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Computers in Human Behavior 25

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2009-01 Volume 25 Issue 1
  2. CHB 2009-03 Volume 25 Issue 2
  3. CHB 2009-05 Volume 25 Issue 3
  4. CHB 2009-07 Volume 25 Issue 4
  5. CHB 2009-09 Volume 25 Issue 5
  6. CHB 2009-11 Volume 25 Issue 6

CHB 2009-01 Volume 25 Issue 1

From paper to pixels: A comparison of paper and computer formats in psychological assessment BIBAKFull-Text 1-7
  Mary J. Naus; Laura M. Philipp; Mekhala Samsi
Internet based data collection methods have many advantages for psychological assessment when compared with more traditional paper formats, including, reduced costs, and greater convenience for both the researcher and the participant. However, prior to the wide-spread adoption of these methods, equivalence with paper tests formats must be established. The present study compared questionnaire data from the computer with that from a traditional paper format in a sample of college students both directly and through an opinion survey. Three types of questionnaires that represent distinct areas commonly assessed in psychological research included: quality of life (SF-36), depression (BDI-II) and personality (NEO). A within-subjects design counterbalanced order across the computer and paper formats. Overall the findings showed no differences for the Neuroticism and Extraversion facts of the NEO, for the BDI and for the subscales and composite scores of the SF-36. Significant differences were found between the paper and computer formats for the Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness facets of the NEO. Additionally, the computer was perceived to be convenient, user-friendly, comfortable, and secure. Results suggest that a computerized format is an efficient way to conduct quality of life research, especially for the assessment of distress levels and quality of life.
Keywords: Paper and computer formats in psychological assessment; Computers in psychological research; Quality of life; Depression; Personality
Human communication in customer-agent-computer interaction: Face-to-face versus over telephone BIBAKFull-Text 8-20
  Anette Kira; David M. Nichols; Mark Apperley
Customer service can be provided over various communication modes, such as face-to-face, telephone, email or websites. In this paper we examine a setting where a service, such as travel planning, is provided to a customer through a human agent, either face-to-face or via telephone. Specifically, the setting requires three entities, a customer who has approached a business, a representative for the organisation and a computer which the representative uses to support the task. Two experiments were conducted to investigate how the two human entities interact over two different communication modes (face-to-face and telephone) when there is also a computer involved in the interaction. The results showed a significantly shorter task completion time via telephone. There was also a difference in the style of communication, with face-to-face having more single activities (such as talking only), while when using the telephone there was more doubling up in activities (talking while also searching on the computer). There was only a small difference in subjective satisfaction. The results suggest that telephone interaction, although containing fewer communication cues (such as body language), is not necessarily an impoverished mode. Telephone interaction is less time consuming and more task-focused.
Keywords: Customer-agent-computer interaction; Human communication; Telephone; Face-to-face; Communication mode
Ethical reciprocity in digitalized transactions: An empirical study of pre- and post-contractual behavior BIBAKFull-Text 21-28
  Vincent Cho; Humphry Hung; Y. H. Wong
Are unethical e-service providers more tolerant of disloyal users? Only a few studies have been done on the attitude of the e-service providers who behave unethically. This research intends to fill this gap in current literature. We identify two different perspectives, behavior consistency and ethical reciprocity, in explaining the attitude of e-service providers towards their users who have breached the service contracts. We further investigate such attitude in respect of the perceived mutual commitment between these providers and their users. We test our propositions by a survey on financial e-service providers and our findings support the perspective of ethical reciprocity.
Keywords: Unethical behavior; Behavior consistency; Ethical reciprocity; Mutual commitment
Exploring Chinese users' acceptance of instant messaging using the theory of planned behavior, the technology acceptance model, and the flow theory BIBAKFull-Text 29-39
  Yaobin Lu; Tao Zhou; Bin Wang
Instant messaging (IM) is a popular Internet application around the world. In China, the competition in the IM market is very intense and there are over 10 IM products available. We examine the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations that affect Chinese users' acceptance of IM based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the technology acceptance model (TAM), and the flow theory. Results demonstrate that users' perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment significantly influence their attitude towards using IM, which in turn impacts their behavioral intention. Furthermore, perceived usefulness, users' concentration, and two components of the theory of planned behavior (TPB): subjective norm and perceived behavioral control, also have significant impact on the behavioral intention. Users' intention determines their actual usage behavior.
Keywords: TPB; TAM; Instant messaging; Flow theory; Perceived enjoyment; Concentration
An investigation of the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring BIBAKFull-Text 40-49
  Yi-Chia Cheng; Heng-Yu Ku
This study investigated the effects of reciprocal peer tutoring (RPT) on student achievement, motivation, and attitudes. Four sections of an educational technology course were randomly assigned to one RPT and one non-RPT group. Participants in the RPT group were then randomly assigned to groups to tutor and support each other while participants in the non-RPT group worked individually. The results suggested that the RPT and non-RPT groups did not differ on student achievement and motivation. Findings concerning student attitudes revealed that what students liked about RPT were helpful group members, opportunities to work in groups, feedback from groups, the comfort that RPT provided, and knowledge sharing. What students disliked about RPT were the unnecessary work and lack of interaction.
Keywords: Cooperative learning; Motivation; Reciprocal peer tutoring; Peer-assisted learning; Educational technology; Mixed method study
Biasing public opinion: Computerized continuous response measurement displays impact viewers' perceptions of media messages BIBAKFull-Text 50-55
  James B., III Weaver; Inga Huck; Hans-Bernd Brosius
Computerized displays of continuously acquired audience response measures have become an increasingly common component in television, particularly in political campaign media coverage. However, the effect of such presentations on consumer's perceptions of both the presenters and their messages remain unclear. To address this concern, simulated computerized continuous response measurement (CRM) graphics were overlaid onto apolitical video content to produce three (negative, neutral, positive) experimental manipulations. The findings revealed considerable symmetry between the valence of the CRM graphics and research participant responses. Evaluations of the presenter and message were significantly more negative following negative CRM graphic manipulation exposure (compared against the neutral and positive conditions) suggesting that CRM graphics can be a powerful device for influencing viewers' judgments.
Keywords: Continuous response measurement; Presidential debates; Public opinion
Students' difficulties in learning from dynamic visualisations and how they may be overcome BIBAKFull-Text 56-65
  Rolf Ploetzner; Stefan Lippitsch; Matthias Galmbacher; Dieter Heuer; Sarah Scherrer
We investigated whether students' understanding of line graphs can be improved by means of dynamic visualisations. The visualisations were designed to help students relate motion phenomena and line graphs to one another. In an initial study three groups were formed: the first group learned on the basis of simulated motion phenomena and dynamic line graphs; the second group additionally had dynamic iconic representations available to them; the third group was also presented with dynamic stamp diagrams. Contrary to our expectations, students were not able to make use of the visualisations in order to improve their understanding of line graphs. We hypothesised that students did not receive sufficient support in comprehending the visualisations. In a second study two groups were investigated. While the first group learned on the basis of simulated motion phenomena and dynamic line graphs, the second group additionally had dynamic iconic representations as well as dynamic stamp diagrams available to them. It was possible for the students in both groups to ask questions and to receive assistance from a teacher as well as from peers while learning from the visualisations. The results demonstrate that the pedagogical measures enabled the students to successfully make use of dynamic visualisations.
Keywords: Computer assisted learning; Computer simulation; Graphical displays; Learning strategies
The effects of the number of links and navigation support on cognitive load and learning with hypertext: The mediating role of reading order BIBAKFull-Text 66-75
  R. Ignacio Madrid; Herre Van Oostendorp; Mari Carmen Puerta Melguizo
Problems in learning with hypertext systems have been claimed to be caused by high levels of disorientation and cognitive load. This was recognized by DeStefano and LeFevre [DeStefano, D., & LeFevre, J. -A., (2007). Cognitive load in hypertext reading: A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(3), 1616-1641.] who predicted an increase of cognitive load and impairment of learning for hypertexts with a higher number of links per page. From a practical perspective, several navigation support techniques, such as providing link suggestions, have been proposed for guiding learners and reducing cognitive overload. In an experiment, we tested DeStefano and LeFevre's predictions as well as the usefulness of link suggestions. Participants used different versions of a hypertext, either with 3-links or 8-links per page, presenting link suggestions or not. We tested their cognitive load and learning outcomes. Results showed that there was a benefit of using link suggestions for learning, but no effect of number of links on learning was found. Moreover, the effects of our manipulations on cognitive load were mediated by the reading order that participants selected. Implications for research and the design of navigation support systems are discussed.
Keywords: Hypertext comprehension; Cognitive load; Navigation support; Learning
Sensitive topics: Are there modal differences? BIBAKFull-Text 76-87
  Zannette A. Uriell; Chantay M. Dudley
As organizations such as the US Navy move toward web-based survey administration, it is important to determine whether responses to sensitive questions are equivalent regardless of the administration method. It is possible that having to enter a military website and provide a username to access the survey might increase anonymity and confidentiality concerns, thereby increasing the likelihood of response distortion. Although previous research has shown that self-administered questionnaires (both paper- and computer-based) generally result in equivalent responses, to date little research has investigated the effects of asking sensitive information in a web-based survey format. In order to test for potential response bias, a survey was created containing questions about family planning attitudes and birth control usage, impression management and self-deception scales, and privacy and confidentiality concerns. Paper surveys were sent to about 3300 randomly selected enlisted Navy personnel while another 3300 received an invitational letter to a survey website. In general, the results show few differences between web-based and paper-based survey responses, demonstrating that sensitive data can be collected via web-based surveys without significantly influencing the honesty of survey responses. In addition, the perceived levels of privacy and confidentiality did not result in a significant difference between the responses provided.
Keywords: Data collection; Methodology; Surveys; Impression management; Family planning attitudes
"I want to be different from others in cyberspace" The role of visual similarity in virtual group identity BIBAKFull-Text 88-95
  Junghyun Kim
The present study investigated the impact of the visual similarity shared among virtual group members on group identity and conformity. In achieving this goal, the current study distinguished the similarity coming from being in the same experimental group (i.e., transient group membership) and the similarity coming from the same social group membership (i.e., lasting group membership), in response to the critique that these two group memberships have not been set apart in previous computer-mediated group research. The current study also attended to the fact that previous research on computer-mediated groups restricted personality traits that might have affected group identity formation and conformity in virtual groups. In response to this constraint, the present study included participants' needs to be different from others (NFU) and needs for inclusion (ISC) to a hypothesized path model that was founded on the SIDE model. Furthermore, the author examined whether the same hypothesized path model could uphold across the differentiated levels of similarity shared among group members.
Keywords: Avatar; Computer-mediated group; Group identity; Social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE); Uniqueness theory
The effect of violent and non-violent computer games on cognitive performance BIBAKFull-Text 96-102
  Christopher P. Barlett; Christopher L. Vowels; James Shanteau; Janis Crow; Tiffany Miller
Two studies were conducted in order to determine the impact computer games had on the cognitive performance. Study 1 evaluated a measure of cognition, which incorporates aspects of short-term working memory, visual attention, mathematical decision making, and auditory perception. Study 2 measured the cognitive performance between those who did not play video games versus those who played either a violent or non-violent video game. Results from Study 1 indicate participants needed approximately four trials to reach asymptotic performance on the cognitive measure. Results of Study 2 showed that participants who did not play any video game did not have a change in their cognitive performance, while those who played either a violent or non-violent video game had an increase in their cognitive performance.
Keywords: Computer games; Video games; SynWin; Performance; Cognition
Towards an understanding of the behavioral intention to use 3G mobile value-added services BIBAKFull-Text 103-110
  Ying-Feng Kuo; Shieh-Neng Yen
As profit margins gradually decline, and market competition becomes increasingly intensive, 3G telecom operators must provide various mobile value-added services, as well as traditional voice services, to attract new subscribers and retain old ones. However, for many 3G mobile value-added services, whether ARPU (average revenue per user) can be effectively enhanced depends on the consumer behavioral intentions. Therefore, this study uses the Technology Acceptance Model as the foundation and incorporate personal innovativeness and perceived cost to further understand consumer's behavioral intention to use 3G mobile value-added services. The following conclusions can be reached from the research findings: (1) consumer usage rate of current 3G value-added services remains low; (2) increased personal innovativeness will directly enhance the perceived ease of use of 3G mobile value-added services; (3) the perceived usefulness is enhanced when consumers perceive higher ease of use of value-added services; (4) perceived usefulness has the strongest effect on consumer attitude, followed by perceived ease of use and perceived cost, and (5) the most important factor in increasing consumer's behavioral intention to use 3G mobile value-added services is attitude, followed by perceived ease of use, perceived cost and perceived usefulness. Results of this study provide a valuable reference for service providers to develop mobile value-added services.
Keywords: Mobile commerce; 3G mobile value-added services; Technology Acceptance Model; Innovativeness; Cost
Exploring continued online service usage behavior: The roles of self-image congruity and regret BIBAKFull-Text 111-122
  Young Sik Kang; Soongeun Hong; Heeseok Lee
The expectation-confirmation model (ECM) of continued information systems (IS) use has proven to be successful across online service contexts. Previous studies based on ECM have focused on a referent (i.e., comparison standard) that is centered on the target IS (i.e., target online service). The effect of this referent, captured through confirmation, has been strongly demonstrated. Yet, few studies have explored the saliency of two additional reference effects, captured through self-image congruity and regret, in online service continuance. To fill this knowledge gap, this paper attempts to develop a research model that extends the ECM perspective in view of the additional contributions of regret and self-image congruity on two post-adoption beliefs (perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment) and continuance intention. For this extension, we synthesized the extant literature on continued IS use, self-image congruity, and regret. The model was empirically tested within the context of a social network service. Our analysis result shows that self-image congruity plays a key role in forming the two post-adoption beliefs. It is also found that the absolute effect of regret on continuance intention is larger than the effects of other antecedents identified in IS. Overall, this study preliminarily confirms the salience of self-image congruity and regret in online service continuance.
Keywords: Online service continuance; Expectation-confirmation model; Self-image congruity; Regret; Social network service; Structured equation model
Consumer adoption of mobile TV: Examining psychological flow and media content BIBAKFull-Text 123-129
  Yoonhyuk Jung; Begona Perez-Mira; Sonja Wiley-Patton
Mobile TV service, which provides television-like content through a mobile device, holds a limelight as the next killer application of wireless technologies and also as a prospective hedonic information technology. However, in a world where other potential wireless technologies and services speedily emerge, vendors and service providers interested in mobile TV hope that it will be diffused over the gulf between early users to general ones prior to competing sprouts. At this point, an investigation of early consumers' adoption of mobile TV may offer precious information for its survival. Based on the theoretical assumptions of the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examines influences of cognitive concentration (or flow experience) and media content on consumers' acceptance of mobile TV. The results are threefold. First, results suggest that cognitive concentration (or flow experience) and content have a significant role in consumers' intention to use hedonic information technology. Second, results show that content has a critical impact on cognitive concentration. Finally, results support the use of the extended TAM as an explainer in the context of hedonic information technology.
Keywords: Flow experience; Cognitive concentration; Media content; Technology acceptance model (TAM); Mobile TV; The digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB)
Effects of music tempo and task difficulty on multi-attribute decision-making: An eye-tracking approach BIBAKFull-Text 130-143
  Rong-Fuh Day; Chien-Huang Lin; Wen-Hung Huang; Sheng-Hsiung Chuang
This study examined the effects of music tempo and task difficulty on the performance of multi-attribute decision-making according two alternative perspectives: background music as the arousal inducer vs. the distractor. An eye-tracking based experiment was conducted. Our results supported the arousal inducer perspective that, with the same level of decision time, participants made decisions more accurately with the presentation of faster than slower tempo music. Further, faster tempo music was found to improve the accuracy of harder decision-making only, not that of easier decision-making. More interestingly, our exploratory analysis on eye fixations found the occurrence of adaptive behavior, namely, that the search pattern of participants became more intra-dimensional under the faster tempo music as compared with the slower tempo music.
Keywords: Background music; Music tempo; Multi-attribute decision-making; Eye-tracking; Search pattern
Effects of innovativeness and trust on web survey participation BIBAKFull-Text 144-152
  Jiaming Fang; Peiji Shao; George Lan
Responding to suggestions of prior research for examining the psychological constructs involved in a decision for or against participation in web surveys, this paper investigated the effects of trust in sponsor and personal innovativeness on potential respondents' participation intention. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), two alternative models were empirically tested in which the roles of trust and innovativeness were theorized differently -- either as moderators of the effects which perceived behavioral control and attitude have on participation intention (moderator model) or as direct determinants of the attitude, perceived behavioral control and intention (direct effects model). Data was collected from a sample of 131 university students enrolled in a computer course. The results of our study indicated that: (1) TPB could satisfactorily predict the behavioral intention with up to 44% variation of the intention being predicted by the model; (2) trust in sponsor and personal web innovativeness exerted direct determinant effects rather than moderate effects on participation attitude and perceived behavioral control, which in turn significantly affected participation intention; and (3) integrating the variables of trust and personal innovativeness into TPB model enhanced the prediction effect.
Keywords: Web survey; Response rate; Theory of planned behavior (TPB); Trust; Personal innovativeness
Internet social network communities: Risk taking, trust, and privacy concerns BIBAKFull-Text 153-160
  Joshua Fogel; Elham Nehmad
Individuals communicate and form relationships through Internet social networking websites such as Facebook and MySpace. We study risk taking, trust, and privacy concerns with regard to social networking websites among 205 college students using both reliable scales and behavior. Individuals with profiles on social networking websites have greater risk taking attitudes than those who do not; greater risk taking attitudes exist among men than women. Facebook has a greater sense of trust than MySpace. General privacy concerns and identity information disclosure concerns are of greater concern to women than men. Greater percentages of men than women display their phone numbers and home addresses on social networking websites. Social networking websites should inform potential users that risk taking and privacy concerns are potentially relevant and important concerns before individuals sign-up and create social networking websites.
Keywords: Risk taking; Trust; Self-disclosure; Privacy; Internet
Influence of group member familiarity on online collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 161-170
  Jeroen Janssen; Gijsbert Erkens; Paul A. Kirschner; Gellof Kanselaar
This study investigated the effects of group member familiarity during computer-supported collaborative learning. Familiarity may have an impact on online collaboration, because it may help group members to progress more quickly through the stages of group development, and may lead to higher group cohesion. It was therefore hypothesized that increased familiarity would lead to (a) more critical and exploratory group norms, (b) more positive perceptions of online communication and collaboration, (c) more efficient and positive collaboration, and (d) better group performance. To investigate these hypotheses, 105 secondary education students collaborated in groups of three. The results of this study indicate that higher familiarity led to more critical and exploratory group norm perceptions, and more positive perceptions of online communication and collaboration. Furthermore, in familiar groups students needed to devote less time to regulating their task-related activities. The expectation that familiarity would lead to better group performance was not confirmed. These findings imply that online educators pay attention to the effects group member familiarity has on online collaborative learning.
Keywords: Computer mediated communication; Groupware; Information technology; Collaborative learning; Teams; Familiarity
Measuring the premium on common knowledge in computer-mediated coordination problems BIBAKFull-Text 171-174
  Oded Nov; Sheizaf Rafaeli
Common knowledge, whereby everybody knows something, and everybody knows that everybody knows it, and so on ad infinitum, is claimed to be central to coordination in organizations. However, this claim has so far not received empirical support, as a method to empirically compare common knowledge with other forms of knowledge has not been available. In this article, we present a novel method through which we empirically estimate the common knowledge premium -- the level of users' preference of common knowledge over "knowledge by all" (where everybody knows something, but not necessarily everybody knows that everybody knows it). Using the method we show that a "premium" of common knowledge over "knowledge by all" does exist consistently, across populations and measuring variations. The findings provide empirical support for the centrality of common knowledge. Implications of the study are discussed.
Keywords: Common knowledge; Coordination; Communication; Knowledge management; Email
In blog we trust? Deciphering credibility of components of the internet among politically interested internet users BIBAKFull-Text 175-182
  Thomas J. Johnson; Barbara K. Kaye
This study employed an online survey of politically interested Internet users during the two weeks before and the two weeks after the 2004 presidential election to compare how they judge five components of the Internet in terms of credibility for political information. Blogs were judged as the most credible with issue-oriented Web sites also judged as highly credible. Candidate Web sites and bulletin boards were only judged moderately credible while chat rooms were rated not very credible. This study also explored whether reliance on the Internet resource or motivations for visiting the source significantly predict Internet component credibility after controlling for demographic and political variables.
Keywords: Credibility; Internet users; Motivations; Gratifications; Internet components
Young children's access and use of computers in family child care and child care centers BIBAKFull-Text 183-190
  Nanci Weinberger; Traci Anderson; Phyllis Schumacher
Forty eight family child care providers and 37 center-based providers completed surveys about the availability and use of computers for children in their care. In addition, the providers were asked about their attitudes towards technology and their own computer skills. The impact of setting type on computer placement and rules about their use did not differ very much by setting type. Several factors were associated with the amount of time children were reported to use the computers. Overall, it appears that child care providers had developmentally sensitive guidelines for fostering computer use in both child care settings.
Keywords: Children; Child care; Child care providers; Computers
Factors affecting the usage of intranet: A confirmatory study BIBAKFull-Text 191-201
  Sangjae Lee; Byung Gon Kim
The extent of intranet implementation and use within individual organizations has significant implications for organizational performance. Previous studies on technology adoption in the workplace suggest that acceptance behavior is influenced by a variety of antecedent factors including individual differences, social influences, beliefs, attitudes, and situational influences.
   This study reports on an investigation of extended TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) using external factors and subjective norm influencing usage of intranet within organizations. The external factors affecting the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and usage of intranet include technical support, Web experience, task equivocality, and task interdependence. The subjective norm is the mediating variable and external variables indirectly affect usage of intranet indirectly through their effects on subjective norm. Based on a survey of 333 intranet users from 10 major Korean companies, this study uses a structural equation model to test the research model. The results indicate that usage of intranet is influenced by technical support, Web experience, task equivocality, and perceived ease of use. Technical support and Web experience influences the perceived ease of use. Technical support, task equivocality, and task interdependence have positive effects on the subjective norm. Usage of intranet which is a dependent variable in this model, is influenced by technical support, Web experience task interdependence, and perceived ease of use.
Keywords: Usage of intranet; Technology adoption; Acceptance behavior; Structural equation model
Responsible gambling strategies for Internet gambling: The theoretical and empirical base of using pop-up messages to encourage self-awareness BIBAKFull-Text 202-207
  Sally Monaghan
Internet gambling is a rapidly growing phenomenon, increasing in types of games and gambling opportunities, number of sites, owners and jurisdictions. In response participation and revenue generated by Internet gambling is also rising, along with the incidence of Internet gambling problems. In the unregulated environment it is difficult for players to be assured appropriate safeguards to protect them from harm, however, responsible gambling strategies are essential to reduce to risks of online gambling. Currently there is wide variation in the extent to which responsible gambling strategies are implemented, and little empirical support for their efficacy. Based on theoretical conceptualisation and empirical evidence taken from gambling and Internet research, this paper proposes the use of pop-up messages encouraging self-awareness to effectively increase responsible gambling and reduce the incidence of problem gambling. The paper describes the rationale for this strategy and key principles for the most effective implementation of this strategy. The conclusions drawn have significant implications for key stakeholders including industry, policy decision makers, regulators, academics and community members.
Keywords: Internet gambling; Problem gambling; Gambling regulation; Addiction; Prevention; Pop-up messages
Professorial collaborations via CMC: Interactional dialectics BIBAKFull-Text 208-216
  Marceline Thompson-Hayes; Danna M. Gibson; Andrea Towers Scott; Lynne M. Webb
We conducted twenty semi-structured interviews with university professors from eight states in the US about their collaborations via computer mediated communication. Our thematic analysis of verbatim transcripts uncovered four dialectical tensions (an interplay of opposing and contradictory forces typically resolved through communication) in such interactions: relational connection and personal autonomy, creativity and the mundane, task and socio-emotional goals, as well as novelty and efficacy.
Keywords: Computer mediated communication; Dialectics; Qualitative study; College teachers; Collective behavior; Written communication
The roles of user motivation to perform a task and decision support system (DSS) effectiveness and efficiency in DSS use BIBAKFull-Text 217-228
  Siew H. Chan
The purposes of this study are to: (1) obtain measures of actual decision support system (DSS) use that include the three elements of DSS use proposed by Burton-Jones and Straub (Burton-Jones, A., & Straub, D.W., Jr., (2006). Reconceptualizing system usage: An approach and empirical test. Information Systems Research, 17(3), 228-246), and (2) identify an important psychological construct -- a user's motivation to perform a task -- and examine how it interacts with two DSS characteristics -- effectiveness and efficiency -- to affect actual DSS use. As predicted, the findings indicated that individuals who used a more effective DSS to work on a task that they were motivated in increased usage of the DSS, while DSS use did not differ between individuals who used either a more or less effective DSS to complete a task that they were less motivated in. The results also showed significant difference for two measures of DSS use (i.e., STEP and TIME) and no significant difference for one measure of DSS use (i.e., USE) between individuals who used either a more or less efficient DSS to perform a task that they were more motivated in. As expected, significant differences were found for individuals who used either a more or less efficient DSS to complete a task that they were less motivated in. Finally, the results showed that DSS use increased when perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of the DSS were high; therefore, these results corroborate the findings of prior research in the context of actual DSS use.
Keywords: Motivation to perform a task; Intrinsic motivation; System effectiveness; System efficiency; System characteristics; System use
Examining psychometric characteristics of the computer anxiety scale BIBAKFull-Text 229-232
  Abayomi A. Arigbabu
The psychometric characteristics of the 20-item computer anxiety scale (CAS) were examined in a Nigerian sample of 181 preservice teachers (62 men and 119 women). Results indicated a two-factor solution, consistent with those from other studies. The two factors accounted for 41.6% of the total variance in the solution. The internal consistency reliability for the entire scale (.89) was considered conceptually meaningful. This result suggests that computer anxiety construct, as measured by CAS, appears to be culturally and contextually invariant.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Psychometric properties; Preservice teachers; Computer anxiety scale; Computer in education; Principal component analysis
Effect of communication media on developmental relationships: Self-reported and observed behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 233-243
  Rosemarie Reynolds; Michael T. Brannick
This study examined the effect of four communication modes (computer-based video teleconferencing, computer-based electronic chat, telephone, and face-to-face) on developmental interactions between dyads; specifically on the transmission of psychosocial versus instrumental information. The dyads consisted of undergraduates at a southeastern university. One member of the dyad was an incoming first year student; the second member was an upper division student who served as a developmental coach. The study was experimental in design, which controlled the amount of interaction, the frequency of interaction, and prior acquaintanceship of the dyadic pair. The small amount of variance attributable to communication mode suggests that people matter more than the machines. Specifically, in terms of implementing non-face-to-face developmental programs, it might be more useful to focus on reducing the variability in the coaches' behaviors through selection or training, than to focus on communication mode. Additionally, independent observers watched and rated the dyadic interactions to provide a third point of view. There was very little overlap between coach and trainee perceptions, although there was considerable agreement between the raters' and coaches' ratings.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Human computer interaction; Mentor; Training; Distance education
Social context and communication channels choice among adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 244-251
  Gustavo S. Mesch
As online communication is more and more integrated in everyday life to support and maintain existing social ties, this study examined the factors associated with preference of face to face, phone or online conversations. A contextual framework that emphasizes the role of relationship origin, relationship intensity and content of communication on communication channel choice among adolescents was empirically tested. Based on a nationwide survey in Israel, it was found that communication content, relationship origin and place of residence affect the preference of face to face and online communication. Phone communication appears to be a more non specific channel to conduct personal and non personal conversations and relationship origin did not affect its use. These findings suggest that relationship origin is important, and face to face communication is preferred for ties that were initiated face to face and online communication for ties that were initiated online. For this sample of regular population, there is no indication that online communication tends to be personal or hyper personal. The use of all the communication channels is preferred to the maintenance of existing ties and is less used for the creation of new ties.
Keywords: Computer and communication channel choice; Internet and society; Adolescents; Survey

CHB 2009-03 Volume 25 Issue 2

State of the art research into Cognitive Load Theory BIBFull-Text 253-257
  Paul Ayres; Tamara van Gog
The worked-example effect: Not an artefact of lousy control conditions BIBAKFull-Text 258-266
  Rolf Schwonke; Alexander Renkl; Carmen Krieg; Jörg Wittwer; Vincent Aleven; Ron Salden
Recently it has been argued that the worked-example effect, as postulated by Cognitive Load Theory, might only occur when compared to unsupported problem-solving, but not when compared to well-supported or tutored problem-solving as instantiated, for example, in Cognitive Tutors. In two experiments, we compared a standard Cognitive Tutor with a version that was enriched with faded worked examples. In Experiment 1, students in the example condition needed less learning time to acquire a comparable amount of procedural skills and conceptual understanding. In Experiment 2, the efficiency advantage was replicated. In addition, students in the example condition acquired a deeper conceptual understanding. The present findings demonstrate that the worked-example effect is indeed robust and can be found even when compared to well-supported learning by problem-solving.
Keywords: Example-based learning; Problem-solving; Tutoring; Cognitive Tutors; Intelligent tutoring systems
Learning how to use a computer-based concept-mapping tool: Self-explaining examples helps BIBAKFull-Text 267-274
  Tatjana S. Hilbert; Alexander Renkl
In initial skill acquisition in well-structured domains, example-based learning typically leads to better learning outcomes than learning by doing. Cognitive Load Theory explains this result by the worked-example effect: Example-based learning prevents learners from using load-intensive strategies and focuses their attention on the principles to-be-learned. In two experiments, we investigated the use of examples for acquiring a new learning strategy, namely computer-based concept mapping. Experiment 1 compared learners who studied two examples on how to construct a concept map with learners who practiced concept mapping by constructing two concept maps on their own. We did not find significant differences in learning outcomes. Therefore, in Experiment 2, we introduced a third group of learners who studied examples with the additional support of self-explanation prompts. Self-explaining examples led to better learning outcomes than learning with examples without prompts or practicing. With respect to cognitive load, we found that examples without prompts released learners' working memory compared to practicing, whereas self-explaining examples led to a higher cognitive load compared to examples without self-explanation.
Keywords: Cognitive load theory; Worked-out examples; Worked-examples effect; Concept mapping; Self-explanations
Training adult novices to use computers: Effects of different types of illustrations BIBAKFull-Text 275-283
  E. James Kehoe; Timothy C. Bednall; Leon Yin; Kirk N. Olsen; Claudia Pitts; Julie D. Henry; Phoebe E. Bailey
Two experiments examined the acquisition of word-processing skills (Experiment 1) and internet usage skills (Experiment 2) by novice adults using three types of illustration, specifically, full-screen illustrations with the text superimposed, icons embedded in the text, and a control, text-only condition. Training with the full-screen or embedded icons yielded significant improvements in performance relative to the text-only condition only in tests that simply required the participants to repeat the step-by-step directions. When tests required that the participants themselves retrieve and reproduce the sequence of steps, the training with illustrations -- especially the full-screen illustrations -- repeatedly had a negative effect on performance. The results suggest that the illustrations, by making it easy to execute each step of a procedure during training, encouraged superficial processing, which in turn yielded a set of stimulus-response associations rather than a well-linked sequence of actions in long-term memory.
Keywords: Computer training; Novices; Adult learning; Cognitive load; Illustration
Cognitive load and science text comprehension: Effects of drawing and mentally imagining text content BIBAKFull-Text 284-289
  Detlev Leutner; Claudia Leopold; Elke Sumfleth
One hundred and eleven 10th graders read an expository science text on the dipole character of water molecules (ca. 1600 words). Reading instruction was varied according to a 2 × 2 experimental design with factors 'drawing pictures of text content on paper' (yes, no) and 'mentally imagining text content while reading' (yes, no). The results indicate that drawing pictures, mediated through increased cognitive load, decreased text comprehension and, thus, learning (d = -0.37), whereas mental imagery, although decreasing cognitive load, increased comprehension only when students did not have to draw pictures simultaneously (d = 0.72). No evidence was found that the effects were moderated by domain-specific prior knowledge, verbal ability, or spatial ability. The results are in line with cognitive theories of multimedia learning, self-regulated learning, and mental imagery as well as conceptions of science learning that focus on promoting mental model construction by actively visualizing the content to be learned. Constructing mental images seems to reduce cognitive load and to increase comprehension and learning outcome when the mental visualization processes are not disturbed by externally drawing pictures on paper, whereas drawing pictures seems to increase cognitive load resulting in reduced comprehension and learning outcome.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Multimedia; Science learning; Text comprehension; Drawing pictures; Mental imagery
Combining shared control with variability over surface features: Effects on transfer test performance and task involvement BIBAKFull-Text 290-298
  Gemma Corbalan; Liesbeth Kester; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer
Positive effects of learner control decrease when learners do not perceive the control given to them, make suboptimal choices, or are cognitively overloaded by the amount of choice. This study proposes shared control (i.e., learners choose from a pre-selection of suitable tasks) over highly variable tasks to tackle these problems. Ninety-four students participated in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with the factors control (system, shared) and variability of surface features (low, high). Results show superior effects on training performance, transfer test performance, and task involvement of shared control when learners can choose from pre-selected tasks with surface features that are different from the surface features of previous tasks.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Learner control; Surface features; System control; Variability
The impact of goal specificity and goal type on learning outcome and cognitive load BIBAKFull-Text 299-305
  Joachim Wirth; Josef Künsting; Detlev Leutner
Two hundred and thirty three 15-year old students conducted experiments within a computer-based learning environment. They were provided with different goals according to an experimental 2 × 2 design with goal specificity (nonspecific goals versus specific goals) and goal type (problem solving goals versus learning goals) as factors. We replicated the findings of other researchers that nonspecific problem solving goals lead to lower cognitive load and better learning than specific problem solving goals. For learning goals, however, we observed this goal specificity effect only on cognitive load but not on learning outcome. Results indicate that the goal specificity affects the element interactivity of a task and cognitive load with both, problem solving goals or learning goals. But differences in overall cognitive load are not sufficient for explaining differences in learning outcome. Additionally, differences in strategy use come into play. Specific problem solving goals seem to restrict students to use a problem solving strategy whereas nonspecific problem solving goals or learning goals allow students to use a learning strategy. We conclude that in order to foster learning, students must be provided with goals that allow them to use a learning strategy. Additionally, providing them with nonspecific goals decreases cognitive load and, thus, enables students to learn with less effort.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Discovery learning; Goal specificity; Computer-based learning environment
Individual and group-based learning from complex cognitive tasks: Effects on retention and transfer efficiency BIBAKFull-Text 306-314
  Femke Kirschner; Fred Paas; Paul A. Kirschner
The effects of individual versus group learning (in triads) on efficiency of retention and transfer test performance in the domain of biology (heredity) among 70 high-school students were investigated. Applying cognitive load theory, the limitations of the working memory capacity at the individual level were considered an important reason to assign complex learning tasks to groups rather than to individuals. It was hypothesized that groups will have more processing capacity available for relating the information elements to each other and by doing so for constructing higher quality cognitive schemata than individuals if the high cognitive load imposed by complex learning tasks could be shared among group members. In contrast, it was expected that individuals who learn from carrying out the same complex tasks would need all available processing capacity for remembering the interrelated information elements, and, consequently, would not be able to allocate resources to working with them. This interaction hypothesis was confirmed by the data on efficiency of retention and transfer test performance; there was a favorable relationship between mental effort and retention test performance for the individual learners as opposed to a favorable relationship between transfer test performance and mental effort for the students who learned in groups.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Individual learning; Learning efficiency; Task complexity; Transfer performance; Cognitive load
Explaining the split-attention effect: Is the reduction of extraneous cognitive load accompanied by an increase in germane cognitive load? BIBAKFull-Text 315-324
  Gabriele Cierniak; Katharina Scheiter; Peter Gerjets
The phenomenon that the physical integration of verbal and pictorial information sources, compared to their physical separation, enhances learning is known as the split-attention effect. This paper investigates how the split-attention effect can be best explained against the background of cognitive load theory. In an experimental study, students learned about physiological processes with either an integrated or a split-source format. Secondary task performance was used to measure overall cognitive load, whereas subjective ratings were used to measure intrinsic, extraneous and germane load individually. Learners with split-source format achieved lower learning outcomes, but did not show worse secondary task performance than learners with integrated format. These results contradict the assumption that only an increase in extraneous load for learners with a split-source format mediates the split-attention effect. Mediation analyses of the subjective load ratings revealed that both, extraneous and germane load contributed to the split-attention effect. These results support the assumption that germane load also plays a crucial role in mediating the split-attention effect.
Keywords: Cognitive load theory; Split-attention effect; Spatial contiguity effect; Cognitive load measurement; Dual task; Subjective ratings
Uncovering cognitive processes: Different techniques that can contribute to cognitive load research and instruction BIBAKFull-Text 325-331
  Tamara van Gog; Liesbeth Kester; Fleurie Nievelstein; Bas Giesbers; Fred Paas
This article discusses the use of different techniques for uncovering cognitive processes, for research and instructional purposes: verbal reporting, eye tracking, and concept mapping. It is argued here that applying these techniques in research inspired by cognitive load theory may increase our understanding of how and why well-known effects of instructional formats come about (e.g., split-attention, redundancy, or worked example effects) and refine or corroborate the proposed theoretical underpinnings of such effects. This knowledge can inform instructional design, and moreover, the effects of these techniques on learning can also be direct, by embedding the techniques in instruction.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Verbal reports; Eye tracking; Concept mapping; Example-based learning
Instructional designs for the development of transferable knowledge and skills: A cognitive load perspective BIBAKFull-Text 332-338
  Slava Kalyuga
This paper analyzes the main points and results of a set of the previous papers in this Special Issue from the point of view of developing characteristics of flexible -- transferable -- expertise. It focuses on cognitive load issues related to the acquisition of deep transferable knowledge structures and developing metacognitive and self-regulation skills. The contributions to this Special Issue demonstrate that appropriate instructional support and optimal levels of control over the learning processes, enhanced by self-explanation and self-visualization techniques, may enhance learners' abilities to transfer their knowledge and skills. Better understanding of the role of germane cognitive load, as well as our abilities to measure different types of load and high-level cognitive processes are essential for further progress in this area.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Adaptive expertise; Transferable knowledge; Metacognitive skills; Instructional support; Learner control; Cognitive measurement
Instructional animations can be superior to statics when learning human motor skills BIBAKFull-Text 339-347
  Anna Wong; Nadine Marcus; Paul Ayres; Lee Smith; Graham A. Cooper; Fred Paas; John Sweller
Based on the assumption of a working memory processor devoted to human movement, cognitive load theory is used to explore some conditions under which animated instructions are hypothesised to be more effective for learning than equivalent static graphics. Using paper-folding tasks dealing with human movement, results from three experiments confirmed our hypothesis, indicating a superiority of animation over static graphics. These results are discussed in terms of a working memory processor that may be facilitated by our mirror-neuron system and may explain why animated instructional animations are superior to static graphics for cognitively based tasks that involve human movement.
Keywords: Instructional animations; Human motor skills; Mirror-neuron system; Cognitive load theory
Learning hand manipulative tasks: When instructional animations are superior to equivalent static representations BIBAKFull-Text 348-353
  Paul Ayres; Nadine Marcus; Christopher Chan; Nixon Qian
Cognitive load theory was used to argue why instructional animations are more effective in teaching human motor skills than static representations. A key aspect to this argument is the role played by the transitory nature of animation and the newly discovered human mirror-neuron system. In two experiments students were taught to tie knots or complete puzzle rings either through an animated presentation or an equivalent sequence of static diagrams. In both experiments students learnt more from the animation mode than the static one, thus supporting the general thesis of the paper.
Keywords: Instructional animations; Human movement; Mirror-neurons; Cognitive load theory
Using video and static pictures to improve learning of procedural contents BIBAKFull-Text 354-359
  Amaël Arguel; Eric Jamet
Animations and videos are often designed to present information that involves change over time, in such a way as to aid understanding and facilitate learning. However, in many studies, static displays have been found to be just as beneficial and sometimes better. In this study, we investigated the impact of presenting together both a video recording and a series of static pictures. In experiment 1, we compared 3 conditions (1) video shown alone, (2) static pictures displayed alone, and (3) video plus static pictures. On average the best learning scores were found for the 3rd condition. In experiment 2 we investigated how best to present the static pictures, by examining the number of pictures required (low vs. high frequency) and their appearance type (static vs. dynamic). We found that the dynamic presentation of pictures was superior to the static pictures mode; and showing fewer pictures (low frequency) was more beneficial. Overall the findings support the effectiveness of a combination of instructional animation with static pictures. However, the number of static pictures, which are used, is an important moderating factor.
Keywords: Learning; Multimedia; Instructional visualization; Cognitive load
Learning with hypermedia: The influence of representational formats and different levels of learner control on performance and learning behavior BIBAKFull-Text 360-370
  Peter Gerjets; Katharina Scheiter; Maria Opfermann; Friedrich W. Hesse; Tessa H. S. Eysink
In this paper, two experiments on the use of hypermedia environments for learning about probability theory are reported. In Experiment 1a it was tested whether multimedia design principles (multimedia principle, modality principle, redundancy principle) are valid in hypermedia environments, despite the fact that hypermedia offers more learner control than multimedia. The results showed only little evidence for this validity, although the hypermedia environment entailed only a rather low level of learner control. In Experiment 1b it was investigated how learner control affects performance and how its possible impact is moderated by learners' prior knowledge. A high level of learner control positively affected the effectiveness of instruction only with regard to intuitive knowledge, but was at the same time accompanied by large increases in learning time, thereby rendering the instruction inefficient. Unexpectedly, effects of learner control were not moderated by students' prior knowledge. The results imply that the idea to use multimedia design principles for hypermedia learning is too simple and that the benefits and drawbacks of learner control depend heavily on learning objectives and time constraints.
Keywords: Hypermedia learning; Multimedia design principles; Learner control
Semantic scaffolds in hypermedia learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 371-380
  Wolfgang Schnotz; Andrea Heiß
In knowledge acquisition from hypermedia, learners have to orient themselves in a non-linear information space, navigate in this space and build a knowledge structure from the information there. Research on learning from hypermedia has focused primarily on enhancing orientation and navigation, with only minor attention on possibilities for supporting semantic processing. In a first experiment, 98 students from senior high school and university undergraduates learned about a complex subject matter either without or with semantic scaffolds, which were presented either in an obligatory (non-removable) or in an optional mode. High prior knowledge learners profited from adequately used semantic scaffolds, whereas low prior knowledge learners did not. In a second experiment, 53 senior high school students and university undergraduates received the learning material with semantic scaffolds presented either in an obligatory mode (but removable on demand) or in an optional mode. Learners with low prior knowledge performed better with optional presentation. Learners with high prior knowledge performed better with obligatory presentation, which allowed removing scaffolds on demand. Learners generally preferred the optional presentation of learning scaffolds.
Keywords: Hypermedia learning; Semantic scaffolds; Prior knowledge
Prior knowledge in learning from a non-linear electronic document: Disorientation and coherence of the reading sequences BIBAKFull-Text 381-388
  Franck Amadieu; André Tricot; Claudette Mariné
A study was carried out to investigate the effects of prior knowledge on learning with a non-linear electronic document including an interactive conceptual map. Cognitive Load Theory was used as theoretical framework to investigate effects on cognitive load and disorientation in learning from non-linear documents. Forty-four future high school biology teachers were required to learn the multiplication cycle of a virus from either a hierarchical structure (organisational links) or a network structure (relational links). For the low prior knowledge learners, the results showed that the hierarchical structure supported better free recall performance and reduced feelings of disorientation. In contrast, the high prior knowledge learners performed better and followed more coherent reading sequences in the network structure. However, no interaction effect between prior knowledge and the type of structure was observed on mental effort and disorientation ratings. The results and the construct of disorientation are discussed in light of the processing demands in non-linear documents.
Keywords: Coherence; Cognitive load; Disorientation; Learning; Non-linear document; Prior knowledge
Dynamic visualisations and hypermedia: Beyond the "Wow" factor BIBAKFull-Text 389-392
  Paul Chandler
Dynamic visualisations and hypermedia have the potential to transform how we design instruction and can lead to highly innovative and flexible learning environments. However, their continued success largely depends on the importance placed by designers on the cognitive processes crucial to the learning process. This discussion paper examines the findings of six papers which increase our knowledge of how we can use dynamic visualisations and hypermedia to generate powerful learning solutions.
Keywords: Animations; Dynamic visualisations; Hypermedia learning environments; Cognitive load; Mirror neuron system
Web-based measurement: Effect of completing single or multiple items per webpage BIBAKFull-Text 393-401
  Frances P. Thorndike; Per Carlbring; Frederick L. Smyth; Joshua C. Magee; Linda Gonder-Frederick; Lars-Göran Ost; Lee M. Ritterband
The current study was conducted to determine whether participants respond differently to online questionnaires presenting all items on a single webpage versus questionnaires presenting only one item per page, and whether participants prefer one format over the other. Of participants seeking self-help treatment on the Internet (for depression, social phobia, or panic disorder), 710 completed four questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Quality of Life Index, Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) on the Internet on two occasions. The questionnaires were either presented with one questionnaire on one webpage (e.g., BDI on one webpage) or on multiple webpages (e.g., BDI on 21 webpages with one item each). Results suggest that the four web questionnaires measure the same construct across diagnostic group (depression, social phobia, panic), presentation type (single versus multiple items per page), and order of presentation (which format first). Within each diagnostic group, factor means for all questionnaires were equivalent across presentation method and time. Furthermore, factor means varied as expected across samples (e.g., depressed group scored higher on BDI), providing evidence of construct validity. The majority of participants in each diagnostic group preferred the single item per page format, even though this format required more time.
Keywords: Online; Web; Measurement; Assessment
Learning in virtual environments: Some discrepancies between laboratory- and Internet-based research on associative learning BIBAKFull-Text 402-406
  Miguel A. Vadillo; Helena Matute
Some published reports have emphasized the similarities between Internet and laboratory research on associative learning processes. However, few of them, if any, studied systematic divergences between both types of research methodologies. In the present experiment, we investigated these divergences using an experimental preparation for the study of associative learning. The results show that discrimination and discrimination-reversal can be obtained both in laboratory and Internet experiments. However, the learning rate was clearly better in the laboratory than in the Internet condition. This result suggests that associative learning experiments performed over the Internet should provide participants with extensive training to assure that asymptotic performance is achieved.
Keywords: Internet; Associative learning; E-learning
An examination of psychoticism and motion capture controls as moderators of the effects of violent video games BIBAKFull-Text 407-411
  Patrick M. Markey; Kelly Scherer
The current study examined the potential moderating effects of motion capture technology and participants' own level of psychoticism on their hostility and aggressive thoughts after playing violent video games. A total of 118 participants (68 females, 50 males) first completed a measure of psychoticism and then played either a violent video game or a non-violent video game using either a traditional controller or motion capture controls. Immediately after the video game play period, participants' current level of hostility and aggressive cognitions were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the use of motion capture controls did not increase the negative effects of violent video games. However, participants with elevated levels of psychoticism were much more affected by violent video games than other participants. Such findings suggest that only some individuals are adversely affected by violent video games and that those who are affected have preexisting dispositions which make them susceptible to such violent media.
Keywords: Video game; Psychoticism
Computer attitude, statistics anxiety and self-efficacy on statistical software adoption behavior: An empirical study of online MBA learners BIBAKFull-Text 412-420
  Maxwell K. Hsu; Stephen W. Wang; Kevin K. Chiu
Educators need to know how to motivate business students (i.e., future business practitioners) to learn and use statistical software, which can provide the practical skills necessary for business professionals to analyze data and make informed decisions. Using a sample of 207 online MBA students from an AACSB accredited university in the Midwest, a modified TAM model was examined using LISREL 8.80. The empirical results show that both computer attitude and statistical software self-efficacy have significant, positive effects on perceived usefulness. In addition, it was found that both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use positively influence learners' intentions to use statistical software, whereas their anxiety with statistics has a significant, negative impact on perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and behavioral intentions. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Computer attitude; Statistical software self-efficacy; Statistics anxiety; Technology acceptance model
The effects of organizational citizenship behaviors on ERP system success BIBAKFull-Text 421-428
  Cheolho Yoon
Although the research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has increased dramatically in diverse fields during the past decade, little is known about the OCBs in the information systems area. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of OCBs on enterprise resource planning (ERP) system success. In order to perform empirical analyses, measurements on the OCBs constructs based on the five dimensions of [Organ, D.W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The "Good Soldier" syndrome. MA: Lexington Books]: altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, civic virtue, and sportsmanship were developed, and the research model including the relationships between the OCBs constructs and ERP system success variables of information quality, work efficiency, and intention of IT innovation was proposed and empirically analyzed using structural equation modeling.
   The contribution of this study is to provide strategic insights for successfully managing ERP systems by identifying the effects of organizational citizenship behaviors in ERP context.
Keywords: OCBOrganizational citizenship behavior; ERPEnterprise resource planning; ITInformation technology innovation
Creative self-efficacy and its factors: An empirical study of information system analysts and programmers BIBAKFull-Text 429-438
  Heng-Li Yang; Hsiu-Hua Cheng
Based on a survey of 94 information systems developers, this study explored how personal factors (i.e. computer self-efficacy and domain-specific information technology skills), contextual factors (i.e. strength of ties and degree centrality) and creative self-efficacy are related. Regression analysis results demonstrate that system analysts and programmers differ in terms of influencing factors on creative self-efficacy. Domain-specific skills were the main influence in the system analyst model, followed by degree centrality. In comparison, degree centrality was the only influence in the programmer model. Degree centrality exerted a negative influence in both groups. Additionally, among system analysts, the strength of ties slightly influenced creative self-efficacy, while computer self-efficiency and domain-specific information technology skills exerted only small influences on programmers.
Keywords: Information systems developers; Creative self-efficacy; Social network; Information technology skills
Internet addiction's effect on likeability and rapport BIBAKFull-Text 439-443
  Anthony Iacovelli; Stavros Valenti
The Internet Paradox refers to findings that demonstrated that the increase in communications brought about by Internet usage actually had negative effects on user's psychological well-being and social involvement. This study proposes that face-to-face contact promotes the development of rapport and thereby individuals that use the internet excessively will lack these necessary social skills. Specifically, we investigate whether, through use of telephone communications, average users ratings of likeability and rapport would differ when speaking to excessive internet users. This experiment utilized previously unacquainted individuals who conversed by telephone while discussing both, a cooperative and an adversarial task. Results indicate that excessive users were more likely to be depressed and socially inhibited, and also were rated as having a lower level of rapport and likeability. Further research is required in order to explain the role of personality in excessive internet usage.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Excessive Internet use
An assessment of organizational size and sense and response capability on the early adoption of disruptive technology BIBAKFull-Text 444-449
  Gary Garrison
This study used the results from a survey of 73 senior executives, representing their Fortune 1000 or INC 500 firm, to better understand the relationship between an organization's size and its technological-sensing and response capability on the early adoption of disruptive technology. Results indicated that an organization's size, measured by number of employees and annual sales, was shown to be an impediment to an organization's response capability despite its increased capability to sense the technology earlier than smaller firms.
Keywords: Disruptive technology; Technological opportunism; Organizational size
Designing nonverbal communication for pedagogical agents: When less is more BIBAKFull-Text 450-457
  Amy L. Baylor; Soyoung Kim
This experimental study employed a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design to investigate the effects of type of instruction (procedural module, attitudinal module), deictic gesture (presence, absence), and facial expression (presence, absence) on student perception of pedagogical agent persona, attitude toward the content, and learning. The interaction effect between type of instruction and agent nonverbal behavior (deictic gestures and facial expression) was also investigated. A total of 236 college students learned from an animated pedagogical agent that varied by two factors: deictic gestures and facial expression within one of two instructional environments: one training them to perform tasks within a software program (procedural learning outcome); the other focusing on changing their beliefs regarding intellectual property (attitudinal learning outcome). Results indicated that the main effects of agent facial expression and gesture as well as the interaction were significant for agent perception and learning. With regard to learning, for attitudinal instruction, participants learned more when the agent's facial expression was present but deictic gesture was absent; however, for procedural instruction, students learned more when the agent's gestures were present. These results are discussed in light of a preliminary pedagogical agent design principle that suggests that it is most desirable to employ the one nonverbal communicative behavior that is most appropriate to the learning outcome.
Keywords: Interface agents; Gestures; Agent nonverbal communication; Pedagogical agents; Procedural learning; Attitude change; Persuasive technology; Cognitive load theory
The technology profile inventory: Construction, validation, and application BIBAKFull-Text 458-465
  Ian Spence; Colin G. DeYoung; Jing Feng
The technology profile inventory (TPI) measures attitudes toward computers and the internet. We describe the most recent phase of the construction of the TPI. The studies reported refine and validate the instrument, and we present the final version as an Appendix A. Using a new sample of respondents (N = 394), we replicated the three major factors found previously (Confidence, Approval, and Interest). The TPI scores were related to patterns of information technology (IT) usage and also to gender. To demonstrate the practical utility of the TPI we report (1) results linking TPI scores to behavior during an internet search task; (2) test-retest results obtained as part of a cognitive training experiment using action video games; and (3) results showing that attitudes to IT may be modified by a particular experience with information technology.
Keywords: Attitudes; Information technology; IT; Human-computer interaction; HCI; Gender; Action video games
The moderating role of locus of control on the links between experiential motives and intention to play online games BIBAKFull-Text 466-474
  Dong-Mo Koo
Online games represent a burgeoning market sector with growth potential. The distinctive entertainment-oriented features of such games provide experiential motives for users. However, most previous studies have focused on the single dimensional affective motive of online game use. The multi-dimensional affective motivational aspects of entertainment technologies have been relatively neglected. In addition, previous studies report inconsistent relationships between motives and online game usage. To fill these gaps in the literature, the present study proposes five experiential motives such as concentration, enjoyment, escape, epistemic curiosity, and social affiliation as predictors of intention to play online games. External locus of control is also introduced as a moderator in the links between experiential motives and intention. The model was tested with the data from 576 current online game players who answered online survey. Structural equation model analysis confirmed that three experiential motives with the exception of concentration and epistemic curiosity have a positive effect on intention. χ2 difference test confirmed that the coefficients linking experiential motives such as concentration, enjoyment, and escape to intention are higher for people with external locus of control than for people with internal locus of control. Implications are discussed in conclusion.
Keywords: Online game; Experiential motives; Locus of control; MMORPGs; Intrinsic values
Social anxiety and computer-mediated communication during initial interactions: Implications for the hyperpersonal perspective BIBAKFull-Text 475-482
  Andrew C. High; Scott E. Caplan
The study examined how the reduced nonverbal cues characteristic of computer-mediated communication (CMC) moderated the potentially negative interpersonal outcomes of social anxiety in initial interactions. Hypotheses predicted that CMC would mitigate the extent to which social anxiety caused interpersonal perceptions of anxiety and that CMC would attenuate the negative association between one's social anxiety and one's partner's conversational satisfaction. A sample (N = 206) of undergraduate students were paired in unacquainted dyads and then engaged in initial interaction conversations in either a face-to-face (FtF) or CMC context. The researchers measured social anxiety before the conversation and a number of outcomes after the conversation. The results revealed that CMC is a significant contingent condition to the association between social anxiety and one's partner's perception of this anxiety and a contingent condition to the association between social anxiety and one's partner's conversational satisfaction.
Keywords: Hyperpersonal; Social anxiety; CMC; Initial interaction
Multitasking across generations: Multitasking choices and difficulty ratings in three generations of Americans BIBAKFull-Text 483-489
  L. Mark Carrier; Nancy A. Cheever; Larry D. Rosen; Sandra Benitez; Jennifer Chang
This study investigated whether changes in the technological/social environment in the United States over time have resulted in concomitant changes in the multitasking skills of younger generations. One thousand, three hundred and nineteen Americans from three generations were queried to determine their at-home multitasking behaviors. An anonymous online questionnaire asked respondents to indicate which everyday and technology-based tasks they choose to combine for multitasking and to indicate how difficult it is to multitask when combining the tasks. Combining tasks occurred frequently, especially while listening to music or eating. Members of the "Net Generation" reported more multitasking than members of "Generation X," who reported more multitasking than members of the "Baby Boomer" generation. The choices of which tasks to combine for multitasking were highly correlated across generations, as were difficulty ratings of specific multitasking combinations. The results are consistent with a greater amount of general multitasking resources in younger generations, but similar mental limitations in the types of tasks that can be multitasked.
Keywords: Society; Childhood development; Sociocultural factors; Cognitive processes; Cognitive ability; Perceptual motor processes
Toward a comprehensive theory of problematic Internet use: Evaluating the role of self-esteem, anxiety, flow, and the self-rated importance of Internet activities BIBAKFull-Text 490-500
  Ho-Kyung Kim; Keith E. Davis
Problematic Internet use (PIU) has long been a matter of public concern. Study 1 examined the correlates of a well-validated measure of Internet addiction [Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the net. New York: John Wiley and Sons] with 315 students (39% male). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that low self-esteem, unrealistic optimism, and the importance of 7-positive activities (I7PA) all contributed to the prediction of PIU. The inclusion of controls for aspects of Internet uses and demographic characters showed a clear distinction between PIU and frequent Internet use. Subjects who anticipated that negative outcomes were more likely to happen to them than to peers were none-the-less more likely to engage in PIU. The more important positive activities were, the greater the PIU. SEM model suggested that unrealistic optimism was best treated as part of PIU and that low self-esteem and the I7PA were the powerful predictors of PIU. Study 2 tested SEM models of psychosocial characteristics with 279 students (48% male). Anxiety and flow were added as predictors and the felt safety for social contacts was added to Global PIU following Caplan [Caplan, S. E. (2002). Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being: Development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral measurement instrument. Computers in Human Behavior, 18, 553-575]. The more complex model provided excellent fit and showed that low self-esteem, anxiety, and the I7PA were positively related to PIU. The relationship both of flow and sensation-seeking was mediated by the 17PA. Research on the topic has been relatively atheoretical. We propose a theoretical template to guide future research on PIU.
Keywords: Anxiety; Flow; Problematic Internet use; Self-esteem; Sensation-seeking; Theory
The relationships between learner variables, tool-usage behaviour and performance BIBAKFull-Text 501-509
  Lai Jiang; Jan Elen; Geraldine Clarebout
A variety of learner variables have been asserted to affect learners' tool-usage behaviour. However, direct empirical evidence on which learner variables influence tool-usage behaviour and how is limited. In order to better understand the impact of learner variables on tool use, the current study investigates the relationships between learner variables, the quantitative aspects of tool-usage behaviour and its outcome (i.e., performance). More specifically, the focus is on how the variation in tool use is related to prior knowledge and goal orientation and how this variation affects performance. Tool-use data were extracted from log-file data collected in an open-ended learning environment [Clarebout, G. (2005). The enhancement of optimal tool use in open learning environments (Doctoral dissertation). Katholieke universiteit Leuven, Leuven.]. Results partly revealed the hypothesized relationships between learner variables, tool-usage behaviour (the proportion of time spent on tools) and performance. The results suggest that in order to have a more thorough understanding of the relationships between learner variables, tool-usage behaviour and learning outcomes, log-file data may need to be complemented with direct observations to acknowledge the qualitative aspects of the tool-usage behaviour (i.e., mixed method approach).
Keywords: Prior knowledge; Goal orientation; Log files; Tool use
Me, myself and I: The role of interactional context on self-presentation through avatars BIBAKFull-Text 510-520
  Asimina Vasalou; Adam N. Joinson
This paper investigates whether the nature of an online environment can prime users to create avatars that emphasize particular characteristics. Participants created an avatar for one of three contrasting settings: blogging, dating or gaming. For the most part, avatars in blogging were created to accurately reflect their owners' physical appearance, lifestyle and preferences. By contrast, participants in the dating and gaming treatments accentuated certain aspects of their avatar to reflect the tone and perceived expectations of the context. For instance, avatars in dating were made to look more attractive while avatars in gaming were made to look more intellectual. Yet, predominantly, these emphasized avatar attributes drew on participants' self-image, and thus avatars were perceived by their owners as highly similar to themselves. The implications of these results are discussed against current frameworks of online identity and behavior. Most importantly, we use our results to extract design recommendations for improving avatar-driven applications.
Keywords: Avatars; Perception; Self-awareness; Self-presentation; Customization; Identity
Virtual math objects with pedagogical, mathematical, and cognitive fidelity BIBAKFull-Text 521-528
  Beth Bos
The examination of mathematical and cognitive fidelity for math related websites has been studied by Web designers; yet teachers, and especially pre-service teachers, as users of technology in the classroom, also need to be familiar with pedagogical, mathematical, and cognitive fidelity. What is pedagogical, mathematical, and cognitive fidelity; and, what makes a math website high in pedagogical, mathematical, and cognitive fidelity are discussed in this article. Evidence is shown that technology high in pedagogical, mathematical, and cognitive fidelity, when used in the classroom, improves student academic achievement.
Keywords: Technology; Pedagogical; Mathematical and cognitive fidelity; Mathematics teacher
Analysis of cognitive learning strategies and computer attitudes, according to college students' gender and locus of control BIBAKFull-Text 529-534
  Sahin Kesici; Ismail Sahin; Ahmet Oguz Akturk
This study explored variations in cognitive learning strategies and computer attitudes among college students, based on gender and locus of control. The study groups were comprised of 263 preservice teachers. The results demonstrated that the level of adherence to cognitive learning strategies on the part of female college students was significantly higher than those of male college students, especially in terms of memorization, analytical, and explanation. This study found that college students' gender has an effect on cognitive learning strategies and computer attitudes. In terms of locus of control, college students' cognitive learning strategies and computer attitudes were found statistically significant in the following levels: small in application, small in memorization, weaker in analytical, small in summarization, small in rehearsal, weaker in explanation, and small in computer attitude. Observance of cognitive learning strategies was found to be significantly higher for college students with internal locus of control than for those with external locus of control in terms of summarization and rehearsal.
Keywords: College students; Cognitive learning strategies; Computer attitude; Gender; Locus of control
Updating the attitudes toward computer usage scale using American undergraduate students BIBAKFull-Text 535-543
  Samantha A. Morris; Nicole L. Gullekson; Brendan J. Morse; Paula M. Popovich
The Attitudes Toward Computer Usage Scale (ATCUS) was first developed in 1986 by [Popovich, P. M., Hyde, K. R., Zakrajsek, T., & Blumer, C. (1987). The development of the attitudes toward computer usage scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47, 261-269.] using American undergraduates and has since been with a variety of populations over the past 20 years. However, many changes in the technological landscape have occurred since its development, thus creating a need for an updated scale. During the course of a three-part study, the ATCUS v. 2.0 was developed with psychometric properties similar to that of the original ATCUS. The addition of more up-to-date items to serves to enhance the usefulness and practicality of this instrument. The ATCUS v. 2.0 was found to have both high internal consistency, alpha = .83 and test-retest reliability, r = .93.
Keywords: Computer attitudes; Scale development
Health information-seeking and perceptions of website credibility: Examining Web-use orientation, message characteristics, and structural features of websites BIBAKFull-Text 544-553
  Stephen A. Rains; Carolyn Donnerstein Karmikel
The study reported here examined perceptions of health website credibility during the process of acquiring health information using the World Wide Web. The relationships between perceptions of website credibility and both message characteristics (e.g., statistics, testimonials) and structural features of health websites (e.g., privacy policy statement, third-party endorsements) were assessed. Additionally, one's Web-use orientation (i.e., searching or surfing) was evaluated as a moderator of the preceding relationships. The results showed a positive relationship between the presence of structural features and perceptions of website credibility as well as a positive relationship between the presence of message characteristics and attitudes about the health topic. Although Web-use orientation moderated the relationship between message characteristics and perceptions of website credibility, the nature of this relationship was inconsistent with study predictions.
Keywords: Website credibility; Information-seeking; Internet
Video games and the perception of very long durations by adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 554-559
  Simon Tobin; Simon Grondin
In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that adolescents might underestimate time while playing a video game. To test this hypothesis, 116 adolescents (14-15 years old) had to judge prospectively or retrospectively the duration of three consecutive tasks: a 8 min and a 24 min task of playing video game (Tetris) and an 8 min task of reading on a computer screen (control task). The main hypothesis received support: for a same duration, the video game task was estimated as shorter than the reading task. Moreover, participants with a game-inclined profile showed a stronger underestimation of time while playing. Finally, the short durations were overestimated and the long duration underestimated. The main findings are accounted for by an attention-based explanation.
Keywords: Time perception; Attention; Memory; Video games; Adolescents
Exploring similarities and differences between online and offline friendships: The role of attachment style BIBAKFull-Text 560-567
  Vanessa M. Buote; Eileen Wood; Michael Pratt
The present study merges the fields of attachment and friendships and compares these in online and offline environments. Although currently we know a great deal about the importance of friendships and attachments for healthy development, there is no research to guide our understanding of how attachment style and friendship characteristics are evidenced in online contexts. Participants completed surveys to assess attachment style, friendships (online and offline), as well as interactions with friends and friendship quality. The extent to which individuals sought out online friends did not differ as a function of attachment style. Friendship quality differed as function of attachment style, while differences among attachment styles for other friendship characteristics resulted only when context (online versus offline) was simultaneously considered.
Keywords: Attachment style; Online and offline relationships; Friendships; Computers and friendships; Friendship quality
Factor structure of web site creativity BIBAKFull-Text 568-577
  Liang Zeng; Gavriel Salvendy; Min Zhang
The objective of this study is to develop an instrument measuring user-assessment of web site creativity and then to investigate the impacts of web site creativity on user behavior. A conceptual model for user perception and response to web site creativity was constructed and the initial Web Site Creativity Measurement Instrument was developed, whose construct validity was based on the literature. This instrument was then administered via a survey (N = 289) with satisfactory internal consistency. The results of factor analysis indicated a refined instrument with seven factors (28 items): Aesthetic Appeal, Interactivity, Novelty and Flexibility, Affect, Importance, Commonality and Simplicity, and Personalization, which explained 63% of the total variance. Stepwise regressions further identified important factors in predicting the user's attitude and behavior towards web site creativity. 62% of the total variance regarding the prediction of the user's overall preference towards creative web sites was explained by significant factors. Guidelines and checklist for creative web site design were also developed based on the refined instrument.
Keywords: Web site creativity; Measurement; Factor structure
Personality and motivations associated with Facebook use BIBAKFull-Text 578-586
  Craig Ross; Emily S. Orr; Mia Sisic; Jaime M. Arseneault; Mary G. Simmering; R. Robert Orr
Facebook is quickly becoming one of the most popular tools for social communication. However, Facebook is somewhat different from other Social Networking Sites as it demonstrates an offline-to-online trend; that is, the majority of Facebook Friends are met offline and then added later. The present research investigated how the Five-Factor Model of personality relates to Facebook use. Despite some expected trends regarding Extraversion and Openness to Experience, results indicated that personality factors were not as influential as previous literature would suggest. The results also indicated that a motivation to communicate was influential in terms of Facebook use. It is suggested that different motivations may be influential in the decision to use tools such as Facebook, especially when individual functions of Facebook are being considered.
Keywords: Computer Mediated Communication (CMC); Personality; Internet Use; Facebook; Five-Factor Model; NEO-PI-R
Effects of communication style and culture on ability to accept recommendations from robots BIBAKFull-Text 587-595
  P. L. Patrick Rau; Ye Li; Dingjun Li
The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of communication styles and culture on people's accepting recommendations from robots. The goal was to provide insight for culturally adaptive robot design. The independent variables were communication style (i.e. implicit or explicit), the participants' cultural background (i.e. Chinese or German), and the robot's language (i.e. native language and English for Chinese and German subjects). A laboratory experiment was conducted with 16 Chinese and 16 German college students. Basic descriptive statistics and t-test are used for biographical information analysis; reliability test is used for questionnaire; MANOVA and non-parametric test are used for testing the hypotheses. The results showed that the Chinese participants preferred an implicit communication style than German participants. Chinese participants evaluated the robots as being more likable, trustworthy, and credible, and were more likely to accept the implicit recommendations. The German participants evaluated the robots as being less likable, trustworthy, and credible, and were less inclined to accept implicit recommendations.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; Communication style; Cultural differences; Robot language

CHB 2009-05 Volume 25 Issue 3

Special issue: Enabling elderly users to create and share self-authored multimedia content BIBFull-Text 597-598
  Petter Bae Brandtzæg; Anxo Cereijo Roibás
An interactive tool to promote musical creativity in people with dementia BIBAKFull-Text 599-608
  Philippa Riley; Norman Alm; Alan Newell
Dementia is a growing problem that affects the lives of those diagnosed and caregivers, with symptoms having an effect on memory, communication, the ability to learn new skills and problems with behaviour, such as aggression, agitation and depression. Participation in activities can improve quality of life for people with dementia, reducing behavioural problems and aiding relaxation. Research has established that people with dementia can be both artistically and musically creative, and have an appreciation of music even in the latter stages of the disease. The symptoms of the disease, however, mean that supporting music making activities with this group of people is challenging. This paper describes a prototype system designed to enable people with dementia to create music, using a touch screen interface to control a system which utilises chords to create pleasant-sounding music regardless of any prior musical knowledge. Results of usability studies suggest the system is easy to use, and that pleasant-sounding music can be created with it. Participants, including people with dementia, appeared actively engaged during use of the system, many reporting they enjoyed the experience. Future testing will establish the degree to which people with dementia could be musically creative using such a system.
Keywords: Multimedia; HCI; Dementia; Alzheimer's Disease; Music; Creativity
Home-based communication system for older adults and their remote family BIBAKFull-Text 609-618
  Marcela D. Rodríguez; Victor M. Gonzalez; Jesus Favela; Pedro C. Santana
As in many Latin-American countries, in Mexico many older adults live alone as a result of the migration of one or more of their relatives, mostly to the USA. Thus, not only do they live alone, but they might seldom see these relatives for long periods, even though they often depend on them financially. With the goal of designing appropriate communication technology for seniors and their relatives experiencing this situation, we conducted interviews and evaluated scenarios and prototypes to reveal the practical ways they maintain emotional ties despite the distance. Based on those findings, we envisioned a communication system through which seniors and their relatives can maintain close social ties by sharing information, personal reminiscences and stories. We found that older adults perceived the system as a richer, natural form of communication with their relatives that could facilitate their integration into the networks that currently connect members of their families.
Keywords: Companionship; Elderly; Cognitive decline; Isolation; Sharing; Digital photos; Communication boards
Understanding the factors affecting online elderly user's participation in video UCC services BIBAKFull-Text 619-632
  Min-Ho Ryu; Seongcheol Kim; Euehun Lee
Video user-created content (video UCC) is currently being spotlighted by business practitioners and researchers. However, little consideration is being made on elderly people's adoption of this innovative service. This paper highlights this issue of elderly online users and discovers the factors affecting their participation decisions in video UCC services. This study introduces elderly-specific constructs such as perceived physical condition (physical age), life course events (psycho-social age), perceived user resources, prior similar experience, and computer anxiety, each reflecting the complex aging process. Then, the relationship between these constructs and the conventional constructs from the technology acceptance model (TAM) (perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, and compatibility) is hypothesized and tested. Data was collected from 290 online users older than 50 years of age. The results show that elderly people are not highly resistant to change and will adopt video UCC if some conditions are satisfied. In addition, elderly-specific variables could be good antecedents for conventional TAM constructs, while having direct effects on the intention construct for some cases (perceived physical condition, life course events, and perceived user resources). We believe the implications of this study are important for both researchers and practitioners.
Keywords: Video UCC service; Elderly people; TAM; Elderly-specific constructs; Physical age; Psycho-social age
Digital circles of support: Meeting the information needs of older people BIBAKFull-Text 633-642
  Mary Godfrey; Owen Johnson
The UK Government strategy for aging in the 21st Century challenges conceptions of older people as passive recipients of care and promotes their engagement as active citizens. The strategy includes a commitment to test services which embody these principles with a range of innovative pilot projects. This paper summarises research on older people's information needs and use which informed the design for one of these projects, Leeds Link-Age Plus. The research explored the complex circumstances around which older people access and use social and community information -- a topic that has received limited attention in the literature. The paper is novel in considering how the use of informal networks for securing information, advice and advocacy can be supported by technology literate mediators, who may be older people, located within local community or voluntary organisations. Emphasising the mediator in design facilitates social contacts, directly addresses issues of trust and can reduce the chance of causing distress dealing with complex information. A model is suggested for using emerging technology to introduce new ways in which information for older adults can be improved by digital 'circles of support' -- a form of social network where mediators collaborate to create and share self-authored content.
Keywords: Older people; Ageing; Information access; Social networks; Digital divide; Mediator
Age differences in online social networking -- A study of user profiles and the social capital divide among teenagers and older users in MySpace BIBAKFull-Text 643-654
  Ulrike Pfeil; Raj Arjan; Panayiotis Zaphiris
The aim of this research was to investigate age differences and similarities in the use of the social networking website MySpace, to explore potential differences in social capital among older people (users over 60 years of age) compared to teenagers (users between 13 and 19 years of age). We used locally developed web crawlers to collect data from MySpace's user profile pages, and to quantify any differences that exist in the networks of friends of older people and teenagers. Content analysis was applied to investigate differences in social activities between the two age groups on MySpace, and the way they represent themselves on their profile pages. Our findings show a social capital divide: teenagers have larger networks of friends compared to older users of MySpace. On the other hand, we found that the majority of teenage users' friends are in their own age range (age ± 2 years), whilst older people's networks of friends tend to have a more diverse age distribution. In addition, our results show that teenagers tend to make more use of different media (e.g. video, music) within MySpace and use more self-references and negative emotions when describing themselves on their profile compared to older people.
Keywords: Social capital; Social networking; MySpace; Age differences
Co-creation and user-generated content-elderly people's user requirements BIBAKFull-Text 655-678
  Amela Karahasanovic; Petter Bae Brandtzæg; Jan Heim; Marika Lüders; Lotte Vermeir; Jo Pierson; Bram Lievens; Jeroen Vanattenhoven; Greet Jans
There is an increasing demand on citizens to participate in social network websites and to create and share their own user-generated content (UGC), such as photographs, videos, and blogs. So far, little is known about how elderly people respond to these new trends and master the techniques required. This paper reports on three studies that investigated elderly people's user requirements related to consumption, sharing and co-creation of UGC in new media. The first study, conducted in Norway, identifies patterns of Internet usage, age differences, and participation in online communities and the consumption, sharing and co-creation of UGC on a macro level. The second study, conducted in Belgium, investigated the social requirements of elderly people on a group level. The third study, also conducted in Belgium, investigated user and context requirements on an individual level. The results of the first study show that the elderly rarely participate in online communities and share audio-visual UGC. However, they embrace some aspects of the new media and more often express themselves politically. The results of the second study show that the elderly are very motivated to contribute with UGC, given the right circumstances. The results of the third study show that it is important for elderly people that they be able to use the new technologies easily and identifies their worries about using them.
Keywords: Elderly people; User generated content; Online communities; User requirements
Creating a conversational context through video blogging: A case study of Geriatric1927 BIBAKFull-Text 679-689
  Dave Harley; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
Web-based communication technologies such as YouTube can provide opportunities for social contact, especially between older and younger people, and help address issues of social isolation. Currently our understanding of the dynamics of social interaction within this context (particularly for older people) is limited. Elaborating upon this understanding will make it possible to proactively facilitate and support this form of intergenerational social contact. This study focuses on the experiences of an 80-year-old video blogger (vlogger), Geriatric1927, and a video dialogue that develops between himself and three of his younger viewers on a particular topic. Through a multimodal interactional analysis, we show how vloggers create a conversational context between one another through the YouTube website. In particular we describe how vloggers use different communicative modes to establish eye contact, take turns in conversation, share embodied gestures, share their understandings and negotiate simultaneous audiences. Despite a disconnected and ambiguous sense of the other, YouTube is able to facilitate a conversational context in which common ground is shared and social contact and intergenerational communication can occur.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction; YouTube; Vlogging; Conversation; Intergenerational communication
The relationship between religious expression and outcomes in online support groups: A partial replication BIBAKFull-Text 690-694
  Morton A. Lieberman; Andrew Winzelberg
Shaw and his colleagues [Shaw, B., Han, J., Kim, E., Gustafson, D., Hawkins, R., Cleary, C., et al. (2007). Effects of prayer and religious expression within computer support groups on women with breast cancer. Psycho-oncology, 16(7), 676-687] examined religious expression in breast cancer (BC) online support groups (OSG). Using Pennebaker's LIWC text analysis to assess religious expression, they found that the more frequent the expression of words related to religion the lower the levels of negative emotions and the higher the levels of health self-efficacy and functional well-being. Our study goal was to replicate their findings. Specifically, we tested their central hypothesis that the percentage of religious words written by members of BC OSG's are associated with improvement in psychological outcomes. Five BC OSG's from our previous work [Lieberman, M. A., & Goldstein, B. (2005a). Not all negative emotions are equal: The role of emotional expression in online support groups for women with breast cancer. Psycho-oncology. 15, 160-168; Lieberman, M. A., & Goldstein, B. (2005b). Self-help online: An outcome evaluation of breast cancer bulletin boards. Journal of Health Psychology, 10(6), 855-862] studied 91 participants at baseline and 6 months post. Significant changes in depression and quality of life was found over time. In the current study linear regressions examined the relationship between religious statements and outcomes. The results did not support the hypotheses of a positive relationship between religious expression and positive outcome in both OSG samples. Reviews of studies examining the role of religion in health outcomes report equivocal results on the benefits of religious expression.
Keywords: Breast cancer; Religious expression; Outcomes; Replication; Internet support groups
Too real for comfort? Uncanny responses to computer generated faces BIBAKFull-Text 695-710
  Karl F. MacDorman; Robert D. Green; Chin-Chang Ho; Clinton T. Koch
As virtual humans approach photorealistic perfection, they risk making real humans uncomfortable. This intriguing phenomenon, known as the uncanny valley, is well known but not well understood. In an effort to demystify the causes of the uncanny valley, this paper proposes several perceptual, cognitive, and social mechanisms that have already helped address riddles like empathy, mate selection, threat avoidance, cognitive dissonance, and psychological defenses. In the four studies described herein, a computer generated human character's facial proportions, skin texture, and level of detail were varied to examine their effect on perceived eeriness, human likeness, and attractiveness. In Study I, texture photorealism and polygon count increased human likeness. In Study II, texture photorealism heightened the accuracy of human judgments of ideal facial proportions. In Study III, atypical facial proportions were shown to be more disturbing on photorealistic faces than on other faces. In Study IV, a mismatch in the size and texture of the eyes and face was especially prone to make a character eerie. These results contest the depiction of the uncanny valley as a simple relation between comfort level and human likeness. This paper concludes by introducing a set of design principles for bridging the uncanny valley.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Facial perception; Masahiro Mori; Social cognitive neuroscience; Uncanny valley
Sitting at the virtual poker table: A prospective epidemiological study of actual Internet poker gambling behavior BIBAKFull-Text 711-717
  Debi A. LaPlante; John H. Kleschinsky; Richard A. LaBrie; Sarah E. Nelson; Howard J. Shaffer
Internet gambling is a potential object of addictive behavior and consequently an important concern for public health. Epidemiological analyses of Internet gambling are necessary to determine the extent of public health threat. This paper reports the results of the first prospective epidemiological study of actual Internet poker gambling behavior. Participants were 3445 Internet gambling service subscribers who enrolled during February 2005. Data include two years of recorded poker outcomes (i.e., chips bought and sold) for each poker session played. Among our sample, we identified two subgroups of poker players. Approximately 95% of the sample bought a median of 12 worth of chips at each of two poker sessions per week during a median duration from first to last bet of six months. A smaller subgroup (i.e., 5%) of most involved poker players bought a median of 89 worth of chip at each of 10 sessions per week during a median duration from first to last bet of 18 months. In addition to level differences, we report the differences in patterns of behavior observed between these two subgroups. The analyses presented in this paper suggest that the majority of Internet poker players moderated their behavior based on their wins and losses. A minority of most involved players did not show such moderation. These results have important implications for both gambling-and addiction-related research.
Keywords: Gambling; Internet gambling; Internet poker; Internet; Poker; Epidemiology; Public health
Adolescent self-control and music and movie piracy BIBAKFull-Text 718-722
  Jenessa Malin; Blaine J. Fowers
Recent studies have applied Grottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime to investigate whether college students' inclinations toward internet software piracy is related to low self-control and opportunity (i.e., computer ownership). Given the widespread use of the internet to illegally obtain copies of music and movies, it is important to understand the factors in this form of piracy as well. This study applied the self-control perspective to examine the attitudes of high school students toward the internet piracy of music and movies. Attitudes toward the internet piracy of music and movies were related to self-control, biological sex, internet experience, affiliation with deviant peers, and grade level in this study of high school students. This information is important because studies of internet piracy had not yet confirmed the presence and predictability of internet piracy in high school students. This study also suggests that piracy prevention efforts may be most appropriately focused on high school age individuals and directed toward increasing self-control.
Keywords: Adolescent; Deviant peers; Internet piracy; Music piracy; Self-control
Progression of mental models throughout the phases of a computer-based instructional simulation: Supportive information, practice, and performance BIBAKFull-Text 723-730
  A. Aubteen Darabi; David W. Nelson; Norbert M. Seel
Students of chemical engineering (n = 26) participated in an experiment using a computer-based simulation of a chemical plant. The progression of participants' mental models was examined throughout a computer-based instructional experience as they acquired the complex cognitive skills of troubleshooting. Participants' mental models of the complex learning task were matched against an expert mental model at five observation points through the instruction. Progressions of learners' mental models were examined before and after three phases of the instructional process: supportive information presentation, problem solving practice, and performance test. The results indicated a significant change in participants' mental models after receiving the supportive information and little change after practice or performance. This paper presents the results of this investigation and discusses the findings and their implications for computer-based instruction and training.
Keywords: Mental models; Problem solving; Computer simulation; Computer assisted instruction; Cognitive processes; Decision making
Impact of temporal extension, synchronicity, and group size on computer-supported information exchange BIBAKFull-Text 731-737
  Ulrike Cress; Joachim Kimmerle; Friedrich W. Hesse
People's willingness to contribute information they have in a situation of computer-supported information exchange is influenced by the configuration of various circumstantial aspects. People's perception and their behavior depend on how long the period of cooperation persists, on whether the information exchange takes place synchronously or asynchronously, and on how large the cooperating group is. In this article an experimental laboratory study is presented which investigated a prototypical situation of computer-supported information exchange. The study examined the impact of those three factors: temporal extension, (a)synchronicity, and group size. With respect to each of these variables, mediating influential psychological factors were considered. In a temporally extended information exchange dilemma people's contribution behavior did not differ from that in a short-term setting. In an extended cooperation situation participants showed decreasing cooperation behavior just as in previous studies with short-time settings. However, participants who highly identified with the group remained equally cooperative throughout the whole experiment. In asynchronous information exchange the contribution rate was lower than in synchronous groups. Increased group size did not influence contribution behavior negatively in the information exchange dilemma. However, in a small group, participants' perceived influence was higher than in a large group and people who perceive high influence tended to be more cooperative than people who perceive low influence.
Keywords: Synchronicity; Group size; Information exchange
Internet testing: A natural experiment reveals test score inflation on a high-stakes, unproctored cognitive test BIBAKFull-Text 738-742
  Jane Carstairs; Brett Myors
A natural experiment is reported in which the performance of two cohorts of undergraduate students on identical tests of cognitive achievement is compared under differing conditions of proctoring and modes of administration, total N = 302. Between-subjects and within-subjects analyses reveal clear effects of test score inflation in the unproctored conditions compared with formal, proctored, examination conditions. These results caution against the use of unproctored cognitive testing in high-stakes situations, including on-line assessment.
Keywords: Internet usage; Cognitive assessment; Achievement measures; Cheating; Educational measurement
Slovak high school students' attitudes to ICT using in biology lesson BIBAKFull-Text 743-748
  Milan Kubiatko; Zuzana Haláková
The impact of information and communication technologies and computers on our daily lives has been steadily increasing. This fact influences the change of attitudes toward information and communication technologies. In our contribution we focused on finding the differences between gender and age according to computer attitudes. A questionnaire with 33 Likert type items was used in our research. The sample consists of 518 students from 9 high schools. Students attended the all of grades (first, second, third and fourth). They were 15- to 19-years old. Data were evaluated with factor analysis and the ANOVA. The results of the questionnaire were divided into five dimensions in the concrete. (1) The positive influence of ICT; (2) the negative influence of ICT; (3) advantages of ICT; (4) ICT used in biology lesson; (5) disadvantages of ICT. Totally, boys have more positive attitudes than girls and the younger students had more positive attitudes toward information and communication technologies using in biology lesson in comparison with the older students.
Keywords: Attitudes; Information and communication technologies; Biology; Students; Questionnaire
A randomised controlled trial of a self-guided internet intervention promoting well-being BIBAKFull-Text 749-760
  Joanna Mitchell; Rosanna Stanimirovic; Britt Klein; Dianne Vella-Brodrick
Positive psychology is paving the way for interventions that enduringly enhance well-being and the internet offers the potential to disseminate these interventions to a broad audience in an accessible and sustainable manner. There is now sufficient evidence demonstrating the efficacy of internet interventions for mental illness treatment and prevention, but little is known about enhancing well-being. The current study examined the efficacy of a positive psychology internet-based intervention by adopting a randomised controlled trial design to compare a strengths intervention, a problem solving intervention and a placebo control. Participants (n = 160) completed measures of well-being (PWI-A, SWLS, PANAS, OTH) and mental illness (DASS-21) at pre-assessment, post-assessment and 3-month follow-up. Well-being increased for the strengths group at post- and follow-up assessment on the PWI-A, but not the SWLS or PANAS. Significant changes were detected on the OTH subscales of engagement and pleasure. No changes in mental illness were detected by group or time. Attrition from the study was 83% at 3-month follow-up, with significant group differences in adherence to the intervention: strengths (34%), problem solving (15.5%) and placebo control (42.6%). Although the results are mixed, it appears possible to enhance the cognitive component of well-being via a self-guided internet intervention.
Keywords: Subjective well-being; Internet; Positive psychology; Strengths; Cognitive-behavioural therapy; Happiness; Health promotion
Exploring success factors of video game communities in hierarchical linear modeling: The perspectives of members and leaders BIBAKFull-Text 761-769
  Shu-Hsun Ho; Chiung-Hui Huang
Video games are enjoying fast-growing popularity, becoming a major component of young people's social lives and leisure activities. Many players share information and conduct social interactions in virtual communities (VC). The current study sought to examine the relationships between members and leaders in such video game communities using a number of variables to describe the member (i.e., knowledge sharing, usefulness, enjoyability, off-site interaction, satisfaction, loyalty, and intention to use) and the leader (i.e., leader involvement). Based on a sample of 2227 members and 41 leaders in 30 video game communities, the research demonstrated the use of a two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the relationships of VC leaders and members, appropriately adjusted for a nested structure. The results indicated that leaders who engage in higher levels of involvement in VC are more likely to have members who agree with and respond to the community. Furthermore, member- and leader-level factors were significantly associated with member satisfaction: knowledge sharing, usefulness, and enjoyability explained within-VC variance while leader involvement explained between-VC variance. Finally, member satisfaction demonstrated positive effects on both member loyalty and intention to use. The study further discussed the implications of these findings, offering direction for future research.
Keywords: Hierarchical linear model (HLM); Virtual community; Leader involvement; Satisfaction; Video game
Internet differential pricing: Effects on consumer price perception, emotions, and behavioral responses BIBAKFull-Text 770-777
  Yuan-shuh Lii; Erin Sy
Differential pricing is a strategy that retailers have used effectively in capturing sales and profits. The advent of the Internet is a new domain where this strategy can be applied conveniently and economically. This study examines the effects of various Internet differential pricing tactics (buyer identification, purchase quantity, purchase timing, and multi-channels) on consumers' cognitive (i.e., perceptions of price fairness), emotional, and behavioral responses. A survey on 367 marketing students in Taiwan was carried out. Empirical findings show that perceived fairness is significantly related to emotions, and while emotions similarly affect behavioral responses, it also mediates the relationship between perceptions of price fairness and behavioral responses. Practical implications and future studies for internet pricing strategies are further discussed.
Keywords: Differential pricing tactics; Internet pricing; Price perception; Emotions; Behavioral responses
The role of task-technology fit as users' motivation to continue information system use BIBAKFull-Text 778-784
  Tor J. Larsen; Anne M. Sørebø; Øystein Sørebø
In this study, we extend and combine the post-acceptance model (PAM), proposed by Bhattacherjee [Bhattacherjee, A. (2001). Understanding information systems continuance: An expectation-confirmation model. MIS Quarterly, 25(3), 351-370], with aspects of Goodhue and Thomson's theory of task-technology fit (TTF). The original PAM emphasizes cognitive beliefs and user feelings as factors that may influence a person's intention to continue to use an information system (IS). The variables added from TTF are task-technology fit and utilization. The sample consists of data that measure use and use-related aspects of an e-learning tool among university college teachers. Using structural equation modeling, results indicate that variables from TTF as well as variables from PAM explain users' IS continuance intention. As a result of these findings, we propose the existence of two different and autonomous paths from the independent variables to the dependent variable of IS continuance intention. These two paths are: a work system-centric path through utilization of the information system, and an IT-centric path through user satisfaction.
Keywords: IS use; Continuance; Acceptance; User satisfaction; Utilization; Post-acceptance model; Task-technology fit theory
Attention guidance during example study via the model's eye movements BIBAKFull-Text 785-791
  Tamara van Gog; Halszka Jarodzka; Katharina Scheiter; Peter Gerjets; Fred Paas
Research has shown that guiding students' attention guides their thought, and that attention can be communicated via eye movements. Therefore, this study investigates whether such a procedure can further enhance the effectiveness of examples in which a solution procedure is demonstrated to students by a (expert) model. Students' attention was guided by showing them not only the model's problem-solving actions on the computer screen, but also the model's eye movements while doing so. Interestingly, results show that combined with a verbal description of the thought process, this form of attention guidance had detrimental effects on learning. Consequences for further research on attention guidance and instructional design are discussed.
Keywords: Example-based learning; Eye tracking; Cognitive load; Attention

CHB 2009-07 Volume 25 Issue 4

The use of support devices in electronic learning environments BIBAFull-Text 793-794
  Geraldine Clarebout; Holger Horz; Jan Elen
This special issue addresses the use of support devices in electronic learning environments. Five articles each discus a study or several studies where the use of support devices is not evident. Factors influencing the use of support devices are addressed: elements of the learning environment, characteristics of the learner, etc.
   The discussion of this special issue reflects in general on support in computer-based learning environments.
Trends and issues of regulative support use during inquiry learning: Patterns from three studies BIBAFull-Text 795-803
  Sarah Manlove; Ard W. Lazonder; Ton de Jong
This paper looks across three experimental studies that examined supports designed to assist high-school students (age 15-19) with cognitive regulation of their physics inquiry learning efforts in a technology-enhanced learning environment called Co-Lab. Cognitive regulation involves the recursive processes of planning, monitoring, and evaluation during learning, and is generally thought to enhance learning gains for students. The research synthesis described in this paper examined the usage effects of a support tool called the process coordinator (PC) on learning outcomes. This tool incorporated goal-lists, hints, prompts, cues, and templates to support the cognitive regulation skills of students during a fluid dynamics task. Students were asked to produce two learning outcomes of their investigations: system dynamics models and lab reports. Results from the three studies indicated trends in frequent use of the PC for planning activities, but low usage for monitoring and evaluation. Correlational analysis revealed two trends with regard to how these regulative activities impacted learning outcomes. First, consistent positive correlations were apparent between regulative activities and lab report scores of students and second, consistent negative correlations between the use of supports and model quality scores. Trends with regard to how task complexity, time, and student prior experience impacted these findings are also presented with suggestions for future research.
Benefits of inserting support devices in electronic learning environments BIBAFull-Text 804-810
  Geraldine Clarebout; Jan Elen
Research on support device-usage reveals that support devices are seldom used, and if used often in an inadequate way such that it is no longer a learning opportunity [Aleven, V., Stahl, E., Schworm, S., Fischer, F., & Wallace, R. (2003). Help seeking and help design in interactive learning environments. Review of Educational Research, 73, 277-320; Clarebout, G., & Elen, J. (2006). Tool use in computer-based learning environments: Towards a research framework. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 389-411.]. In view of establishing a solid research agenda on the optimization of the use of instructional interventions and support devices, this article discusses three experimental studies, each dealing with different aspects of support device use. In a first study, the impact on support device use of different types and numbers of adjunct aids was investigated. In a second study, the influence of advice on support device use in an open learning environment is studied, while also considering various learner related variables. A third study addresses the use of support devices in a text-based environment.
   The results of the three studies reveal that the amount of support device usage is limited and that even advice on the use of the support device cannot always enhance this use. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the type of support devices influenced the amount of usage. With respect to learner characteristics, studies 2 and 3 revealed no significant effect of self regulation. Students' mastery orientation on the other hand did influence the support device usage. Reasons for the low usage of support devices are addressed in the discussion.
The role of graphical and text based argumentation tools in hypermedia learning BIBAFull-Text 811-817
  Joerg Zumbach
In this study, the effects of visualization tools on argumentation skills, knowledge acquisition, and motivation during learning with a hypermedia learning environment were examined. Participants in this experiment had to complete an argumentation task on environmental issues by using a hypermedia learning environment as resource. In one condition, participants were provided with a graphical mind mapping tool in order to complete an argumentation task. In a second condition, a two-columned text editor has been given. A control group received no argumentation task and no corresponding support device. Results suggest that a graphical argumentation support device can enhance learners' motivation, but has no influence on knowledge acquisition or quality of arguments, whereas both argumentation support devices led to superior results compared to the control group. Overall, results reveal that the assignment of an argumentation task to hypermedia learning environments was an effective instructional strategy that led to enhanced knowledge acquisition compared to learning without an argumentation task.
Differential benefits of situated instructional prompts BIBAKFull-Text 818-828
  Holger Horz; Claudia Winter; Stefan Fries
Learners often neglect support (glossaries, help sites etc.) in computer-based learning environments since they experience it as an unrelated add-on. We assumed that prompts presenting situated instructional support would lead to an increased use of help sites and glossary. Further it was assumed that situated instructional support would lead to a higher cognitive load of learners, which causes differential learning outcomes depending on learners' general domain knowledge. To scrutinise the differential effect of situated instructional prompts we conducted an experiment with 69 students (undergraduates vs. graduates). Students learned either with a learning environment with or without prompts. As expected, learning with prompts resulted in an increased support usage. Furthermore, two interaction effects occurred. (1) Graduates learned slightly better with a program including prompts whereas undergraduates performed better without prompts. (2) Undergraduates stated a higher perceived cognitive load if they learned with a program with situated instructional prompts. In the group of graduates no differences occurred concerning the perceived cognitive load. The results are interpreted within the framework of cognitive load theory.
Keywords: Tool use; Prompting; Instructional support; Cognitive load; Situated learning
Effects of a metacognitive support device in learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 829-835
  Maria Bannert; Melanie Hildebrand; Christoph Mengelkamp
Successful learning is mainly based on metacognitive activities which have to be performed and constantly monitored during learning. Research reveals that many learners have difficulties in performing such metacognitive activities spontaneously, which most probably results in lower learning outcomes. The aim of this study is to experimentally analyse the effects of a metacognitive support device combined with a paper-based prompting scheme. With this support device, students are instructed to activate their repertoire of metacognitive knowledge and skills which should further enhance learning and transfer.
   University students of the experimental group (n = 29) were instructed by means of a metacognitive support device why metacognitive activities are useful and how to apply them during learning. In addition, during learning, they were prompted to apply the metacognitive activities they just had learned. Students of the control group (n = 27) were not instructed why and how to use metacognitive activities, and furthermore, they were not prompted during learning to apply these metacognitive activities. Rather, they were instructed by a computer device how to organise a work place for their studies so all groups were treated in a similar way. The students' learning task was to learn about "psychological theories of using pictures in multimedia learning environments" within 60 min. Immediately afterwards, learning outcome was measured with a test. Altogether, 56 university students participated, counterbalanced according to their prior knowledge as well as metacognitive knowledge. As expected, students of the experimental group showed better transfer performance compared with the control group. In addition, training did increase metacognitive behavior measured by subjective ratings.
Keywords: Metacognitive instruction; Support device; Hypermedia learning; Knowledge acquisition
Discussion BIBFull-Text 836-840
  R. Scott Grabinger
Psychometric properties of internet administered versions of Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) BIBAKFull-Text 841-843
  Kimberly R. Zlomke
A limited amount of research has been conducted on the psychometric properties of commonly used measures of anxious or depressive symptomatology for use on the internet, although such measures are seeing increasing use in internet administration for both clinical and research uses. A plethora of advantages exist for the use of internet administration of questionnaires, both in terms of assessment and the potential use in treatment monitoring as well as for research. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of two common clinical measures, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire and the. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale, in an internet administered format (N = 1138). Results suggest that these two measures may be used with confidence in an online format in terms of reliability and validity.
Keywords: Psychometric properties; PSWQ; DASS; Internet administration
Pair dynamics in team collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 844-852
  Kyungsub Steve Choi; Fadi P. Deek; Il Im
From a recent field survey with a group of professional pair programmers, it was revealed that the programmers perceive a partner's personality, cognitive style and communication skills as the top three factors that lead to prudent pair programming. Based on this finding, the factors personality and communication skills, along with gender were selected for an experiment to analyze if a partner's human, intrinsic values influence the pair programming experience, specifically in the levels of satisfaction, compatibility, communication, and confidence. A total of 128 students majoring in Management Information Systems, Information Systems, and Information Technology participated in the experiment. Of the 68 undergraduates, 40 were first-year students and 28 were juniors; the remaining 60 were Master's degree graduate students. The students were formed into a total of 64 pairs based on their personality, level of communication skills, and gender. A total of three visits were made. During the first two visits, a set of four programming problems was used in four programming sessions lasting 45 min each; two were individual programming sessions and two were pair programming sessions. At the end of each visit, a questionnaire was administered and collected. The questionnaire results revealed that the various Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality combinations did not significantly influence the levels of communication, satisfaction, confidence, and compatibility. The pairs that exhibited a high level of communication between partners did not necessarily experience a high level of satisfaction or exhibit compatibility between partners, nor did they have a high level of confidence regarding the finished product. The communication skill level seemed to have an impact on communication only. Similar to many previous gender-focused literatures, the same gender pairs did exhibit significantly higher levels of communication, satisfaction and compatibility than the mixed gender pairs. Within the same gender pairs, the female-female pairs showed a much higher level than the male-male pairs in those categories. Contrariwise, the same gender pairs did not show a significantly higher confidence level than the mixed gender pairs about their finished product.
Keywords: Pair dynamics; Pair programming; Team programming; Extreme programming
Online political marketing in Greece: An evaluation of the 2007 national elections and two case studies BIBAKFull-Text 853-861
  Constantinos K. Coursaris; Savvas Papagiannidis
This paper presents findings on the use of Web sites as a political marketing tool in the context of the 2007 Greek national elections. The questions guiding this research are how popular were online campaigns in terms of candidate use of Web sites and which trust and credibility-building Web site design cues were leveraged by candidates. This study also explored differences in online campaign practices both between Greek political parties and between the 2007 national Greek elections and the 2002 federal US elections.
   The entire population of Greek candidates' Web sites (n = 373) was reviewed and evaluated against a framework that consisted of 58 Web site design features reflecting the potential of Web technologies for political marketing. Results indicate that only 18% of Greek candidates had a Web presence in 2007, and on average these online campaigns were quite limited in their implementations of practices such as volunteer recruitment, fundraising, and Web-exclusive activities. On average, these implementations led in certain areas, but more interestingly lagged the US in online political marketing activities such as the provision of electronic paraphernalia, a campaign calendar, a privacy policy, issues statements, and endorsements. Twenty-four Web site design features are recommended for candidates to remain at par within the online political marketing scene in Greece. Findings are complemented by two case studies of Web sites that demonstrate mature use of Web technologies in online political campaigning.
Keywords: Political marketing; Website; Design; Greece; Elections; Trust
Interface feature prioritization for web services: Case of online flight reservations BIBAKFull-Text 862-877
  Cagla Ozen Seneler; Nuri Basoglu; Tugrul Daim
Acceptance, utility, and usability of system designs have become a focal interest in human-computer interaction (HCI) research, yet at present there is a lack detailed understandings of which system design features influence them. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of five product design features; customization, adaptive behavior, memory load, content density, and speed on user preference through an experimental study by using conjoint analysis. In experimental study, instead of classical conjoint cards, prototypes were generated for products. Besides, desirability and market segments of product prototypes were identified. In line with the results, among the five product design features, speed is the most and customization is the least important features that affect user preference. Contrary to the expectations, customization has a relatively small importance value in this research. Subsequent design features that influence user preference after speed are minimal memory load, adaptive behavior, and content density, respectively. According to findings, interfaces that have high-speed, minimal memory load, adaptive behavior, low content density, and customization features are more preferable than those that do not.
Keywords: User interface characteristics; Design features; User preference; Conjoint analysis; Minimal memory load; Adaptive behavior; Customization
Internet uses and gratifications: A survey in the Indian context BIBAKFull-Text 878-886
  Sanjit Kumar Roy
Uses and gratifications (U&G) theory, aids in the assessment of peoples' motivations for media usage, access and to understand their attitude towards a particular medium. In this paper this theory has been applied to derive the Internet gratification structure of Internet users in the Indian context. This study proceeds in four stages. First, six gratifications for Internet use namely self development, wide exposure, user friendly, relaxation, career opportunities, and global exchange were identified using the exploratory factor analysis. Then the factors were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Next with the use of t-tests the study identified the gratifications on which males and females differ significantly. Finally, with the use of discriminant analysis it has been shown that the light and heavy users of Internet differ on some of the gratification factors obtained in the study.
Keywords: Uses and gratifications; Internet; Indian context
The relationships among service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and post-purchase intention in mobile value-added services BIBAKFull-Text 887-896
  Ying-Feng Kuo; Chi-Ming Wu; Wei-Jaw Deng
The purposes of this study are to construct an instrument to evaluate service quality of mobile value-added services and have a further discussion of the relationships among service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and post-purchase intention. Structural equation modeling and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data collected from college and graduate students of 15 major universities in Taiwan. The main findings are as follows: (1) service quality positively influences both perceived value and customer satisfaction; (2) perceived value positively influences on both customer satisfaction and post-purchase intention; (3) customer satisfaction positively influences post-purchase intention; (4) service quality has an indirect positive influence on post-purchase intention through customer satisfaction or perceived value; (5) among the dimensions of service quality, "customer service and system reliability" is most influential on perceived value and customer satisfaction, and the influence of "content quality" ranks second; (6) the proposed model is proven with the effectiveness in explaining the relationships among service quality, perceived value, customer satisfaction, and post-purchase intention in mobile added-value services.
Keywords: Mobile value-added services; Service quality; Perceived value; Customer satisfaction; Post-purchase intention
Gender stereotyping over instant messenger: The effects of gender and context BIBAKFull-Text 897-901
  Emily Christofides; Towhidul Islam; Serge Desmarais
Researchers have observed that contrary to the high expectations for online communications, gender stereotyping has not disappeared in this medium, and is sometimes even accentuated. This study aimed to understand the effect of gender over instant messenger, a relatively new and unexplored medium. Instant messenger was chosen because it is a medium that is used most by youth who have grown up communicating online. Participants were interviewed over instant messenger about a potential online support service and were then asked to judge the effectiveness of their interviewer. The interviewer was identified only by a masculine or feminine name and was computer-simulated so as to remove any bias. The topic of discussion was stereotypically masculine or stereotypically feminine. Male participants were found to employ a male superiority heuristic, whereby they judged the male interviewer as more competent, regardless of the context. Female participants were hypothesized to judge the female interviewer as more competent in the feminine context, and the male interviewer as more competent in the masculine context (the context-gender match heuristic), but this hypothesis was not supported. The findings are discussed in the context of previous research on gender stereotyping in online communication.
Keywords: Stereotyping; Gender; Communication; Computer-mediated communication
Designing electronic use policies to enhance employee perceptions of fairness and to reduce cyberloafing: An empirical test of justice theory BIBAKFull-Text 902-910
  Christine A. Henle; Gary Kohut; Rosemary Booth
Organizations are attempting to curtail cyberloafing or employee use of company Internet and email systems for non-work purposes by implementing electronic use policies, but their design is based on anecdotal support instead of theory or empirical research. Using procedural justice theory, we propose policies containing signed versus implied consent, for cause versus periodic monitoring, zero tolerance or progressive discipline versus managerial discretion in disciplinary procedures, and appeals to peers or management versus no appeals will improve employee perceptions of policy fairness and thus, decrease cyberloafing. Results from two experiments and a field study found that zero tolerance, progressive discipline, and appeal processes were related to higher perceptions of policy fairness while periodic monitoring was related to less cyberloafing.
Keywords: Cyberloafing; Electronic use policies; Internet; Organizations; Procedural justice
An analysis of social support exchanges in online HIV/AIDS self-help groups BIBAKFull-Text 911-918
  Constantinos K. Coursaris; Ming Liu
Hundreds of thousands of people sharing concerns about HIV/AIDS have taken advantage of online self-help groups to exchange resources and support. Little research so far has focused on the nature and content of actual messages exchanged by group members. To provide an in-depth understanding of social support exchanges in online HIV/AIDS self-help groups, this study identifies and analyzes the dimensions and corresponding frequencies of exchanged social support as well as the group interactions facilitating those exchanges. A total of 5000 postings created within a 1 year period were randomly selected from a selected online HIV/AIDS forum. Content analysis was then conducted to assess the types and proportions of exchanged social support. A thematic analysis of the postings that could not be categorized with the adopted coding system was performed to find further patterns of positive group interactions. The results show that information support (41.6%) and emotional support (16.0%) were exchanged most frequently, followed by network support (6.8%) and esteem support exchanges (6.4%), whereas tangible assistance was quite rare (0.8%). The authors also suggest that three types of group interactions including sharing personal experience, expression of gratitude, and offering congratulations can facilitate social support exchanges among group members.
Keywords: Support groups; Internet; HIV; AIDS; Computer-mediated communication; Content analysis
E-Mentoring for All BIBAKFull-Text 919-928
  Carmit-Noa Shpigelman; Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss; Shunit Reiter
Electronic mentoring appears to have great potential for youth with special needs since it is an accessible communication medium that provides an opportunity to exchange practical information and support and to experience an accepting relationship with less prejudice. To date, few electronic mentoring intervention programs have been designed especially to support the psychological needs of youth with special needs. This paper presents the results of a study that evaluated an electronic mentoring intervention program designed to provide social and emotional support for protégés with disabilities by mentors who also have disabilities. Using a primarily qualitative research design, the study characterized the electronic mentoring process and its contributions to this population. The findings provided support for the potential of electronic mentoring for personal development and empowerment of youth with special needs. Furthermore, the findings supported the usability and utility of the e-mentoring intervention based on a conceptual framework that characterized an electronic support process for people with special needs. Implications for implementing feasible electronic mentoring programs are discussed.
Keywords: Electronic mentoring; Online support; Computer-mediated communication; People with special needs; Disabilities
Fostering the determinants of knowledge sharing in professional virtual communities BIBAKFull-Text 929-939
  Ming-Ji James Lin; Shiu-Wan Hung; Chih-Jou Chen
Professional virtual communities (PVCs), which are formed on the Internet, are expected to serve the needs of members for communication, information, and knowledge sharing. The executives of organizations should consider PVCs as a new innovation or knowledge pool since members share knowledge. However, many PVCs have failed due to members' low willingness to share knowledge with other members. Thus, there is a need to understand and foster the determinants of members' knowledge sharing behavior in PVCs. This study develops an integrated model designed to investigate and explain the relationships between contextual factors, personal perceptions of knowledge sharing, knowledge sharing behavior, and community loyalty. Empirical data was collected from three PVCs and tested using structural equation modeling (SEM) to verify the fit of the hypothetical model. The results show that trust significantly influences knowledge sharing self-efficacy, perceived relative advantage and perceived compatibility, which in turn positively affect knowledge sharing behavior. Furthermore, the study finds that the norm of reciprocity does not significantly affect knowledge sharing behavior. The results of the study can be used to identify the motivation underlying individuals' knowledge sharing behavior in PVCs. By investigating the impacts of contextual factors and personal perceptions on knowledge sharing behavior, the integrated model better explains behavior than other proposed models. This study might help executives of virtual communities and organizations to manage and promote these determinants of knowledge sharing to stimulate members' willingness to share knowledge and enhance their virtual community loyalty. As only little empirical research has been conducted on the impact of knowledge sharing self-efficacy, perceived relative advantage, and perceived compatibility on the individual's knowledge sharing behavior in PVCs, the empirical evidence reported here makes a valuable contribution in this highly important area.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing; Virtual communities; Community loyalty; Norm of reciprocity; Trust
Network-aware support for mobile distributed teams BIBAKFull-Text 940-948
  Rick van der Kleij; Alexis de Jong; Guido te Brake; Tjerk de Greef
An experiment evaluated network-aware support to increase understanding of the factors that are important for successful teamwork in mobile geographically dispersed teams of first responders. Participants performed a simulated search and rescue team task and were equipped with a digitized map and real-time situation updates on the location of other participants in a simulated disaster area. The connection to a server, however, was made deliberately error-prone, leading to occasional losses of network connections. Consequently, participants were not provided with real-time situation updates. To deal with this problem we equipped team members with a network-aware application that signaled network loss to them and adapted the graphical representation of the location of fellow team members accordingly to the quality of location information present. The experiment revealed that presenting complete and reliable geospatial information improves teamwork. Teams connected to a server over a fast and reliable link showed superior performance over teams with no network connection whatsoever to a server. The present study failed, however, to demonstrate the added value of network-aware support when teams had to collaborate in the presence of an unreliable communications infrastructure. Although participants indicated a slight preference for the network-aware application over a condition without support signaling network loss, no differences were observed in team process and outcome measures.
Keywords: Mobile groupware; Network awareness; Virtual teams; Distributed teamwork; Mobile computing; Network-aware support
Knowledge awareness in CSCL: A psychological perspective BIBAKFull-Text 949-960
  Tanja Engelmann; Jessica Dehler; Daniel Bodemer; Jürgen Buder
In this paper, a specific group awareness approach for CSCL settings, namely knowledge awareness, is presented. We classify knowledge awareness in relation to already well-established concepts like shared mental models, common ground, and transactive memory system in order to provide a comprehensive definition of this approach. The functionality of knowledge awareness tools aiming at fostering knowledge awareness is conceptualized in a cyclical model. Three application scenarios are presented to illustrate how knowledge awareness tools work in three different tasks. All these knowledge awareness tools have been found to be effective, that is all tools could foster knowledge awareness and led to increased learning performance.
Keywords: Knowledge awareness; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Group awareness; Spatially distributed groups
Secondary school students' collaboration during dyadic debates face-to-face and through computer chat BIBAKFull-Text 961-969
  Miika J. Marttunen; Leena I. Laurinen
Communicative competence needed in today's constructive learning environments both in virtual and physical classrooms requires most of all critical and argumentative thinking skills as well as abilities to use reciprocal and collaborative language. This study clarifies the quality of secondary school students' collaboration in dyadic face-to-face and computer chat debates during argumentative discussions. The speech acts produced in 24 debates were first classified into either on-task or off-task categories. The on-task speech acts were then further classified into six collaborative and two non-collaborative categories. The students commonly presented questions and made requests for clarification or reactions as well as responded to issues put forward by their interlocutor. However, they seldom engaged in collaborative completion or recapitulated their arguments. The study suggests that while students appear to have the basic cognitive and social prerequisites for collaborative learning situations, in future they should be encouraged to collaboratively complete each others' thoughts and recapitulate their own arguments.
Keywords: Collaboration; Arguments; Debates; Interpersonal interaction; Computer-mediated communication; Secondary education
The linguistic status of text message abbreviations: An exploration using a Stroop task BIBAKFull-Text 970-974
  Lesley McWilliam; Astrid Schepman; Paul Rodway
The aim of this paper is to assess whether there is firm evidence for the informal observation that text message abbreviations have been absorbed into every day language use. Such abbreviations are most frequently used on mobile telephones and in electronic communication. We report data from a study investigating the linguistic status of text abbreviations. We tested this using a modified Stroop task. Participants were regular text message users. To-be-ignored stimuli of interest were text message abbreviations, chosen for high recognition rates among users (e.g. CUL8R for "See you later"). We also used real words, non-words (pronounceable and non-pronounceable) and non-alphanumeric symbol strings. Text abbreviations led to increased colour-naming latencies when compared to words and non-words, while all alphanumeric stimuli led to slower response times than non-alphanumeric symbol strings. The findings show that reading text message abbreviations is unavoidable to those who have adapted to their use. Therefore they are likely to have been absorbed into the language. We explore the possible reasons for the increased Stroop interference we observed with text message abbreviations. We also suggest that using text abbreviations in research can enhance understanding of word recognition processes.
Keywords: Word recognition; Reading; Text message; Psycholinguistics; Acronyms; Abbreviations
Understanding factors affecting e-reverse auction use: An integrative approach BIBAKFull-Text 975-988
  Cigdem A. Gumussoy; Fethi Calisir
Using electronic-reverse auction (e-reverse auction) offers many advantages to companies such as price reduction, decrease in cycle time, standardization, and transparency in purchasing process. Despite its great advantages, some users do not want to use e-reverse auction technology for the procurement of products or services. This study aims to understand factors affecting e-reverse auction usage in companies by integrating three important theories. Key constructs of technology acceptance model (TAM), theory of planned behavior (TPB), and innovation diffusion theory (IDT) are integrated to explain behavioral intention to use and actual use of e-reverse auction. Using LISREL 8.54, data collected from 156 employees working in the procurement department of companies in 40 different countries were used to test the proposed research model. Results indicated that, 76% of employees' intention to use e-reverse auction is explained by subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived usefulness. Among them, subjective norms have the strongest effect. Besides, actual use of e-reverse auction is directly predicted by behavioral intention to use. We conclude with managerial implications and recommendations for possible future research.
Keywords: Technology acceptance model; Theory of planned behavior; Innovation diffusion theory; e-Reverse auction; Structural equation modeling
The impact of general and specific performance and self-efficacy on learning with computer-based concept mapping BIBAKFull-Text 989-996
  Jeng-Yi Tzeng
When students learn a new and challenging task, for which they have very limited corresponding personal or vicarious experiences to refer, it is important to understand how their self-efficacy beliefs evolve during the course of sequential lessons; how they differ in the way their general learning performance and self-efficacy influence their ratings of task-specific self-efficacy and performance; and, how such differences may result in different learning outcomes and motivations for learning. By examining a group of 66 students engaged in learning to construct good concept maps with computer software, this study revealed several important findings on these questions. Students generally tended to initially overestimate their ability to successfully carry out the required task. They also varied in the way their general self-efficacy and performance were associated with their task-specific self-efficacy and performance. And, these differences did appear to be associated with different learning outcomes and motivations for learning. These results indicate that investigating individual differences in students' patterns of association between general and specific performance and their self-efficacy may lead to a better understanding of how students differ in their levels of motivation and outcomes when learning a new and challenging task.
Keywords: Computer-based concept mapping; Self-efficacy; Learning performance; Motivation

CHB 2009-09 Volume 25 Issue 5

Using e-learning design patterns to augment learners' experiences BIBFull-Text 997-998
  Y. Dimitriadis; P. Goodyear; S. Retalis
In search of common ground: A task conceptualization to facilitate the design of (e)learning environments with design patterns BIBAKFull-Text 999-1009
  Ilya Zitter; Geert Kinkhorst; Robert-jan Simons; Olle ten Cate
Many studies report changes taking place in the field of higher education, changes which present considerable challenges to educational practice. Educational science should contribute to developing design guidance, enabling practitioners to respond to these challenges. Design patterns, as a form of design guidance, show potential since they promise to facilitate the design process and provide common ground for communication. However, the potential of patterns has not been fully exploited yet. We have proposed the introduction of a task conceptualization as an abstract view of the concept chosen as central: the task. The choice of the constituting elements of the task conceptualization has established an analytical perspective for analysis and (re)design of (e)learning environments. One of the constituting elements is that of 'boundary objects', which has added a focus on objects facilitating the coordination, alignment and integration of collaborative activities. The presented task conceptualization is deliberately generic in nature, to ease the portability between schools of thought and make it suitable for a wide target audience. The conceptualization and the accompanying graphical and textual representations have shown much promise in supporting the process of analysis and (re)design and add innovative insights to the domain of facilitating the creation of design patterns.
Keywords: Higher education; (e)Learning environments; Design patterns; Authentic tasks; Boundary objects
From pattern to practice: Evaluation of a design pattern fostering trust in virtual teams BIBAKFull-Text 1010-1019
  Ellen Rusman; Jan van Bruggen; Ron Cörvers; Peter Sloep; Rob Koper
This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a design pattern that fosters trust in mediated collaborative settings. The pattern proposed here should provide a profile with static and/or dynamic information about the participants of a collaborative environment. It aims to foster initial (in the first two to three weeks) trust in situations in which people do not know each other and do not have a chance to meet, but need to collaborate. A simple and low cost implementation of this pattern was realized by conducting a case study with participants of the European Virtual Seminar on Sustainable Development (EVS). They were asked to fill in a template with personal information about themselves. In the EVS, students collaboratively have to address sustainable development problems. Afterwards, students were questioned on the use of this template, called PEXPI, and their impressions of each other during and after the EVS; questionnaires and a semi-structured interview were used. The results show that the implementation of the static profile, derived from the pattern, initially helped students to form an impression of each other. After this initial period, however, students base their impression on factors such as the quality of work-related contributions, behaviour during collaboration (e.g. responsiveness), and communication style. This case study also shows that the pattern could easily be applied and transferred to a new context, as long as the conditions described in the 'context'-section of the pattern, were met. The case study provided a means for evaluation of the pattern and a source for its refinement.
Keywords: Design pattern; Trust; Computer supported collaborative learning; Virtual team; Distance education
Design patterns for monitoring and evaluating CSCL processes BIBAKFull-Text 1020-1027
  D. Persico; F. Pozzi; L. Sarti
Both quantitative and qualitative methods are being increasingly used to investigate the learning dynamics that take place within CSCL environments. Since such practices are a crucial aspect of the CSCL field, Design Patterns (DPs) can be used for capitalizing on experience and sharing know-how among practitioners. This paper describes three DP instances that have been developed and fine tuned by a community of practice consisting of researchers, instructional designers and tutors with the aim of supporting monitoring and evaluation of CSCL interactions. The DP solutions are based on a set of indicators, some of quantitative and some of qualitative nature, as well as on the methods to gauge these indicators, starting from data tracked by the e-learning system. The process of development of these DPs is described and examples of use are reported and discussed in order to advance the instructional design field and inform the development of CSCL systems. The proposed DPs belong to a Language, aimed at describing tracking problems in different types of e-learning systems and at capturing in their solutions the know-how developed by communities of experts in the different fields.
Keywords: Design Patterns development; Design Patterns usage; Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL); Monitoring; Evaluating; Indicators
Incorporating assessment in a pattern-based design process for CSCL scripts BIBAKFull-Text 1028-1039
  Eloy D. Villasclaras-Fernández; Davinia Hernández-Leo; Juan I. Asensio-Pérez; Yannis Dimitriadis
Scripting has already been shown to be a way of increasing the chances of effective collaborative learning, and especially when computer support is available. Formal specifications, such as IMS-LD, and software authoring tools have provided instructional designers and educational practitioners with mechanisms for the creation and automation of flexible collaborative learning scripts ready to run in real scenarios. Within the context of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) script design, the application of design patterns has been proposed as the basis for a design process that promotes the reuse of good practices, implemented in an IMS-LD authoring tool, Collage. However, it is well known that assessment is a key aspect in real learning scenarios, and therefore it should be included in CSCL scripts. In this sense, this paper reports data and findings derived from two case studies performed to explore how assessment design can be included in the aforementioned pattern-based process. Results provide preliminary evidence that additional support is necessary for assessment design within this process for non-expert users. In order to tackle this limitation, the use of assessment patterns is analyzed. Evidence gathered in the case studies supports the need, adequacy and feasibility of a more systematic assessment-aware design process for CSCL scripts.
Keywords: CSCL script; Design process; Design pattern; Assessment; Collaborative learning flow patterns
Lessons learnt in mining and writing design patterns for educational interactive graphics BIBAKFull-Text 1040-1055
  Christian Kohls; Jan-Georg Uttecht
Design patterns capture the invariant parts of proven designs as solutions to a problem in a specific context. While e-learning patterns have become popular in academic discussion, a large-scale use of these patterns or pattern languages in general cannot yet be observed in the field. One problem is that there are no agreed standards to define, analyze, organize, and evaluate such patterns. Another challenge is to find the right patterns and describe them at an appropriate level of abstraction, granularity, and detail. In this paper, we present a case study on the mining, writing and application of patterns for interactive educational graphics. It focuses on pattern mining and describes how to derive patterns from experience and analysis. Based on schema theory, a method is proposed to find patterns that are shared by other individuals. To improve the quality of written patterns, we consider established methods of pattern writing. The aim is to document patterns that are understandable, well-structured, and that capture the expert's intrinsic knowledge about real patterns as precisely as possible. Finally, the benefits and applicability of patterns are discussed.
Keywords: Design patterns; e-Learning; Pattern applicability; Human-computer interaction; Schema acquisition; Problem solving
Grounded design: Design patterns as the link between theory and practice BIBAKFull-Text 1056-1066
  Wouter van Diggelen; Maarten Overdijk
The process of designing a networked learning environment can be characterized by a high degree of uncertainty. This is especially true when the design includes innovative technologies. It is difficult to design a networked learning environment that closely fits the requirements of the educational practice. Often the technology seems leading in the design process because it is the most tangible aspect of the e-learning environment. This brings along the risk that the technology becomes detached from its context of use.
   Design patterns are a means to overcome this problem of detachment between design and practice. Design patterns make the tight relationship between the two more explicit. In this paper we further elaborate on the relationship between design and practice. We will stress the importance of theory in the development of design patterns. Theory development is an essential aspect of our approach to the development of design patterns. The approach is oriented towards a systematic analysis of problems and the development of conceptual models that guide the definition and evaluation of design patterns. In this paper we present a case study of how the approach was used to develop design patterns for networked learning in the classroom.
Keywords: Design patterns; Face-to-face discussion
The role of design-principles in designing courses that promote collaborative learning in higher-education BIBAFull-Text 1067-1078
  Yael Kali; Rachel Levin-Peled; Yehudit Judy Dori
Design-patterns and design-principles represent two approaches, which elicit design knowledge from successful learning environments and formulate it as design guidelines. The two approaches are fairly similar in their strategies, but differ in their research origins. This study stems from the design-principles approach, and explores how learning is affected by curriculum-materials designed according to two main design-principles: (a) engage learners in peer instruction, and (b) reuse student artifacts as resource for further learning. These principles were employed in three higher-education courses and examined with 385 students. Data analysis was conducted in two trajectories: In the "bird's eye view" trajectory we used a "feature" unit of analysis to illustrate how learning was supported by features designed according to the two design-principles in each of the courses. In the "design-based research" trajectory we focused on one feature, a web-based Jigsaw activity, in a philosophy of education course, and demonstrated how it was refined via three design iterations. Students were required to specialize in one of three philosophical perspectives, share knowledge with peers who specialized in other perspectives, and reuse the shared knowledge in new contexts. Outcomes indicated that the design in the first iteration did not sufficiently support student ability to apply the shared knowledge. Two additional design-principles were employed in the next iterations: (c) provide knowledge representation and organization tools, and (d) employ multiple social-activity structures. The importance of combining several design-principles for designing curricular materials is discussed in terms of Alexander's design-pattern language and his notion of referencing between design-patterns.
Dealing with abstraction: Case study generalisation as a method for eliciting design patterns BIBAKFull-Text 1079-1088
  Niall Winters; Yishay Mor
Developing a pattern language is a non-trivial problem. A critical requirement is a method to support pattern writers with abstraction, so as they can produce generalised patterns. In this paper, we address this issue by developing a structured process of generalisation. It is important that this process is initiated through engaging participants in identifying initial patterns, i.e. directly dealing with the 'cold-start' problem. We have found that short case study descriptions provide a productive 'way into' the process for participants. We reflect on a 1-year interdisciplinary pan-European research project involving the development of almost 30 cases and over 150 patterns. We provide example cases, detailing the process by which their associated patterns emerged. This was based on a foundation for generalisation from cases with common attributes. We discuss the merits of this approach and its implications for pattern development.
Keywords: Design patterns; Generalisation; Abstraction; Case study
The Internet's impact on sexuality: A critical review of 15 years of research BIBAKFull-Text 1089-1101
  Nicola M. Döring
The body of empirical research on Internet sexuality has grown steadily since 1993. The following paper provides an overview of the current state of research in this field in its full thematic breadth, addressing six areas of online sexuality: Pornography, sex shops, sex work, sex education, sex contacts, and sexual subcultures. Key research results are presented concerning Internet sexuality's forms of manifestation, participant groups, opportunities, and risks. This paper shows that sexually related online activities have become routine in recent years for large segments of the population in the Western world. Internet sexuality also takes somewhat different forms based on the age, gender, and sexual orientation of the individual. Academic studies to date have focused overwhelmingly on the possible negative effects of Internet sexuality. By contrast, little research has been conducted on potential benefits. Consequently, a surprising number of gaps are evident in the scholarship on Internet sexuality.
Keywords: Internet; Sexuality; Psychosexual behaviour; Pornography; Sex education; Sex offences
A multivariate comparison of computer anxiety levels between candidate and tenured school principals BIBAKFull-Text 1102-1107
  Mustafa Baloglu; Vildan Çevik
School administrators should be able to follow technological advancements and promote the role of leadership with regard to technology in their institutions. However, affective factors such as computer anxiety might hinder administrators' roles in this process. Therefore, this study investigated multivariate differences between candidate and tenured administrators on computer anxiety levels, after accounting for differences in age. The sample of the study included 216 candidates and 368 tenured school principals. The Computer Anxiety Scale and a set of demographic questions were used to collect the data. One-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed on three dependent variables that are the three dimensions of computer anxiety (i.e., Affective Anxiety, Damaging Anxiety, and Learning Anxiety). Independent variable had two levels (i.e., candidate versus tenured administrators) and age was used as a covariate. Results showed multivariate significant differences. Candidate administrators reported higher levels of affective and learning anxiety compared to their tenured colleagues. We conclude that the sample of the study had accessibility and familiarity with computers; yet, showed different experiences. Finally, refinement is still needed in the area of computer anxiety and its relationships with other variables among educational administrators.
Keywords: Multivariate differences; Computer anxiety; School administrators; Candidates
Computer mediated teamwork and the efficiency framework: Exploring the influence of synchrony and cues on media satisfaction and outcome success BIBAKFull-Text 1108-1119
  Kristine L. Nowak; James Watt; Joseph B. Walther
There are many valid ways to evaluate collaborative systems. The efficiency framework argues that while user satisfaction and preference for systems are important, neither directly predict outcome success or the ability of a system to facilitate collaboration. Further, it points to the importance of distinguishing between user satisfaction and outcome success when evaluating collaborative systems. Despite users' reported preferences for media requiring less effort and time, the efficiency framework predicts that the expenditure of effort better predicts outcome success than do user preferences. This study tests these predictions and extends the model by comparing synchronous and asynchronous media with varying levels of communicative cues. One hundred and forty-two participants in groups of 3 or 4 engaged in collaboration over a 5 week period. Groups were assigned to either interact face-to-face, or to one of four media conditions. There were no effects on actual group success that favored full-cue, synchronous communication. There was greater perceived group effectiveness for synchronous text and face-to-face interactions. Exploratory structural equation analysis showed that media characteristics predict copresence, which increases perceptions of group effectiveness, which in turn predict success. The results support the main assertion of the efficiency framework and explain some contradictions in prior research. Results are discussed with respect to their pertinence for theoretical and measurement issues in human computer interaction research.
Keywords: Computer mediated teamwork; Outcome success; Media satisfaction; Efficiency
Note-taking while learning hypermedia: Cognitive and motivational considerations BIBAKFull-Text 1120-1128
  Daniel C. Moos
The non-linear format of hypermedia requires the use of self-regulated learning (SRL) processes, including making decisions about which representation to access. The design of hypermedia environments can make these decisions difficult, and may result in extraneous cognitive load. Note-taking, a SRL strategy may offload extraneous cognitive load while learning with hypermedia. This study examined factors related to undergraduate students' note-taking while learning with hypermedia. Think-aloud, self-report, pretest, and posttest data were collected from 53 undergraduates while they learned about a challenging science topic for 30 min with hypermedia. Results indicated that participants' prior domain knowledge, as measured by the pretest, did not significantly predict the content of their notes. However, motivation, as measured by a self-report questionnaire, had a significant relationship with the content of the participants' notes. Specifically, intrinsic motivation had a significant negative relationship while extrinsic motivation had a significant positive relationship with the content of notes. Additionally, there was a significant interaction between the content of the participants' notes and their use of self-regulatory processes while learning with hypermedia.
Keywords: Hypermedia; Note-taking; Cognitive load; Motivation; Self-regulated learning
Scaffolding student-generated questions: Design and development of a customizable online learning system BIBAKFull-Text 1129-1138
  Fu-Yun Yu
Despite the fact that the benefits of student question generation are well documented, most students do not take part in question generation exercises during their formal schooling and are not accustomed to authoring questions. Under the premise that student question generation activities should be better supported in a timely, flexible and logistically feasible fashion, a customizable online learning environment that accentuates various scaffolding techniques has been designed and developed. The framework guiding the development of the system, and its associated designs, are described. To assess the various built-in scaffolds used to support students' learning activities by means of question generation, a study was undertaken to that measured students' perceived usefulness of each mechanism, as well as the effects of the perceived usefulness of the scaffolds on students' attitudes toward question generation learning activities in general. The data collected indicated that, by utilizing computers and network technologies, the developed system provided a supportive learning environment for student's question generation learning activities. Support features not yet included in other similar systems (including access to generic question stems with sample questions, access to model questions, two-way cyclic communication between authors of question and assessors, and the ability to conceal one's real identity by anonymity or nickname, etc.), were confirmed to provide a high level of support. Recommendations for classroom implementations and future studies are offered.
Keywords: Applications in subject areas; Evaluation of online learning systems; Supporting classroom teaching; Teaching strategies; Learning strategies
Investigating social network patterns within an empathic online community for older people BIBAKFull-Text 1139-1155
  Ulrike Pfeil; Panayiotis Zaphiris
In this paper, we study the social network structure of an online discussion board within SeniorNet, an empathic online community for older people. We apply Social Network Analysis (SNA) to analyse the communication patterns and relationships between members of the discussion board. In addition to looking at the structure of the exchanged messages within the discussion board as a whole, we also investigate associations between the communication content and the social network patterns. Our findings show distinct differences between the social network patterns of empathic and non-empathic communications. For example, members are more connected and closer to each other in the social networks that are based on empathic communication compared to non-empathic communication. Additionally our results show that the type of empathic communication (e.g. different kinds of support) is linked to the social network structure within the discussion board.
Keywords: Empathic online communities; Older people; Social network analysis; Social interactions; Ageing; Online discussion board; CMC
WayTracer: A mobile assistant for real-time logging of events and related positions BIBAKFull-Text 1156-1164
  Gregory Kuhnmünch; Gerhard Strube
In addition to logging observation categories and their timestamps, researchers sometimes wish to record observation-related positions. Such data are relevant for research in human spatial cognition, market research and behavioral biology, to mention only a few. Another desideratum is to avoid time-consuming video transcriptions by logging in real-time, both inside and outside the lab. With frequent events, these requirements cannot be met in combination by a single experimenter using paper and pencil. Thus, we developed the logging software WayTracer. It allows for logging positions by hand where and when observations or events occur independently of external signals like GPS. GPS data is added automatically in case they are provided by a receiver. We report an extensive test that confirmed the feasibility of logging in real-time with WayTracer in field-use. Trained observers yielded high percentages of inter-observer agreement and temporal intervals of behaviors they had recorded in the field correlated above 0.99 with data extracted from the video recording of the test. Besides introducing a new software optimized and tested successfully for such performance, we report requirements and limitations of logging in real-time to be considered when configuring other software for that purpose.
Keywords: Computer software; Data collection; Behavioral assessment; Interrater reliability
The effect of task characteristics on conceptual conflict and information processing in online discussion BIBAFull-Text 1165-1171
  Robert L. Jorczak; William Bart
A key guidance factor of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is the specification of a discussion task. Aspects of the discussion task may affect the quality of group discussion for higher-order learning. This experiment investigated the effects of two aspects of discussion task on asynchronous text discussion of an online higher-education course. Groups completed discussion assignments that varied in degree of task context and outcome specification. Content analysis was used to assess conceptual conflict and level of information processing indicated in the online discussions. Results indicate that conceptual conflict is associated with higher-order discussion, but differences in task context and product do not have large effects on the quantity or quality of online discussion.
How to keep members using the information in a computer-supported social network BIBAKFull-Text 1172-1181
  Xiao-Ling Jin; Christy M. K. Cheung; Matthew K. O. Lee; Hua-Ping Chen
Computer-supported social networks have become a significant channel for people to interact and exchange information. The success of computer-supported social networks depends on the extent to which members will stay and continue participating. Many computer-supported social networks however suffer from the problem of retaining members. Drawing from theories of user satisfaction and information adoption, we develop a model to examine how computer-supported social networks encourage members to continue participating and using the information in the network. The theoretical model is validated through an online survey of 240 users of a Bulletin Board System established by a local university in China. The results reveal that individuals will continue to use the information in a computer-supported social network when they are satisfied with their prior usage, and when they perceive that the information in the network is useful. The results also suggest that individuals' perceived information usefulness and satisfaction are determined by information quality and source credibility in the context of computer-supported social networks. Theoretical and practical implications about computer-supported social networks are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-supported social network; Information adoption; Information quality; Source credibility; User satisfaction; IS continuance
Problematic Internet and mobile phone use and clinical symptoms in college students: The role of emotional intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 1182-1187
  Marta Beranuy; Ursula Oberst; Xavier Carbonell; Ander Chamarro
This study deals with maladaptive use of the Internet and the mobile phone and its relationship to symptoms of psychological distress and mental disorder, as well as to the possible role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in this relationship. Three hundred and sixty-five undergraduate university freshmen at Ramon Llull University, Barcelona (Spain), majoring in four different studies (Psychology, Education, Journalism and Broadcasting, and Health Studies) replied to scales assessing the negative consequences of maladaptive use of both the Internet (CERI) and the mobile phone (CERM), a self-report scale on Perceived Emotional Intelligence (TMMS-24), and a clinical instrument to check for complaints related to the presence of psychological distress (Symptom Checklist-90-R; SCL-90-R). Results indicate that psychological distress is related to maladaptive use of both the Internet and the mobile phone; females scored higher than males on the mobile phone questionnaire, showing more negative consequences of its maladaptive use. With respect to major study, students of Journalism and Broadcasting showed a more maladaptive pattern of Internet use than students of other majors. The components of Perceived Emotional Intelligence contributed to the explanation of the variance of the general indicators of psychological distress, but to a lesser degree than maladaptive use of Internet and mobile phone.
Keywords: Behavioral addictions; Emotional intelligence; College students; Internet addiction; Mobile phone use

CHB 2009-11 Volume 25 Issue 6

Applying web-enabled self-regulated learning and problem-based learning with initiation to involve low-achieving students in learning BIBAKFull-Text 1189-1194
  Chia-Wen Tsai; Pei-Di Shen
Vocational degree earners represent a major portion of the work force in Taiwan. However, vocational education in Taiwan is highly competitive in that it must attract sufficient student enrollment in an environment with a rapidly increasing number of schools. In this context, many vocational students tend to have lower levels of academic achievement. Under such constraints but moving toward more practical orientation, the authors conducted a quasi-experiment to examine the effects of applying web-based self-regulated learning (SRL), web-based problem-based learning (PBL) with initiation, and their combination to help these low-achieving students be involved positively in their learning. Four classes in successive years, with a total of 177 third-year students, were divided into 2 (SRL vs. non-SRL) x 2 (PBL with initiation vs. PBL without initiation) experimental groups. Results were generally positive. The authors further discuss the implications for schools, particularly vocational schools, and for scholars and teachers concerned about e-learning.
Keywords: Web-enabled SRL; Web-enabled PBL; Initiation; Involvement; e-Learning; Computing education
The role of academic motivation in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning BIBAKFull-Text 1195-1206
  Bart Rienties; Dirk Tempelaar; Piet Van den Bossche; Wim Gijselaers; Mien Segers
In recent years, increasing attention has been devoted to virtual learning. In the last decade, a large number of studies in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) have assessed how social interaction, learning processes and outcomes in virtual settings are intertwined. Although recent research findings indicate that learners differ with respect to the amount and type of discourse contributed in virtual settings, little is known about the causes of these differences. The research presented here looks into the effects of motivation of learners on their contribution to discourse using the Deci and Ryan framework of (intrinsic/extrinsic) motivation.
   This study of 100 participants who were randomly distributed in six groups of 14 members collaborated in a virtual setting to remediate deficiencies in economics indicates that individuals differed with respect to the amount of discourse activity. Furthermore, an integrated multi-method approach (Content Analysis, Social Network Analysis and Academic Motivation Scale) was used in order to examine the impact of academic motivation on the type of discourse activity contributed and on the position of the learner in the social network. The results indicate that highly intrinsically motivated learners become central and prominent contributors to cognitive discourse. In contrast, extrinsically motivated learners contribute on average and are positioned throughout the social network. The research results reveal that differences in academic motivation influences the type of contributions to discourse as well as the position a learner takes within the social network.
Keywords: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning; Virtual learning; Social Network Analysis; Academic motivation
The effect factors of end-user task performance in a business environment: Focusing on computing competency BIBAKFull-Text 1207-1212
  Chui Young Yoon
An individual's computing capability has an effect on his performance of given tasks in a business environment that is heavily dependent on computing. Extracting factors affecting an individual's task performance is important research work as this research can lead to more efficient and effective performance of tasks. We present in this paper, based on our study, the effect factors of an individual's task performance based on his computing competency. We developed a theoretical model composed of four independent factors and two dependent factors to investigate the correlation between these factors and an end-user task performance. The 213 participants completed surveys of four domestic-Korean-based companies were analyzed by using structural equation modeling and a second-generation multivariate technique. The results indicated that these four independent factors had effects on end-user computing competency and that computing competency significantly affected a user's task performance. These findings contribute to research related to task performance and an expanded understanding of the factors that improve an end-user's task performance in terms of his or her computing competency.
Keywords: End-user computing; Computing competency; End-user computing competency; End-user task performance
The determinants and expression of computer-related anger BIBAKFull-Text 1213-1221
  John P. Charlton
Studies of everyday computer-related anger are rare. To shed more light upon this anecdotally common phenomenon, retrospective self-report questionnaires were used to elicit closed-ended and open-ended responses from 126 members of the general public and students in northern England who supplied psychological and behavioral data connected with a single recently experienced occurrence of computer-related anger. Inter alia, findings show verbal and physical aggression towards equipment to be common in bouts of computer anger, and physical aggression to be associated with greater negative affect prior to incidents but not with stress-related factors. However, stress-related factors and negative affect predicted variance in anger intensity over and above cognitive appraisal variables. It is concluded that computer anger is likely to be a source of stress for a small but significant number of people, that computers' non-sentience leads to physical disinhibition, but that evidence that the expression of computer anger in social environments is inhibited by fear of people's negative evaluations is weak. Further conclusions include the observations that anger is likely to be more intense when theoretically relevant cognitive appraisals are made, a person is in an irritable mood and when physiological arousal is elevated because of ongoing events.
Keywords: Computers; Anger; Emotions; Behavior; Stress; Cognitive processes
A decomposed theory of reasoned action to explain intention to use Internet stock trading among Malaysian investors BIBAKFull-Text 1222-1230
  T. Ramayah; Kamel Rouibah; M. Gopi; Gary John Rangel
This article studied factors influencing the intention to use Internet stock trading among investors in Malaysia. To achieve this objective, this study selected the decomposed theory of reasoned action as a theoretical basis to explain variation in intention to use. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 144 current and potential investors who are aware of Internet stock trading in Malaysia. Findings show that attitude and subjective norm have a direct positive relationship towards behavioral intention to use Internet stock trading. Attitude was significantly influenced by perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness whereas subjective norm was significantly influenced by injunctive norm and descriptive norm which were proposed as antecedents. In addition the results of the study could serve as a guideline for online stock broking organizations in understanding the factors and programs that need to be initiated to increase online stock trading among current and potential retail investors. As not much has been written on decomposed theory of reasoned action, particularly in Internet stock trading, this study adds to the literature of understanding intention to use a technology in a developing country.
Keywords: Decomposed theory of reasoned action; Attitude; Subjective norm; Perceived usefulness; Perceived ease of use; Internet stock trading
Online consumer loyalty: Why e-tailers should seek a high-profile leadership position BIBAKFull-Text 1231-1240
  Hsien-Tung Tsai; Heng-Chiang Huang
This study takes an approach rooted in information economics to conceptualize and empirically examine the signal-based determinant of online customer loyalty and its antecedents and consequences. The authors test the proposed hypotheses using data obtained from three large online retailers. As an important insight, this research reveals that an e-tailer's competitive equity has a strong, positive effect on relationship investments and loyalty intentions. In addition, using quantile regression analysis, this study clarifies some issues in existing literature by showing that online consumers are motivated by different rules of exchange, depending on their loyalty levels. Finally, the authors discuss the managerial implications of their findings, as well as several important research issues and future research avenues.
Keywords: Competitive equity; Consumer loyalty; Overall satisfaction; Perceived critical mass; Relationship investments
Intranet satisfaction questionnaire: Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure user satisfaction with the Intranet BIBAKFull-Text 1241-1250
  Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Jonas Lötscher; Séstien Orsini; Klaus Opwis
In recent years, Intranets have become increasingly important to their companies. Substantial investments have been made to provide crucial information and workflows to employees. In this context the question of quality assurance arises: how can user satisfaction with the Intranet be measured? This article presents the development of a questionnaire to measure user satisfaction with the Intranet. After a first validation of the instrument (18 items) in an international insurance company (N1 = 881) , a final set of 13 items remained. These were tested with the Intranet of a national retail company (N2 = 1350). The final version showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach α) of .89, good item difficulties (.36-.73) and discriminatory power coefficients (.48-.73), as well as a moderate average homogeneity of .44. An exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, "Content Quality" and "Intranet Usability", explaining 56.54% of the variance. Meanwhile, the survey was translated into 10 languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Slovenian, and Spanish.
Keywords: Intranet; Enterprise portal; Questionnaire; Survey; Measure; User satisfaction; Usability
Ethical behavior issues in software use: An analysis of public and private sectors BIBAKFull-Text 1251-1257
  Ibrahim Akman; Alok Mishra
Ethical issues related to information systems are important to the information technology (IT) professionals. These issues are also significant for organizations and societies. Although considerable literature on IT and related ethical issues exists, a review of this literature has found little empirical research on ethical practices within the government and private sector organizations. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to draw inferences regarding such practices currently in these sectors. The research results indicate a significant correlation between the code of ethics and the attitude of professionals towards the unethical use of software in government and private sector organizations. These also indicate significant differences in government and private sectors.
Keywords: Ethics; Code of ethics; Information technologies (IT); Information systems (IS); Multiple regression
Evolutionary cyber-psychology: Applying an evolutionary framework to Internet behavior BIBAKFull-Text 1258-1269
  Jared Piazza; Jesse M. Bering
An evolutionary psychological perspective has much to offer the study of Internet behavior. However, cyber-psychologists have hitherto neglected this rich theoretical tradition and evolutionary psychologists have been slow to apply their perspective to computer-mediated behavior. This paper applies an evolutionary perspective to the study of Internet behavior in four relevant domains: (1) mating and sexual competition, (2) parenting and kinship, (3) trust and social exchange, and (4) personal information management. Both general and specific evolutionary theories are explored in relation to online behavior in each domain, with an emphasis on generating testable hypotheses for future research.
Keywords: Evolutionary psychology; Internet; Parental investment theory; Reputation; Self-disclosure; Sexual competition
Impacts of geographical knowledge, spatial ability and environmental cognition on image searches supported by GIS software BIBAKFull-Text 1270-1279
  Pei-Lan Lei; Gloria Yi-Ming Kao; Sunny S. J. Lin; Chuen-Tsai Sun
Google Earth search function was used to study the impacts of small-scale spatial ability, large-scale environmental cognition, and geographical knowledge on new technology usage. The participants were 153 junior high students from central Taiwan. Geography grades served as indicators of prior knowledge, mental rotation and abstract reasoning skills as indicators of spatial ability, and sketch maps of school neighborhoods as indicators of environmental cognition (including landmark representation, intersection representation, and frame of reference). Lastly, the authors announced the landmarks searching worksheet and asked the participants to accomplish 16 familiar and unfamiliar landmark searching tasks using Google Earth with keyword search function disabled. The result showed the strongest predictor of landmark searching performance is 'frame of reference' in environmental cognition, followed by 'mental rotation' of spatial ability, 'landmark representation' of environmental cognition, and geographical knowledge. Google Earth landmark searches require complex cognitive processing; therefore, our conclusion is that GIS-supported image search activities give students good practice of active knowledge construction.
Keywords: Geography information system; Electronic map; Image search; Environmental cognition; Spatial ability; Search system; Junior high school students
Learning styles and cognitive traits -- Their relationship and its benefits in web-based educational systems BIBAKFull-Text 1280-1289
  Sabine Graf; Tzu-Chien Liu; A Kinshuk; Nian-Shing Chen; Stephen J. H. Yang
Different learners have different needs; they differ, for example, in their learning goals, their prior knowledge, their learning styles, and their cognitive abilities. Adaptive web-based educational systems aim to cater individual learners by customizing courses to suit their needs. In this paper, we investigate the benefits of incorporating learning styles and cognitive traits in web-based educational systems. Adaptivity aspects based on cognitive traits and learning styles enrich each other, enabling systems to provide learners with courses which fit their needs more accurately. Furthermore, consideration of learning styles and cognitive traits can contribute to more accurate student modelling. In this paper, the relationship between learning styles, in particular the Felder-Silverman learning style model (FSLSM), and working memory capacity, a cognitive trait, is investigated. For adaptive educational systems that consider either only learning styles or only cognitive traits, the additional information can be used to provide more holistic adaptivity. For systems that already incorporate both learning styles and cognitive traits, the relationship can be used to improve the detection process of both by including the additional information of learning style into the detection process of cognitive traits and vice versa. This leads to a more reliable student model.
Keywords: Adaptivity; Cognitive traits; Learning styles; Felder-Silverman learning style model; Student modelling; Working memory capacity
Empirical analysis of risk-taking behavior in IT platform migration decisions BIBAKFull-Text 1290-1305
  Seonyoung Shim; Myungsin Chae; Byungtae Lee
Information technology (IT) platform migration incurs a great deal of risk because of the massive rewriting of legacy systems and a wide range of new technology adoptions. Therefore IT platform decisions need to be made in a mindful manner because of the high degree of investment risk. However, more aggressive migrations, compared to the global trend, to an open system have been observed in Korean organizations. This phenomenon defies the common understanding of IT investment risk and encourages the investigation of the elusive characteristics underlying IT investment decisions. The effect of IT decision-makers' perceptions and risk propensity on their IT platform migration decisions is examined in the context of risky decisions. In addition to risk perception, decision-makers' risk propensity also has a significant effect on IT investment decisions. By observing the monarchical IT governance and IT-biased careers of decision-makers, some implications of large-scale IT investment decisions are derived.
Keywords: Risk taking; IT investment; IT investment decision; IT governance; IT project risk; IT platform migration
Cognitive and psychological predictors of the negative outcomes associated with playing MMOGs (massively multiplayer online games) BIBAKFull-Text 1306-1311
  Ming Liu; Wei Peng
This study integrates research on problematic Internet use to explore the cognitive and psychological predictors of negative consequences associated with playing massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs). Participants recruited from online discussion boards completed self-report measures on their online game-related cognitions and psychological condition, social skills, psychological well-being, and negative life outcomes associated with game playing. The results demonstrated the important roles that psychological dependency and deficient self-regulation play in negative consequences associated with online gaming. The results also indicated that psychological dependency on MMOGs was predicted by cognitive preference for a virtual life -- a construct that is negatively related to social control skills.
Keywords: Internet dependency; Internet addiction; Problematic Internet use; Pathological Internet use; Computer games
Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being among MMO players BIBAKFull-Text 1312-1319
  Scott Caplan; Dmitri Williams; Nick Yee
The current study examined problematic Internet use (PIU) among people who play MMO games and sought to determine whether aspects of the MMO experience are useful predictors of PIU. The study sought to determine whether game-related variables could predict PIU scores after accounting for their relationships with psychosocial well-being. Novel methods allowed us, for the first time, to connect in-game behaviors with survey results of over 4000 MMO players. The results revealed that MMO gaming variables contributed a substantively small, but statistically significant amount of explained variance to PIU scores.
Keywords: MMO; Problematic Internet use; Gaming; Well-being; MMORPG
Individual characteristics and the intention to continue project escalation BIBAKFull-Text 1320-1330
  Melinda Korzaan; Steven A. Morris
The factors leading to the continuing problems with information system (IS) project failure are of importance to both the research and practitioner communities. The psychological factors that lead project managers to escalate troubled projects are investigated. Theoretical grounding is presented for a research model consisting of Need for Achievement as an antecedent trait for implementation mindset, internal locus of control, preference for consistency, and time urgency, which in turn predict the Intention to Continue a troubled IS project. Using responses from 232 IS project stakeholders, the model is tested using structural equation modeling. The results support Need for Achievement as an antecedent to the other independent variables. Implementation mindset and internal locus of control were found to be significant predictors of the project managers' intention to continue the IS projects. Based on the findings, suggestions for project re-evaluation milestones (PRMs) are presented.
Keywords: Project escalation; Implementation Mindset; Locus of Control; Preference for Consistency
A nexus of Cyber-Geography and Cyber-Psychology: Topos/"Notopia" and identity in hacking BIBAKFull-Text 1331-1334
  Fivos Papadimitriou
This paper explores the Cyber-Psychological and Cyber-Geographic aspects of hacking and hacktivism. An examination of the literature related to hackers and hacking reveals a complex nexus of spatial (including cyber-spatial such as "Notopia") and psychological aspects of hacking, from which emerges a central question of how humans perceive and manipulate their cyber-identities. Concealing (real and cyber) identities is typical in hacking. With our progressive acculturation with identity-less and place-less modes of existence, our cyber-identities through time may be studied from within John Locke's criterion of "memory" and the spatial-geographical criterion of identity.
Keywords: Hacking; Cyber-Geography; Cyber-Psychology; Identity; Notopia; Cyber-Identity
Factorial validity of problematic Internet use scales BIBAKFull-Text 1335-1342
  Ronnie Jia; Heather H. Jia
There exists a number of multidimensional measurement scales for problematic Internet use (PIU) with varying factor structures. This study reviews the factor analytic techniques used to develop these measures and discusses their implications for the factorial validity, particularly discriminant validity, of these PIU scales. To further illustrate these points, we reformulate the four-factor Online Cognition Scale into a more parsimonious two-factor measure (i.e., dependency and distraction) and demonstrate its factorial validity as well as robustness across student and working adult samples. Contributions of this research are discussed.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; Internet addiction; Computer attitudes; Validation; Factor analysis
Towards an understanding of the consumer acceptance of mobile wallet BIBAKFull-Text 1343-1354
  Dong-Hee Shin
This study seeks to validate a comprehensive model of consumer acceptance in the context of mobile payment. It uses the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model with constructs of security, trust, social influence, and self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling is used to construct a predictive model of attitudes toward the mobile wallet. Individuals' responses to questions about attitude and intention to adopt/use a mobile wallet were collected and analyzed with various factors modified from UTAUT. While the model confirms the classical role of technology acceptance factors (i.e., perceived usefulness and ease of use are key antecedents to users' attitude), the results also show that users' attitudes and intentions are influenced by perceived security and trust. In the extended model, the moderating effects of demographics on the relations among the variables were found to be significant. The proposed model brings together extant research on mobile payment and provides an important cluster of antecedents to eventual technology acceptance via constructs of behavioral intention to use and actual system usage.
Keywords: M-Commerce; Mobile payment; Consumer/user acceptance; UTAUT
Field dependence-independence and instructional-design effects on learners' performance with a computer-modeling tool BIBAKFull-Text 1355-1366
  Charoula Angeli; Nicos Valanides; Paul Kirschner
The study investigated the extent to which two types of instructional materials and learner field dependence-independence affected learners' cognitive load, time spent on task, and problem-solving performance in a complex system with a computer-modeling tool. One hundred and one primary student teachers were initially categorized into field dependent, field mixed, and field-independent learners based on their performance on the Hidden Figures Test, and were then randomly assigned to two experimental conditions. One group received a static diagram and a textual description in a split format, and the second group received the same static diagram and textual description in an integrated format. MANOVA revealed that the split-format materials contributed to higher cognitive load, higher time spent on task, and lower problem-solving performance than the integrated-format materials. There was also an interaction effect, only in terms of students' problem-solving performance, between field dependence-independence and instructional materials, indicating that the facilitating effect of the integrated-format materials was restricted to the field-independent learners. Conclusions are drawn in terms of how the well-documented split-attention effect manifests itself irrespective of students' field dependence-independence. Implications of the effects of reduced extraneous cognitive load on students' problem-solving performance are also discussed.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Complex systems; Field dependence-independence; Modeling software; Split-attention effect
Social anxiety and technology: Face-to-face communication versus technological communication among teens BIBAKFull-Text 1367-1372
  Tamyra Pierce
This study examined teens' use of socially interactive technologies (SITs), such as online social sites, cell phones/text messaging, and instant messaging (IM), and the role that social anxiety plays on how teens communicate with others (technologically or face-to-face). Participants included 280 high school students from a large western city. On average, 35-40% of teens reported using cell phones/text messaging and online social sites between 1 and 4 h daily, 24% reported using IMs 1-4 h daily and only 8% reported using email between 1 and 4 h daily. Females tended to use cell phones/text messaging and online social sites more so than did males. In assessing social anxiety, analyses revealed a positive relationship between social anxiety (not comfortable talking with others face-to-face) and (1) talking with others online and (2) talking with others via text messaging. In contrast, there was a positive relationship between the lack of social anxiety (feeling "comfortable" talking with others) and making friends online. Assessing gender differences and social anxiety also revealed significant differences. Results revealed females reported more social anxiety (not comfortable talking with others in person) than did males. In addition, females, more than males, reported feeling more comfortable using SITs (text messaging and online social sites only) rather than talking with others face-to-face.
Keywords: Communication; Social anxiety; Technology
Healthcare non-adherence decisions and internet health information BIBAKFull-Text 1373-1380
  James B., III Weaver; Nancy J. Thompson; Stephanie Sargent Weaver; Gary L. Hopkins
While the internet is emerging as an important transforming mechanism for health care and public health, questions remain about its limitations. Growing evidence indicates that a significant proportion of internet health information consumers is engaging treatment strategies inconsistent with professional recommendations. This study aimed to distinguish internet users who report non-adherence behavior from their counterparts based on several personal and environmental determinants. Using information obtained via the internet to refuse or discontinue treatment recommended by a doctor or dentist proved to be a widespread (11.2%) behavior. Internet health information bolstered non-adherence appears strongly linked with personal determinants such as anxiety, diminishing health, and gender -- a pattern consistent with prior adherence research -- and with environmental determinants including the perceived importance of both internet health information and internet-facilitated interpersonal interactions as well as using the internet as a social support vehicle.
Keywords: Adherence; Compliance; Health information; Internet; Risk perception