between Internet addicts and non-addicts in Taiwanese high schools, and focused specifically on their Internet usage patterns, and gratification and communication pleasures. A total of 1708 valid data samples of high school adolescents were collected. Among this sample, 236 subjects (13.8%) were identified as addicts using the eight-item Internet addiction Diagnostic Questionnaire designed by Young [Internet addiction survey [Online]. Available: http://www.pitt.edu/_ksy/survey.htm]. The analytical results revealed that Internet addicts spent almost twice as many hours on line on average than the non-addicts. Notably, surfing with a social/entertainment motivation and gratification was positively correlated with Internet addiction. Furthermore, Internet addicts obtained markedly higher overall PIUST scores and scored higher than non-addicts on four subscales (tolerance; compulsive use and withdrawal; related problems, including family, school, health, and other problems; interpersonal and financial problems). While Internet addicts perceived the Internet to have significantly more negative influences on daily routines, school performance, teacher and parental relation than non-addicts, both Internet addicts and non-addicts viewed Internet use as enhancing peer relations. Moreover, students with personalities characterized by dependence, shyness, depression and low self-esteem had a high tendency to become addicted.
Keywords: Internet addicts; Internet addiction; Internet usage patterns; Adolescents; Gratification and communication pleasures
Aggression, impulsivity, and health functioning in a veteran population: equivalency and test-retest reliability of computerized and paper-and-pencil administrations BIBAKFull-Text 97-110
  Alina Surís; Patricia D. Borman; Lisa Lind; T. Michael Kashner
The present study examined the equivalency and test-retest reliability of two administration methods (paper-and-pencil and computerized) of the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 (BIS-11), and SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36) in a sample of 97 veterans. The two-week test-retest reliability for the conventional paper-and-pencil administrations of the AQ, BIS-11, and the SF-36 in the veteran population were generally reliable and comparable to the test-retest reliability of these measures noted in the research for other populations. Equivalence of the computer vs. paper-and-pencil administrations were examined and results indicated that for the AQ, ICCs for all four subscales and total score were substantially lower for the PC administration. For the BIS-11, ICCs were comparable with the exception of the Motor subscale, which was lower in the PC condition. For the SF-36, two of the domains were higher in the PC condition, with four more being comparable. Overall, the computerized administration of the BIS-11 and SF-36 was found to be equivalent to the "gold standard" paper-and-pencil administration of these measures and can be utilized successfully among veterans. The computerized administration of the AQ, however, was not found to be equivalent to the paper-and-pencil administration of the measure.
Keywords: Aggression; Impulsivity; Veterans; Computers; Physical health; Assessment
Investigation of online community voluntary behavior using cognitive map BIBAKFull-Text 111-126
  Inwon Kang; Kun Chang Lee; Sangjae Lee; Jiho Choi
It is difficult even for experts in organizational behavior to cognitively predict the causal effect of one factor on the others. A cognitive map is used to describe the inference process for the investigation of online community voluntary behavior. The investigation of online community voluntary behavior demands consideration of the complex causal effect from support for member communication, perceived community value, recognition for contribution, freedom of expression, and interactive communication, to community commitment, loyalty, and social participation. A standardized causal coefficient estimated in structural equation models (SEMs) is used to create a cognitive map illustrating the effect of the status of one component on the status of another component. The cognitive map provides preliminary insights into the direction of online community voluntary behavior toward maximizing community commitment, loyalty, and social participation.
Keywords: Cognitive map; Factors affecting online community behavior; Community commitment; Loyalty; Social participation; SEM
The development of a measure of subjective computer experience BIBAKFull-Text 127-145
  Brooke Smith; Peter Caputi; Patrick Rawstorne
The present study examined the psychometric properties of a recently developed measure of subjective computer experience using a sample of 179 first year psychology students. The Subjective Computer Experience Scale (SCES) was developed to measure the construct of subjective computer experience, defined for present purposes, as a private psychological state reflecting the thoughts and feelings a person ascribes to some previous or existing computing event. Factor analysis revealed five factors that were labelled, Frustration-Anxiety, Autonomy-Assistance, Training-Education, Enjoyment-Usefulness and Negative Performance Appraisal, respectively. Acceptable internal-consistency estimates of the five subscales were obtained. Convergent validity was evidenced by significant correlations between the SCES and measures of computer attitude and objective computer experience. Evidence for divergent validity was obtained with scores on four of the five subscales of the SCES being unrelated to dispositional coping style. In sum, the SCES was found to have promise as a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring subjective computer experience.
Keywords: Subjective computer experience; Measurement
Psychopedagogical components and processes in e-learning. Lessons from an unsuccessful on-line course BIBAKFull-Text 146-161
  Raquel-Amaya Martínez; María Miláns del Bosch; Ma Henar Pérez Herrero; Andrés Sampedro Nuño
In this study we are reporting the results of an external evaluation carried out on an experimental on-line course developed as part of the European project Multidimensional Approach for Multiplication of Training Environments (MAMUT) (E/99/1/61440/PI/III.3.a/CONT). The aim was to identify psychopedagogical processes that might influence the dynamics of the on-line course and to detect unexpected results. Qualitative analysis of the content of the three hundred and fifty six (356) messages written by the participants in the virtual environment was undertaken. The aspects analysed were: Adaptation to Virtual Environment, Content, Resources, Timing, Tasks, Students' characteristics, Students' interaction, and Students-Facilitator interaction.
Keywords: E-learning; Pedagogy; External evaluation
Empirical evaluation of the revised end user computing acceptance model BIBAKFull-Text 162-174
  Jen-Her Wu; Yung-Cheng Chen; Li-Min Lin
This paper proposed a revised technology acceptance model for measuring end user computing (EUC) acceptance. An empirical study was conducted to collect data. This data was empirically used to test the proposed research model. The structural equation modeling technique was used to evaluate the causal model and confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement model. The results demonstrate that the model explains 56% of the variance. This finding contributes to an expanded understanding of the factors that promote EUC acceptance. The implication of this work to both researchers and practitioners is discussed.
Keywords: End user computing; Technology acceptance model; Computer self-efficiency; Network externalities; Computer enjoyment; Task-technology fit
Self-efficacy and college students' perceptions and use of online learning systems BIBAFull-Text 175-191
  Reid Bates; Samer Khasawneh
This research hypothesized a mediated model in which a set of antecedent variables influenced students' online learning self-efficacy which, in turn, affected student outcome expectations, mastery perceptions, and the hours spent per week using online learning technology to complete learning assignments for university courses. The results are consistent with the inference of a partially mediated model in which the block of antecedents had a direct effect on self-efficacy, a direct influence on the outcome measures, and an indirect effect on the outcomes through their influence on self-efficacy. In general, the findings suggest that the relationships between self-efficacy, its antecedents, and several online learning outcomes are more complex than has typically been recognized in the research.
Providing remote accessible field trips (RAFT): an evaluation study BIBAKFull-Text 192-219
  D. A. Bergin; A. H. Anderson; T. Molnar; R. Baumgartner; S. Mitchell; S. Korper; A. Curley; J. Rottmann
RAFT (Remote Accessible Field Trips) provides the possibility for students to participate in field trips from remote locations. This paper reports on two studies to test the RAFT concept. The first study used video-mediated communication (VMC) to allow students to communicate with experts. The second study tested students' experiences of using off-the-shelf technologies to transfer data while assigned with specific roles. Participants were school students aged 11-18 years. The findings showed RAFT resulted in high levels of interest and was both positive and engaging for students. An increase in student interest in topic (p < 0.05) was reported in the second study. It is argued that these aspects of RAFT are of benefit to students and further developments are discussed.
Keywords: RAFT; Education; Video-mediated communication; Roles; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Field trips
Exploring the user interface of negotiation support systems from the user acceptance perspective BIBAKFull-Text 220-239
  Kun Chang Lee; Inwon Kang; Jin Sung Kim
Despite the fact that Web-based negotiation support systems (NSS) have gained momentum in B2B electronic commerce, there have been few studies investigating the way the NSS interface might be utilized to promote user acceptance. This paper presents the results of an empirical study investigating NSS, from a user acceptance perspective and utilizing a technology acceptance model. We have explored the influence of three constructs embedded in NSS: playfulness, causality and subjective norm. The role of causality, in particular, has never been tested within the context of user interface and user acceptance of the system, so we developed a prototype NSS called CAKES-NEGO. Empirical results garnered from 174 valid questionnaires proved the validity of our proposed research model: the NSS user interface, embedded with the three constructs, causes users to consider the system more favorably.
Keywords: Web-based NSS (negotiation support systems); Causality; Playfulness; Subjective norm; TAMCAKES-NEGO; SEM
Extending the theory of planned behaviour as a model to explain post-merger employee behaviour of IS use BIBAKFull-Text 240-257
  Echo Huang; Meng Hao Chuang
A merger that fails to adequately address technology integration and its consequent impact on employee IS behaviour is almost doomed from the start. The theory of planned behaviour, a widely accepted expectancy-value model of attitude-behaviour relationship, suggests an individual's behaviour is determined by attitudes toward behaviour, subjective norm, and perceived behaviour control. This paper examines ways of expanding the model in the specific area of financial merger through inclusion of an additional risk variable. Exploratory results from field experiments are then presented.
Keywords: Information systems; Risk; The planned behaviour; Bank mergers; IS use
Effect of experience and mode of presentation on problem solving BIBAKFull-Text 258-274
  Damien J. Williams; Jan M. Noyes
The ability to solve problems is an important aspect of everyday activities. Studying individuals with different levels of experience solve a well-defined problem will aid our understanding of everyday problem solving. The study reported considers the way in which the level of experience and different modes of presentation of the Tower of Hanoi puzzle affect problem solving performance, in terms of time taken and number of moves made. Participants are classified as either novice or experienced, and assigned to one of three task environments, namely computer, mental or physical. Differences in time taken were found to relate to the level of experience, and the mode of presentation. This is thought to be due to the alleviation of the load on working memory. However, no differences were found to exist in the number of moves made to complete the puzzle. The findings are discussed in terms of the implementation of modes of presentation to assist the development of problem solving abilities.
Keywords: Problem solving; Level of experience; Tower of Hanoi; Cognitive load theory; Instructional design
Personalization, authentication and self-disclosure in self-administered Internet surveys BIBAFull-Text 275-285
  Adam N. Joinson; Alan Woodley; Ulf-Dietrich Reips
Two studies are presented that examine disclosure of sensitive information and personalization in Internet-based surveys. In the first study, the impact of a personalized salutation on two forms of non-disclosure to a sensitive personal question (salary level) is tested. The results revealed that a personalized salutation tends to increase levels of active non-disclosure (measured through use of an 'I prefer not to answer' option), but not passive non-disclosure (where the respondent selects no option). In the second study, participants are directed to the study via either a personalized URL (which incorporated an encoded identifier not obvious as such to the responder) or via a secure log-on page that required the user to type in identifying information. Non-disclosure to a sensitive question (salary) was significantly higher when participants went through a log-on procedure. We suggest that this pattern of non-disclosure to sensitive questions reflects increases in identifiability when a personalized salutation or log-on procedure is used. We further suggest that the provision of an active non-disclosure option to a sensitive question is particularly appropriate in contexts in which anonymity may be compromised, since it enables participants to both protect their privacy and respond appropriately to the survey.
Integrating technology into field-based experiences: a model that fosters change BIBAKFull-Text 286-302
  Sharon Judge; Blanche O'Bannon
Project ImPACT is an implementation grant supported by the U.S. Department of Education Preparing Tomorrow's Teachers to Use Technology initiative. The principal goal of this project, as with all PT3 initiatives, is to develop new teachers who are capable of infusing technology into the curriculum to enhance student learning. With this result in mind, a model was developed to foster change in K-12 field sites that serve as training grounds for preservice teachers. The ISTE NETS essential conditions provided the framework on which this model was developed with emphasis on access, professional development, support, incentives, and assessment. In this article, we describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of a field-based technology integration model. The results suggest that the model was effective in increasing preservice teachers' ability to integrate technologies into the curriculum in authentic teaching situations.
Keywords: Integration; Teacher education; Technology use
Comparing speakers versus headphones in listening to news from a computer -- individual differences and psychophysiological responses BIBAKFull-Text 303-317
  Kari Kallinen; Niklas Ravaja
When audio is listened with speakers, the sound comes from a distance. With headphones, the surrounds are more isolated and the sound comes closer to the listener, and may thus create a more intimate and immersive listening experience. We examined the emotion-related subjective and psychophysiological responses elicited when listening news from a computer with speakers versus headphones, and the individual differences in these responses. Self-reported preference, valence, arousal, and understandability of the news, as well as electrodermal activity (EDA), pulse transit time (PTT), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and facial electromyography (EMG), were measured.
   Headphone listening was preferred over speaker listening, and it elicited more positive emotional responses as indexed by orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major EMG activity, and higher attention as indexed by shorter PTTs, than speaker listening. However, speaker listening prompted more attention as indexed by RSA among subjects scoring high on the sociability and activity personality scales. Speaker listening also elicited higher physiological arousal as indexed by EDA among high impulsive-sensation seeking and sensation-seeking scorers. The results are discussed from the interpersonal distance and isolation of the surrounds point of view.
   The present results are of practical importance, given the possibilities afforded by modern technology to present multimodal information effectively and adapt the information and/or interfaces to fit the individual characteristics of the user (e.g., personality).
Keywords: Speakers; Headphones; News; Personality; Psychophysiology
Email end users and spam: relations of gender and age group to attitudes and actions BIBAKFull-Text 318-332
  Galen A. Grimes; Michelle G. Hough; Margaret L. Signorella
As the problem of spam email increases, we examined users' attitudes toward and experience with spam as a function of gender and age. College-age, working-age, and retirement-age men and women were surveyed. Most respondents strongly disliked receiving spam yet took few actions against it. There were fewer gender differences than predicted, but age was a significant predictor of several responses. Retirement age men rated themselves as significantly lower in expertise than did working age men, and the oldest and youngest age groups took fewer actions against spam, used the computer less often, and spent fewer hours online than did the working age respondents. Older respondents were more likely than younger ones to report making a purchase as a result of a spam email and received the same amount of spam as other age groups in spite of lower overall use of the computer. The results suggest both that older computer users may be more vulnerable to spam, and that the usability of email for all users may be threatened by the inability of users to effectively take action against spam.
Keywords: Age differences; Attitudes; Electronic communication; Gender differences; Internet; Consumer behavior
Learning performance and computer software: an exploration of knowledge transfer BIBAKFull-Text 333-352
  Robin H. Kay
Computer studies educators have a challenging task in keeping pace with the rapidly changing content of computer software. One way to meet this challenge is to examine the nature of knowledge transfer. Instead of focusing on unique software packages, teachers could concentrate on knowledge that is likely to transfer from one software application to another. The purpose of the current study was to describe what kind of knowledge is used in learning new software, assess the relative effectiveness of this knowledge in aiding the learning process, and examine how the results could advance educational learning theory and practice. Thirty-six adults (18 male, 18 female), representing three computer ability levels (beginner, intermediate, and advanced), volunteered to think out loud while they learned the rudimentary steps (moving the cursor, using a menu, entering data) required to use a spreadsheet software package (Lotus 1-2-3). Previous understanding of terminology, software concepts and actions, and other software packages had the largest impact, both positive and negative, on learning. A basic understanding of the keyboard and common movement keys was also important, although higher level knowledge (e.g., terms, concepts, actions) is probably necessary for significant gains in learning performance. Computer ability had little impact on the type of transfer knowledge used, except with respect to the use of software concepts and, to a lesser extent, terminology. The interaction between problem type and effectiveness of a specific transfer area suggests that identifying specific common tasks among software packages is important in detecting useful transfer knowledge. It is equally important that computer users understand labeling idiosyncrasies of these common tasks.
Keywords: Learning; Transfer knowledge; Computer; Software
The effect of functional roles on perceived group efficiency during computer-supported collaborative learning: a matter of triangulation BIBAKFull-Text 353-380
  Jan-Willem Strijbos; Rob L. Martens; Wim M. G. Jochems; Nick J. Broers
In this article, the effect of functional roles on group performance and collaboration during computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is investigated. Especially the need for triangulating multiple methods is emphasised: Likert-scale evaluation questions, quantitative content analysis of e-mail communication and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions were used. A comparison of 41 questionnaire observations, distributed over 13 groups in two research conditions -- groups with prescribed functional roles (n = 7, N = 18) and nonrole groups (n = 6, N = 23) -- revealed no main effect for performance (grade). Principal axis factoring of the Likert-scales revealed a latent variable that was interpreted as perceived group efficiency (PGE). Multilevel modelling (MLM) yielded a positive marginal effect of PGE. Most groups in the role condition report a higher degree of PGE than nonrole groups. Content analysis of e-mail communication of all groups in both conditions (role n = 7, N = 25; nonrole n = 6, N = 26) revealed that students in role groups contribute more 'coordination' focussed statements. Finally, results from cross case matrices of student responses to open-ended questions support the observed marginal effect that most role groups report a higher degree of PGE than nonrole groups.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Roles; Coordination; Collaboration; Computer-mediated communication
The conceptualization and measurement of m-commerce user satisfaction BIBAKFull-Text 381-398
  Yi-Shun Wang; Yi-Wen Liao
Many of the instruments for measuring user-perceived system quality and user information satisfaction were developed in the context of mainframe, PC and wire-based technologies of a bygone era. With the proliferation of wireless technologies, users are increasingly interfacing and interacting with mobile commerce (m-commerce) systems. It is therefore important to develop new instruments and scales, which are directly targeted for these new interfaces and applications. User satisfaction is commonly acknowledged as one of the useful proxy measures of system success. This study addresses the concern for an effective m-commerce system design by means of the conceptualization and measurement of an m-commerce user satisfaction (MCUS) construct. In this article, we introduce and define this construct of MCUS, provide empirical validation of the construct and its underlying dimensionality, develop a standardized instrument with desirable psychometric properties for measuring MCUS, and explore the measure's theoretical and practical application. This empirically validated instrument will be useful to researchers in developing and testing m-commerce systems theories, as well as to organizations in designing better-accepted m-commerce systems.
Keywords: Mobile commerce; User satisfaction; Measurement; Instrument development
Computers and the Internet as a job assisted tool: based on the three-tier use model approach BIBAKFull-Text 399-414
  Shu-Sheng Liaw
Personal attitudes are a major factor to affect individual information technology usage. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of individual attitudes toward computers and the Internet usage for assisting job performance. This research applies the 3-TUM approach to understand individual attitudes toward computers and the Internet usage. After statistical analysis, the results provide a support that the 3-TUM is appropriate model for investigating faculty and staff perceptions toward computers and Internet. In addition, the results also support that using computers and the Internet may assist individual job performance. Furthermore; this study offer evidence that when individuals have more self-efficacy and feel computers and the Internet are more useful, then they have more behavioral intention to use and learn computers and the Internet for assisting their job performance.
Keywords: 3-TUM; Attitude; Job assisted tool; Computer and Internet usage
Relationships between identity formation and computer use among black and white emerging adult females BIBAKFull-Text 415-423
  Ronald L. Mullis; Ann K. Mullis; Thomas A. Cornille
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between computer use, identity formation, and self-esteem among Black and White emerging adult females. One hundred 56 female college students participated in this study by completing a survey that included the Internet/Computer Use Questionnaire, the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Racial differences were found between Black and White females with regard to perceived problematic use of the Internet and use of the computer for communication and use of the Internet for schoolwork. In addition, differences between Black and White females were found between identity formation and problematic use of the Internet and between self-esteem and type of use of the Internet. These findings were discussed in relation to future research and interventions.
Keywords: Identity development; Computers; Racial differences; Emerging adulthood
Examining effective technology project leadership traits and behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 424-462
  Kenneth David Strang
Effective project team leadership theory is explored from the perspective of leader traits, skills, roles, and behaviors. Existing leadership traits and behaviors are examined from organization science empirical studies, they are differentiated from management functions, and the gap between extant theory and the project management domain is highlighted through this research. Leadership principles are examined from actual organizational work settings, specifically dynamic projects, with a view to discovering what actually happens as compared with espoused theory. The underlying research question is whether these theories hold up and can be effectively integrated to the project management domain. The significance of leadership behavior differences at the project and organizational levels is grounded on empirical evidence. The reflection of integrated organizational science and project leadership theory using qualitative and quantitative research methods contributes to the body of knowledge by sharing and learning in professional and academic communities of practice.
   Design/methodology/approach. Contemporary and alternative trait-based leadership theories are discussed, such as task/relationship orientations, emotionality maturity, Leadership Virtual Reality, Level 5 Leader Trait Hierarchy, charisma, emotional maturity, and personality traits are discussed. Multiple theories and typologies such as Managerial Roles, Leadership Roles Model, and Competing Values Framework, as well as the Meta-Category Leadership Taxonomy are explained using models, diagrams, and matrices. Theoretically sampled case studies are analyzed using several typologies to explore leadership behavior and traits across leaders in different projects and organizations. Participant assessments and 360° peer reviews are triangulated with qualitative and quantitative statistical measures to test hypotheses and analyze correlation between leader skills, traits, and behaviors across their projects.
   Findings and research value. This research identified a gap between extant organizational leadership theory and applied leadership behavior in effective projects. The preliminary results are surprising in a few cases but they generally support the proposition that effective leadership behaviors in any context are partly explained by leader traits, skills, and personality. The most unusual finding was these projects actually show that leadership principles from management science are not universally applicable (observable) in effective and efficient projects -- instead the project leaders exhibited self-management theory and applied specific leader behaviors according to the situation. These findings, albeit on a small statistical scale of global significance, are a catalyst for continued and broader reflective leadership research using case study methods and hypotheses replication with these constructs.
Keywords: Technology project leadership; Leader traits; Technology manager roles
Social desirability effects on computerized and paper-and-pencil questionnaires BIBAFull-TextErratum 463-477
  Stephanie Booth-Kewley; Gerald E. Larson; Dina K. Miyoshi
The objectives of the present study were to determine the impact of computer administration of questionnaires on impression management (IM) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) and on the disclosure of sensitive information such as alcohol use and risky sex. College students (N = 301) completed several questionnaires in either a computer-administered or paper-and-pencil condition. Respondents who completed the survey on the computer scored significantly higher on SDE than those completing the survey on paper. No differences were found for IM. Respondents in the computer condition also reported a higher level of alcohol consumption and riskier sexual behaviors than those in the paper-and-pencil condition. It is possible that computer administration of surveys creates a social situation that produces a sense of disinhibition in respondents, and this sense of disinhibition may lead to greater reports of risky behaviors.
The development of an instrument to measure the degree of animation predisposition of agent users BIBAKFull-Text 478-495
  Alexander Serenko
The study reports on the development and operationalization of a construct that captures an individual's degree of predisposition towards watching animated films. It is believed that this construct may potentially explicate a person's perceptions and usage behavior towards animated agents in Microsoft Office applications. Animation predisposition is defined as an individual specific trait that reflects a person's predisposition towards watching animated films. It is operationalized in form of a four-item Likert type scale, which was found highly reliable and valid. This construct does not correlate with two other individual specific traits: computer playfulness and personal innovativeness in the domain of information technology. As such, it is suggested that animation predisposition is a distinct and independent research construct exhibiting desirable psychometric properties. The analysis demonstrates that the degree of people's animation predisposition is positively associated with their perceptions of enjoyment with an animated agent in MS Office. The computer users who have a higher degree of animation predisposition attempt to explore an agent's personalization settings more frequently than those with a lower degree of animation predisposition. Overall, this study offers a new approach to the investigation of an untapped area aiming to improve the quality of the contemporary research on the usefulness and user acceptance of animated agents.
Keywords: Animated agents; Animation predisposition; Instrument development
Students' experiences with collaborative learning in asynchronous Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 496-514
  Silvia Dewiyanti; Saskia Brand-Gruwel; Wim Jochems; Nick J. Broers
This paper describes an explorative study carried out to gain response from distance students on their experiences with collaborative learning in asynchronous computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments. In addition, this study also attempts to have a good grip of crucial aspects concerning collaborative learning. The study was undertaken among distance learners from the Open University of the Netherlands who were working in groups of 4-11 persons. During and after the course students' experiences with collaborative learning were measured and after the course also students' satisfaction with collaborative learning was assessed. The finding revealed that distance learners appreciate the opportunities to work collaboratively. They show positive experiences and are quite satisfied with collaborative learning. This study also sought to explore individuals as well as course characteristics that influenced aspects of collaborative learning, and to search aspects of collaborative learning that influenced students' satisfaction. The findings suggested that a group product influences group process regulation and group cohesion influences students' satisfaction with collaborative learning.
Keywords: Asynchronous CSCL environment; Collaborative learning; Distance education; Multilevel analysis
Rotational movements in real and virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 515-524
  Michael Tlauka
The study compared spatial learning in real and virtual small-scale environments. Twenty-four participants were placed in the center of laboratory and equivalent virtual environments. The participants' task was to learn the location of target objects by turning left or right using rotational movements only. Knowledge of the location of the targets was subsequently assessed in pointing and map tasks. The main finding was comparable pointing performance following real and virtual learning. Increasing the amount of practice decreased pointing errors, and augmenting the environments with cardinal reference directions resulted in a reduction in error scores. The results suggest that learning through rotational movements is relatively unaffected by lack of vestibular feedback.
Keywords: Spatial cognition; Desktop virtual environment; Rotation
First impressions last a lifetime: effect of interface type on disorientation and cognitive load BIBAKFull-Text 525-535
  Raafat George Saadé; Camille Alexandre Otrakji
Today, technology users are faced with a multitude of different interfaces for computer applications, web sites, vehicle navigation, and cellular phones. In most cases, training to use these technologies is minimal or none and is left up to the user to learn the use of the technology at hand. Subsequently, their initial impression, which is dependent on how successful they can achieve simple tasks during their self-directed learning process, plays an important role in their intention to adopt the technology. Many users have trouble learning and remembering information presented on the screen. Disorientation and cognitive loading are two primary cognitive conditions that may be used to learn more about human behavior while using different type of interfaces. This paper presents the results of an experiment on computer user's behavior while using one of two types of software interfaces: a menu-driven and an icon-based interfaces. Disorientation and cognitive loading theories are used to explain observations. A research model based on the technology acceptance model is used. Results show a strong relationship between performance and perceptions. The mediating effects on the different interfaces on perceptions are evident and significant considering that perceptions have been shown to predict computer user's attitudes towards their intentions to use a technology. The experiment demonstrated the need to consider standard consistent interfaces when training is not provided.
Keywords: Human-computer interactions; Disorientation; HCI; Cognitive overload; Interface design; Menu type interfaces; Icon based interfaces; Graphic software
How do instructional designers use automated instructional design tool? BIBAKFull-Text 536-553
  Letitia Uduma; Gary R. Morrison
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of an automated design tool by naive, novice, and expert instructional designers. A talk-aloud protocol, attitude survey, performance assessment, and direct observation were used to gather data. While the expert designers used the tool, they used it as a word processor with a rich database of instructional strategies. The novice designers relied on the tool for advice, guidance, and assistance in completing all the design tasks. Non-designers used the tool for learning about design.
   The novice designer is likely to gain more benefit from using the tool than a naïve or expert designer. Novice designers can use the tool to reinforce their prior knowledge as well as filling in any gaps in the knowledge of the design process. Based on this study, we might expect the use of an automated tool to diminish as the designer gains experience. Non-designers should probably be trained on instructional design tasks prior to exposure to automated instructional design tools.
Keywords: Instructional design; Automated design
Translating user control availability into perception: the moderating role of prior experience BIBAFull-Text 554-563
  Brian G. Southwell; George Anghelcev; Itai Himelboim; Julie Jones
On a basic level, perception of user control over media content should be partially a function of control option availability. At the same time, prior user experience with control options should interact with control availability to produce joint effects on control perception. To assess these ideas, we present experimental data from 101 University students in the United States. Participants engaged a documentary in one of three ways: by simply watching the documentary, by watching the documentary with the option of using typical VCR-type controls (such as fast-forward or reverse), or by watching and having available both VCR-type controls and scene sequencing control. Data support our hypotheses. While there was a generally positive relationship between exposure to user control options and user control perception across all participants, those participants with relatively less prior experience with Internet-based applications demonstrated a somewhat different relationship between control availability and control perception.
An effectiveness analysis of information channeling in choice decision making with attribute importance weights BIBAKFull-Text 564-577
  Manouchehr Tabatabaei
In multi-alternative, multi-attribute choice decision tasks, decision makers use either alternative-based or attribute-based information processing patterns. Evidence suggests that channeling of access patterns may be effective. Restricted search of only key information attributes may be further encouraged when importance weights for attributes are predetermined and provided to the decision makers. This study examines the effectiveness of alternative-based channeling and attribute-based channeling with or without the provision of attribute importance weights. Both alternative-based and attribute-based channeling improves the decision accuracy when attribute weights are provided. In addition, the results indicate statistically significant effects on decision accuracy for the type of information display.
Keywords: Decision making; Weighted attributes; Information processing
The Greek computer attitudes scale: construction and assessment of psychometric properties BIBAKFull-Text 578-590
  Petros Roussos
The purpose of this paper was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a computer attitudes scale for the Greek population. Through both adapting items from other scales and writing new items, this study developed a Greek Computer Attitudes Scale of 30 items, with three subscales: confidence, affection, and cognitive. This study also explored sex differences on the GCAS, and the relationship between age, computer experience, and confidence with computers and participants' responses on the scale. Questionnaire data from four Greek samples, which included participants from the general population (185 and 354 individuals, respectively), 222 teachers and 99 undergraduate students, were analyzed. Results indicated that: (1) both the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) and validity (concurrent) of the GCAS were adequate; (2) the relationship between age and GCAS was not significant, whereas sex did not have a significant effect on GCAS scores; and (3) perceived computer experience and confidence with computers were strongly related to favorable attitudes toward computers.
Keywords: Attitudes toward computers; Computer experience; Greece
Evaluating compliance with a computer assisted randomized response technique: a qualitative study into the origins of lying and cheating BIBAKFull-Text 591-608
  Gerty J. L. M. Lensvelt-Mulders; Hennie R. Boeije
This paper presents the results of a phased qualitative study into the possibilities of a combination of computer assisted self-interviewing with the randomized response technique to decrease evasive answer bias when sensitive topics are studied. As a sensitive topic, compliance with rules concerning the right to receive welfare was studied. In total, 18 respondents (age 21-63, 12 females, 6 males) filled out the questionnaire and were interviewed afterwards. In the first phase, 11 respondents did not follow the randomized response instructions, but after the questionnaire was adapted, cheating (i.e., not operating according to randomized response rules) diminished to nil in the second phase. Most respondents trusted the research setting enough to give incriminating answers to sensitive questions, but lying (i.e., not giving an accurate answer to a question) could not be totally prohibited. Recommendations are formulated for researchers who want to set up their own computer assisted randomized response questionnaires.
Keywords: Computer assisted randomized response; Forced response; Qualitative methods; Evasive answer bias; Sensitive research
A Bayesian sequential procedure for determining the optimal number of interrogatory examples for concept-learning BIBAKFull-Text 609-627
  Hans J. Vos
The purpose of this paper is to derive optimal rules for sequential decision-making in intelligent tutoring systems. In a sequential mastery test, the decision is to classify a student as a master, a nonmaster, or to continue testing and administering another item. The framework of Bayesian sequential decision theory is used; that is, optimal rules are obtained by minimizing the posterior expected losses associated with all possible decision rules at each stage of testing and using techniques of backward induction. The main advantage of this approach is that costs of testing can be taken explicitly into account. The sequential testing procedure is demonstrated for determining the optimal number of interrogatory examples for concept-learning in the Minnesota adaptive instructional system. The paper concludes with an empirical example in which, for given maximum number of interrogatory examples for concept-learning in medicine, the appropriate action is indicated at each stage of testing for different number-correct score.
Keywords: Intelligent tutoring systems; Minnesota adaptive instructional system; Concept-learning; Sequential decision-making; Bayesian sequential principle
Causal knowledge-based design of EDI controls: an explorative study BIBAKFull-Text 628-663
  Kun Chang Lee; Sangjae Lee
This paper proposes a causal knowledge-based expert system (CAKES) for modeling and designing electronic data interchange (EDI) controls. The case base of CAKES incorporates environmental, EDI control and EDI implementation factors. The primary reason for designing EDI controls is to promote consideration of the complex causal relationships that exist among various environments and EDI controls. A better understanding of industry, organization, and system characteristics is a necessary prerequisite to design, since it is difficult even for EDI experts to cognitively predict the causal effect of one control on the others. A fuzzy cognitive map is used for building a causal knowledge-base for the design. Initially, structural equation models (SEMs) are used to identify the relevant relationships among the components and to indicate their direction and strength. A casual inference in control design is possible, among environments, EDI controls and EDI implementation, through the CAKES-EDI.
Keywords: EDI; EDI Control; Causal relationship; Cognitive map
The role of computer tools in experts' solving ill-structured problems BIBAKFull-Text 664-704
  Kausalai Kay Wijekumar; David H. Jonassen
The focus of this study is first, the qualitative changes within the human agent as a result of extensive computer tool use (over 5 years), also described as the effect of tool use [Pea, R. D. (1985). Beyond amplification: using the computer to reorganize mental functioning. Educational Psychologist, 20(4), 167-182; Salomon, G. (1990). Cognitive effects with and of computer technology. Communication Research, 17(1), 26-44], and second, the "quantitative changes in accomplishment" of the human agent in the presence of computer tools, also described as effect with-tools [Pea (1985, p. 57); Solomon (1990)]. This research used ill-structured problem solving as the task and experts with more than 6 years of domain and tool experience to document the changes in their knowledge structures. The study also compared the differences between the ill-structured problem solving with and without the computer tool to identify differences that may be a result of the computer's presence.
Keywords: Computers and media; Cognitive science; Conceptual knowledge; Problem solving
Image effects on selective exposure to computer-mediated news stories BIBAKFull-Text 705-726
  Stephanie Lee Sargent
Do pictures accompanying news stories influence selective exposure to the stories as compared to the same stories viewed without pictures? Further, does the emotional nature of the image -- non-threatening versus threatening -- impact selective exposure? This study aimed to answer these questions by examining the impact of different types of pictures on selectivity of and duration of exposure to computer-mediated news stories. Male and female participants were randomly assigned to one of four image conditions (text only control, reporter portrait, non-threatening, threatening) in which they were able to freely select and view news stories via a computer based delivery system. The findings of this study revealed that exposure to both non-threatening and threatening images resulted in significantly longer self-exposure to that portion of the news story where the image and text were presented concurrently. Furthermore, the data at hand shows that the incorporation of negatively valenced images accompanying news stories resulted in significantly longer self-exposure time to subsequent sections of the news story text devoid of an accompanying image. This latter finding provides the first evidence of selective exposure induced by a graphic, threatening image that is not confounded with the presence of the image. Some implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Selective exposure; Image effects; Graphic and threatening images; Computer-mediated
Please advise: using the Internet for health and financial advice BIBAKFull-Text 727-748
  Elizabeth Sillence; Pam Briggs
The Internet is a popular source of information and advice especially within the fields of health and finance. Previous research has raised the issue of quality with respect to online information and has suggested differences between the way consumers and experts search for and appraise online information. However, many studies have asked students to act as 'consumers' or have relied upon artificial search tasks. This paper reports on research using 'genuine' consumers. The first study examines the trust markers held by genuine consumers in both the health and finance domains. The second study explores the perceptions of people who have actually used sources of online advice. The results indicate similarities between the trust markers of genuine consumers and experts. Trust markers differed between the two domains of health and finance and this was revealed in terms of the features of the sites visited. Genuine consumers may have different requirements and may be under different pressures compared to expert evaluators.
Keywords: Internet; Advice; Trust; Discussion groups; Questionnaires; Health; Finance
Can private reports enhance children's event recall, lower their suggestibility and foster their metacognitive monitoring compared to face-to-face interviews? BIBAKFull-Text 749-769
  Claudia M. Roebers; Pauline Howie; Eva Beuscher
In this paper, two studies are presented in which the social demands of an event recall interview situation were manipulated using two different methodologies and by using different dependent measures as indices for children's event memory, suggestibility and metacognitive monitoring processes. Participants aged 6-10 years were shown a brief video and then questioned about it 2-3 weeks later. Answers to the recall questions were either given privately by whispering into a teddy bear's ear or publicly in a normal face-to-face interview. Confidence judgments as indicators for metacognitive monitoring were entered into a computer, either with the interviewer having direct knowledge about them, or with the children entering the confidence judgments in privacy. In line with previous research on this topic, although private reports did not produce poorer performance, neither did they improve performance. In both studies there were no effects of the social manipulations on either recall or metacognitive monitoring and also no age-dependent benefits. The results are discussed in terms of the chosen methodologies and in the light of previous studies.
Keywords: Children; Interview; Event recall; Development
Implications of gender differences for the development of animated characters for the study of bullying behavior BIBAKFull-Text 770-786
  Sarah Woods; Lynne Hall; Kerstin Dautenhahn; Dieter Wolke
This paper considers the impact of gender on the design of animated agents that aim to evoke empathy and to encourage children to explore issues related to bullying. High fidelity storyboards containing bullying scenarios were presented to 80 ten year old children from two schools. Children individually completed a questionnaire that focused on amongst other things the empathic relationship between the child and the characters in the storyboard. Results indicate significant differences between the genders, with greater levels of empathy and comprehension achieved when characters are of the same gender as the child. This has considerable implications for the design of animated characters for bullying scenarios, requiring that the gender of the child is taken into account when designing animated characters and the scenarios they participate in.
Keywords: Children; Technology; Education; Victimization; Virtual reality; Aggressive behavior
E-negotiation versus face-to-face negotiation what has changed -- if anything? BIBAKFull-Text 787-797
  Amira Galin; Miron Gross; Gavriel Gosalker
The focus of the present study is the relatively new and still controversial electronically mediated negotiation (hence denoted e-negotiation) as compared to the good old face-to-face negotiations. The main research question is the impact that the type of negotiation media (face-to-face versus e-negotiation) has on the features of the negotiation process (duration and tactics) and on its outcomes. It also examines the moderation effects of the sequence of the negotiation media, i.e., face-to-face negotiation, when carried out prior to, or after e-negotiation. For this purpose, 80 young students were exposed to the two types of negotiations, whilst various intervening variables were controlled by randomization. It was found that the negotiation media, as well as the negotiation sequence, barely affects the negotiation outcomes. Face-to-face negotiation was not different than e-negotiation, in terms of the final price, the number of installments for the balance and the sum of the advanced payment. However, both the negotiation media and the negotiation sequence significantly affected the main features of the negotiation process, in terms of time duration and the use of hard or soft tactics. These results are discussed and interpreted in terms of existing theories.
Keywords: E-negotiation; Face to face negotiation; Negotiation outcomes; Negotiation tactics
Learning with versus without technology in elementary and secondary school BIBAFull-Text 798-811
  Lydotta M. Taylor; Donna J. Casto; Richard T. Walls
"Evidence-based practices" and "scientifically based research" have become watch-words of legislation and organizations concerned with education, and technology integration across the curriculum has been implicated in this call. As a portion of the validation of a Technology Innovation Challenge Grant program, the present work sought to make a fair test of learning the same curriculum-relevant subject matter with technology versus without technology. Results from elementary and secondary schools indicated that students had significantly greater pretest to posttest gains when the target subject matter was integrated with appropriate technologies than when the same subject matter was not integrated with technologies. The topics selected by teachers from www.thesolutionsite.com/ included a broad range of subject matter in the different grade levels (e.g., cultures, syntax, farm animals, employment, butterflies, family origins).
Gender differences in Taiwan high school students' computer game playing BIBAKFull-Text 812-824
  Chien Chou; Meng-Jung Tsai
The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences among adolescents who play computer games: key areas of study include hours played, motivation, enjoyment experienced, and the impacts on the students' lives. The data were obtained from 535 Taiwan high school students. Results indicated that males spent more time playing computer games than did females and also enjoyed it more. Results also indicated that male students are more strongly motivated to play computer games. Gender differences exist in both the frequency and the types of games the subjects played. It is interesting to note that even with significant gender differences, both genders overwhelmingly concluded that playing computer games has helped the quality of their friendships. Finally, results also showed a slight gender difference regarding the predictors of Taiwan high school students' game playing enjoyments.
Keywords: Computer game; Game playing; Adolescence; Taiwan high school students
Does a positive gain spiral of resources, efficacy beliefs and engagement exist? BIBAKFull-Text 825-841
  Susana Llorens; Wilmar Schaufeli; Arnold Bakker; Marisa Salanova
The present study among 110 Spanish university students expands previous research on work engagement by investigating the causal relationships between two potentially important resources in the use of Information & Communication Technology (i.e., time control and method control), efficacy beliefs and engagement. More specifically, two questions are addressed: (1) do personal resources mediate the relationship between task resources and work engagement? (2) does engagement increase personal and task resources? Results show that efficacy beliefs play a mediating role between task resources and engagement. Engagement increases efficacy beliefs, which in turn increase task resources over time. These findings suggest a positive gain spiral in which efficacy beliefs play a central role.
Keywords: Resources; Engagement; Efficacy belief; Gain spiral
Emoticons and social interaction on the Internet: the importance of social context BIBAKFull-Text 842-849
  Daantje Derks; Arjan E. R. Bos; Jasper von Grumbkow
The present study examines the influence of social context on the use of emoticons in Internet communication. Secondary school students (N = 158) responded to short internet chats. Social context (task-oriented vs. socio-emotional) and valence of the context (positive vs. negative) were manipulated in these chats. Participants were permitted to respond with text, emoticon or a combination of both. Results showed that participants used more emoticons in socio-emotional than in task-oriented social contexts. Furthermore, students used more positive emoticons in positive contexts and more negative emoticons in negative contexts. An interaction was found between valence and kind of context; in negative, task-oriented contexts subjects used the least emoticons. Results are related to research about the expression of emotions in face-to-face interaction.
Keywords: Emoticons; Emotions; Social interaction; Social context; Internet
Does therapist guidance improve uptake, adherence and outcome from a CD-ROM based cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of bulimia nervosa? BIBAKFull-Text 850-859
  Kathryn Murray; Ulrike Schmidt; Maria-Guadelupe Pombo-Carril; Miriam Grover; Joana Alenya; Janet Treasure; Christopher Williams
Background: We recently demonstrated the efficacy and feasibility of a novel CD-ROM based cognitive-behavioral multi-media self-help intervention for the treatment of bulimia nervosa. What is not known in CD-ROM treatments is how to best to deliver and support such packages in clinical practice. In particular, it is of great importance to identify to what extent such packages can be offered stand alone, and to what extent additional support from a practitioner is required.
   Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine whether the addition of therapist support to the CD-ROM intervention would improve treatment uptake, adherence and outcome.
   Method: Two cohorts of patients with full or partial bulimia nervosa referred to a catchment area based eating disorder service were offered an eight session CD-ROM-based cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment ("Overcoming Bulimia"). The first cohort received minimal guidance only and the second cohort were offered three brief focused support sessions with a therapist. The two cohorts were compared on treatment uptake, adherence and outcome.
   Results: Patients in both groups improved significantly. There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of treatment uptake, adherence or outcome, except that the therapist guidance group more often achieved remission from excessive exercise at follow-up.
   Discussion: These findings provide further support for the acceptability and efficacy of the CD-ROM intervention for bulimia nervosa. Brief focused therapist guidance did not confer any significant additional benefits. This result has important implications for the widespread adoption of such approaches.
Keywords: Bulimia nervosa; Eating disorder; CD-ROM; Treatment; Self-help; Computerised cognitive-behavior therapy
Technology-enhanced language learning: A case study BIBAKFull-Text 860-879
  Shu Ching Yang; Yi-Ju Chen
This study explores participant views regarding the integration of Internet tools in language learning activities. The descriptive study has illustrated the perceptions of a class of senior high school students regarding language learning in a technology environment. The subjects were 44 10th-grade male students and their teacher who together joined a technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) project in Taiwan known as "Advanced Joint English Teaching" (AJET). The students participated in six Internet-based teaching activities; group e-mailing, a Web-based course, an e-mail writing program, English homepage design, video-conferencing and chat room discussion. This study found that the AJET project provided the students with an opportunity to experience new technologies; learners experienced the pleasure of learning and thus increased their learning possibilities. The students liked and approved of learning English using the Internet, but had differing opinions about its benefits. The study demonstrated that learners bring different perspectives to TELL, and that learners who are passively oriented towards Internet English learning require careful guidance from pedagogical applications to this approach. Making students aware that learning English through multimedia technology demands new learning strategies and self-directed learning is a crucial first step. Some pedagogical suggestions are provided for effectively using computer networking in second- and foreign language classrooms.
Keywords: EFL; Technology-enhanced language learning; Internet-based teaching; Student attitudes
The effects of need for cognition on Internet use BIBAKFull-Text 880-891
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Or Kaynar; Adi Fine
One of the undisputed roles of the Internet is information spreading. However, to this day there is little understanding of the interaction between the way in which information is provided on the Internet and the behavior of different human personality types. This article focuses on the impact of the need for cognition on the desired level of interactivity of a given Website and on web surfing in general. For this experiment, four commercialized Websites were used: (1) flat with no hyperlinks and no time pressure; (2) flat with time pressure; (3) interactive1Interactivity in this paper refers to the fact that a person surfing on the net is actually interacting with the website so that each surfer is likely to create a different interaction according to his personality and needs. 1 with no time pressure; and (4) interactive with time pressure. All of the Websites contained identical information presented in different ways. The relations between need for cognition as a personality variable, time pressure as a situational stressor, the interactivity of the Web site, and several demographic variables were examined on Internet users' behavior while surfing and on their preferences. One hundred and eighty-two experienced Web surfers took part in the experiment and were randomly assigned to one of the Websites. The number of hyperlinks used while surfing were counted by specially designed software. After surfing, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their satisfaction from the site, their willingness to return to the site, how persuasive the site was, and demographic data. It was predicted that people with high need for cognition would be more experienced in the Internet, use more hyperlinks, and stay longer in the site. People with a low need for cognition were predicted to prefer interactive over linear sites. Results support the preferences of people low in need for cognition of an interactive site. Other predictions were supported only partially. Implementations for Website design and further research are discussed.
Keywords: Internet; Personality; Need for cognition

CHB 2007-03 Volume 23 Issue 2

Internet and well-being BIBFull-Text 893-897
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger
Obituary: Professor Michael Argyle BIBFull-Text 898-900
  Mary Sissons Joshi; Roger Lamb
The use of computer-mediated interaction in exploring affective influences on strategic interpersonal behaviours BIBAKFull-Text 901-919
  Joseph P. Forgas; Rebekah East; Norman Y. M. Chan
What role can computers play in the study of strategic interpersonal behaviours, and research on affective influences on social behaviour in particular? Despite intense recent interest in affective phenomena, the role of affect in social interaction has rarely been studied. This paper reviews past work on affective influences on interpersonal behaviour, with special emphasis on Michael Argyle's pioneering studies in this field. We then discuss historical and contemporary theories of affective influences on social behaviour. A series of experiments using computer-mediated interaction tasks are described, investigating affective influences on interpersonal behaviours such as self-disclosure strategies and the production of persuasive arguments. It is suggested that computer-mediated interaction offers a reliable and valid technique for studying the cognitive, information processing variables that facilitate or inhibit affective influences on interpersonal behaviour. These studies show that mild affective states produce significant differences in the way people perform in interpersonal situations, and can accentuate or attenuate (through affective priming) self-disclosure intimacy or persuasive argument quality. The implications of these studies for recent theories and affect-cognition models, and for our understanding of people's everyday interpersonal strategies are discussed.
Keywords: Affect; Interpersonal behavior; Computer-mediated interaction; Affect and cognition
Strategies of parental regulation in the media-rich home BIBAKFull-Text 920-941
  Sonia Livingstone
This paper investigates practices of domestic regulation of media within the family, focusing on parental attempts to manage children's access to and use of new media. Theoretically, the paper seeks to integrate the specific literature on domestic rules and regulation of media use with the broader literature on the rules and roles in social situations, arguing that parental strategies in relation to domestic media reveal both the enactment of and the negotiations over the typically informal and implicit rules and roles in family life. These issues are explored using data from two surveys: (1) the 'Young People, New Media' project surveyed 1300 children and their parents, examining the social, relational and contextual factors that shape the ways in which families develop rules for managing the introduction of the personal computer and the multiplication of television sets, among other new media changes, in the home; (2) the 'UK Children Go Online' project surveyed 1500 children and their parents, updating the picture by examining the introduction of the Internet into the family home. On the basis of these data, it is argued that despite the 'newness' of media as they successively arrive in the home, there are considerable consistencies over time in the responses of families, it being the slow-to-change relations between parents and children that shape patterns of domestic regulation and use.
Keywords: New media; Parental mediation; Children; Television; Personal computer; Internet; Social situations
Give me that online-time religion: The role of the internet in spiritual life BIBAFull-Text 942-954
  Katelyn Y. A. McKenna; Kelly J. West
Online religious forums allow individuals to meet and interact with others who share their faith, beliefs, and values from the privacy of their homes. Active membership in traditional religious organizations has been shown to fulfill important social needs and to be associated with a number of benefits for the individuals involved. The survey study we report here found that many of the self and social benefits derived from participation in local religious institutions also accrue for those who take part in virtual religious forums. These interactive online forums were found to attract both those who are actively engaged in their local religious organizations and those who are unaffiliated.
Two faces of anonymity: Paradoxical effects of cues to identity in CMC BIBAFull-Text 955-970
  Martin Tanis; Tom Postmes
This paper presents two experimental studies investigating the effects of presenting cues that provide information about the interactors -- called cues to identity -- in computer mediated communications (CMCs). Study 1 shows that even though cues to identity affected interpersonal evaluations, in making them more positive, the presence of these cues were associated with less certainty and less medium satisfaction for users with experience in online communication. Study 2 shows that when performing an online communication task, participants felt more certain, were more satisfied with the medium, and thought they had performed better in the absence of cues to identity. Thus, this study supports the widespread assumption that rich interactions (i.e., interactions that allow the transmission of cues to identity such as face-to-face) are superior in that they make the interaction more personal, but that these outcomes are not mirrored by the evaluation of the interaction. It is suggested that the presence of cues to identity positively affects interpersonal perceptions, but at the same time decreases perceptions of solidarity or entitativity.
Emotional support and suicide prevention through the Internet: A field project report BIBAKFull-Text 971-984
  Azy Barak
The Internet can be efficiently exploited to help people in severe emotional distress, including those contemplating suicide. Based on this premise and guided by various psychological principles that characterize Internet communication and behavior, on the one hand, and by factors related to the provision of emotional support, on the other, an Israeli project with the Hebrew acronym SAHAR was established. The idea behind SAHAR was to initiate an anonymous, confidential online environment that would attract people in a crisis situation and offer them a listening ear, mental support, and warmth, provided by anonymous, skilled helpers. At the heart of this exclusively online service is a content-rich Hebrew website (http://www.sahar.org.il) that provides relevant and continuously updated information for people in need. Accessed through the site, SAHAR offers, in addition, personal communication to users through synchronous and asynchronous support. For group communication, SAHAR provides online forums (a chat room will soon be launched). The website is accessed more than 10,000 times a month, or 350 times a day, a considerable number relative to Israel's small population. Approximately 1000 personal contacts with SAHAR itself take place, each month, of which at least a third of the distressed users are clearly suicidal. The forums receive over 200 new messages a day. SAHAR on numerous occasions has participated in rescue operations of individuals who threatened to commit suicide or were actually in the process of trying. In many other cases, a supportive conversation or a referral to appropriate help resources prevented hasty decisions by highly distressed, desperate people contemplating suicide. Feedback by users also indicates the success of SAHAR as a unique psychological application on the Internet.
Keywords: Emotional support; Suicide; Online counseling; Prevention
Bringing theory to research on computer-mediated comforting communication BIBAKFull-Text 985-998
  Scott E. Caplan; Jacob S. Turner
The current paper sought to advance the literature on computer-mediated emotional support by outlining a candidate theory of online comforting communication. We present a model that explicates the discursive, cognitive, and affective processes that function to reduce emotional distress and help improve one's psychosocial well-being. We identify unique attributes of online social interaction, as compared to face-to-face (FtF) interaction, that may be especially useful for facilitating empathic and adaptive comforting communication. Additionally, we explain how unique features of computer-mediated comforting communication may work to facilitate the cognitive and affective processes that result in alleviation of emotional distress. Final sections of the paper advance research questions and hypotheses to guide future empirical research examining the efficacy of online emotional support.
Keywords: Social support; Internet; Computer-mediated communication; Emotional support; Appraisal theory; Comforting
Persuade him by email, but see her in person: Online persuasion revisited BIBAFull-Text 999-1015
  Rosanna E. Guadagno; Robert B. Cialdini
This study replicated and expanded on earlier research on gender differences in the evaluation of computer-mediated persuasive messages. Participants discussed a counter-attitudinal topic with a same-gender confederate. Those participants made to feel a sense of shared identity (high oneness) with the communicator were the most favorable toward the proposal whereas those participants made to feel a distinct identity (low oneness) were the least favorable. However, the results were different for men and women depending on communication modality. Cognitive responses indicated that men engaged in a more rational evaluation of the persuasive message in the email condition, even when the communicator and recipient did not share an identity. Thus, one implication of this research is that email may be an effective route for men to use for interacting with one another if they share no mutual identity.
ICTs, social thinking and subjective well-being -- The internet and its representations in everyday life BIBAKFull-Text 1016-1032
  A. Contarello; M. Sarrica
The spread of ICTs constitutes an intriguing phenomenon for studying the interweaving between ways of knowing, thinking and experiencing new 'realities'. A suitable framework for investigating this topic is the social representations one, which addresses socially shared structures of knowledge, loaded with emotional features and symbolic values. In the present study, we explore how the internet is represented and how it is related to social well-being.
   The number of participants was 101. The components of the representation -- information, attitude, representational field -- were investigated using a qualitative-quantitative methodology; social well-being (in general, and after the internet entered one's own life) was measured through Keyes' scale [Social Well-Being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61(2), 121-140]; levels of practice were also taken into account.
   Participants show a medium-high level of social well-being in its various components (integration, acceptance, contribution, actualisation and coherence). A more complex picture appears 'after internet', with gains in terms of closeness, contribution, actualisation of society, counterbalanced by diminished trust in people and resort to one's own group for security and comfort. The representational field opposes an intimate picture to a wider perspective; space to time; functional to experiential features of the internet. Participants take different positions on these dimensions, providing foreseen and unexpected patterns of images and meanings.
Keywords: Internet; Well-being; Social representations; Attitudes; Practices
The Positive Net BIBAKFull-Text 1033-1045
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Adrian Furnham
The Internet has been ascribed a negative reputation among scholars, for its potentially damaging influence on its users. These include addiction, depression, and loneliness. Although there are individuals who have been harmed through their use of the Internet, this is certainly not the whole story. The Internet provides a rich environment which includes significantly positive aspects as well as negative ones, and, when used appropriately, the Internet may greatly improve the quality of life for its users. This article will focus on the affirmative aspects of the net and on ways in which it may be used to enhance and increase surfers' well-being, both collectively and individually.
   The topics discussed below are: (1) how the net experience can help socially inhibited people and those with a negative social stigma; (2) social support systems on the net; (3) how the net can improve intergroup relationships; (4) the ability of the net to solve the conflict between individuality and belonging to a group. It is suggested that understanding the positive aspects of the net will promote its potential to improve the psychological well-being of surfers.
Keywords: Internet; Personality; Well-being

CHB 2007-05 Volume 23 Issue 3

Designing support to facilitate learning in powerful electronic learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 1047-1054
  Liesbeth Kester; Paul Kirschner; Gemma Corbalan
This special issue reflects current developments in instructional design for powerful electronic learning environments. It presents a compilation of contributions to a combined special interest group (SIG) meeting (2006) of Instructional Design and Learning and Instruction with Computers. Both SIGs are part of the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI). The SIG-meeting focused on the design of powerful electronic learning environments for complex learning. The articles in this issue describe how to design support to help learners during complex individual or collaborative learning. This introduction provides the context for the issue and a short overview of the contributions.
Keywords: Electronic learning environments; Whole-task practice; Self-regulated learning; Collaborative learning
The impact of intrinsic cognitive load on the effectiveness of graphical help for coherence formation BIBAKFull-Text 1055-1071
  Tina Seufert; Inge Jänen; Roland Brünken
Learning with multiple representations requires the mental integration of corresponding information. This highly demanding process of coherence formation can, for example, be assisted by inter-representational hyperlinks, which foster the visual search for correspondences. In three studies we analyzed the effectiveness of hyperlinks depending on the amount of intrinsic cognitive load (ICL), which is on the one hand determined by the complexity of the learning task and on the other hand by the learners' expertise. In the first two studies we varied the complexity of the integration task and found that the hyperlinks were only effective for the less complex task (low ICL). In the third study the amount of ICL has been varied by the level of expertise and the effects supported the previous outcomes: the help again was only effective in conditions of low ICL (higher expertise), whereas with high ICL (lower expertise) it was ineffective.
Keywords: Multiple representations; Cognitive load; Expertise; Task complexity; Help for coherence formation
Supporting interactive argumentation: Influence of representational tools on discussing a wicked problem BIBAKFull-Text 1072-1088
  Lisette Munneke; Jerry Andriessen; Gellof Kanselaar; Paul Kirschner
This study describes difficulties students can encounter when discussing a wicked problem and in what way two different representational tools can support interactive argumentation between students. About 55 pairs discussed in chat and wrote about genetically modified organisms in a groupware environment, supported by a text-outline or an argumentative diagram. The expectation was that students who were constructing a diagram would argue in a more thorough way, which is called the broadening and deepening in the space of debate. The expectations were partially confirmed. Diagrams help students to argue in a more thorough way, but only in the diagrams itself and not, as expected, in the discussion. This article shows the difficulties of supporting interactive argumentation with representational tools, because of the great amount of other variables in task and learning environment that effect the way students broaden and deepen an argument.
Keywords: Interactive argumentation; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Representational tools; Argumentative tasks
Learning cell biology with close-up views or connecting lines: Evidence for the structure mapping effect BIBAFull-Text 1089-1104
  Thomas Huk; Mattias Steinke
Different visualization strategies for structuring non-hierarchical learning tasks in hypermedia are used until now. Do these strategies differ in learning effectiveness? In the present study, a hypermedia learning environment about cell biology was investigated. The graphical properties of a content module were created in two different ways, either depicting close-up views of the cell organelles or with connecting lines between the cell organelles and their respective technical terms within the graphic of the whole cell. Students' post test performance indicate that connecting lines fostered auditory recall, that is remembering and understanding of narrative information, more efficiently than close-up views. In the case of visual recall, that is identification of electron microscopic pictures depicting cell structures, there was no difference in performance between these two visualization techniques. Transfer performance depended on an interaction between visualization technique and students' spatial ability: Only students with high spatial ability benefited from the connecting lines variant. With respect to auditory recall and transfer performance, the present study supports the structure mapping effect as proposed by the integrated model of text and picture comprehension. Especially students with low spatial ability seem to be prone to an illusion of knowing.
Visualization of agreement and discussion processes during computer-supported collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 1105-1125
  Jeroen Janssen; Gijsbert Erkens; Gellof Kanselaar
This study examined the effects of the shared space (SS) on students' behaviors in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment. The SS visualizes discussion and agreement during online discussions. It was hypothesized the SS would increase the media richness of the CSCL-environment, would stimulate critical and exploratory group-norms, would lead to more positive perceptions of online collaboration, and would have an impact on students' collaborative activities. In total, 59 students working in 20 groups had access to the SS visualization, while 58 students working in 20 groups did not. The results show that students with access to the SS visualization: (a) perceived higher media richness; (b) had a more exploratory group-norm perception; (b) perceived more positive group behavior; (c) perceived their group's task strategies to be more effective; (d) engaged in different collaborative activities and (e) performed better on one part of the group task. These results demonstrate the potential benefits of visualizing agreement and discussion during CSCL.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Collaboration; Computer-mediated communication; Visualizations; Secondary education
Promoting self-regulated learning in web-based learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 1126-1144
  Susanne Narciss; Antje Proske; Hermann Koerndle
Self-regulated learning with the Internet or hypermedia requires not only cognitive learning strategies, but also specific and general meta-cognitive strategies. The purposes of the Study2000 project, carried out at the TU Dresden, were to develop and evaluate authoring tools that support teachers and students in web-based learning and instruction. This paper presents how the authoring tools of the Study2000 project can implement psychologically sound measures to promote (a) active and elaborated learning activities and (b) meta-cognitive activities in a web-based learning environment. Furthermore, it describes a study involving 72 university students in the use of such a web-based learning environment in a self-regulated learning setting at the university level. Results show that students spent almost 70% of their study time with texts, 11% with learning tasks and 12% with the active and elaborated learning tools, whereas meta-cognitive aids where hardly used (<1%).
Keywords: Self-regulated learning; Web-based learning environments; Learning strategies
Supporting the instructional design process for team training BIBAKFull-Text 1145-1161
  Marcel P. W. van Berlo; Joost Lowyck; Alma Schaafstal
Conducting team training is daily business for the military. Designing team training programs and exercises, however, is not always that structured. Instructional designers are in fact trained to design instruction primarily for individuals. After their instructional design course, they learn to design team training more or less on the job. This process may be improved by offering these instructional designers adequate support. During three design-experiments, we developed and tested guidelines and a workshop supporting the analysis of team tasks and the design of team training scenarios. For the first (task analysis) and second (scenario design) experiment, two versions of guidelines were developed: an experimental version with an explicit focus on team aspects, and a control version in which this specific focus was absent, resembling traditional guidelines. The results of the first design-experiment show that the experimental guidelines lead to a significantly better quality of the analysis process; the results of the second design-experiment show no significant effects. The purpose of the third design-experiment was to investigate the effect of a more elaborate introduction (an interactive workshop) of both sets of experimental guidelines. The results show that only on topics that were explicitly dealt with, the analysis and design process improved.
Keywords: Team training; Instructional design; Team task analysis; Team training scenarios; Military training; Guidelines
Supporting learners: Increasing complexity? BIBAFull-Text 1162-1166
  Jan Elen; Geraldine Clarebout
The different papers in this special issue all addressed learning with complex tasks. All of these papers reached only partially the expected results. This discussion on possible factors that may explain these unexpected results. A first issue that is questioned is the functionality of the tools in the studies. Secondly, the learners lack of compliance is addressed. It may have been that the learners did not take the opportunities offered to them. Third, the use of the support by the learners itself is questioned. Although some methodological issues can be raised, the different papers made a worthwhile attempt to grasp the complexity in a learning environment. Moreover, they highlight the importance of a consolidated framework to determine relevant factors that should be considered when dealing with complexity.
Evaluating an automated mental health care system: making meaning of human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 1167-1182
  Ramesh Farzanfar; Sophie Frishkopf; Robert Friedman; Kevin Ludena
Objectives: To qualitatively evaluate the response of patients with unipolar depression who used a computer telephony system designed to monitor their disease severity and support self-care, principally adherence to medication regimen and clinical office visit attendance.
   Methods: Weekly in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 patients who used the computer telephony system for 4 weeks. Users had a diagnosis of unipolar depression and took at least one antidepressant. All interviews were audio-taped and immediately transcribed. The transcripts of the interviews were subsequently coded and analyzed thematically by two qualitative researchers.
   Results: The patients spoke about the automated system as if it was a social actor. They did not, however, have an illusion that there was a health professional communicating through the system. Instead, they felt that it was designed to appear human-like. The majority offered suggestions intended to make the system behave and sound more like a "human professional" and less like a "machine". They believed that the system would be more usable, acceptable and effective if these changes were made.
   Conclusions: These results do not support the "anthropomorphism" construct which posits that users of computer-mediated systems who attribute human qualities to the system are under an illusion that the system is human.
Keywords: Automated patient management; Qualitative evaluation; Anthropomorphism
Internet-based attitude assessment: does gender affect measurement equivalence? BIBAKFull-Text 1183-1194
  Brian G. Whitaker
As researchers and practitioners increasingly turn to the Internet as a data collection medium, investigating the differential effects of administration mode on data quality becomes increasingly important. To date, no research has investigated whether data gathered from differing subgroups demonstrate measurement equivalence across Internet and paper-and-pencil administration modes despite the large literature suggesting that males and females differ in terms of computer anxiety. The present study, employing a repeated measures design, investigated systematic cross-mode differences in responding as a function of gender. Results demonstrate that both sexes use the same psychological metric when providing satisfaction ratings regardless of Internet or paper-and-pencil administration (equivalent factor structure and factor loadings). Furthermore, there were no statistically significant differences in scale/item means over the modes of administration according to gender. These results suggest that gender does not lead to a negative impact on cross-mode measurement equivalence for self-report ratings.
Keywords: Internet; Measurement; Equivalence; Gender; Administration; Ratings
The effects of individually personalized computer-based instructional program on solving mathematics problems BIBAKFull-Text 1195-1210
  Heng-Yu Ku; Christi A. Harter; Pei-Lin Liu; Ling Thompson; Yi-Chia Cheng
This study investigated the effects of an individually personalized computer-based instructional program on the achievement and attitudes regarding mathematics computational problems and word problems of 104 middle school American students. Students were blocked by math entering knowledge based on pre-test scores, then randomly assigned to a personalized or non-personalized version of the computer-based instructional program. A significant two-way interaction (treatment by math entering knowledge) reflected that personalized higher-level math entering knowledge students and non-personalized higher-level math entering knowledge students had similar post-test scores but personalized lower-level math entering knowledge students scored significantly higher on the post-test than non-personalized lower-level math entering knowledge students. Another significant two-way interaction (math entering knowledge by problem type) reflected that students with higher-level math entering knowledge scored considerably higher on the computational problems than on the word problems while students with lower-level math entering knowledge scored significantly higher on the computational problems than on the word problems. Student attitudes were significantly more favorable toward the personalized computer-based instructional program.
Keywords: Personalization; Computer-based instruction; Word problems
Impact of spatial auditory feedback on the efficiency of iconic human-computer interfaces under conditions of visual impairment BIBAKFull-Text 1211-1231
  Armando B. Barreto; Julie A. Jacko; Peterjohn Hugh
This paper investigates the addition of spatial auditory feedback as a tool to assist people with visual impairments in the use of computers, specifically in tasks involving iconic visual search. In this augmented interface, unique sounds were mapped to visual icons on the screen. As the screen cursor traversed the screen, the user heard sounds of nearby icons, spatially, according to the relative position of each icon with respect to the screen cursor. A software prototype of the design was developed to evaluate the performance of users in the search of icons within the proposed interface. Experiments were conducted with simulated visual impairments on volunteer participants to evaluate if the addition of spatial auditory feedback makes the interface more accessible to users with impaired vision. Results demonstrated that spatialization of icon sounds provides additional remote navigational information to users, enabling new strategies for task completion. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Visual impairment; 3-D sound; sound spatialization; Multimedia; Icon
Perceived usefulness, user involvement and behavioral intention: an empirical study of ERP implementation BIBAKFull-Text 1232-1248
  Kwasi Amoako-Gyampah
Many firms have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems in the past few years. The expensive nature of these systems requires that effective usage of these systems be attained in order for an organization to derive the expected benefits from the technology. This study looks at the influence that perceived usefulness, user involvement, argument for change, prior usage and ease of use have on the behavioral intention to use an ERP system. A mail survey was used to collect data in an organization that was implementing an ERP system. A total of 571 responses were obtained. The results indicate that users perception of the perceived usefulness, ease of use of the technology, and the users' level of intrinsic involvement all affect their intention to use the technology. The results seem to suggest that managerial efforts aimed at increasing the users' perceptions of the usefulness and personal relevance of the technology will contribute to implementation success, where success is defined as effectual usage of the technology. The paper ends with possible extensions to this study.
Keywords: Enterprise resource planning systems; Perceived usefulness; Ease of use; Technology acceptance; User involvement
The who and the what of usage of two cancer online communities BIBAKFull-Text 1249-1257
  Thomas O. Blank; Margaret Adams-Blodnieks
The explosion of use of Internet-based communication for health requires attention to the ways survivors of specific diseases and those close to them participate in using resources. This research focuses on two cancer groups -- breast and prostate -- and how they use WebMD asynchronous bulletin boards. Four hundred and eighty two messages were coded for communicator (survivors, spouses, others) and content of messages. Most common communicators were survivors, but the two groups differed in percentages of communicator. Of four main categories of content -- medical/treatment, intimacy/sexuality, emotional expression, and support -- most common were support and medical/treatment. The groups differed significantly on those four categories, with breast cancer more support-dominated and prostate more medical/treatment-dominated and more intimacy/sexuality messages. There were no group differences in emotional-toned vs. social support seeking vs. providing support, or positive vs. negative emotions expressed. Generally, there was considerable commonality, and the differences found primarily supported gender-specific notions of communication and need.
Keywords: Internet; Cancer; Support; Gender; Health
Does computer anxiety reach levels which conform to DSM IV criteria for specific phobia? BIBAKFull-Text 1258-1272
  S. J. Thorpe; M. J. Brosnan
Fear of technology in general and of computers in particular has been shown to be prevalent in the population. This study sets out to explore the experience of computer anxiety and is in two parts. The first part examines computer anxiety in the context of DSM IV criteria for specific phobia by comparing the incidence of underlying beliefs of those high in computer anxiety with people with spider phobia and with a non-anxious group. 185 Participants filled in questionnaires concerning general and specific measures of anxiety. Results provide tentative support for the claim that computer anxiety may reach clinical levels, that some cognitions held by the computer anxious are held in common with the cognitions of those suffering from spider phobia who conform to DSM IV criteria for specific phobia, and that a case may be made for computer anxiety to enter into the framework of problematic fears. However, several of the cognitions core to the experience of spider phobia were not found in the computer anxious participants. Examination of individual cognitions revealed that the kinds of concerns being expressed were more akin to social or test anxiety ('I would make a fool of myself') than to specific phobia ('I would scream', 'I would become hysterical'). In a further exploration of this, the second study with 164 participants compared aspects of computer anxiety and avoidance with measures of social, performance, and test anxiety. These were found to be significantly related to each other. The implications and limitations of the studies are discussed.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Technophobia; Computerphobia; Test anxiety; Social phobia
Unrealistic optimism in internet events BIBAKFull-Text 1273-1284
  Jamonn Campbell; Nathan Greenauer; Kristin Macaluso; Christian End
This study assessed the tendency for individuals to be unrealistically optimistic about internet related activities. Ninety-seven participants estimated their chances of experiencing 31 positive and negative internet events compared to the average student at their school. The data indicated that students believed positive internet events were more likely to happen to them and negative events were less likely to happen to them compared to the average student. Heavy internet users reported more optimistic responses than did light users. Perceptions of event characteristics (controllability, desirability, and personal experience) were also significantly correlated with optimistic bias.
Keywords: Optimism; Internet; Privacy; Consumer behavior
Computer phobia and computer self-efficacy: their association with undergraduates' use of university computer facilities BIBAKFull-Text 1285-1299
  David Mcilroy; Carol Sadler; Nadine Boojawon
Extensive development in universities' provision of computer facilities may have negative consequences for students prone to computer avoidance. In the present study, undergraduates (N = 363) completed self-report measures on computer phobia and self-efficacy. Results demonstrate that many students follow previous trends by continuing to report levels of computer phobia within the higher parameters of self-report measures. Students who reported either high computer phobia or low computer self-efficacy were less likely to maximise their use of university computer facilities. Moreover, a range of background measures -- initial computer experience, regular home use, successful completion of a computer course and introductory tutor's characteristics -- all impacted statistically on self-report responses. Results are discussed with reference to the increasing responsibility placed on students to acquire ICT skills.
Keywords: Computer phobia; Computer anxiety; Computer self-efficacy
Prevalence of perceived stress, symptoms of depression and sleep disturbances in relation to information and communication technology (ICT) use among young adults -- an explorative prospective study BIBAFull-Text 1300-1321
  Sara Thomée; Mats Eklöf; Ewa Gustafsson; Ralph Nilsson; Mats Hagberg
The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate whether high quantity of information and communication technology (ICT) use is a risk factor for developing psychological symptoms among young ICT users. A cohort of college students responded to a questionnaire at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (n = 1127). Exposure variables, such as different types of ICT use, and effect variables, such as perceived stress, symptoms of depression and sleep disturbances, were assessed. Prevalence ratios were computed, based on symptom-free subjects at baseline and prevalence of symptoms at follow-up. For women, high combined use of computer and mobile phone at baseline was associated with increased risk of reporting prolonged stress and symptoms of depression at follow-up, and number of short message service (SMS) messages per day was associated with prolonged stress. Also online chatting was associated with prolonged stress, and e-mailing and online chatting were associated with symptoms of depression, while Internet surfing increased the risk of developing sleep disturbances. For men, number of mobile phone calls and SMS messages per day were associated with sleep disturbances. SMS use was also associated with symptoms of depression. The findings suggest that ICT may have an impact on psychological health, although causal mechanisms are unclear.
Extroversion, neuroticism and self-concept: their impact on internet users in India BIBAKFull-Text 1322-1328
  H. M. Nithya; Sheela Julius
The aim of this study was to find out the influence of personality structure of an individual, i.e., extroversion, neuroticism and self-concept on the usage of the Internet in India. Further, it was also aimed to find out the correlation between the three above-mentioned variables in the light of Internet usage. Exploratory research design was used in this study and the tools used were: Eysenck Personality Inventory and Mohsin Self-Concept Inventory. The Internet was the medium for data collection and individuals were invited by e-mail to participate in the study. The method of random sampling was used for selecting the sample size of 200. In this study, Internet users were classified as heavy or light users based on the number of hours spent online. While we found no significant difference between heavy and light users of Internet on extroversion and neuroticism, it was found that the heavy users scored high on self-concept.
Keywords: Internet; Extroversion; Neuroticism; Self-concept
Measuring user satisfaction with knowledge management systems: scale development, purification, and initial test BIBAKFull-Text 1329-1346
  Chorng-Shyong Ong; Jung-Yu Lai
The shift from a product-based to a knowledge-based economy has resulted in an increased demand for knowledge workers who are capable of higher-order thinking and reasoning to solve intricate problems in the workplace. This requires organizations to introduce knowledge management systems (KMS) for employees and has fueled predictions and speculations about what makes KMS effective. Unfortunately, there are very few empirical studies that examine this issue. Thus, this paper develops a validated instrument to measure user satisfaction as a surrogate measure of KMS effectiveness. Based on a survey of 147 respondents practicing mostly in four international semiconductor manufacturing companies in the Hsin-Chu Science-based Industrial Park in Taiwan suggests a 16-item instrument that measures four dimensions of user satisfaction with knowledge management systems (USKMS) is well-validated. The instrument and comprehensive model proposed in this paper would be valuable to researchers and practitioners interested in designing, implementing, and managing knowledge management systems.
Keywords: Instrument; Knowledge management systems; Measurement; User satisfaction
Absorption, dissociation, locus of control and presence in virtual reality BIBAKFull-Text 1347-1354
  Craig D. Murray; Jezz Fox; Steve Pettifer
The present study aimed to explore the relationship between a number of psychological variables and a reported sense of presence in immersive virtual reality (IVR). It was hypothesised that participants' scores on measures of absorption, dissociation, and external locus of control would be positively and significantly correlated with a measure of their sense of presence in IVR. A total of 64 people took part. Significant correlations were found between presence and dissociation (r = 0.403, p < 0.01), and presence and locus of control (r = 0.268, p < 0.05). However, the correlation between presence and absorption was not significant (r = -0.037, p = 0.386). The findings reported here suggest a complex interrelationship of psychological variables in relation to presence in IVR that warrants further research.
Keywords: Absorption; Dissociation; Locus of control; Presence; Virtual reality
Identifying a transition period at the midpoint of an online collaborative activity: a study among adult learners BIBAKFull-Text 1355-1371
  Estelle Michinov; Nicolas Michinov
This case study describes the group development in an online learning group. Adult learners enrolled in a MBA partially delivered at a distance were observed during fifteen weeks to better understand the group development of an online learning group. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to capture the dynamic of social interactions within the group and some affective reactions of members. The results revealed a transition period at the midpoint of the collaborative activity showing a decline of task-oriented communications, motivation and positive mood from this period. Results were discussed through models of group development validated in face-to-face environments. Some implications were proposed to facilitate online activities in computer-supported learning groups.
Keywords: Group development; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Computer-mediated communication; Online facilitation; Lifelong learning
Personalized salutation, power of sender and response rates to Web-based surveys BIBAKFull-Text 1372-1383
  Adam N. Joinson; Ulf-Dietrich Reips
Three studies were conducted to examine the effect of personalized salutation and sender power on signing up to an online survey panel, and subsequent survey response rates. In the first study, significantly more people joined a panel if addressed by a personalized salutation. In Study 2, this effect was replicated using an invitation to leave a second panel. In the final study, a significant salutation effect was found when power of the sender was high, and not when power of the sender was neutral. It is argued that for this sample, power of audience and participant identifiability linked to create a compliance-based motivation to join and maintain membership of an online panel. Implications for the maintenance of online panels, survey response rates, and the collection of sensitive personal information, are discussed.
Keywords: Personalization; Response rates; Salutation; Survey methodology; Power
Reliability of self-report: paper versus online administration BIBAKFull-Text 1384-1389
  Kristine H. Luce; Andrew J. Winzelberg; Smita Das; Megan I. Osborne; Susan W. Bryson; C. Barr Taylor
This investigation compared online and paper administration of self-report measures of weight and shape concerns, mood, weight and height. The former was designed as a screening instrument for adolescent students to determine risk for eating disorders. Participants were female sophomores (N = 74) from a San Francisco Bay area private high school. A counterbalanced designed was used to control for order effects. Four classes were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1) online-paper; (2) paper-online; (3) online-online; and (4) paper-paper. Participants completed self-report questionnaires twice, online and/or on paper, separated by 1 week. Agreement between online and paper assessment of weight and shape concerns and BMI ranged from 0.73 to 0.97 and 0.80 to 1.0, respectively. Agreement for positive mood ranged from 0.58 to 0.85 and negative mood from 0.59 to 0.82. Mean scores for weight and shape concerns and mood variables were significantly lower at the second testing. Online and paper assessment of weight and shape concerns was significantly correlated. However, there was a significant time effect. Mood was less stable and correlations between the two modes of self-report were less correlated. Online assessment may be beneficial and appropriate for many settings.
Keywords: Online assessment; Reliability; Female; Adolescent; Screening; Weight concerns
The effects of attention inertia on advertisements on the WWW BIBAKFull-Text 1390-1407
  Jyun-Cheng Wang; Rong-Fuh Day
When a viewer browses a web site, one presumably performs the task of seeking information from a sequence of scattered web pages to form a meaningful path. The aim of this study is to explore changes in the distribution of attention to banner advertisements as a viewer advances along a meaningful path and their effects on the advertisements. With aid of an instrument called eye-tracker, a laboratory experiment was conducted to observe directly the attention that subjects allocate along meaningful paths. Our results show that at different levels of depth in a meaningful path, the amount of attention allocated to the content of a web page is not the same, regardless of whether attention indexes were based on dwell time or the number of fixations.
   Theoretically, this experiment successfully generalizes the attentional inertia theory to web environment and elaborates web advertising research by involving a significant web structural factor. In practice, this findings hint that web advertising located in the earlier and later phases of a path should be priced higher than advertising in the middle phases because, during these two phases, the audience is more sensitive to the peripheral advertising.
Keywords: Attentional inertia; Meaningful path; Web structure; Web advertisement; Semantic dependency
The relationship between Internet identification, Internet anxiety and Internet use BIBAKFull-Text 1408-1420
  Richard Joiner; Mark Brosnan; Jill Duffield; Jeff Gavin; Pam Maras
This paper reports a study investigating the relationship between Internet identification, Internet anxiety and Internet use. The participants were 446 students (319 females and 127 males) from two universities in the UK and one university in Australia. Measures of Internet identification and Internet anxiety were developed. The majority of participants were NOT anxious about using the Internet, although there were approximately 8% who showed evidence of Internet anxiety. There was a significant and negative relationship between Internet anxiety and Internet use. Those who were more anxious about using the Internet used the Internet less, although the magnitude of effect was small. There was a positive and significant relationship between Internet use and Internet identification. Those who scored high on the measure of Internet identification used the Internet more than those who did not. There was also a significant and negative relationship between Internet anxiety and Internet identification. Finally, males had a significantly higher Internet identification score than females. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Internet anxiety; Internet identification; Internet use
Internet vs. paper and pencil administration of questionnaires commonly used in panic/agoraphobia research BIBAKFull-Text 1421-1434
  Per Carlbring; Sara Brunt; Susanne Bohman; David Austin; Jeffrey Richards; Lars-Göran Öst; Gerhard Andersson
The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of Internet administered questionnaires used in panic research. Included were 494 people who had registered for an Internet-based treatment program for panic disorder (PD). Participants were randomly assigned to fill in the questionnaires either on the Internet or the paper-and-pencil versions, and then to fill in the same questionnaires again the next day using the other format. The questionnaires were the body sensations questionnaire [BSQ; Chambless, D. L., Caputo, G. C., Bright, P., & Gallagher, R. (1984). Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: the body sensations questionnaire and the agoraphobic cognitions questionnaire. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 1090-1097], agoraphobic cognitions questionnaire [ACQ; Chambless, D. L., Caputo, G. C., Bright, P., & Gallagher, R. (1984). Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: the body sensations questionnaire and the agoraphobic cognitions questionnaire. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 1090-1097], mobility inventory [MI; Chambless, D. L., Caputo, G., Jasin, S., Gracely, E. J., & Williams, C. (1985). The mobility inventory for agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 23, 35-44], beck anxiety inventory [BAI; Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 893-897], beck depression inventory II [Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory. Manual, Svensk version (Swedish version). Fagernes, Norway: Psykologiförlaget, AB], quality of life inventory [QOLI; Frisch, M. B., Cornell, J., Villanueva, M., & Retzlaff, P. J. (1992). Clinical validation of the quality of life inventory. A measure of life satisfaction for use in treatment planning and outcome assessment. Psychological Assessment, 4, 92-101], and montgomery Åsberg depression rating scale [MADRS; Svanborg, P., & Åsberg, M. (1994). A new self-rating scale for depression and anxiety states based on the comprehensive psychopathological rating scale. ACTA Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 89, 21-28]. Results showed largely equivalent psychometric properties for the two administration formats (Cronbach's α between 0.79 and 0.95). The results also showed high and significant correlations between the Internet and the paper-and-pencil versions. Analyses of order effects showed an interaction effect for the BSQ and the MI (subscale Accompanied), a main effect was identified for ACQ, MI-Alone, BAI and BDI II. However, in contrast to previous research, the Internet version did not consistently generate higher scores and effect sizes for the differences were generally low. Given the presence of an interaction effect, we recommend that the administration format should be stable in research across measurement points. Finally, the findings suggest that Internet versions of questionnaires used in PD research can be used with confidence.
Keywords: Internet administration; Panic disorder; Questionnaire; Psychometrics
Online recreation: The relationship between loneliness, Internet self-efficacy and the use of the Internet for entertainment purposes BIBAKFull-Text 1435-1446
  Monica T. Whitty; Deborah McLaughlin
In this study, 150 undergraduates answered questions about their Internet usage and completed a loneliness and an Internet self-efficacy questionnaire. A factor analysis of the Internet usage items revealed three facets of online recreation, including, using the Internet for: computer-based entertainment, to facilitate offline entertainment, and for information about the entertainment world. Those who scored higher on loneliness were more likely to use the Internet for computer-based entertainment, as well as, use the Internet to obtain information about the entertainment world. Individuals higher in Internet self-efficacy were more likely to use the Internet for computer-based entertainment and to facilitate offline entertainment. Implications for the study of the psychological influences of the Internet are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Online recreation; Internet; Leisure; Entertainment; Loneliness; Self-efficacy
Problematic Internet use or Internet addiction? BIBAKFull-Text 1447-1453
  Peter M. Yellowlees; Shayna Marks
The aim of this paper is to review the gradually evolving body of the literature on Internet addiction. Two schools of thought have emerged: those authors who believe that Internet addiction merits classification as a new or emerging psychiatric disorder in its own right, and those who define certain individuals as having problematic Internet use in relation to specific online activities, such as gambling, email or pornography. Despite a total lack of methodologically sound research, the evidence appears to support the second perspective. It appears that individuals who are premorbidly vulnerable, especially with a history of impulse control and addictive disorders, are especially at risk of using the Internet in a problematic way. Aside from the personal and social implications of this finding, this behavior has important implications for the workplace and may be resulting in substantial loss of productivity in companies who are not implementing Internet governance policies.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; Internet addiction
An experimental research study on the effect of pictorial icons on a user-learner's performance BIBAKFull-Text 1454-1480
  Maria Lorna A. Kunnath; Richard A. Cornell; Marcella K. Kysilka; Lea Witta
This experimental counterbalanced repeated measures study on the effect of three types of icons (abstract, pictorial and drawing) on the learning and performance of two types of learners (abstract and concrete) was conducted during the Spring 2000-Spring 2001 semesters at the University of Central Florida. The counterbalanced lesson followed by a counterbalanced and completely randomized quiz on three levels was field tested in the Spring-Summer 2000 on 37 UCF graduate students and final tested in the Fall 2000-Spring 2001 on 53 UCF graduate student subjects. A general linear model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that icon type had a significant effect on the learning and performance of both types of learners. Pictorial icons resulted in best scores. No significant interaction was found between icon type and learner type even though on a matched condition, abstract learners with abstract icon resulted in better scores than when concrete learners were matched with concrete (pictorial and drawing) icons. Implications for future research are drawn as well as practical applications identified in the field of teaching, learning, training and performance.
Keywords: Pictorials; Pictorial icons; Interface design; Learning style; User performance; Instructional module
Cognitive interference model of computer anxiety: Implications for computer-based assessment BIBAKFull-Text 1481-1498
  Brooke Smith; Peter Caputi
In this paper, the cognitive interference model of computer anxiety (CIM-CA) is introduced as a theoretical framework for the assessment of computer anxiety and its effect on computer-based test (CBT) performance and test equivalence. Unlike other situation-specific anxieties, research on computer anxiety has not been founded on clear theories or models. Hence, the CIM-CA is intended as a new heuristic framework for representing the dispositions and cognitive processes that predispose individuals to react with state computer anxiety over a range of situations involving computers. In particular, the model focuses on the mediating role of negative computer thoughts on the computer anxiety-performance linkage. The CIM-CA model also provides a theoretical framework for analysing the effect of computer anxiety on CBT performance. Future research opportunities pertaining to the computer anxiety-performance linkage are discussed in the context of computerised cognitive assessment.
Keywords: Computer-based testing; Computer anxiety; Cognitive interference; Task performance
Design of educational and ICT conditions to integrate differences in learning: Contextual learning theory and a first transformation step in early education BIBAKFull-Text 1499-1530
  Ton Mooij
Educational differentiation and ICT can be designed to better recognize and integrate learning differences across students particularly by assisting instructional management and the self-regulation of students. A conceptual framework for such practice is elaborated here. First, learning as an interactional co-constructive process at various levels is considered. The diagnostic, instructional, management, and system aspects of the learning process can be stimulated and maximized. Second, differentiation of learning procedures and materials, design of integrating ICT support, and improvement of development and learning progress are recommended as contextual conditions to optimize the learning process. The combination of the learning aspects with these contextual conditions provides theoretical guidelines for the transition from a nondifferentiating system of education to a differentiating, ICT-based system of instructional management for all students. Information is given about the realization of two of the differentiation guidelines and all ICT design guidelines. The first products were used in kindergarten, to start the improvement of educational practice. This occurred in co-development with kindergarten teachers of three Dutch kindergartens. Information is given about the process and outcomes of this first transformation step in practice. Finally, next co-development steps are discussed.
Keywords: Educational differentiation; ICT-designing; Integration of learning differences; Multilevel modeling; Multilevel transformation theory; Software prototype
Distinguishing addiction and high engagement in the context of online game playing BIBAKFull-Text 1531-1548
  John P. Charlton; Ian D. W. Danforth
This study considered whether the distinction between core and peripheral criteria for behavioral addiction, previously drawn with respect to computing activities in general, applies in the specific area of Massively Multiplayer Online Game playing. Questionnaire items were administered over the Internet to 442 game players. Factor-analysis of the data supported the previous findings for computing in general. An addiction factor loaded on items tapping previously identified core criteria (conflict, withdrawal symptoms, relapse and reinstatement and behavioral salience) and a (non-pathological) engagement factor loaded on items tapping previously identified peripheral criteria (cognitive salience, tolerance and euphoria). Analysis of response frequencies supported the existence of a developmental process whereby peripheral criteria are met before core criteria. Players who might be considered addicted using a monothetic classification system involving only the core criteria were shown to spend a significantly greater amount of time playing per week than those endorsing only the peripheral criteria. It is concluded that the study supports the idea that it is inappropriate to use some of the previously used criteria for addiction when researching or diagnosing computer-related addictions. Implications of the present findings for Internet-mediated data collection methodologies are also discussed.
Keywords: Addiction; Impulse control disorders; Computer games; Computer attitudes; Taxonomies
The medium matters: Mining the long-promised merit of group interaction in creative idea generation tasks in a meta-analysis of the electronic group brainstorming literature BIBAKFull-Text 1549-1581
  Darleen M. DeRosa; Carter L. Smith; Donald A. Hantula
This meta-analysis examines the influence of electronic communication media on group idea generation tasks. Data from the following three areas of the brainstorming literature are synthesized to assess differences across performance variables and group member satisfaction: (1) electronic brainstorming (EBS) groups versus traditional face-to-face (FTF) interacting groups, (2) EBS groups versus nominal groups, and (3) EBS versus electronic nominal (e-nominal) groups. The results of this integration show that EBS groups are more productive and more satisfied with the interaction process than FTF groups. Additionally, large EBS groups outperformed nominal groups, whereas small nominal groups outperformed EBS groups. These findings have important implications for electronic collaboration and teamwork in both academic and organizational settings, especially given the recent proliferation of virtual teamwork.
Keywords: Electronic brainstorming; Idea generation; Meta-analysis
Measuring ERP success: The key-users' viewpoint of the ERP to produce a viable IS in the organization BIBAFull-Text 1582-1596
  Jen-Her Wu; Yu-Min Wang
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are becoming mature technologies to support inter- and intra-company business processes even in small and medium enterprises. However, ERP systems are complex and expensive, and the decision to install an ERP system necessitates a choice of mechanisms for determining whether the ERP is needed, and once implemented, whether it is successful. User satisfaction is one evaluation mechanism for determining system success. This study looked at key-user satisfaction as a means of determining system success.
   Initial analyses of ERP system characteristics important for the environment were explored, and some previously validated user satisfaction instruments were selected for examination, using rigorous and systematic interview techniques and iterative development methods. A questionnaire was developed and then tested to prove its reliability and validity. Finally, a relationship was shown to exist between key-user satisfaction and perceived system success.
The influence of technology readiness on satisfaction and behavioral intentions toward self-service technologies BIBAKFull-Text 1597-1615
  Jiun-Sheng Chris Lin; Pei-Ling Hsieh
Today's competitive world is increasingly characterized by technology-assisted services and transactions. Self-service technologies (SSTs) continue to be a critical component of customer-firm interactions but not all customers like to use SSTs or are ready to use them. In this study, we examine the role of customer's technology readiness (TR) and assess the influence of TR on both satisfaction and behavioral intentions toward SSTs. We first review the relevant literature on technology readiness, satisfaction and behavioral intentions, then explore their relationships, and present our research framework and hypotheses. This model was tested with a sample of 413 consumers. The hypothesized model was statistically significantly supported, indicating that TR does influence customer satisfaction and behavioral intention with SSTs. Implications of the results are then discussed.
Keywords: Technology readiness; Self-service technology; Satisfaction; Behavioral intention
Cognitive load in hypertext reading: A review BIBAKFull-Text 1616-1641
  Diana DeStefano; Jo-Anne LeFevre
A process model of hypertext reading was used to generate predictions about the effects of hypertext features on cognitive processing during text navigation and comprehension. We evaluated the predictions of the model with respect to the extant literature, focusing on studies in which versions of hypertexts were compared. Consistent with our predictions, the increased demands of decision-making and visual processing in hypertext impaired reading performance. Individual differences in readers, such as working memory capacity and prior knowledge, mediated the impact of hypertext features. For example, readers with low working memory and low prior knowledge were usually disadvantaged in hypertext. Some benefits were observed for learners with low prior knowledge, however, if the hypertext structure was hierarchical and consistent with that of the knowledge domain. We also surveyed the effectiveness of structural features designed to reduce cognitive load, including graphical overviews, restricted access to links, and visible link types. Complex graphical overviews did not reliably enable learning and navigation, whereas navigational support from restricted access and visible link types were helpful. We identified gaps in the empirical literature and suggested future studies to investigate cognitive processes in hypertext reading.
Keywords: Hypertext; Working memory; Reading comprehension; Individual differences
Consumer behavior in online game communities: A motivational factor perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1642-1659
  Chin-Lung Hsu; Hsi-Peng Lu
The concept of online communities has been used to improve customers' loyalty in recent years. While studies on transaction community such as online auction have received more attention in the literature, entertainment community such as online game has seldom been addressed. This study applies the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and modifies the technology acceptance model (TAM) to propose a research model. An empirical study involving 356 subjects was conducted to test this model. The results indicate that customer loyalty is influenced by perceived enjoyment, social norms and preference. Perceived cohesion has an indirect impact on loyalty. In addition, the finding's practical implication suggests that community managers must overcome the problems users encounter, including suffering from an unstable system, malicious players and grief players.
Keywords: Online games; Community; Loyalty; TRA; TAM
Anonymity effects in computer-mediated communication in the case of minority influence BIBAKFull-Text 1660-1674
  Félix Moral-Toranzo; Jesús Canto-Ortiz; Luis Gómez-Jacinto
In an experimental study, we analyzed in-group minority social influence within the context of computer-mediated communication (CMC) based on the perspective of the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE). This model hypothesizes that in a group context, in which social identity is salient, anonymity will facilitate influence among the group members. Using a software application, we simulated the creation of a virtual group and the setting of a computer-mediated communication. The interaction between the members of the group centers on the issue of North African immigration. The results show that the influence of an in-group minority (radical pro-immigration) causes changes of opinion, as demonstrated in the two groups participating in the experimental test (anonymous and identifiable users). However, the differences in such changes between the identifiable and the anonymous groups are not statistically significant, whereas for two dependent variables from the opinion questionnaire, (i.e., "strong" anti-immigration and pro-immigration), they are significant when these two groups are compared to the control group. Therefore, the postulates of the SIDE model are only partially confirmed. We offer some explanations for the results obtained, and outline different aspects involved in the process of social influence via CMC.
Keywords: Anonymity; Communication; Social influences; Social identity
Enhancing information sharing in group support systems (GSS) BIBAKFull-Text 1675-1691
  Vichita Vathanophas; Seet Yong Liang
Decision-making groups collectively have a larger information pool than any individual within the group. When groups employ group support systems (GSS) for discussion, task-relevant information that is common to all is exchanged more frequently than information that is unique to one person alone. Not only that, GSS groups also exhibit a lack of information processing with regards to unique information that members contribute during group discussion. A laboratory experiment was used to evaluate (1) the level of information exchange in GSS groups and (2) the effects of expertise role-assignment on the pooling and processing of unique information in GSS groups given two different pre-discussion information distributions. Forty-eight 3-members groups participated in a group judgment task, which required them to decide the most likely murderer from 3 suspects, in a murder case. Results indicated that regular GSS groups tend to pool more common information and partially shared information as compared to unique information. When role-assigned, GSS groups pooled more unique information during discussion and retained more unique information after discussion than non-role-assigned groups. As a result, role-assigned GSS groups had sufficient information to identify the most likely murderer in the murder mystery, as compared to regular GSS groups.
Keywords: Group support systems; Information exchange; Information sharing; Expertise assignment
Lessons learned from i-mode: What makes consumers click wireless banner ads? BIBAKFull-Text 1692-1719
  Shintaro Okazaki
This paper attempts to propose a structural model that integrates various factors influencing attitude towards wireless banner ads and intention to access them. This model is applied to empirical data of Japanese mobile users sampled in the greater Tokyo area. First, structural equation modelling is used to test the baseline model. The results show that the model explains mobile users' perceptual antecedents and consequences well, with all structural paths statistically significant. Second, in the attempt to identify different mobile user groups, a probabilistic cluster analysis is performed. This results in three-cluster groups, consisting of (1) housewives and part-timers, (2) middle-aged white-collar workers and professionals, and (3) students and "parasite singles". Finally, multigroup analysis is used to examine whether the model operates invariantly across the three-cluster groups. The results indicate significant differences in the paths associated with consumer innovativeness and perceived entertainment between the groups. In closing, managerial implications and future research directions are discussed, while important limitations are recognised.
Keywords: Advertising; Consumer behaviour; i-Mode; Innovation; Internet; Mobile device

CHB 2007-07 Volume 23 Issue 4

Exploring dimensions to online learning BIBAKFull-Text 1721-1739
  Raafat George Saadé; Xin He; Dennis Kira
The study presented in this paper sought to explore several dimensions to online learning. Identifying the dimensions to online learning entails important basic issues which are of great relevance to educators today. The primary question is "what are the factors that contribute to the success/failure of online learning?" In order to answer this question, we need to identify the important variables that: (1) measure the learning outcome and (2) help us understand the learning experience of students using specific learning tools. In this study, the dimensions we explored are student's attitude, affect, motivation and perception of an Online Learning Tool usage. A survey methodology was used such that validated items from previous relevant research work were adopted. 105 students completed the questionnaire. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was implemented on the data captured. Results of the EFA identified the items that are relevant to the present context and the items that can be used to measure the dimension to online learning. Affect and perception were found to have strong measurement capabilities with the adopted items while motivation was measured the weakest.
Keywords: Dimensions; Affect; Perceptions; Motivation; Learning; Attitudes
Paradoxical effects of information presentation formats and contextual interference on transfer of a complex cognitive skill BIBAKFull-Text 1740-1761
  Marcel B. M. de Croock; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer
In a 2 × 2 factorial design the effects of (1) information presentation format and (2) contextual interference on training behavior, transfer performance and mental effort were studied for learning troubleshooting skills with a computer-based simulation. Participants studied information about the functioning of an alcohol distillery system (system principles) prior to practicing troubleshooting skills. Regarding the first factor, an expository (Exp) format, in which system principles, examples and a troubleshooting strategy were presented in a textual form, was compared to an inquisitory (Inq) format, in which participants had to predict the behavior of the system after they studied the system principles and in which demonstrations of the troubleshooting strategy were given. With regard to the second factor, a low contextual interference (LCI) condition in which participants practiced to diagnose types of system failures in a blocked schedule was compared to a high contextual interference (HCI) condition, in which different failure types were practiced in a random schedule. The main hypothesis is that the Inq and HCI conditions promote the development of cognitive schemata that enable learners to diagnose a malfunctioning system component by interpreting symptoms in terms of violations of system principles. Hence, they are expected to show higher transfer performance than participants in the traditional Exp and LCI conditions, who are believed to develop schemata containing associations between symptoms and malfunctioning components that are context-bound and less useful for diagnosing new failures. Contrary to the predictions, the traditional conditions (Exp and LCI) showed higher performance on a transfer test two weeks after training. Possible explanations for this result are discussed.
Keywords: Computer simulations; Instructional design; Training; Transfer; Troubleshooting
Computer attitudes of primary and secondary students in South Africa BIBAKFull-Text 1762-1776
  Chantal Bovée; Joke Voogt; Martina Meelissen
This study investigated computer attitudes of 240 students from eight primary and secondary schools in South Africa. The student population of six of the eight schools that participated in the study can be characterised as middle or upper class. Two schools were from South African townships. All eight schools used computers for educational purposes, although the availability and use of the computers differed. The research question of the study was whether differences in computer attitude could be found between boys and girls, and to what extent these differences could be explained by student, school, and environment characteristics. In contrast to most studies on gender differences and computer attitudes, no gender differences in computer attitudes were found. However, this study showed differences in computer attitudes between students from the upper/middle class schools and students from the township schools. The latter showed a less positive attitude towards computers, but more interest in computer-related careers compared with the students in the upper/middle class schools. The study found that computer access and experience, which was significantly lower in the township schools, was also related to computer attitude.
Keywords: Technology; Attitude; Gender; Social economic status; Primary education; Secondary education
New bottle but old wine: A research of cyberbullying in schools BIBAKFull-Text 1777-1791
  Qing Li
This study investigates the nature and the extent of adolescences' experience of cyberbullying. A survey study of 177 grade seven students in an urban city is conducted. In this paper, "cyberbullying" refers to bullying via electronic communication tools. The results show that almost 54% of the students were victims of traditional bullying and over a quarter of them had been cyber-bullied. Almost one in three students had bullied others in the traditional form, and almost 15% had bullied others using electronic communication tools. Almost 60% of the cyber victims are females, while over 52% of cyber-bullies are males. Majority of the cyber-bully victims and bystanders did not report the incidents to adults.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Adolescents; Victimization
Measuring e-learning systems success in an organizational context: Scale development and validation BIBAKFull-Text 1792-1808
  Yi-Shun Wang; Hsiu-Yuan Wang; Daniel Y. Shee
Electronic learning (e-learning) has been widely adopted as a promising solution by many companies to offer learning-on-demand opportunities to individual employees in order to reduce training time and cost. While information systems (IS) success models have received much attention among researchers, little research has been conducted to assess the success and/or effectiveness of e-learning systems in an organizational context. Whether traditional IS success models can be extended to investigate e-learning systems success has been scarcely addressed. Based on previous IS success literature, this study developed and validated a multi-dimensional model for assessing e-learning systems success (ELSS) from the perspective of the employee (e-learner). The procedures used in conceptualizing an ELSS construct, generating items, collecting data, and validating a multiple-item scale for measuring ELSS are described. This paper presents evidence of the scale's factor structure, reliability, content validity, criterion-related validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity on the basis of analyzing data from a sample of 206 respondents. Theoretical and managerial implications of our results are discussed. This empirically validated instrument will be useful to researchers in developing and testing e-learning systems theories, as well as to organizations in implementing successful e-learning systems.
Keywords: Electronic learning (e-learning); Systems success; Measurement model; Scale development
Acquisition of troubleshooting skills in a computer simulation: Worked example vs. conventional problem solving instructional strategies BIBAKFull-Text 1809-1819
  A. Aubteen Darabi; David W. Nelson; Srinivas Palanki
In a computer-based simulation of a chemical processing plant, the differential effects of three instructional strategies for learning how to troubleshoot the plant's malfunctions were investigated. In an experiment concerning learners' transfer performance and mental effort, the simulation presented the three strategies to three groups of learners and measured their performance on the transfer tasks. In this experiment, conventional problem solving was contrasted with two worked example strategies. The results indicated a significant difference between practicing problem solving and using worked examples. Learners who practiced problem solving in an interactive simulation outperformed the learners who studied computer-based worked examples. They also invested lower mental effort in transfer tasks. When accounting for the difference in the learners' domain knowledge, the strategies were not significantly different among the more experienced learners. For the less experienced learners, those who practiced problem solving significantly outperformed their worked example counterparts. Among all participants and also among less experienced learners the problem solving group invested significantly lower mental effort in the performance of transfer tasks. Based on the results of this study, the authors recommend the use of the conventional problem solving strategy with or without worked examples for learning complex skills.
Keywords: Simulation-based training; Computer-based training; Worked examples; Troubleshooting; Problem solving; Practice
Describing the strategies used for dealing with email interruptions according to different situational parameters BIBAKFull-Text 1820-1837
  Emma Russell; Lynne Millward Purvis; Adrian Banks
Interruptions research is heavily reliant on a paradigm involving 'enforced interruption'. Email use however constitutes a special form of 'controlled interruption'. As there is no precedent available in the existing literature to describe what strategies people use to deal with 'controlled interruption', an exploratory first study was undertaken using an open-ended interview design. Twenty-eight email users working within UK organisations were asked about how they dealt with email interruptions, when faced with different situational or task parameters. Qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts revealed a wide range of strategies used for dealing with email in general, and for specific situations in particular, with idiosyncratic differences in application. These findings are consistent with the predictions of Action Regulation Theory [Hacker, W. (1985). Activity: A fruitful concept in industrial psychology. In M. Frese, J. Sabini (Eds.), Goal directed behaviour: The concept of action in psychology. London, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (Chapter 18); The German Journal of Psychology 18(2) (1994) 91-120] - that people select strategies (action programs) for achieving a task according to the specific parameters of the task or goal. However, the findings go further in highlighting the salience of individual differences in underwriting one's choice of strategy (or action program). Further research is required to understand which strategies are linked to effective performance, and how individual differences influence strategic decision making in multi-goal work environments.
Keywords: Interruptions; Email; Strategies; Goals; Control; Action Regulation Theory
Perceived usefulness, personal experiences, risk perception and trust as determinants of adoption of e-government services in The Netherlands BIBAKFull-Text 1838-1852
  Mark Horst; Margôt Kuttschreuter; Jan M. Gutteling
Recently Dutch government, as well as many other governments around the world, has digitized a major portion of its public services. With this development electronic services finally arrive at the transaction level. The risks of electronic services on the transactional level are more profound than at the informational level. The public needs to trust the integrity and 'information management capacities' of the government or other involved organizations, as well as trust the infrastructure and those managing the infrastructure. In this process, the individual citizen will have to decide to adopt the new electronic government services by weighing its benefits and risks. In this paper, we present a study which aims to identify the role of risk perception and trust in the intention to adopt government e-services.
   In January 2003, a sample of 238 persons completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire tapped people's intention to adopt e-government electronic services. Based on previous research and theories on technology acceptance, the questionnaire measured perceived usefulness of e-services, risk perception, worry, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, trust and experience with e-services. Structural equation modelling was used to further analyze the data (Amos) and to design a theoretical model predicting the individual's intention to adopt e-services. This analysis showed that the perceived usefulness of electronic services in general is the main determinant of the intention to use e-government services. Risk perception, personal experience, perceived behavioural control and subjective norm were found to significantly predict the perceived usefulness of electronic services in general, while trust in e-government was the main determinant of the perceived usefulness of e-government services.
Keywords: e-Services; e-Government; Risk perception; Trust; Structural equation modelling
Factors affecting the implementation success of Internet-based information systems BIBAKFull-Text 1853-1880
  Sangjae Lee; Kyoung-jae Kim
The Internet has come to revolutionize the way in which business conducts commercial activities. In this paper, we report on the development of a model of Internet-based information systems (IIS) implementation in business-to-consumer electronic commerce based on IS implementation and technology innovation-implementation studies. Our research model suggests that eight factors, comprising the characteristics of IIS technology innovation, organizational factors, and IS related factors, affect the implementation success of IIS. IIS themselves are characterized by three dimensions: volume, sophistication, and information contents. The suggested model was empirically tested using survey results from Korean companies that have adopted IIS. The results of multivariate regression analysis reveal that compatibility and IS infrastructure are key determinants of the extent of IIS implementation (in terms of volume, sophistication, and information contents). IS expertise potentially affects the extent of IIS implementation.
Keywords: Internet-based information systems; Implementation success
Increasing participation in online communities: A framework for human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 1881-1893
  Jonathan Bishop
Online communities are becoming an accepted part of the lives of Internet users, although participation in these communities is dependent on the types of people that form them. Some of the online community's members do not participate, people referred to as lurkers, whereas others who have been in the community for a long time, referred to as elders, participate regularly and support others. Understanding what drives these individuals and how they chose whether or not to participate will lead to online communities that thrive. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to describe what drives such individuals to carry out actions such as posting messages and adding content (level 1), the cognitions they use to determine whether or not to take such actions (level 2) and the means by which they go about carrying out the action in the environment (level 3). Finally, the framework is applied to the problem of encouraging members to participate by discussing the methods by which people can be persuaded to participate by changing the way they interpret their desires and their environment.
Keywords: Online community; Lurkers; Behavior; Persuasion; Cognitive dissonance; Ecological cognition
Effects of emotional cues transmitted in e-mail communication on the emotions experienced by senders and receivers BIBAKFull-Text 1894-1905
  Yuuki Kato; Shogo Kato; Kanji Akahori
This paper focuses on communication by e-mail. An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence the degree of emotional cues transmitted during e-mail communication has on the emotions experienced by the senders and receivers. Twenty-two participants of this experiment were divided into two groups based on the degrees of emotional cues transmitted: a High group and a Low group. The emotions experienced in the e-mail communication by the High group were then compared to that of the Low group. The results of this experiment showed a tendency for unpleasant emotions such as anger and anxiety to increase when emotional cues transmitted are low (i.e., the Low group). The findings suggest that low degrees of emotional cues transmitted between senders and receivers in e-mail communication tend to cause some misunderstanding.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; E-mail; Emotional cues transmission
An activity-theoretical approach to investigate learners' factors toward e-learning systems BIBAKFull-Text 1906-1920
  Shu-Sheng Liaw; Hsiu-Mei Huang; Gwo-Dong Chen
The Internet and World Wide Web have provided opportunities of developing e-learning systems. The development of e-learning systems has started a revolution for instructional content delivering, learning activities, and social communication. Based on activity theory, the purpose of this research is to investigate learners' attitude factors toward e-learning systems. A total 168 participants were asked to answer a questionnaire. After factor analysis, learners' attitudes can be grouped four different factors -- e-learning as a learner autonomy environment, e-learning as a problem-solving environment, e-learning as a multimedia learning environment, and teachers as assisted tutors in e-learning. In addition, this research approves that activity theory is an appropriate theory for understanding e-learning systems. Furthermore, this study also provides evidence that e-learning as a problem-solving environment can be positively influenced by three other factors.
Keywords: E-learning; Activity theory; Problem solving; Multimedia instruction; Learner autonomy; Teacher as assisted tutor
Differences that do matter: A dialectic analysis of individual characteristics and personality dimensions contributing to computer anxiety BIBAKFull-Text 1921-1942
  Appa Rao Korukonda
Computer anxiety, as defined and operationalized in the human-computer studies literature, has been synonymous with negative thoughts and attitudes about the use of computers. This approach, together with correlational analyses that have formed the mainstay of research on computer anxiety, invokes two important points. First, it can be argued that computer anxiety, by definition, implies an attitude that is indicative of an extremity of thoughts and dispositions. Second, if one were to reject the strictly clinical definition of computer anxiety and adopt the more traditional measurements as well as the attendant statistical analyses based on the full sample, there is the clear possibility of dilution of statistically significant relations by observations in the middle range.
   This paper adopts Weil and Rosen's [Weil, M. M., & Rosen, L. D. (1995). The psychological impact of technology from a global perspective: a study of technological sophistication and computer anxiety in university students from twenty-three countries. Computers in Human Behavior, 11(1), 95-133] definition of computer anxiety in terms of anxiety about interactions with computers and negative global attitudes, and "negative cognitions" or "self-critical internal dialogs". Using data from a study of 242 graduate and undergraduate students at a small private university in Western New York, the sample is segmented into high and low computer anxiety groups. These groups are then tested for significant differences in individual characteristics, including the Big Five personality dimensions, computer experience, math and verbal skills, and cognitive orientation. It is found that three of the personality dimensions (Neuroticism, Openness, and Agreeableness), one aspect of cognitive orientation (Flexibility), and verbal skills show statistically significant differences between the two groups. The evidence with respect to math skills and computer experience is mixed. Interpretation of results is presented. Limitations, delimitations, and potential directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Computer stress; Technophobia; Personality
The comparative efficacy of 2D- versus 3D-based media design for influencing spatial visualization skills BIBAKFull-Text 1943-1957
  Hao-Chuan Wang; Chun-Yen Chang; Tsai-Yen Li
This study explored the effects of 2D- versus 3D-based media representations on the influence of the spatial visualization ability of undergraduate science majors. A pre-test/post-test comparison-group experiment was conducted with 23 participants involved in the study. Participating students were randomly assigned either to the interactive 3D media representation group (n = 13) or the conventional 2D media representation group (n = 10); learning materials in both groups deliver the same information to students, but employ different media representations. All the activities were performed in a self-paced, web-based instructional system. The results of ANCOVA analysis showed statistically insignificant difference between groups in terms of students' post-test scores on the spatial visualization ability test with the students' pre-test scores as the covariate. However, a medium effect size was observed in favor of the 3D group in terms of practical significance. As a pilot study with a small sample size aiming to probe the research direction of this problem, the result of medium-sized effect magnitude is likely to implicate that the discrepancy of different representational design on students' performance of spatial ability assessment is noteworthy. Future study of this nature appears to merit further replications and investigations.
Keywords: Spatial ability; Media representation
Reliability, equivalence and respondent preference of computerized versus paper-and-pencil mental health questionnaires BIBAKFull-Text 1958-1970
  K. Wijndaele; L. Matton; N. Duvigneaud; J. Lefevre; W. Duquet; M. Thomis; I. De Bourdeaudhuij; R. Philippaerts
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, equivalence and respondent preference of a computerized version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R), Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOSSSS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Utrecht Coping List (UCL) in comparison with the original version in a general adult population. Internal consistency, equivalence and preference between both administration modes was assessed in a group of participants (n = 130) who first completed the computerized questionnaire, followed by the traditional questionnaire and a post-assessment evaluation measure. Test-retest reliability was measured in a second group of participants (n = 115), who completed the computerized questionnaire twice. In both groups, the interval between first and second administration was set at one week. Reliability of the PC versions was acceptable to excellent; internal consistency ranged from α = 0.52-0.98, ICC's for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.58-0.92. Equivalence was fair to excellent with ICC's ranging from 0.54-0.91. Interestingly, more subjects preferred the computerized instead of the traditional questionnaires (computerized: 39.2%, traditional: 21.6%, no preference: 39.2%). These results support the use of computerized assessment for these five instruments in a general population of adults.
Keywords: Computer; Paper-and-pencil; Assessment; Reliability; Equivalence; Questionnaire
Assessing tenth-grade students' problem solving ability online in the area of Earth sciences BIBAKFull-Text 1971-1981
  Chun-Yen Chang; James P. Barufaldi; Ming-Chao Lin; Yi-Chun Chen
This study examined tenth-grade students' (n = 263) problem solving ability (PSA) online through assessing students' domain-specific knowledge (DSK) and reasoning skills (RS) in Earth sciences as well as their attitudes toward (AT) Earth sciences related topics in a secondary school of Taiwan. The students' PSA was evaluated based on a previous model (Chang, C. Y. (2004, November 26-27). Trends in assessing student earth science problem solving ability: the importance of domain-specific knowledge and reasoning skills in earth sciences. Paper presented at the Seoul Conference for International Earth Science Olympiad (IESO), Seoul, Korea; Chang, C. Y., & Barufaldi, J. P. (submitted). Does problem solving = prior knowledge + reasoning skills in science? An exploratory study. Journal of Experimental Education; Chang, C. Y., & Weng, Y. H. (2002). An exploratory study on students' problem-solving ability in earth science. International Journal of Science Education, 24(5), 441-452) which empirically established that students' PSA is a composite of DSK, RS and AT subscales. Major findings are as follows: (a) The correlation coefficient among students' DSK, RS and AT was relatively small, indicating that these subscales might have successfully represented different constructs of students' PSA; (b) a significantly positive correlation existed between students' PSA total scores and each subscale. It is, therefore, suggested that students' PSA may be potentially assessed online by measuring their essential components in the area of Earth sciences.
Keywords: Problem solving; Secondary school; Science education; Assessment
Planning optimal paths: A simple assessment of survey spatial knowledge in virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 1982-1996
  Francesca Morganti; Antonella Carassa; Giuliano Geminiani
In spatial cognition studies several cognitive factors were analysed in order to identify the aspect that could constitute the basis for the capacity of organising spatial knowledge into survey maps.
   This study presents a method for evaluating spatial ability, based on the capacity of obtaining a survey-type spatial knowledge organisation, in a recently explored virtual environment. The ability to plan optimal paths in virtual environments was examined in 40 female adult subjects. Spatial evaluation deriving from navigation of a simple virtual environment was compared with classical spatial survey tasks (wayfinding, pointing and sketch maps) performed after the active exploration of a complex virtual environment.
   Results show that there is a relationship between planning optimal paths and other spatial tasks related to survey representation.
   These findings highlight how the navigation-supported learning capacity results in a predictive factor for individuals' assessment of spatial ability.
Keywords: Spatial cognition; Virtual reality; Survey map; Planning in advance; Individual ability
DIANA: A computer-supported heterogeneous grouping system for teachers to conduct successful small learning groups BIBAKFull-Text 1997-2010
  Dai-Yi Wang; Sunny S. J. Lin; Chuen-Tsai Sun
Teachers interested in small-group learning can benefit from using psychological factors to create heterogeneous groups. In this paper we describe a computer-supported grouping system named DIANA that uses genetic algorithms to achieve fairness, equity, flexibility, and easy implementation. Grouping was performed so as to avoid the creation of exceptionally weak groups. We tested DIANA with 66 undergraduate computer science students assigned to groups of three either randomly (10 groups) or using an algorithm reflecting [Sternberg, R. J. (1994). Thinking styles: theory and assessment at the interface between intelligence and personality. In R. J. Sternberg, & P. Ruzgis (Eds.), Personality and Intelligence (pp. 169-187). New York: Cambridge University Press.] three thinking styles (12 groups). The results indicate that: (a) the algorithm-determined groups were more capable of completing whatever they were "required to do" at a statistically significant level, (b) both groups were equally capable of solving approximately 80% of what they "chose to do," and (c) the algorithm-determined groups had smaller inter-group variation in performance. Levels of satisfaction with fellow group member attitudes, the cooperative process, and group outcomes were also higher among members of the algorithm-determined groups. Suggestions for applying computer-supported group composition systems are offered.
Keywords: Cooperative learning; Small-group learning; Computer assisted grouping system; Group composition; Thinking styles; University students
Does 'cyber-conformity' vary cross-culturally? Exploring the effect of culture and communication medium on social conformity BIBAKFull-Text 2011-2025
  Marco Cinnirella; Ben Green
Previous research has established that individuals from collectivistic cultures tend to conform more than their counterparts from individualistic cultures do [Bond, R., & Smith, P.B. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's (1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin 119(1) 111-137]. However, there is presently a dearth of research exploring the degree to which this kind of cross-cultural difference is also present in computer-mediated communication (CMC) contexts where group members are never met face-to-face (f-t-f). A normative social influence paradigm of line-length judgment (based on Asch [Asch, S.E., (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American 193(5) 31-35]) was employed to investigate the effects of communication medium (f-t-f against CMC) and culture (participants from individualistic cultures against those from collectivist cultures). A communication type × culture interaction was found, in which the expected cultural differences were demonstrated only in the face-to-face conditions, being absent in computer-mediated conditions.
Keywords: Conformity; Computer-mediated-communication; Individualism-collectivism; Culture
The use of virtual environments based on a modification of the computer game Quake III Arena® in psychological experimenting BIBAKFull-Text 2026-2039
  Andreas Frey; Johannes Hartig; André Ketzel; Axel Zinkernagel; Helfried Moosbrugger
We investigated whether newly developed virtual 3D environments (VEs) based on a modification of the computer game Quake III Arena® are suitable for psychological experimenting. Internal validity of data collected in VEs may be threatened due to a priori individual differences in general performance in VE navigation and in susceptibility to cybersickness. The main question was whether individual differences in performance can be diminished by means of training. Additionally, the susceptibility of different subsamples to cybersickness when moving within VEs was examined. 85 participants took part in an experiment where they had to fulfill simple tasks in three VEs. Navigation performance was measured as the time participants needed to make their way through the VEs. Differences in navigation performance between different levels of experience were diminished by training, indicating that internal validity can be obtained. A classification tree reveals that game-inexperienced female participants aged over 31 years have the highest risk of experiencing cybersickness. VEs based on modifications of computer games seem to be an extremely promising and inexpensive possibility for the administration of psychological experiments.
Keywords: Virtual environment; Virtual reality; Experimental psychology; Computer games
A usability study on human-computer interface for middle-aged learners BIBAKFull-Text 2040-2063
  Jyh-Rong Chou; Shih-Wen Hsiao
"Usability" is considered to be inherent in human-computer interface because it expresses the relationship between end users and computer applications. In this paper, we conducted a study to examine the usability of human-computer interface for middle-aged learners in Taiwan. There are two phases contained in the study: (1) an elementary computer-training task, and (2) a usability analysis of human-computer interface. Making use of a questionnaire survey, correlation analysis, and the grey relational model, some user characteristics and learning behavior were derived. For example, regarding middle-aged learners, the usability of present mouse and monitor devices is preferable to that of the keyboard device and a Windows-based software interface. Educational level is the major factor influencing middle-aged learners' use of computer interfaces. To unemployed middle-aged learners, more males than females were found to exhibit the phenomenon of computerphobia. The younger age learners show lower anxiety and hold more positive attitudes toward computer learning than the older-aged ones. Besides, the higher education learners hold much more positive expectation toward computer learning while the lower education learners pay more attention to their learning capability and deficiency.
Keywords: Usability; Human-computer interface; Computer training; Use of computer; Learning
Toward operationalization of 'flow' in mathematics learnware BIBAKFull-Text 2064-2092
  Kamran Sedig
Many children are not motivated to learn mathematics. Flow, a type of intrinsic motivation, has been described as an optimal experience in which a learner can derive great joy from a learning activity. This paper examines the importance and application of flow while learning mathematics. An operational model of flow for designing children's mathematics learnware is proposed. This model is intended to operationalize the characteristics of flow in mathematics learnware in an integrated manner, facilitating the flow experience for children. The suitability of the model is demonstrated through an instantiated operational learnware called Super Tangrams. Super Tangrams aims to facilitate children's understanding of transformation geometry while making the learning activity enjoyable and a flow experience. A study is reported that evaluates if the operational instance of the model promotes the flow experience while learning mathematics. The results suggest that the model is highly effective.
Keywords: Motivation; Computer-mediated mathematics learning; Children; Optimal psychological experience; Educational games; Learning-experience design
Erratum to: "Social desirability effects on computerized and paper-and-pencil questionnaires" [Computers in Human Behavior 23 (2007) 463-477] BIBFull-Text 2093
  Stephanie Booth-Kewley; Gerald E. Larson; Dina K. Miyoshi

CHB 2007-09 Volume 23 Issue 5

E-critical/thematic doing history project: Integrating the critical thinking approach with computer-mediated history learning BIBAKFull-Text 2095-2112
  Shu Ching Yang
The study investigated how inclination towards critical thinking about history, and also knowledge of history could be nurtured through E-critical/thematic doing history project. Thirty-three participants from a junior high school participated in a history workshop as an extracurricular school activity. Using a one-group pretest-posttest design, the history-learning questionnaire was employed to determine the effectiveness of doing history projects in promoting critical historical thinking skills among the subject group. A self-evaluation of the program, observation of student learning, and semi-structural interviews also were performed. The study found that history projects could scaffold learner development of historical and critical thinking. Students developed more positive and critical attitudes toward learning.
Keywords: Computer-mediated history learning; Critical thinking; Doing history project; Historical inquiry
The use of group support systems in focus groups: Information technology meets qualitative research BIBAKFull-Text 2113-2132
  Esther E. Klein; Thomas Tellefsen; Paul J. Herskovitz
This paper explores focus groups supported by group support systems (GSS) with anonymous interaction capability in two configurations: same time/same place and same time/different place. After reviewing the literature, we compare and contrast these anonymity-featured GSS-supported focus groups with traditional focus groups and discuss their benefits and limitations. We suggest directions for future research concerning GSS-supported focus groups with respect to technological implications (typing skills and connection speeds), national culture (high and low context; power distance), and lying behavior (adaptation of model of Hancock, J. T., Thom-Santelli, J., & Ritchie, T. (2004). Deception and design: The impact of communication technology on lying behavior. Proceedings of the 2004 conference on human factors in computing systems (pp. 129-134), whereby lying is a function of three design factors: synchronicity, recordability, and distributedness).
Keywords: Anonymity; Computer-mediated communication; Focus groups; Group support systems; Jury research; Marketing research; Qualitative research
Clinical psychology offers in the internet in Spain BIBAKFull-Text 2133-2143
  Miguel A. Vallejo; Carlos Jordán; Guillermo Mañanes; Asunción Andrés; María I. Comeche; Marta I. Díaz
This paper analyzes the situation of on-line clinical psychology in Spain. Internet is becoming one of the principal tools for people to access to psychological information. Thus, users will be biased by the contents of the sites they contact to. Psychologists should pay attention to what kind of services are being spread through the Internet. To do this, a few characteristics such us interaction, security, theoretical approach or treated disorders have been revised in 185 Spanish psychology websites. Results shows that there are critical differences between public and private sites suggesting that the public sector should make un effort to keep up with the advances on this field, that private sites could improve their services in some ways such as security or the interaction user-professional and some interesting findings referred to the relation between the theoretical approach of the sites and the kind of help they provide.
Keywords: Clinical psychology; Internet
Computer-mediated critical doing history project BIBAKFull-Text 2144-2162
  Shu Ching Yang; Li-Jung Huang
The goal of computer-mediated critical (CMC) doing history project was to offer students an opportunity to become researchers of history by using technology to engage in historical enquiry. The project integrates Paul's critical thinking modules, Hexter's Doing History model and Anderson-Inman and Kessinger Gather Model, as well as using primary sources on the Internet to have learners engage in historian-like knowledge building activities. Thirty-three participants from a junior high school joined the history workshop as an extracurricular school activity. The researchers collected information through surveys, online discussion, and assignments; then conducted data analysis on the findings. The collected data were qualitatively analyzed to identify the themes related to the changes and critical abilities in students' thinking about history.
   The study found that the thoughtful and creative use of computer technology, combined with critical thinking in conducting historical inquiry, contributes to learners' historical knowledge, critical thinking skills, and interest in learning history. The students were positive about their gains in computer literacy, motivation to learn history, as well as their knowledge of history and research skills. A valuable finding was that the majority of the students went through epistemological shifts towards viewing learning history as a constructive, analytic, investigative activity. Through the doing history project, learners' critical historical thinking is promoted to varying degrees, and that most learners are capable of developing a thoughtful and critical disposition toward history learning. However, although learners value the interactive communication and considered it a worthwhile endeavor to broaden their understanding of the history, learners did not engage in deep interactions from both quality and quantity of their online participation. Moreover, given the time limitation of 4 months, an only slightly higher level of historical causal reasoning was found in their knowledge building. Despite the fact that a concept of historical critical thinking was germinated in students' minds, there was still much to learn for mastery of the subject and much to be desired in scaffolding learners' historical reasoning. The paper concludes with some recommendations for the future design of technology in history learning.
Keywords: Computer-mediated learning; Critical historical thinking; Doing history project; Computer-mediated communication
Perceiving artificial social agents BIBAFull-Text 2163-2174
  T. M. Holtgraves; S. J. Ross; C. R. Weywadt; T. L. Han
Three experiments were conducted to examine perceptions of a natural language computer interface (conversation bot). Participants in each study chatted with a conversation bot and then indicated their perceptions of the bot on various dimensions. Although participants were informed that they were interacting with a computer program, participants clearly viewed the program as having human-like qualities. Participants agreed substantially in their perceptions of the bot's personality on the traits from the five-factor model (Experiment 1). In addition, factors that influence perceptions of human personalities (e.g., whether one uses another's first name and response latency) also affected perceptions of a bot's personality (Experiments 2 and 3). Similar to interactions with humans, the bot's perceived neuroticism was inversely related to how long individuals chatted with it.
Social reactions toward people vs. computers: How mere labels shape interactions BIBAFull-Text 2175-2189
  E. Aharoni; A. J. Fridlund
What criteria afford a machine the status of a social agent? In this investigation, the mere label identifying an oral interviewer as human or computer was sufficient to affect participants' responses toward the interviewer during an online interview for a competitive mock job. Participants' impressions of the interviewer and self-reported emotional reactions to the interview were unaffected by the interviewer's identity. Despite this invariance, however, participants exhibited more interpersonal displays when the interviewer was identified as human. Overall, these results show that participants engaged in heightened impression management strategies (deferral to, or attempts to engage or appease) with the "human" interviewer. The computer interviewer did not merit equivalent social status.
The expression of social presence through the use of figurative language in a web-based learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 2190-2211
  Manuela Delfino; Stefania Manca
The present paper's aim is to investigate how the participants of an online learning environment employed written language in a creative way through the spontaneous use of figurative language. The content analysis showed that figurative language was a means to express the social dimension either to refer to the self, feelings and emotions, or to conceptualize the components of the virtual learning setting. The research context was a 10-week course, delivered at a distance via a computer conferencing system, addressed to 57 student teachers. The analysis was carried out in the social and meta-cognitive reflection areas, those areas which are mainly related to the expression of the social dimension The study had three different purposes: to investigate the distribution of figurative language during the course length; to explore the relation between the participants' educational background and their use of figurative language, and to examine the relation between figurative language and the structure of the communication threads. The results indicate that participants tended to use figurative language more when meaningful or critical events happened. The higher the emotional involvement was, the more metaphorical language was adopted. Further results suggest that the adoption of figurative language seems to be related more to individual attitude, than to other factors such as educational background. Finally, figurative language occurrences were not concentrated in specific kinds of postings or threads and did not encourage further use of figurative language.
Keywords: Web-based learning; Social presence; Emotions; Figurative language; Computer-mediated discourse analysis
Developing geometry thinking through multimedia learning activities BIBAKFull-Text 2212-2229
  Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung; Song-Ying Lin
In this study, a multimedia learning software program named GeoCAL is described. It is based on van Hiele's geometric thinking level theory, which consists of four levels: recognition, visual association, description/analysis, and abstraction/relation. In addition to presenting the software design, this study also explores the learning effects of GeoCAL on each of the geometric thinking levels and on overall geometric thinking. The subjects of this study are second-grade elementary school students of an average age of eight who have not previously had formal lessons in geometry. The experimental results indicate that, with the exception of recognition ability, GeoCAL produces significant learning effects on visual association, description/analysis and abstraction/relation as well as overall geometric thinking.
Keywords: Computer-assisted learning; Multimedia learning; van Hiele's geometric thinking level theory; Geometry learning
Attitudinal and experiential predictors of technological expertise BIBAKFull-Text 2230-2239
  Janet Morahan-Martin; Phyllis Schumacher
This study sought to clarify which computer and Internet skills and experiences differentiate technological expertise and to identify predictors of this expertise. Two hundred and fifty-eight incoming university students were surveyed on Internet and computer experiences, skills, and attitudes. Six specific Internet and computer uses that differentiate technological expertise were identified based on frequency of use. Males and those who own computers had greater technological expertise. Factor analyses identified two skill factors (Internet skills, Computer/Math skills), three experience factors (Internet, Computer, Recreational Use of Internet), five attitude factors (Importance of Internet and computer knowledge, Computer aversive, Internet and computer comfort/competency, Internet and computer overuse, Technology aversive). These factors as well as gender, computer ownership, and weekly computer and Internet use were entered as independent variables in a general linear model (GLM) which was then used to determine which factors affected technological expertise. The overall GLM was significant (R² = .414, F = 5.85, p < .001). Internet and computer skills and computer abuse were the strongest predictors of technological expertise. Weekly Internet use, Internet and computer comfort/competency also were predictors, and gender was almost significant (p = .056) as a predictor. Neither computer ownership nor other Internet and computer attitudes were significant predictors.
Keywords: Technological expertise; Computer attitudes; Internet attitudes; Computer experience; Internet experience; Sex differences
Students' linguistic behaviour in online discussion groups: Does gender matter? BIBAKFull-Text 2240-2255
  Jane Guiller; Alan Durndell
This research examined students' language use and interaction styles in text-based, computer-mediated discussion groups. The contributions of 197 introductory psychology students (149 females, 48 males) participating in asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) were collated. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used, under the methodological framework of qualitative content analysis [Mayring, P. (2000). Qualitative Content Analysis. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum: Qualitative Social Research [online] 1. http://qualitative-research.net/fqs-e/2-00halt-e.htm Accessed 10.06.2001]. A coding system, which incorporated the creation of 'supercodes', was developed using Atlas.ti 4.2 and used to code 699 student postings in total. The frequencies of coded categories were analysed using χ² statistics in SPSS 10. It was found that males and females were similar regarding use of individual linguistic variables, with the exception of intensifiers as more females used them than males. However, significant gender differences were found in use of many of the stylistic variables and the supercode analysis showed overall gender-related patterns in interaction styles. Males were more likely to use authoritative language and to respond negatively in interactions, than females. On the other hand, females were more likely to explicitly agree and support others and make more personal and emotional contributions, than males. The results suggest that gendered power differentials may carry over into online contexts, which has implications for the use of CMC in education.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; CMC; Gender; Language; Electronic discourse; Education
The effects of group composition of self-efficacy and collective efficacy on computer-supported collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 2256-2268
  Shu-Ling Wang; Sunny S. J. Lin
Although research has suggested that group composition plays an important role in collaborative learning, the role of motivation in group composition has rarely been taken into account. This study investigates the effects of group composition of self-efficacy (e.g. low, high, and mixed self-efficacy) on group motivation (i.e. collective efficacy), collaborative learning behavior, and performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. The results indicate that high self-efficacy groups have higher collective efficacy beliefs than low self-efficacy groups. Furthermore, high self-efficacy groups use more high-level cognitive skills during group discussion than low self-efficacy groups, despite no significant difference in usage of low-level cognitive skills among the three groups. This study also demonstrates that collective efficacy has positive effects on discussion behaviors and group performance. Students with higher collective efficacy not only use more high-level cognitive skills in group discussion, but also demonstrate better academic performance. Our research further indicates that students' use of high-level cognitive skills in group discussion has positive effects on group performance. Finally, implications and suggestions for future research are also provided.
Keywords: Self-efficacy; Group composition; Collective efficacy; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Motivation; Learning strategies
Constraints on message size in quasi-synchronous computer mediated communication: Effect on self-concept accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 2269-2284
  Jan-Are K. Johnsen
Anonymity is often regarded as a variable of great importance in research on computer mediated communication. However, this view might neglect the role played by the design of the user-interface. The current study attempted to show the effects of manipulation of the user-interface in terms of quantitative aspects of communication and self-concept accessibility. The manipulation consisted of varying the number of characters available to interlocutors in two conditions. It was predicted that different designs will not only influence communication quantitatively, but also to what degree participants are able to introspect and strategically plan communication in a self-presentation task. The design that allowed elaborate composition of a message during communication was expected to lead to more strategic self-presentation, thus increasing availability of the "actual self". Two experiments were conducted. The results show that constraints on communication are associated with predictable quantitative effects, among them higher turn-taking. Also, accessibility of the actual self appears to be associated with less interactive and involving interfaces. The results are discussed with regards to the Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects, as well as the differences between writing and speech.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Language; Self-awareness; Self-concept; Self-presentation
Preference for textual information and acting on support devices in multiple representations in a computer based learning environment for statistics BIBAKFull-Text 2285-2301
  G. Schuyten; H. M. Dekeyser
Two studies researched the relevance for knowledge construction in statistics of learners preference for representational system and the mediating role of learners acting with information delivered in textual, graphical and mathematical-symbolic mode.
   The data were collected in a broader experimental research setting investigating the effectiveness of a computer based independent learning environment for statistics. Preference for representational system, achievement in statistics, self-efficacy in mathematics and attitude towards computers were captured for 211 students enrolled in the first-year statistics course at the department of Psychology and Educational Sciences at the University of Ghent in Belgium. In the second study learners acting on devices in multiple representations was investigated in an a select sample of 60 students, drawn from the 211 learners. These learners were assigned to the computer based independent learning condition where acting on devices was registered in log-files.
   The study reveals that preference is related to performance in statistics, self-efficacy in mathematics and to the behavioral and cognitive component of attitude towards computers.
   The findings suggest the existence of a compensation mechanism, induced by acting on graphs demanding high cognitive processing.
   The overwhelming majority, 3 against 1, of learners with textual preference raises challenges for instructional designers of service statistics courses. Preference is an important aspect of individual differences to be included in the research concerning cognitive style and self-regulation.
Keywords: Textual preference; Cognitive style; Self-regulation; Self-efficacy; Knowledge construction in statistics; Computers attitudes
Computer-mediated group influence on ethical behavior BIBAKFull-Text 2302-2320
  Lori N. K. Leonard; Russell Haines
Drawing on previous research in ethical behavior in information technology, this study examines the effects of group discussion, using virtual teams, on an individual's intention to behave ethically/unethically. It was hypothesized that behavioral intention would be influenced by an individual's attitude (toward ethical behavior), personal normative beliefs, ego strength, locus of control, perceived importance, gender and the scenario, and that computer-mediated group discussion would impact an individual's ethical behavioral intention. This was tested through an experiment using five different ethical scenarios involving information technology. The results show that for two of the five scenarios, individual behavioral intention was significantly more unethical after computer-mediated group discussion than before, while for one scenario, individual behavioral intention was significantly more ethical after computer-mediated group discussion than before. The results of this study may help organizations to develop realistic training programs for IT professionals that account for changes in employee's personal ethical models after interacting with others.
Keywords: Computer-mediated group influence; Ethical behavior; IT ethics; Virtual teams
Perceived versus actual computer-email-web fluency BIBAKFull-Text 2321-2344
  Ulla Bunz; Carey Curry; William Voon
The purpose of this study was to compare people's perception of their computer-email-web (CEW) fluency to their actual abilities performing related tasks. A total of 61 subjects (51% female, mean age 19) participated in the research sessions. Participants completed the CEW fluency scale [Bunz, U. (2004). The computer-email-web (CEW) fluency scale -- Development and validation. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 17(4), 477-504.], the computer anxiety ratings scale [Heinssen, R. K., Glass, C. R., & Knight L. A. (1987). Assessing computer anxiety: Development and validation of the computer anxiety rating scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 3, 49-59.], and an applied protocol developed for this study. Results show that the less computer anxiety subjects reported, the higher they perceived their CEW fluency to be (p = .001), but there was no significant relationship between computer anxiety and actual fluency (p = .12). There was no gender difference as to actual CEW fluency (p = .11), but women perceived their fluency lower than did men (p = .012). Overall results validate the robustness of the CEW fluency scale, help identify CEW fluency as a digital divide component, and underscore the importance of initiatives to raise women's technological self-confidence.
Keywords: Computer-email-web (CEW) fluency; Computer anxiety; Gender and technology; Perception of technology skill
Including genotype information in health surveys BIBAKFull-Text 2345-2354
  P. Cooley; C. Seifer; K. H. Taylor; J. F. Taylor
In a study that examined associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci within the promoter of the PRTN3 gene and the autoimmune disease Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), we implemented a self-administered pilot survey that captured participants' demographic data, family relationships, incidence of autoimmune disease among family members, and attitudes about DNA collection. We next integrated the survey and genotype data to test associations between genotype and phenotype, to examine demographic characteristics of WG patients and their families, and to examine the robustness of the data collection approach.
   The subjects in this study had previously been diagnosed with WG and were recruited through the North Carolina Wegener's Granulomatosis Association. Those who indicated a willingness to participate in the study were asked to provide the names of biological relatives who might also be willing to participate. PRTN3 genotype information was obtained from DNA samples collected from the 145 study participants using a noninvasive and self-administered buccal-cell harvesting method.
   This manuscript describes a pilot study that was performed to collect information from a sample of patients diagnosed with WG and from their parents and siblings who were disease-free. One of its objectives was to identify problems that might be encountered, and possibly prevented, in larger epidemiological studies. Linking epidemiological and genotype data has the potential to yield extended results that cannot be achieved using data from either source alone. We estimate a total burden oversampling estimate of 9%: 2.1% to offset the loss of respondents due to including genotype data and 7.0% due to the effects of using a buccal-cell sample to harvest DNA.
Keywords: Survey data collection; Genotype data; Buccal-cell; Wegener's granulomatosis
Increasing validity in the evaluation of new distance learning technologies BIBAKFull-Text 2355-2366
  David F. Feldon; Kenneth A. Yates
In the development of distance learning, advances in cognitive science merge with new technology to deliver instruction worldwide. However, one major difficulty in evaluating the efficacy of these tools is determining which elements of instruction truly lead to observed changes in student performance. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review current use of various research methods for evaluating instructional technologies, discuss previous solutions to balancing the conflicting demands of internal and external validity, and then to propose a new research design that achieves this goal in a manner compatible with many instructional technology applications. The design, called a Strand of Pearls design, leverages the practice of delivering instruction in sequential modules to generate robust findings for which claims of internal validity, external validity, and maximal generalizability can be made.
Keywords: Research methodology; Validity; Distance learning; Evaluation
Investigating ownership and the willingness to share information online BIBAKFull-Text 2367-2382
  Daphne R. Raban; Sheizaf Rafaeli
Networks offer the promise of sharing information. This project aims to experimentally investigate aspects of the propensity to share information online, with a specific focus on the system-induced status of information. Is a simple manipulation of the cognitive status of information sufficient to gain changes in sharing levels? A simple computerized game was used to simulate business decision situations that required participants to use information, and enabled sharing it. Our hypotheses compared the willingness to share under different conditions of system-induced ownership of information. Participants' perception of information source and ownership was the independent variable. Sharing was higher for privately owned expertise than it was for organizationally owned content. Ownership makes a difference. It serves to increase sharing of information. Ownership can and should be framed by system design.
Keywords: Information sharing; Willingness to share; Ownership
Design and evaluation of a computerised version of the Benton visual retention test BIBAKFull-Text 2383-2393
  S. B. N. Thompson; E. Ennis; T. Coffin; S. Farman
The use of computers in the administration of psychological assessments is often considered standard practice. However, the evidence clearly shows that computerisation of each test needs to be evaluated independently. The current study examined the hypothesis that a computerised administration of the Benton visual retention test (BVRT) should yield comparable results to paper-and-pencil administration of this measure. Forty participants (23 females and 17 males) from a non-clinical population were assessed using a computerised version of the BVRT and the conventional paper-and-pencil administration. Parallel forms of the test were used in the two administrations in order to eliminate practice effects. Participants found the conventional method of assessment easier to use but less fun. Importantly, performances of the participants were poorer when using the computerised version, giving rise to extreme caution when using this method of assessment administration with a clinical population.
Keywords: Attitude to computers; Benton visual retention test; Computerised assessment; Computer preferences; Memory
Net-friends: Adolescents' attitudes and experiences vs. teachers' concerns BIBAKFull-Text 2394-2413
  Chien Chou; Hsinyi Peng
This study has three chief purposes: (1) identify Taiwan adolescents' attitudes and experiences regarding their online relationships, (2) understand teachers' attitudes and concerns about students' online relationships, and (3) investigate the discrepancies between students and teachers on these issues. The researchers surveyed 494 middle and high school students in Taiwan and interviewed 21 teachers as well. The results indicated that having net-friends is a part of Taiwan adolescents' social lives. They are quite honest about the personal information they reveal with their online friends and generally have very positive attitudes regarding their online relationships. Some have gone beyond online interactions to meet in person, often without telling their parents or teachers.
   In contrast, this phenomenon of online friendships is not common for teachers. Most teachers did not have first-hand experiences themselves because they are either too busy or have no desire to use the Internet to form friendships. Teachers generally think students are too young to handle the complicated, anonymous, casual interactions found in cyberspace and they believe students should know more about how to protect themselves in online relationships. Interpretations and comments are discussed and recommendations for future studies are provided.
Keywords: Net-friends; Online relationship; Internet friendship; Taiwan adolescents
Decisional style and self-reported Email use in the workplace BIBAKFull-Text 2414-2428
  James G. Phillips; Linnea Reddie
Inefficient or inappropriate Email use within the workplace can lead to lowered productivity of an organisation. Technological predispositions, decisional style, and self-esteem may potentially influence the extent to which people use Email whilst at work. Higher levels of Email use in the workplace could be predicted by avoidant decisional styles such as procrastination and buck-passing. To understand how decisional style influences Email usage, 90 participants completed an Email Use Survey, the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Procrastination, buck-passing, vigilance, hypervigilance and self-esteem were employed within separate multiple regressions to predict types of self-reported Email usage. Better-educated procrastinators reported higher levels of total Email usage. Older procrastinators reported more work-related Email usage. Young, better-educated individuals tended to report engaging in more personal Email usage in the workplace.
Keywords: Decisional style; Email; Internet; Self-esteem; Cyberslacking; Procrastination; Buck-passing
Computer technology as object language: Revisiting office design BIBAKFull-Text 2429-2454
  James C. McElroy; Kevin P. Scheibe; Paula C. Morrow
Object language is a term that describes the messages that objects convey to people. This paper extends previous research on the object language associated with office design elements such as the placement of one's desk and office messiness by examining the role of computer technology as an additional form of object language. Computer technology was operationalized in Study 1 in terms of the innovativeness of technology displayed in an office, while Study 2 focused on the portability of computer technology. Undergraduate students responded to photographs of faculty offices exhibiting various combinations of office messiness, desk placement and technology. Results showed that while computer technology plays a more subtle role in visitor attributions about the officeholder in comparison to office messiness or desk placement, computer technology does convey messages about work performance, especially time management skills. The main role played by computer technology is in terms of its interaction with office messiness. Results of the role of office design in impression management are discussed.
Keywords: Computer technology; Office design; Office messiness; Desk placement; Nonverbal communication; Object language
Articulation of web site design constraints: Effects of the task and designers' expertise BIBAKFull-Text 2455-2472
  Aline Chevalier; Nathalie Bonnardel
This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the cognitive activities of web site designers and, more precisely, their articulation and satisfaction of various design constraints. In this paper, we first present an experiment in which professional and novice designers have to evaluate a web site developed for reflecting usability errors identified in web sites. Then, the results obtained in this evaluation task are compared with results previously obtained in a design task, in which professional and novice designers had to create a web site. Data analyses focused on the number and nature of constraints articulated by designers in these two types of tasks (evaluation vs design). In particular, we distinguished constraints linked with the client of the site and constraints linked with the future web users. The obtained results show effects of both the level of expertise and the task. While designing, all of the designers focused mainly on constraints linked with the client. In contrast, while evaluating the web site, novices focused on constraints linked with the user, whereas professionals shared their attention between these two kinds of constraints (client vs user-oriented constraints). Based on these results, we conclude with ways for supporting designers' activities.
Keywords: Web sites; Designers; Expertise; Constraints
Precursors of adolescents' use of visual and audio devices during online communication BIBAKFull-Text 2473-2487
  Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg; Alexander P. Schouten
Theories of computer-mediated communication typically rest upon the assumption that communication via computers lacks visual and auditory cues. However, recent technological advances, such as webcams and microphones, as well as their increased use question this assumption. Moreover, the question arises of what characterizes individuals who use such devices. Drawing on a survey of 1060 adolescents, we found that 57% of adolescents at least occasionally used webcams during instant messaging, while 32% at least sometimes used microphones. If adolescents perceived the lack of visual cues in online communication to be important, they used webcams less frequently. For early and middle adolescents, greater levels of social anxiety reduced the use of webcams, whereas higher levels of private self-consciousness increased it. Our results suggest that the nature of computer-mediated communication may change considerably in the next years. Theories of computer-mediated communication need to more strongly integrate these changes into theory building.
Keywords: Internet; Adolescents; Computer-mediated communication; Social anxiety; Private self-consciousness; Public self-consciousness; Visual cues; Auditory cues; Webcams
Self-regulated learning through writing on computers: Consequences for reading comprehension BIBAKFull-Text 2488-2508
  Anne-Mari Folkesson; Lena Swalander
The overall aim for the present study was to analyze the consequences for reading ability among the children of a computer supported self-regulated learning environment in grade two. By means of a quasi-experimental design in a natural setting, an experimental group (n = 39) was compared to a control group from a national sample (n = 3409) on reading comprehension. The statistical analyses showed that the experimental group achieved better on reading comprehension both as a group (p < .001) as well as girls (p < .001) and boys (p < .05) separately. The proportion of high achievers was higher, and the proportion of low achievers was lower in the experimental group. In order to explain the level of reading comprehension in the experimental group Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used. The main explanatory factor for reading comprehension was writing with β = .44. As a tentative conclusion it was suggested that the extended writing in combination with the self-regulated learning environment can promote reading comprehension in grade two, whereas home literacy had no impact on reading comprehension in this context.
Keywords: Computers; Home literacy; Reading comprehension; Self-concept; Self-regulated learning; Writing
The effect of person-organization fit feedback via recruitment web sites on applicant attraction BIBAKFull-Text 2509-2523
  Changya Hu; Hsiao-Chiao Su; Chang-I Bonnie Chen
We adopted a person-organization (P-O) fit framework to examine applicant attraction to an organization in the context of Web-based recruitment. A total of 121 undergraduate business students participated in a two-stage study first by completing a paper-and-pencil survey and second, by visiting a fictitious recruitment Web site in which the researchers manipulated the fit feedback information participants received. Levels of participants' subjective P-O fit and P-O fit feedback information were found to be positively related to attraction. That is, participants with high subjective P-O fit perceptions and participants who received high P-O fit feedback information reported higher applicant attraction. Furthermore, the interaction between P-O fit feedback information and whether the P-O fit feedback information was consistent with participants' subjective P-O fit was significantly related to applicant attraction. Implications of Web-based recruitment with real-time feedback are offered.
Keywords: Web-based recruitment; Applicant attraction; Person-organization fit; Fit feedback
Interactive lectures: Effective teaching and learning in lectures using wireless networks BIBAKFull-Text 2524-2537
  Anja Wessels; Stefan Fries; Holger Horz; Nicolai Scheele; Wolfgang Effelsberg
Among the severe instructional shortcomings of lectures is their lack of interactivity. To overcome these problems, the learning environment of the interactive lecture is introduced, in which students and lecturer interact by using mobile computers in a wireless network. In an experimental study, 44 students participated in interactive and in conventional lecture meetings. A quiz service that allowed question to be posted, students' answers to be evaluated, and the results to be presented graphically, was implemented on mobile computers. The participants rated the interactive condition better, also reporting higher levels of attention, activity and perceived learning success for this condition. Objective measures indicated a slight but insignificant difference toward better learning results in the interactive condition.
Keywords: Lecture; Ubiquitous computing; Interactivity; Blended learning
Selective self-presentation in computer-mediated communication: Hyperpersonal dimensions of technology, language, and cognition BIBAKFull-Text 2538-2557
  Joseph B. Walther
The hyperpersonal model of computer-mediated communication (CMC) posits that users exploit the technological aspects of CMC in order to enhance the messages they construct to manage impressions and facilitate desired relationships. This research examined how CMC users managed message composing time, editing behaviors, personal language, sentence complexity, and relational tone in their initial messages to different presumed targets, and the cognitive awareness related to these processes. Effects on several of these processes and outcomes were obtained in response to different targets, partially supporting the hyperpersonal perspective of CMC, with unanticipated gender and status interaction effects suggesting behavioral compensation through CMC, or overcompensation when addressing presumably undesirable partners.
Keywords: Impression management; Self-presentation; Computer-mediated communication; Hyperpersonal model
Virtual team meetings: An analysis of communication and context BIBAKFull-Text 2558-2580
  A. H. Anderson; R. McEwan; J. Bal; J. Carletta
We report a simulation study of virtual team meetings. Participants role-played companies collaborating on a design problem while supported by a range of IT tools, such as videoconferencing and shared applications. Meetings were analysed to investigate how sharing computing facilities, operating the technology, and company status, influenced communications. Significantly more talk occurred in larger teams where participants shared I.T. facilities BUT this extra talk was restricted to talk within a single location. No extra talk was shared across the virtual team via the communications link. Where facilities were shared, technology controllers dominated cross-site talk. To encourage free communication across distributed virtual teams we recommend providing each participant with their own communications facility even if this is technologically less advanced than if technology support were shared.
Keywords: Virtual teams; Distributed group working; Communication analyses; Multimedia communications

CHB 2007-11 Volume 23 Issue 6

Education and pedagogy with learning objects and learning designs BIBFull-Text 2581-2584
  Julià Minguillón
Integration of metacognitive skills in the design of learning objects BIBAKFull-Text 2585-2595
  Salvador Sánchez-Alonso; Yianna Vovides
Recent studies have demonstrated that specific instruction about metacognitive strategies improves achievement, the accuracy of knowledge monitoring, and the application of learning strategies in hypermedia environments. However, there are no models to date for instructional designers who design and develop learning objects for the incorporation of specific scaffolds to aid student reflection about their metacognitive skills; thus making it difficult to identify tasks to orientate learners in improving such skills. In this paper, we propose the use of specific ontologies as the basis for incorporating information about metacognition in learning objects so that a Learning Management System can select and recommend tasks designed for the development and/or improvement of the learners' metacognitive skills within the context of e-learning.
Keywords: Metacognition; Learning strategies; Learning objects; Adaptive e-learning
Developing interactive multimedia Learning Objects using QuickTime BIBAKFull-Text 2596-2640
  Thomas Cochrane
This paper focuses upon the application of the multimedia architecture 'QuickTime' for developing pedagogically sound interactive Learning Objects to support the teaching of principles of Audio Engineering. The project used an action research methodology in the design and evaluation of four successive Learning Objects by several different groups of users. The MERLOT criteria for evaluating Learning Objects was modified and utilized in the development process and the subsequent insights gained from developing and evaluating the Learning Objects are highlighted.
Keywords: Learning Objects; QuickTime
Evaluating pedagogical classification frameworks for learning objects: A case study BIBAKFull-Text 2641-2655
  Elena García-Barriocanal; Miguel-Angel Sicilia; Miltiadis Lytras
The use of toolkits and reference frameworks for the design and evaluation of learning activities enables the systematic application of pedagogical criteria in the elaboration of learning resources and learning designs. Pedagogical classification as described in such frameworks is a major criterion for the retrieval of learning objects, since it serves to partition the space of available learning resources depending either on the pedagogical standpoint that was used to create them, or on the interpreted pedagogical orientation of their constituent learning contents and activities. However, pedagogical classification systems need to be evaluated to assess their quality with regards to providing a degree of inter-subjective agreement on the meaning of the classification dimensions they provide. Without such evaluation, classification metadata, which is typically provided by a variety of contributors, is at risk of being fuzzy in reflecting the actual pedagogical orientations, thus hampering the effective retrieval of resources. This paper describes a case study that evaluates the general pedagogical dimensions proposed by Conole et al. to classify learning resources. Rater agreement techniques are used for the assessment, which is proposed as a general technique for the evaluation of such kind of classification schemas. The case study evaluates the degree of coherence of the pedagogical dimensions proposed by Conole et al. as an objective instrument to classify pedagogical resources. In addition, the technical details on how to integrate such classifications in learning object metadata are provided.
Keywords: Pedagogical classification; Learning resources; Learning objects; Classification
Re-purposing existing generic games and simulations for e-learning BIBAKFull-Text 2656-2667
  Daniel Burgos; Colin Tattersall; Rob Koper
There is a growing interest among teachers in using games as a part of their lesson plans. A standardised, interoperable approach to the sharing of such game-based lesson plans would allow teachers and educational technologists to compare and contrast Digital Game Based Learning scenarios, allowing best practices and lessons learned to emerge. Although games can be used as 'add-ons' in educational contexts, greater benefits can be attained by integrating games more fully into the educational process, i.e. by repurposing existing games to target the specific learning objectives. In this article we analyse this problem. We developed two possible solutions based on the integration and the interaction of games and learning scenarios. The first solution is based on 'pedagogical wrappers', where games are linked to e-learning flows but without interaction and communication. The second solution sees a tighter integration which supports ongoing interaction and communication between game and e-learning flow. We applied both solutions to a generic game. This game was firstly programmed in Action Script and later re-used for learning purposes and represented in IMS Learning Design. We analysed the pros and cons of each solution and identify research topics for further research.
Keywords: Re-use; Re-purposing; Game; Simulation; E-learning; IMS Learning Design; Unit of Learning
Building knowledge networks through project-based online learning: A study of developing critical thinking skills via reusable learning objects BIBAKFull-Text 2668-2695
  Gulsun Kurubacak
The main purpose of this paper is to explore and discuss the main characteristics of project-based online learning (PBOL) to promote learners' critical learning skills through reusable learning objects (RLOs) from global online resources. Based on the main purpose of this study and the concerns, the key research inquiries are: (1) How does a PBOL environment improve the learners' critical thinking skills via RLOs? (2) What are the patterns of the learners' critical thinking skills in a PBOL environment when they focus on building and delivering RLOs? and (3) What are the learning impacts and communicational outcomes of a PBOL environment on the learners' critical thinking skills when they work with RLOs? This is a qualitative case study that utilizes both qualitative and quantitative data to provide detailed information to the researcher for the data collection. The research site was the Designing and Delivering an E-Learning Environment graduate course at the Department of Distance Education of Social Sciences Institute in the large urban and government-based University in the Spring Semester 2004. There were totally 11 learners (three of them were men and the rest of them were women) in this course.
Keywords: Reusable learning objects; Project-based online learning; Critical thinking; Knowledge networks
From course notes to granules: A guide to deriving Learning Object components BIBAKFull-Text 2696-2720
  Jessica Griffiths; Geneen Stubbs; Mike Watkins
Learning Objects (LOs) remain a complex entity, particularly for novices, and creating the resources from the beginning can be a daunting prospect if there is no development team for collaboration. Multiple issues need to be considered, including how LOs are defined, how LOs are planned, granularity and reusability, and categorisation of LOs. The paper outlines these issues and offers a solution to assist novice creators of Learning Objects from existing materials. Using the Cisco Reusable Learning Object Strategy to define and plan the Learning Object, this paper proposes a task analysis to derive granules of learning material, matched to appropriate competency levels. Tests of these guidelines produced 586 potential information objects that are small, granular items, each with a prerequisite, an objective and a skill level.
Keywords: Learning; Computer-based instruction; Information technology; Computer-assisted teaching; Guidelines
Modeling assessment for re-use of traditional and new types of assessment BIBAKFull-Text 2721-2741
  Desirée Joosten-ten Brinke; Jan van Bruggen; Henry Hermans; Jan Burgers; Bas Giesbers; Rob Koper; Ignace Latour
In the new learning approach assessment is integrated in learning and instruction and addresses complex traits (the abilities, the characteristics in a specific domain) of students. To match this new approach, new types of assessment are developed, like peer assessment or competence assessment. The development of these new assessments is an expensive and intensive activity. Exchange initiatives promise to reduce those efforts by the re-use of materials. But they also raise questions: is it a complete assessment or are there specific parts of an assessment that can be re-used? And is re-use limited to particular item formats? In order to support the re-use of both new and traditional assessment types an educational model for assessment is developed.
   In this article we present this model. The model is validated against [Stiggins, R. J. (1992). Het ontwerpen en ontwikkelen van performance-assessment toetsen [Design and development of performance assessments]. In J. W. M. Kessels, & C. A. Smit (Eds.). Opleiders in organisaties/Capita Selecta (pp. 75-91). Deventer: Kluwer (afl. 10)] guidelines for the development of performance assessments, the four-process framework of [Almond, R. G., Steinberg, L., & Mislevy, R. J. (2001). A sample assessment using the four-process framework. CSE Report 543. Center for study of evaluation, University of California, Los Angeles. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from http://www.cse.ucla.edu/cresst/reports/tech543.pdf; Almond, R. G., Steinberg, L., & Mislevy, R. J. (2003). A four-process architecture for assessment delivery, with connections to assessment design. CSE Report 616. Center for study of evaluation. University of California, Los Angeles], a specification for the exchange and interoperability of assessments and performance assessment as a new type of assessment. The educational model for assessment gives new input to the alignment of the teaching, learning and assessment.
Keywords: Assessment; Exchange; Design; Model
Using process-oriented, sequencing educational technologies: Some important pedagogical issues BIBAKFull-Text 2742-2759
  Olivera Marjanovic
In recent times, sequencing technologies are becoming increasingly used, both by the university and the industry sectors. In essence, these complex systems support sequencing of, and navigation through units of content. They come in two different types: SCORM-based and workflow-based systems. Current research efforts related to sequencing technologies concentrate mostly on technical issues, while the associated pedagogical issues remain unexplored.
   The main objective of this paper is to describe the most important pedagogical issues that need to be taken into account when implementing any type of sequencing educational technologies (either SCORM- or workflow-based). These issues were identified during an action-learning project related to the practical implementation of a workflow-based educational system. During the reflection phase of this project, these issues were then genarised, so they could be applied to any type of sequencing technology and in any application domain (teaching discipline). The paper describes how sequencing technology can be used to enable a more flexible learning experience (especially in terms of time and flexible learning pathways) and then proceeds with the detailed analysis of the associated pedagogical issues.
Keywords: Pedagogical issues; Learning Designs; Workflow technology
The Internet knowledge (iKnow) measure BIBAKFull-Text 2760-2777
  Denise Potosky
Despite increasing development and administration of Internet surveys, tests, and many other applications to be used by employees and the general public, little is known about the knowledge individuals bring to Internet tasks. This research improves our understanding of the concept of Internet knowledge, and provides initial support for the construct validity of a new measure of Internet knowledge with respect to its factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and concurrent validity. From a practical perspective, clearer definition of Internet knowledge and the availability of a reliable measure of such knowledge can advance our understanding of how individuals develop Internet experience through its use and may also inform the process by which web sites and Internet applications are designed.
Keywords: Internet knowledge; Internet experience; Internet efficacy; Computer experience; Internet gender differences; Internet age differences
Wolves, bees, and football: Enhancing coordination in sociotechnological problem solving systems through the study of human and animal groups BIBAKFull-Text 2778-2790
  David W. Eccles; Paul T. Groth
This paper describes how sociotechnological systems comprising human and technological agents can be considered problem solving systems. Problem solving systems typically comprise many agents, each characterized by at least partial autonomy. A challenge for problem solving systems is to coordinate system agent operations during problem solving. This paper explores how competence models of human-human and animal-animal coordination might be used to inform the design of problem solving systems so that the potential for agent coordination is enhanced. System design principles are identified based on a review of competent coordination in human groups, such as work and sport teams, and animal groups, such wolf packs and bee colonies. These principles are then discussed in relation to agent coordination in the domains of E-Science, future combat systems, and medicine, which typify real-world environments comprising problem solving systems.
Keywords: CHI; Problem solving; Systems; Teams
The influence of self-esteem and locus of control on perceived email-related stress BIBAKFull-Text 2791-2803
  M. Hair; K. V. Renaud; J. Ramsay
Electronic mail has become an indispensable tool in business and academia, and personal use is increasing every day. However, there is also evidence that Email, unlike more traditional communication media, can exert a powerful hold over its users and that many computer users experience stress as a direct result of email-related pressure. This paper develops a three-fold typology of orientations to email: 'relaxed', 'driven' and 'stressed'. It further investigates whether the personality traits of self-esteem and locus of control are associated with email-related stress. It finds that low self-esteem is associated with the 'driven' orientation. It further suggests that the 'stressed' orientation may be related to how distractive email is perceived to be, compared with other forms of communication.
Keywords: Email; Computer-mediated interaction; Stress; Self-esteem; Locus of control; Factor analysis
Theory of planning behavior (TPB) and customer satisfaction in the continued use of e-service: An integrated model BIBAKFull-Text 2804-2822
  Chechen Liao; Jain-Liang Chen; David C. Yen
This study has devoted much effort to developing an integrated model designed to predict and explain an individual's continued use of online services based on the concepts of the expectation disconfirmation model and the theory of planned behavior. Empirical data was collected from a field survey of Cyber University System (CUS) users to verify the fit of the hypothetical model. The measurement model indicates the theoretical constructs have adequate reliability and validity while the structured equation model is illustrated as having a high model fit for empirical data. Study's findings show that a customer's behavioral intention towards e-service continuance is mainly determined by customer satisfaction and additionally affected by perceived usefulness and subjective norm. Generally speaking, the integrated model can fully reflect the spirit of the expectation disconfirmation model and take advantage of planned behavior theory. After consideration of the impact of systemic features, personal characteristics, and social influence on customer behavior, the integrated model had a better explanatory advantage than other EDM-based models proposed in prior research.
Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis; Expectation confirmation model; Expectation disconfirmation model; Technology acceptance model; Theory of planning behavior; Structured equation model
Computer use and the gender gap: The issue of access, use, motivation, and performance BIBAKFull-Text 2823-2837
  Margarete Imhof; Regina Vollmeyer; Constanze Beierlein
Since the beginning of computerization, it has been of interest whether there are differential effects on computer behavior, in particular in terms of computer access, computer use, and motivational variables, such as computer self-efficacy. The current research addresses the questions if the gender-related differences in this respect persist to the present day and if there is also a difference in actual performance characteristics. A sample of 48 university students (23 male) was administered a technology self-efficacy questionnaire, a survey on computer access, recorded a user diary, and turned in a computer task. Results show that the gender gap is closing as far as computer access and self-efficacy are concerned. Also, female and male students report comparable amounts of computer usage for their studies. User behavior appears to be gender-specific as males spend more time at the computer for personal purposes. There is also some evidence that male students outperform female students at a computer task (remastering of Power-Point slides). Conclusions for creating computer-based learning environments are discussed.
Keywords: Computer performance; Computer self-efficacy; Computer use; Gender
Primary school children's safe and unsafe use of the Internet at home and at school: An exploratory study BIBAKFull-Text 2838-2850
  M. Valcke; T. Schellens; H. Van Keer; M. Gerarts
In this study, 1700 primary school pupils (4th, 5th, and 6th grade) of 78 schools in Flanders and their headmasters were questioned about their use of the Internet and their perception and behaviour as to safe Internet use.
   The results indicate that, next to the expected high level of Internet use at home, there is clear evidence of unsafe Internet use. Exploration of the data reveals that, of the currently taken specific interventions to promote safe Internet use and (un)safe Internet behaviour, only parent control seems to be significantly related to lower degrees of unsafe behaviour. No school-based interventions seem to be associated with the level of unsafe Internet use. The nature of current school-based interventions is discussed and considered to be less effective to expect an impact at the behavioural level. Next to implications for future research, recommendations to reorient school policies and action lines are presented.
Keywords: Primary school-safe Internet use-school policy
Computer Anxiety: "Trait" or "State"? BIBAKFull-Text 2851-2862
  John J. Beckers; Jelte M. Wicherts; Henk G. Schmidt
A recurring question in the study of computer anxiety is whether computer anxiety is a relatively stable personality trait or a mutable, temporary state. The two studies reported examined this question in two groups of first year psychology students. These students were requested to complete a computer anxiety test, a trait anxiety test, and a state anxiety test. Some groups were administered the tests in a pen and paper format, while others were tested using computerized tests. In the first study, a Dutch version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used; in the second study, a Dutch adaptation of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. In both studies, computer anxiety turned out to be related more strongly to trait anxiety than to state anxiety. In fact, there was no relationship between computer anxiety and state anxiety in the pen and paper format. In the computerized versions however, computer anxiety and state anxiety were related, suggesting that state anxiety in situations involving a computer is caused by pre-existing computer anxiety.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Trait anxiety; State anxiety; Structural equation modeling
Aiming and clicking in young children's use of the computer mouse BIBAKFull-Text 2863-2874
  Afke Donker; Pieter Reitsma
The present study investigated the abilities of young children to aim and click with a computer mouse. Young children have not yet fully developed their motor skills and they are therefore more likely than adults to click next to targets on the computer screen. Because in educational software incorrect clicks could result in incorrect answers, children may initiate a laborious aiming process that increases the risk of repetitive strain injuries. The present study evaluated some factors that could affect the difficulty of aiming and clicking for children from Kindergarten 2 and Grade 1. Adults participated to serve as a reference group. The results show that the accuracy of mouse clicks and aiming speed are related the size of targets. The shape of targets or a context of distracting objects did not affect accuracy or speed. This work recommends the use of targets of at least 1 centimeter wide and tall in the design of software for young children.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Interface; Media in education; Navigation; Elementary education; Input device
Mood change and computer anxiety: A comparison between computerised and paper measures of negative affect BIBAKFull-Text 2875-2887
  J. T. Norris; R. Pauli; D. E. Bray
The lack of equivalence between computerized and pencil-and-paper administration in measures of negative affect have been attributed to variance created by negative affect towards computers or computer anxiety (CA). In the current study, paper baseline computer anxiety and state/trait anxiety measures were obtained from 51 first-year psychology undergraduate volunteers. Further measures were taken by either paper or computer before and after students received their grade for the first research methods practical report of the course. Levels of state anxiety (SA) were found to increase significantly at this time. A lexical decision task was completed at each measurement stage as an additional behavioural mood indicator. Results revealed that CA was only related to SA prior to receipt of grade, at a point where equivalence between administration method of measures had been demonstrated. Non-equivalence in measurement of SA occurred after students had received their mark, in that levels of anxiety increased in the computer condition and decreased in the paper condition. Lack of equivalence, therefore, appears to be a function of psychological stress, characterised by affective modulation rather than CA.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Computerized mood measurement; Equivalence
The roles of group potency and information and communication technologies in the relationship between task conflict and team effectiveness: A longitudinal study BIBAKFull-Text 2888-2903
  Eva M. Lira; Pilar Ripoll; José M. Peiró; Pilar González
The effects of task conflict on group effectiveness are far from conclusive. In order to further clarify this relationship, a contingency approach has been suggested. In this context, the present study examines the roles of group potency and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the relationship between task conflict and team effectiveness. The study involved 44 groups of 4 members each, working in two communication media. Twenty-two groups worked in a face-to-face condition, and the other 22 groups worked in a computer-mediated communication condition. The groups developed a project during four weekly sessions over a one-month period. The results showed that group potency moderated the relationship between task conflict and group effectiveness. However, the communication medium did not play a moderator role in these relationships.
Keywords: Group potency; Communication media; Task conflict; Team effectiveness; Longitudinal study
Understanding age differences in PDA acceptance and performance BIBAKFull-Text 2904-2927
  Katrin Arning; Martina Ziefle
The present study addresses two basic determinants of technology utilization: the attitude towards a certain technology and the performance when using it. According to the technology acceptance model (TAM), perceived ease of use and usefulness are assumed to be strong determinants of the actual and successful utilization of technology. However, the relationship between the acceptance of technical devices and their successful utilization (i.e. performance) is not completely understood. In this study, users' attitudes towards technology and their performance when interacting with a computer simulated PDA device were examined. Moreover, the moderating role of individual variables like age, gender, subjective technical confidence, and computer expertise in the relationship between technical performance and acceptance was analyzed. The results showed significant associations between performance and TAM factors. However, this interrelation was much stronger for the older group, especially between performance and the ease of use. The factors computer expertise and technical self-confidence played a minor role. Gender effects on technical self-confidence and TAM factors were identified, although they did not affect performance. Future research should focus on training formats for the older age group, which facilitate a successful interaction with technical devices.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; Perceived ease of use; Perceived usefulness; Technical performance; Subjective technical confidence; Age; Technology experience; Gender
Consumer decision support systems: Internet versus in-store application BIBAKFull-Text 2928-2944
  S. J. Westerman; G. C. Tuck; S. A. Booth; K. Khakzar
This paper reports a study of consumer decision support in the context of Internet and in-store applications. A sample (n = 30) of experienced runners made running shoe selections in either 'product only', 'decision support system only', or 'decision support system and product' conditions. Participants' decisions tended to be more uniform and of better quality when the DSS was available. Decision making was clearly influenced by DSS recommendations, but these were not always accepted. In this latter circumstance participants reported themselves to be relatively less happy with and less confident in their decision. Consistent with previous literature, abstract attributes were considered more frequently and given higher weightings when using the decision support system. However, predicted differences between conditions with respect to the types of attributes considered and the importance ascribed to different types of attributes were not found.
Keywords: Consumer behavior; Decision support systems
Critical IS professional activities and skills/knowledge: A perspective of IS managers BIBAKFull-Text 2945-2965
  Jen-Her Wu; Yi-Cheng Chen; Jack Chang
This study utilized the activity competency model to investigate the perceived importance of critical professional activities and skills/knowledge required by three levels of information system (IS) managers. Our findings indicated that the perceived importance of critical IS professional activities were significantly different among the management levels, but not significantly different for various industry types. Carrying a critical IS activity out involves the use of a number of different skills and/or knowledge. A portfolio of the professional activities and the needed skills/knowledge at each management level are identified. The results of this study have implications for IS professional development and training. They can also serve as a guideline for recruiting the right IS managers and developing IS curriculums.
Keywords: Activity competency model; IS professional activity; Skills and knowledge
The computer attributes for learning scale (CALS) among university students: Scale development and relationship with actual computer use for learning BIBAKFull-Text 2966-2982
  Johan van Braak; Penni Tearle
The purpose of this study was twofold. First to develop an instrument, the computer attributes for learning scale (CALS) for assessing how university students perceive the attributes of computer use for learning, and secondly to examine the predictive value of the CALS in relation to the actual use students made of a computer for learning. The research was based on innovation diffusion theory, and was set in the context of higher education in Flanders, the Dutch speaking part of Belgium. The first step in the development of the computer attributes for learning scale, was to draw on the literature to determine a set of attributes which could be used in relation to the use of computers for learning. Secondly, working with a stratified sample of university students (n = 237), exploratory factor analysis was used to develop a one-dimensional nine item-scale for measuring students' perceptions towards these specified attributes of a computer for learning. Next, using another similar stratified sample of the same size, confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the stability of the one-factor structure. Finally, having developed the instrument, the predictive value of the CALS was assessed by examination of the relationship of the CALS with actual computer use for learning, when controlling for related computer variables, including computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness of computers and computer use for personal purposes. The CALS was found to have a significant predictive value in terms of computer use for learning. In view of this it is argued that the CALS is an instrument which can be used in the future to assess the likely use students will make of a computer application in relation to their learning.
Keywords: Computer use; Diffusion theory; Innovation; University students; Scale development
Cognitive complexity and dynamic personality in agent simulation BIBAKFull-Text 2983-2997
  Nasser Ghasem-Aghaee; Tuncer I. Ören
Infohabitants of the connected information systems include individuals, organizations, smart appliances, smart buildings, and other smart systems, as well as virtual entities acting on their behalf. They can best be represented by software agents. Hence, realistic cognitive abilities of software agents such as influence of personality to decision making and problem solving is of practical computational importance. In this article, two characteristics are added to software agents with personality: dynamic personality and the relationships of personality trait openness with both problem solving ability and cognitive complexity. The last characteristic of openness leads to its impact to dynamic modification of problem solving ability. In this article, an implementation of a fuzzy agent with personality is realized in Java environment to show personality descriptors, personality factors, personality style, and problem solving success consequently. Furthermore, a prototype system is presented to update personality facets and respective personality trait openness which can affect problem solving ability.
Keywords: Infohabitant; Dynamic personality; Personality update; Cognitive complexity; Fuzzy agent
Beyond imprisonment of meaning: Technology facilitating redefining BIBAKFull-Text 2998-3011
  Sanne Akkerman; Maarten Overdijk; Wilfried Admiraal; Robert Jan Simons
Defining is a natural and necessary response to an ambiguous world, but causes fixation of categories and perspectives. On the basis of two earlier studies of project groups, we came to argue that redefining, and hence constructing various ways in which one perceives and understands something, enables groups to overcome imprisonment in meaning, establishing continuous development and flexibility. In this article, we first build a rationale for facilitating a process of redefining, to be taken into account when designing technology. Departing from this rationale, we discuss features of groupware technology that permit change by being flexible, and evoke redefining by engaging the user more actively. In so doing, we argue to think along new lines in the design of communication and collaboration technology. This paper proposes a specific perspective on technology, facilitating groups to engage in a productive, creative fashion of exploiting meaning potential.
Keywords: Meaning potential; Communication technology; Flexible features; Evoking features
Computer use among older adults in a naturally occurring retirement community BIBAKFull-Text 3012-3024
  Brian D. Carpenter; Sarah Buday
Though computers and the Internet offer an opportunity to enhance the lives of older adults, rates of computer use among older adults are low relative to other age groups. This study examined patterns of computer use and barriers to use among 324 residents living in a suburban naturally occurring retirement community (NORC). One-third (36%) of the residents were actively using computers. Residents currently using computers were more likely to be younger, with more education, fewer functional impairments, and greater social resources. Results from a multidimensional scaling analysis suggested that common uses fell along two dimensions: a solitary-social dimension and an obligatory-discretionary dimension. Barriers to more frequent use included cost, complexity, ergonomic impediments, and a lack of interest. Results from this study could inform the development of services by taking into account how older adults prefer to use computers and their perceptions of the technology. We include practical recommendations for program developers.
Keywords: Aging; Computers; Internet; Utilization; Program development
Effects of interface style on user perceptions and behavioral intention to use computer systems BIBAKFull-Text 3025-3037
  Bassam Hasan; Mesbah U. Ahmed
This study examines the influence of two interface styles (menu- and command-based) on the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and behavioral intention of the user to use the system. We have treated the system interface style as an external factor in the technology acceptance model (TAM) to examine its direct and indirect effects on behavioral intention to accept and use a system. The results showed that the interface style had direct effects on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness which, in turn, demonstrated significant effects on behavioral intention to use the system. Further, the results showed that perceptions of the menu-based interface were more favorable than perceptions of the command-based interface. These results provide several theoretical and practical implications for designing an effective system.
Keywords: Interface style; Technology acceptance model; TAM; IS acceptance; Perceived ease of use; Perceived usefulness; Behavioral intention
The positive and negative implications of anonymity in Internet social interactions: "On the Internet, Nobody Knows You're a Dog" BIBAKFull-Text 3038-3056
  Kimberly M. Christopherson
The growth of the Internet at a means of communication has sparked the interest of researchers in several fields (e.g. communication, social psychology, industrial-organizational psychology) to investigate the issues surrounding the expression of different social behaviors in this unique social context. Of special interest to researchers is the increased importance that anonymity seems to play in computer-mediated communication (CMC). This paper reviews the literature related to the issues of anonymity within the social context, particularly in CMC, demonstrating the usefulness of established social psychological theory to explain behavior in CMC and discussing the evolution of the current theoretical explanations in explaining the effects of anonymity in social behavior in CMC environments. Several suggestions for future research are proposed in an attempt to provide researchers with new avenues to investigate how anonymity can play both positive and negative roles in CMC.
Keywords: Anonymity; Deindividuation theory; SIDE theory; Privacy; Computer mediated communication; Equalization hypothesis; Adaptive structuration theory