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Computers in Human Behavior 24

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2008-01 Volume 24 Issue 1
  2. CHB 2008-03 Volume 24 Issue 2
  3. CHB 2008-05 Volume 24 Issue 3
  4. CHB 2008-07 Volume 24 Issue 4
  5. CHB 2008-09 Volume 24 Issue 5
  6. CHB 2008-09-17 Volume 24 Issue 6

CHB 2008-01 Volume 24 Issue 1

Components of human experience in virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 1-15
  Jari Takatalo; Göte Nyman; Leif Laaksonen
Framework is presented for measuring human experience in virtual environment (VE). Human experience is defined as the content of direct observation or participation in an event. Both psychological and emotional properties are integrated into this ongoing person-environment interaction to give an experience meaning and value and to enhance its quality and intensity. The sense of presence, i.e., being in the VE is in the center of psychological study of a human experience in VEs. The 'Big three' structure of physical presence consists of perceptual, attentional and cognitive components. However, it is considered to ignore, e.g., emotional and ecological aspects in developing a holistic human experience. In this study, components of physical presence are integrated with three different measures of interaction and a set of motivational and cognitive-affective components. These components are integral in the theory of optimal experience, i.e., flow, which has been studied in various human activities. The results show, how these different experiential components relate each other in VE. It is also shown how common patterns can be found from various experiences and profiled to better understand human-computer interaction.
Keywords: Virtual environments; Experience; Sense of physical presence; Flow theory
The preferences toward constructivist Internet-based learning environments among university students in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 16-31
  Chin-Chung Tsai
Numerous educators have proposed the development of constructivist Internet-based learning environments for students. When creating the constructivist Internet-based learning environments, it is important for researchers to be aware of students' preferences toward these environments. Through gathering data from 659 university students in Taiwan, this study developed a questionnaire to assess students' preferences toward constructivist Internet-based learning environments. The questionnaire, with adequate validity and reliability, included 34 items on the following seven scales: relevance, multiple sources (and interpretations), challenge, student negotiation, cognitive apprenticeship, reflective thinking and epistemological awareness. The questionnaire responses revealed that male students tended to prefer the Internet-based learning environments where they could solve challenging problems, acquire cognitive apprenticeship and guidance from experts, and promote epistemological development than did female students. The findings also suggested that, if educators intend to develop Internet-based learning environments for more academically advanced students, such as graduate students, care should be taken to create more opportunities for them to negotiate ideas, obtain proper guidance, reflect their own thoughts, and explore epistemological issues. Finally, students with more Internet experiences tended to demand more on many features of the constructivist Internet-based learning environments than those with less Internet experiences.
Keywords: Internet-based learning environments; University; Constructivism; Internet-based instruction; Taiwan
The relationship of e-Learner's self-regulatory efficacy and perception of e-Learning environmental quality BIBAKFull-Text 32-47
  Jong-Ki Lee; Woong-Kyu Lee
The increasing use of a internet improved internet technologies as well as web-based applications. Also, increasing effectiveness of the e-Learning has become one of the most practically and theoretically important issues in both educational engineering and information system fields.
   This study suggests a research model which is based on an e-Learning success model as well as the relationship of the e-Learner's self-regulatory efficacy, and the quality perception of the e-Learning environment. The presented research model focuses on the learning environment and on the learners' self-efficacy. The learning environment consists of learning management system (LMS), learning contents and interaction that are provided by e-Learning system. The learners' self-efficacy, however, refers to the learners' self-regulatory efficacy.
   Group research has been conducted to sensitively analyze the relationship between the quality factors and the satisfaction of the e-Learning environment. As a result, this paper shows the validity of the model empirically. As the results demonstrate, most of the hypotheses suggested in this model were proved to be accepted.
Keywords: e-Learning; Self-efficacy; Self-regulatory efficacy; LMS; ISS
Effects of consumer characteristics on their acceptance of online shopping: Comparisons among different product types BIBAKFull-Text 48-65
  Jiunn-Woei Lian; Tzu-Ming Lin
Previous electronic commerce (EC) studies have found that consumer characteristics are important when considering issues related to the acceptance of online shopping. However, most studies have focused on a single product or similar products. The effects of different product types have been relatively neglected. Previous studies have limited the generalizability of their results to a few products at best. To overcome this limitation, the purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different product types. The Internet product and service classification grid proposed by Peterson, Balasubramanian and Bronnenberg (Peterson, R. A., Balasubramanian, S., & Bronnenberg, B. J. (1997). Exploring the implications of the Internet for consumer marketing. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 25(4), 329-346) was employed to examine the effects of consumer characteristic differences on online shopping acceptance in the context of different products and services. A survey-based approach was employed to investigate the research questions. Regression analysis demonstrated that the determinants of online shopping acceptance differ among product or service types. Additionally, personal innovativeness of information technology (PIIT), perceived Web security, personal privacy concerns, and product involvement can influence consumer acceptance of online shopping, but their influence varies according to product types.
Keywords: Online shopping; Consumer characteristics; Product types
Detecting digital chameleons BIBAKFull-Text 66-87
  Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee; Kayur Patel; Andrew C. Beall
Conversations are characterized by an interactional synchrony between verbal and nonverbal behaviors [Kendon, A. (1970). Movement coordination in social interaction: some examples described. Acta Psychologica, 32(2), 101-125]. A subset of these contingent conversational behaviors is direct mimicry. During face to face interaction, people who mimic the verbal [Giles, H., Coupland, J., & Coupland, N. (1991). Accommodation theory: Communication, context, and consequence. In Giles, H., Coupland, J., & Coupland, N. Contexts of accommodation. Developments in applied sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press] and nonverbal behaviors [Chartrand, T. L., & Bargh, J. A. (1999). The chameleon effect: the perception-behavior link and social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 893-910] gain social advantage. Most research examining mimicry behavior in interaction examines 'implicit mimicry' in which the mimicked individual is unaware of the behavior of the mimicker. In this paper, we examined how effective people were at explicitly detecting mimicking computer agents and the consequences of mimic detection in terms of social influence and interactional synchrony. In Experiment 1, participant pairs engaged in a "one-degree of freedom" Turing Test. When the computer agent mimicked them, users were significantly worse than chance at identifying the other human. In Experiment 2, participants were more likely to detect mimicry in an agent that mirror-mimicked their head movements (three degrees of freedom) than agents that either congruently mimicked their behaviors or mimicked those movements on another rotational axis. We discuss implications for theories of interactivity.
Keywords: Embodied agents; Social interaction; Virtual reality; Turing test
Empirical analysis of consumer reaction to the virtual reality shopping mall BIBAKFull-Text 88-104
  Kun Chang Lee; Namho Chung
The Internet shopping mall has received wide attention from researchers and practitioners due to the fact that it is one of the most killing applications customers can find on the Internet. Though numerous studies have been performed on various issues of the Internet shopping mall, some research issues relating to the user interface of VR (virtual reality) shopping malls still await further empirical investigation. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the user interface of the VR shopping mall positively affects customer satisfaction in comparison with the ordinary shopping mall. For this purpose, we developed a prototype of the VR shopping mall for which the user interface consists of both 3D graphics and an avatar, using it as an experimental medium. 102 valid questionnaires were gathered from active student users of the ordinary shopping mall, and two research hypotheses were then tested to prove whether the three explanatory variables such as convenience, enjoyment, quality assurance improve in the VR shopping mall, and whether customer satisfaction is also significantly enhanced in the VR shopping mall in comparison with the ordinary shopping mall. Additionally, we conducted the PLS (partial least square) analysis to test whether the customer satisfaction is explained significantly by the three explanatory variables or not.
Keywords: Shopping mall; User interface; Virtual reality; Convenience; Enjoyment; Quality assurance; Customer satisfaction
Job satisfaction among information system (IS) personnel BIBAKFull-Text 105-118
  Ling-Hsiu Chen
This study examines relationships between achievement motivation and job characteristics on job satisfaction among IS personnel. The analytical results reveal that the dimensions of the achievement motivation of IS personnel are perseverance, competition and difficulty control. Regarding job characteristics, the job characteristics of IS personnel are task identity, professionalism, feedback, autonomy and significance. Moreover, the dimensions of the job satisfaction of IS personnel are social, job-related and self-actualization satisfaction. Job characteristics affect the job satisfaction of IS personnel and job characteristics and job satisfaction are positively related. Regardless of whether IS worker achievement motivation is high or low, IS workers engaged in jobs with high job characteristics have higher job satisfaction. Jobs with the features of feedback, professionalism and autonomy can most easily increase the job satisfaction of IS personnel.
Keywords: IS personnel; Job satisfaction; Job characteristics; Achievement motivation

CHB 2008-03 Volume 24 Issue 2

Special issue editorial BIBFull-Text 119-121
  A Kinshuk; J. Michael Spector; Demetrios G. Sampson
The relationship between learning styles and cognitive traits -- Getting additional information for improving student modelling BIBAKFull-Text 122-137
  Sabine Graf; Taiyu Lin; A Kinshuk
Student modelling is an important process for adaptive virtual learning environments. Student models include a range of information about the learners such as their domain competence, learning style or cognitive traits. To be able to adapt to the learners' needs in an appropriate way, a reliable student model is necessary, but getting enough information about a learner is quite challenging. Therefore, mechanisms are needed to support the detection process of the required information. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between learning styles, in particular, those pertaining to the Felder-Silverman learning style model and working memory capacity, one of the cognitive traits included in the cognitive trait model. The identified relationship is derived from links between learning styles, cognitive styles, and working memory capacity which are based on studies from the literature. As a result, we demonstrate that learners with high working memory capacity tend to prefer a reflective, intuitive, and sequential learning style whereas learners with low working memory capacity tend to prefer an active, sensing, visual, and global learning style. This interaction can be used to improve the student model. Systems which are able to detect either only cognitive traits or only learning styles retrieve additional information through the identified relationship. Otherwise, for systems that already incorporate learning styles and cognitive traits, the interaction can be used to improve the detection process of both by including the additional information of a learning style into the detection process of cognitive traits and vice versa. This leads to a more reliable student model.
Keywords: Felder-Silverman learning style model; Cognitive trait model; Working memory capacity; Student model
E-learning standards as a basis for contextual forums design BIBAKFull-Text 138-152
  Sébastien George; Hervé Labas
This article argues that linking communication to learning activities offers an interesting approach to develop the efficiency of learning management systems in facilitating and increasing discussions between students. We propose, present and elaborate a forum model that is based on two special features: a contextual view and forum structures. The contextual view of the forum, which is always visible, allows the user to focus on pertinent discussions. Two kinds of forum structures are offered: a content structure and a cognitive structure. In this paper, we discuss the use of some e-learning standards as a basis for the design of the contextual forum tool. The description of the conceptual framework for online communications and the computing implementation aims at giving researchers some possible uses and recommendations in dealing with context-sensitive communication tools.
Keywords: Asynchronous discussion; Collaborative learning; Computer mediated communication; Distance education/distance learning; E-learning standards; Learner communities and peer-support
Cluster-based predictive modeling to improve pedagogic reasoning BIBAKFull-Text 153-172
  Roberto Legaspi; Raymund Sison; Ken-ichi Fukui; Masayuki Numao
This paper discusses a predictive modeling framework actualized in a learning agent that uses logged tutorial interactions to discover predictive characteristics of students. The agent automatically forms cluster models that are described in terms of student-system interaction attributes, i.e., in terms of the student's knowledge state and behaviour and system's tutoring actions. The agent utilizes the knowledge of its various clusters together with a weighting scheme to learn predictive models of high-level student information, specifically, the time it will take the student to respond to a problem and whether the response is correct, that can be utilized to support individualized adaptation. We investigated utilizing the Self-Organizing Map and AutoClass as clustering algorithms and the naïve Bayesian classifier and single layer neural network as weighting algorithms. Empirical results show that by utilizing cluster knowledge the agent's predictions are acceptably strong for response time and accurate at the average for response correctness. Further investigation is needed to validate the scalability of the framework given other datasets and possibly migrate to other approaches that can obtain more meaningful cluster models, detect richer attribute relations, and provide better approximations to further improve prediction of response behaviour for a more informed pedagogical decision-making by the system.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Human factors engineering; Information systems; Neural networks
Toward a model for the study of children's informal Internet use BIBAKFull-Text 173-184
  Kirsty Young
Throughout history, the development and widespread use of new technologies has impacted human cognition and social structures. By integrating a range of cognitive and socio-cultural theories we are better able to understand the impact of technological tools, such as the Internet, on children in the context of their local and global communities. An integrated theoretical approach enables us to more comprehensively ascertain the potential of the Internet to significantly impact children's cognitive processes and the larger social implications of this global phenomenon. This paper presents a small-scale exploratory study that, through the development of an Internet-mediated learning model, examines the skills and characteristics of young, competent Internet-users engaged in informal Internet activities. At present, there is much conjecture on the ways in which the Internet may affect learning and this paper describes an approach to research that could inform future data collection procedures and analysis in empirical studies.
Keywords: Children; Cognitive theory; Informal learning; Internet; Socio-cultural theory
Analyzing place metaphors in 3D educational collaborative virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 185-204
  Ekaterina Prasolova-Førland
In the recent years, the usage of three dimensional (3D) collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) for educational purposes has increased. The metaphors behind the design of virtual places are quite diverse, from replication of real universities to art museums and scientific labs. This paper reports the results of a case study where the students of our university, as a part of their course assignment, analyzed place metaphors used in a range of 3D educational CVEs vs. the corresponding educational goals. The students suggested a design for a virtual campus representing the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). The results of this study provide some suggestions concerning the characterization of different design features in educational CVEs and the suitability of such features for different educational goals. Also, a preliminary set of design guidelines for an ideal virtual campus representing a real university is presented. Finally, some challenges associated with using 3D CVEs in various educational situations are discussed.
Keywords: 3D Collaborative virtual environments in education; Place metaphors; Virtual universities
Looking for evidence of learning: Assessment and analysis methods for online discourse BIBAKFull-Text 205-219
  Vanessa Paz Dennen
Discussion is a required component of many Web-based classes, but do we really know its value or contribution to learning? Students may be graded for participation, and number and length of posts may be counted by those evaluating or researching online classes, but all too often the assessment and analysis methods that we use fail to provide us with data that indicate learning took place through participation in online discussion. This paper explores what can be learned by currently popular assessment practices and analytic methods, as well as the limitations of these methods when used to measure learning, using two samples of discussion threads from online classes.
Keywords: Distance education; Learning; Internet; Group discussion
Learning and teaching about scientific models with a computer-modeling tool BIBAKFull-Text 220-233
  Nicos Valanides; Charoula Angeli
The study presents efforts to support pre-service primary school teachers in learning and teaching about scientific models, and discusses the impact of these efforts on their understandings. We provided pre-service primary school teachers with a module on computer modeling and studied the effects of this experience on their abilities to construct viable scientific models with a computer-modeling tool, namely, Model-It [Metcalf, J. S., Krajcik, J., & Soloway, E. (2000). MODEL-IT: A Design Retrospective. In M. J. Jacobson & R. B. Kozma (Eds.), Innovations in Science and Mathematics Education (pp. 77-115). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates], in order to teach a sixth-grade science lesson. The results of the study showed that Model-It, through its scaffolds (i.e., Plan, Build, and Test), enabled the majority of pre-service teachers to build models that were structurally correct, but simplistic. The participants showed a tendency to teach science using more often the explorative modeling method than the expressive method, and only few of them employed both methods in their lessons. In essence, Model-It effectively scaffolded pre-service teachers' first modeling experiences and enabled them to quickly build and test their models as well as reflect on the viability of their models. However, according to the results, teachers need extensive learning experiences in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the process of scientific modeling in science.
Keywords: Complex task; Modeling software; Problem solving; Science teaching
Modular robotics as a tool for education and entertainment BIBAKFull-Text 234-248
  Jacob Nielsen; Henrik Hautop Lund
We developed I-BLOCKS, a modular electronic building block system and here we show how this system has proven useful, especially as an educational tool that allows hands-on learning in an easy manner. Through user studies we find limitations of the first I-BLOCKS system, and we show how the system can be improved by introducing a graphical user interface for authoring the contents of the individual I-BLOCK. This is done by developing a new cubic block shape with new physical and electrical connectors, and by including new embedded electronics. We developed and evaluated the I-BLOCKS as a manipulative technology through studies in both schools and hospitals, and in diverse cultures such as in Denmark, Finland, Italy and Tanzania.
Keywords: Constructionism; Developing countries; Educational robots; Educational technology; Entertainment robots
Cognition and learning in the digital age: Promising research and practice BIBAKFull-Text 249-262
  J. Michael Spector
This paper is primarily conceptual in nature and explores issues pertaining to the interdisciplinary nature of research and practice in learning and instruction with particular emphasis on 21st technology-facilitated means and methods (e.g., modeling tools and online discussions). Examples of new concept mapping tools used to support and assess learning in complex domains are provided. A context for designing instruction that integrates new approaches and tools (model-facilitated learning) is presented, and research findings from a particular concept-mapping assessment methodology are presented. Research methods and perspectives to assist in understanding learning that is associated with online discussions are also suggested. The implications for competency development in educational technology are discussed, and suggestions for further research are provided.
Keywords: Collaborative meaning making; Complex problem solving; Concept maps; Educational technology competencies; Inquiry methods; Mental models; Online discussions
Factors affecting the implementation of electronic data interchange in Korea BIBAKFull-Text 263-283
  Byung Gon Kim; Sangjae Lee
Although there have been a number of studies of the determinant factors of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) implementation, most studies were carried out in the United States or Europe. The purpose of this study is to identify the determinant factors which affect implementation of EDI systems by Korean companies. Decentralization, EDI standards, technical compatibility, technical support by EDI vendors, education and training and participation of trading partners positively affect the extent of EDI usage. Formalization, technical compatibility, user involvement and participation of trading partners affect EDI integration with internal applications. Top management support and the participation of trading partners promote the extent of EDI operations. This study provides evidence of the effect of important determinant factors such as participation of trading partners and technical compatibility replicating previous EDI studies conducted in that US and Europe. For policy makers ad EDI developers, this study provides insights as to appropriate measures and incentives system designed to encourage EDI and B2B implementation.
Keywords: EDI; EDI implementation; Determinant factors of EDI implementation
What you train is what you get? Task requirements and training methods in complex problem-solving BIBAKFull-Text 284-308
  Annette Kluge
The study measured the effect of tested training methods (direct instruction, guided exploration, and a combination of both) on the performance of 497 participants on qualitative and quantitative knowledge tests and control performance task under three complex problem (CP) conditions (easy, medium, difficult). All three methods proved equally suited to meeting the requirements of reproducing qualitative knowledge. For acquisition of quantitative knowledge, the direct-instruction method outperformed a method requiring participants themselves to infer solutions. The greater a CP's intrinsic load due to parallel effects, the more effective direct instruction was at increasing control performance. The guided-exploration group and the combined-method group scored mixed results. The more difficult the CP, the more overall control performance deteriorated regardless of the training method.
Keywords: Complex problem-solving; Training methods; Training-needs analysis; Cognitive-task analysis; Structure diagram; Guided exploration; Problem difficulty
Coping with somatic illnesses in online support groups: Do the feared disadvantages actually occur? BIBAKFull-Text 309-324
  C. F. van Uden-Kraan; C. H. C. Drossaert; E. Taal; C. E. I. Lebrun; K. W. Drossaers-Bakker; W. M. Smit; E. R. Seydel; M. A. F. J. van de Laar
People in stressful circumstances, such as serious health conditions, often turn to support groups. With the increase in the availability and popularity of the Internet, the possibility has arisen to join support groups online. Various authors have raised potential disadvantages of these groups, such as the lack of control of the quality of the information that is exchanged and the concern that the exchange within the group might include socially inappropriate remarks. In this study we explored to what extent these potential disadvantages actually occur. In addition, we explored who uses Dutch online support groups and what is exchanged by the participants. By means of "content analysis" we analyzed a random sample of 1500 messages from publicly available online support groups for patients with breast cancer, arthritis and fibromyalgia. It appeared that the online support groups under study were mainly used by female patients. A major part of the postings contained "off topic" remarks. Popular health related topics were "restrictions in daily life" and "regular medication". Only in a minor proportion of the postings, potential disadvantages were present. Therefore this study suggests that online support groups are a viable option for support.
Keywords: Support groups; Internet; Breast cancer; Fibromyalgia; Arthritis; Content analysis
The role of perceived usability, reputation, satisfaction and consumer familiarity on the website loyalty formation process BIBAKFull-Text 325-345
  Luis Casaló; Carlos Flavián; Miguel Guinalíu
The increasing competitiveness in electronic business is motivating varying research on the principal antecedents of consumer loyalty. However, previous research is too scarce, so that there are notable aspects which must be analyzed in-depth. This research has focused on new topics about the development of online consumer loyalty, such as the role of familiarity and usability. Firstly, we analyze the effect of usability, reputation and satisfaction on consumer loyalty. The results have revealed the existence of a positive and significant influence of reputation and satisfaction on website loyalty. Secondly, we confirm the influence of usability on consumer satisfaction. Thirdly, we assess the moderating role of consumer familiarity on the relationships proposed in the research model. The analyses have shown that usability plays a special role in the loyalty formation process. At reduced levels of familiarity usability influences on loyalty through consumer satisfaction (indirect effect). However, if familiarity increases then perceived usability influences on loyalty not only through its effect on satisfaction, but also in a direct way. Consequently, higher levels of familiarity mean that the weight of usability in the explanation of website loyalty is higher. Finally, several conclusions, managerial suggestions, limitations and future research lines are proposed.
Keywords: Internet; Loyalty; Familiarity; Usability; Reputation; Satisfaction; Multi-sample analysis
Personality and self reported mobile phone use BIBAKFull-Text 346-360
  Sarah Butt; James G. Phillips
As the mobile phone supports interpersonal interaction, mobile phone use might be a function of personality. This study sought to predict amounts and types of mobile phone use from extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and self-esteem. One hundred and twelve mobile phone owners reported on their use of their mobile phones, and completed the NEO-FFI and the Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Extraverts reported spending more time calling, and changing ring tone and wallpaper, implying the use of the mobile phone as a means of stimulation. Extraverts and perhaps disagreeable individuals were less likely to value incoming calls. Disagreeable extraverts also reported using the mobile phone more, and spent more time adjusting ringtone/wallpaper. The neurotic, disagreeable, unconscientious and extroverted spent more time messaging using SMS. This study concludes that psychological theory can explain patterns of mobile phone use.
Keywords: Mobile phones; Personality; Extraversion; Agreeableness; SMS
The effects of Need for Cognition on Internet use revisited BIBAKFull-Text 361-371
  Or Kaynar; Yair Amichai-Hamburger
The Internet is the biggest information carrier of our times. However, there is little understanding of the interaction between the different behaviors of the various Internet users, and the variety of ways in which information in the Internet should be presented. This work continues previous research [Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Kaynar, O., & Fine, A. (2005). The effects of need for cognition on Internet use. Unpublished manuscript.] that examined the preferences of participants with varying level of Need for Cognition (NFC) [Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1982). The need for cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 116-131.] in internet sites varying in their interactivity. This article seeks to broaden the understanding of the behavior of people varying in NFC outside of research situations. We hypothesized that people high in NFC will use information services in the Internet relatively more than those with a low NFC. Furthermore, we hypothesized that people with a high NFC will perceive the informational characteristics of a website as the most important in the creation of a successful and convincing Internet site. Fifty experienced Web surfers filled out an Internet uses questionnaire in which they stated the amount of time they spend per week in 30 different Internet services. This data was later submitted to a Factor Analysis which revealed three major uses: professional, social and leisure. The participants filled out also a preferences questionnaire in which they stated their perceived importance of different characteristics in the creation of a successful and persuasive Internet site. Results support our hypothesis regarding the correlation between NFC and professional services use, and the perceived importance of information in creating a persuasive site. Several other findings are also discussed.
Keywords: Internet; Personality; Need for Cognition
Effects of compatibility and turning biases on arrowhead cursor placement in graphical user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 372-387
  M. A. Finch; J. G. Phillips; J. W. Meehan
Arrowhead cursors have the potential to generate response conflict, as they are used to signify location but also implicitly cue direction. This study considered the time course of the resolution of any response conflict. The interplay between object properties and action was addressed through consideration of the effects of arrowhead cursor orientation upon action. Twelve participants moved arrowhead cursors of four possible orientations with respect to direction of movement (compatible, incompatible, port, starboard) towards a square (4 mm or 8 mm) target in a graphical user interface. Kinematic analysis determined if and how an interplay existed between object properties and action. Cursor orientation primarily influenced cursor movement, with the effects manifesting during terminal guidance. The blunt end of an arrowhead cursor was moved faster by users, and there appeared to be turning biases during cursor placement. Arrowheads have a number of properties (vertex, orientation, width) that influence cursor placement in graphical user interfaces.
Keywords: Cursor orientation; Directional compatibility; Turning biases; Graphical user interface; Kinematics
The effect of available choice on the cognitive processing of pictures BIBAFull-Text 388-402
  Kevin Wise; Kimberlee Pepple
This study explores whether people orient to and encode pictures differently depending on whether the pictures were chosen from a limited or an extensive array of options. Participants viewed pictures on a computer as part of a within-subjects experiment (N = 43). In one condition, participants viewed pictures that they had chosen from a limited array of 6 options. In the other condition, participants viewed pictures chosen from an extensive array of 24 options. Heart rate and recognition served as indicators of orienting and encoding. Results showed that pictures chosen from limited options elicited orienting responses. Pictures chosen from extensive options, on the other hand, did not elicit orienting responses. Recognition was fastest and most accurate for pictures selected from limited options, suggesting that participants encoded them better. Based on these results, we suggest ways of conceptualizing the attributes of computer media that uniquely affect cognitive processing.
Coercing shared knowledge in collaborative learning environments BIBAFull-Text 403-420
  Paul A. Kirschner; Pieter J. Beers; Henny P. A. Boshuizen; Wim H. Gijselaers
Multidisciplinary teams are used in industry, government, and education for solving complex problems because they allow different perspectives to be brought to bear on a problem and thus enrich the problem space. This, in turn, is expected to allow for rich problem analyses and solutions. However, multidisciplinarity is not always advantageous. Good team solutions require team members to possess a good degree of common ground. To address this, researchers and educators often chose techniques such as collaboration scripts or scenarios to structure collaboration or how ICT-tools are used. They do this by making use of formalisms or constraints to structure conversation and discourse among collaborators with the aim of guiding the exchange of knowledge and information or both. Such techniques and tools have attained good results on cognitive aspects of group learning by focusing on task aspects. However, they have not explicitly addressed the problem of how teams with expertise diversity reach common ground. This article presents the results of a series of experiments that have shown that a tool that is capable of scripting the negotiation of both meaning and standpoint can have very positive effects on achieving common ground.
Cracking the walnut: Using a computer game to impact cognition, emotion, and behavior of highly aggressive fifth grade students BIBAFull-Text 421-438
  L. Jon Hobbs; Zheng Yan
Three fifth grade highly aggressive students participated in a study examining effects of an aggression intervention game. Using single-subject multiple baseline research design, the effect of the game was measured across three domains: attribution of peer intent (cognitive), emotional response (affective) and behavior response (behavioral). The results indicate that, while there were observable individual differences, the game had an immediate impact on attribution of peer behavior across all participants, had a less predictable impact on reported behavioral reactions, and had no discernable impact on reported emotional response. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.
The effects of text structure and prior knowledge of the learner on computer-based learning BIBAKFull-Text 439-450
  Fethi Calisir; Mert Eryazici; Mark. R. Lehto
This study is an attempt to investigate the effects of document structure and knowledge level of the reader on reading comprehension, browsing, and perceived control. Four types of texts are distinguished, differing in structure (linear text, hierarchical hypertext, mixed hypertext, and generative text). All the materials were on a PC. In all conditions, participants were allowed 1 h to read through the document. After completing the reading part of the experiment, they were asked to fill out the perceived control questionnaire followed by the reading comprehension test. As far as reading comprehension was concerned, knowledgeable participants had higher reading comprehension scores than non-knowledgeable participants only in the linear text. In addition, there were no significant differences in terms of the reading comprehension scores of the knowledgeable participants among the four topologies. However, the performance of non-knowledgeable participants differed with respect to the type of the topology. In particular, non-knowledgeable participants in the hierarchical and generative conditions performed better than those in the other two conditions. With respect to perceived control, the performance of knowledgeable and non-knowledgeable participants was equivalent in all four conditions. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the computer-based learning.
Keywords: Hypertext; Reading comprehension; Browsing; Perceived control
The role of the idea champion in innovation: The case of the Internet in the mid-1990s BIBAKFull-Text 451-467
  Morell E. Mullins; Steve W. J. Kozlowski; Neal Schmitt; Ann W. Howell
Idea champions, sometimes called change agents, serve as advocates for new technologies or procedures. Although the effects of such individuals may be powerful, how they have their effects has been studied relatively little. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors that might affect use of the Internet. A model focused on the presence of an idea champion was developed and tested. This model stressed the criticality of a supportive climate and some level of dissatisfaction with the way work was being accomplished. The model allowed the examination of direct and indirect effects of the presence of a champion on the use of the Internet. Analyses supported our theoretical model. Implications and potential research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Technology; Innovation; Implementation; Internet; Idea champions
Is "Internet addiction" addressed in the classroom? A survey of psychology textbooks BIBAKFull-Text 468-474
  Brad Mossbarger
Although not designated as an official diagnostic entity, problematic Internet use (or "Internet addiction", IA) has received increasing attention in professional literature, both within psychology and in other fields. Given the Internet's popularity and growing recognition of its misuse, it seems legitimate to question whether IA is being given similar attention in relevant academic courses. To address this question, the author surveyed current college-level introductory and abnormal psychology textbooks for references to the IA phenomenon. Of the 44 texts examined, only three specific references to IA (or similar terminology) were found. Recommendations are made regarding the coverage of this contemporary concern in updated text editions.
Keywords: Internet; Addiction; Impulse control; Diagnosis
Listen and learn: An investigation of sonification as an instructional variable to improve understanding of complex environments BIBAKFull-Text 475-485
  David G. Pfeiffer
Sonification, the use of non-speech audio to convey information, was used to test whether the simultaneous presentation of visual and artificially created auditory (sound) information significantly improves scores on comprehension tests of complex, dynamic computer simulations of an ecology microworld over scores from college participants who were presented visual information alone. Brief training was provided and all tasks were completed online. Participants were also tested for musical aptitude and preferred learning modality. Results indicate that while age and grade point average significantly predicted score on the comprehension test, the treatment tested here did not. For one-month retention of knowledge, only grade point average was significant. Nevertheless, the experimental methodology and the demonstrated convenience of online data collection are a contribution to the field. Moreover, the size of several positive effects and the identification of opportunities for improvement in the presentation of information invite a follow-up study.
Keywords: Sonification; Auditory display; System dynamics; Learning environment; Educational psychology; Human-computer interface; Simulation; Computer model
Stress management in the workplace: A comparison of a computer-based and an in-person stress-management intervention BIBAKFull-Text 486-496
  Katherine Pollak Eisen; George J. Allen; Mary Bollash; Linda S. Pescatello
Work stress contributes significantly to corporate health costs. Numerous corporations have implemented worksite stress-management interventions to mitigate the financial and personal impact of stress on their employees. Cognitive-behavioral stress-management interventions can reduce both perceived and physiologically measured stress. Traditionally, these interventions have been delivered in small, instructor-led groups. Outcomes from a stress-management intervention provided via an instructor led versus a computer-presented format were compared through a randomized, controlled design. Brief relaxation procedures presented in both formats led to highly significant reductions in immediately-reported stress. Stress reduction, however, was not associated with improvement in longer-term indices of workplace stress following completion of the intervention and at a one-month follow-up. Attrition was significantly higher in the computer-presentation format. Across both presentation formats, however, more frequent use of stress-reduction techniques was correlated significantly with greater reductions in stress indices (e.g., nervousness, social isolation, overall work stress) at follow-up.
Keywords: Stress-management; Internet; Cognitive-behavioral therapy; Occupational stress
Distributed collaborative problem-based graduate-level learning: Students' perspectives on communication tool selection and efficacy BIBAKFull-Text 497-515
  Richard C. Overbaugh; Andrew R. Casiello
There is growing interest in higher education into graduate-level learning at a distance, where participants are chosen not by where they live but by programmatic match in terms of interest, motivation, intelligence, and academic and professional background. Asynchronous, web-based educational programs have shown to be quite successful at providing quality education at a distance, however we question whether all activities necessary to build a strong academic community and give teachers and students adequate ability to engage in a wide variety of academic activities and discourse can be handled most efficaciously via asynchronous methods alone. As Internet bandwidth increases and richer media in this domain becomes more technologically efficient (requires less bandwidth with ever higher performance) the opportunity to re-introduce synchronous interaction at a distance becomes possible.
   At our institution a wide variety of synchronous and asynchronous tools are being developed for distance education purposes. This study tracks student selection of these tools for various types of instructional activities at varying cognitive levels, and tracks their reaction to the efficacy of the tool for the given tasks.
Keywords: Distance education; Graduate-level problem-based learning; Rich media; Academic community
Different orientations of males and females in computer-mediated negotiations BIBAKFull-Text 516-534
  Ron Katz; Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Efrat Manisterski; Sarit Kraus
This paper examines the existence of gender differences in computer mediated (CM) negotiations where "gender differences" refers to the differential patterns of behavior of males and females proposed by Rubin and Brown (Rubin, J. Z., & Brown, B. R. (1975). Bargainers as individuals. In The social psychology of bargaining and negotiation (pp. 157-196). New York: Academic Press). Namely, males are more profit oriented and females are more relationship oriented. External manipulations encouraging cooperativeness with other negotiators either by profitable or social incentives were inserted in the negotiations performed within the Colored Trails (CT) game framework. The negotiators included 27 females and 33 males who negotiated in foursomes via computers. In the first study we focused on independent negotiators whose success was not crucially dependent on the other party. In the second study negotiators were dependent upon one another, encouraging integrative solutions. The findings reveal that the social incentive (team factor) positively affected the females' cooperativeness in contrast to males who were slightly less cooperative. On the other hand, profitable incentive influenced the males' cooperativeness level, while no change was shown by females, which is consistent with Rubin and Brown's distinction. These tendencies were reduced when playing with a non-reciprocal simulated agent. The causes for gender differences in CM as well as in face-to-face (FTF) negotiations are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-mediated-negotiations; Gender
The impacts of banner location, banner content and navigation style on banner recognition BIBAKFull-Text 535-543
  Fethi Calisir; Demet Karaali
This study is an attempt to examine factors that might impact banner recognition. These factors include banner location, banner content and navigation style. Via an experimental design conducted on a sample of 90 students, we manipulate these factors over several levels. Our key finding is that banner recognition is affected by the interaction of banner content and navigation style. In particular, as far as aimless browsing participants were concerned, they recognized the banner ad with a URL address significantly better than the one with some service information as well as the URL address. However, for goal-directed search participants, there was no significant difference among the three banner content types. The results also indicated that goal-directed search participants had higher recognition scores than aimless browsing subjects only when the banner ad with some service information and URL address was used. Managerial implications of these results are discussed and future research avenues are proposed.
Keywords: Banner recognition; Navigation style; Banner location; Banner content
Potential and promise of online volunteering BIBAKFull-Text 544-562
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger
The Internet is often perceived as yet another technological innovation that causes a further widening of the gap between rich and poor. However, one of the most interesting phenomena to come out of the Internet revolution is its utilization as a channel for social development. Volunteers working in task forces who were recruited through the net, work to improve the lives of many millions of people in need throughout the world. Some of these volunteers are 'field workers', working in physical proximity to those they are trying to help, while others may be sitting at home, using their computers to help needy populations many thousands of miles away. This paper studies this trend and advocates a model to explain the potential and promise of online volunteerism from the perspective of the volunteer. It is suggested that understanding the characteristics behind Internet volunteering from the perspective of the volunteer may enhance the positive potential of the Internet.
   The model focuses on the unique informative and communicative aspects of net volunteering. It does so by separating this phenomenon into three separate subdivisions: the personal, the interpersonal, and the group. The personal subdivision refers to the advantages of volunteering on an individual level. The interpersonal subdivision refers to advantages in terms of dyadic interaction, and the group subdivision refers to the advantages as a result of being part of a task group. This paper concentrates almost exclusively on the positive, rather than negative, aspects of the Internet and Internet volunteering. This is because of the need for brevity, but more importantly, because the positive aspects of the Internet have been widely ignored by scholars. This paper aims to focus on these and to turn the spotlight on a fascinating combination of the affirmative harnessing of the Internet to increase social justice, and human well-being through unpaid volunteer work.
Keywords: Internet; Pro-social behavior; Online Volunteering
Computer attitude scales: How relevant today? BIBAKFull-Text 563-575
  Kate J. Garland; Jan M. Noyes
Since the increase in the use of computers as learning tools, there have been many scales developed that can measure various aspects of 'computer attitude'. The aim of this study is to examine the relevance of a number of these scales and determine whether they are still appropriate for use today. Four computer attitude scales, which are used widely, are assessed. It was found that the scales are reliable. However, the degree of predictive validity for each scale varied and the various underlying constructs appear to reflect different aspects of attitude. In addition, these constructs had changed since the original creation of the scales. This suggests that the traditional style of computer attitude scale is no longer as relevant as when first developed, and judicious selection and care need to be exercised over their use and the interpretation of findings.
Keywords: Computer attitudes; Attitude scales; Reliability; Validity
Managing programmed instruction and collaborative peer tutoring in the classroom: Applications in teaching Java BIBAKFull-Text 576-614
  Henry H. Emurian; Heather K. Holden; Rachel A. Abarbanel
To fulfill part of the course requirements, 34 undergraduate students in two courses completed an online programmed instruction tutor as the first technical training exercise in a Java programming course designed for information systems majors. The tutor taught a simple JApplet program to display a text string within a browser window on the Web. Students in the first course next participated in a collaborative peer tutoring session, based on the JApplet program, followed by a lecture on the program and by successfully running the program on the Web. For the second course, the peer tutoring session was scheduled after the lecture and after successfully running the program. Students in both courses completed tests of far transfer ("meaningful learning") and software self-efficacy before using the tutor and on several subsequent occasions following that initial learning. Students in the second course also completed a 4-item scale to assess the development of classification and functionality knowledge regarding elements of the program. Students in both courses showed progressive improvement in all performance measures across the several assessment occasions. Students' positive ratings of the effectiveness of both the tutor and the collaborative peer tutoring supported the value of these learning experiences in a technical knowledge domain. The results of this study, based on student performance observed within the context of the classroom, show the importance of providing a range of synergistic learning experiences that culminate in a level of skill and confidence that prepares and motivates all students for advanced instruction in Java. They also show how to manage the instructional techniques in the classroom to accomplish that educational outcome.
Keywords: Programmed instruction; Collaborative peer tutoring; Interteaching; Java training

CHB 2008-05 Volume 24 Issue 3

Instructional support for enhancing students' information problem solving ability BIBAFull-Text 615-622
  Saskia Brand-Gruwel; Peter Gerjets
This special issue discusses European research on instructional support to foster students' ability to solve information-based problems. In this introduction, the concept of information problem solving (IPS) and research in this field of interest will be placed in the broader perspective, which is called information behavior. The focus of this special issue is an educational one and the papers all go into a specific kind of instructional support. The main research questions, findings and conclusions of the six contributions will be outlined. It is concluded that the most important directions for future research deal with how instructional support for different aspect of the process, like for instance how to regulated the process, best can be designed in order to make the instruction adaptive and fit to the learners needs.
Information-problem solving: A review of problems students encounter and instructional solutions BIBAFull-Text 623-648
  Amber Walraven; Saskia Brand-gruwel; Henny P. A. Boshuizen
Searching and processing information is a complex cognitive process that requires students to identify information needs, locate corresponding information sources, extract and organize relevant information from each source, and synthesize information from a variety of sources. This process is called information-problem solving (IPS). IPS can be characterized as a complex cognitive skill, which may need direct instruction to reach high levels of performance. However, IPS has been given little attention in schools, and instruction in this skill is rarely embedded in curricula. And yet, by giving students assignments in which students have to solve an information-based problem, teachers assume that their pupils have developed this skill naturally. A literature study was done to determine what kinds of problems students experience when solving information problems using the WWW for searching information, and what kind of instructional support can help to solve these problems. Results show that children, teenagers and adults have trouble with specifying search terms, judging search results and judging source and information. Regulating the search process is also problematic. Instruction designed specifically for IPS using the WWW for searching information is rare but indeed addresses the problematic skills. However, there are differences between various methods and it is unclear which method is most effective for specific age groups.
Supporting reflective web searching in elementary schools BIBAFull-Text 649-665
  Bregje de Vries; Hans van der Meij; Ard W. Lazonder
In this contribution, two design experiments are presented in which reflective web searching is implemented in six elementary classrooms. Reflective web searching is viewed to comprise three steps: (1) develop ownership over search questions, (2) interpret and personalize web content, and (3) adapt web content into personally meaningful answers. A portal and a worksheet supported reflective web searching. A wide range of qualitative data, including observations, interviews and group products, was collected to gain insight in the emerging practices. The findings show that the portal and worksheet successfully contributed to the development of ownership, and the interpretation and personalization of retrieved information. Enabling children to search the web collaboratively further enhanced interpretation and personalization. The prototypes of both portal and worksheet were improved across the design experiments, and their success rates increased. Despite the improvements, the process of adaptation was not sufficiently supported by the portal and worksheet.
Integrating critical Web skills and content knowledge: Development and evaluation of a 5th grade educational program BIBAFull-Text 666-692
  Els Kuiper; Monique Volman; Jan Terwel
Although the Web is almost omnipresent in many children's lives, most children lack adequate Web searching skills as well as skills to process and critically evaluate Web information. In this article, we describe and evaluate an educational program that aimed at acquiring Web skills in the context of a content knowledge domain. Through a multiple case study design we wanted to gain insight into the contextual factors that influence the realization of such program and into the learning gains in the participating classes in terms of content knowledge and Web skills. Four 5th grade teachers carried out the program, which consisted of eight weekly sessions and focused on teaching students Web searching, reading and evaluating skills within the subject of healthy food. Data from a variety of sources were collected: videotaped and written lesson observations, interviews with teachers and students, teacher diaries, student questionnaires and student assignments. The results show that the teachers appeared to be able to carry out the program to varying degrees. Contextual factors that influenced the realization of the program were partly related to specific conditions as the investment of time and effort by the teacher and the school's way of organizing computer work and its supervision. The extent to which teachers' teaching styles corresponded with the program's assumptions also played an important role. Students' knowledge and skills improved during the program with regard to both content knowledge and Web skills. However, most students appeared to remain inconsistent Web users, and did not act upon their knowledge of Web searching, reading and evaluating skills. Although generally speaking there were differences between stronger and weaker performing students, all students showed unexpected, inconsistent or inflexible behavior.
Competent information search in the World Wide Web: Development and evaluation of a web training for pupils BIBAFull-Text 693-715
  Peter Gerjets; Tina Hellenthal-Schorr
This paper describes the development and empirical evaluation of a web training for pupils (CIS-WEB, Competent Information Search in the World Wide WEB) which aims to convey prerequisite knowledge and skills that are necessary for a competent search for information on the web. The web training focuses on competent information handling and is based on two theoretical analyses. First, a conceptual analysis of information search from the perspective of media literacy research and information retrieval research was conducted and yielded a set of five pivotal content aspects that need to be covered by a web training. Each of these content aspects is characterized by declarative and procedural knowledge components which are necessary for the pursuit of a competent search for information on the web. Second, we conducted a task analysis which conceptualizes the search for information on the web as a problem-solving process and which allows to systematically distinguish between different types of information problems. In the empirical part of the paper two classroom studies are reported. In Study 1, the widespread training concept of a technically oriented Internet training for pupils was evaluated and it was shown that no substantial improvement of web searching skills can be expected from this type of treatment. In Study 2, it was shown that the web training CIS-WEB improves pupils' declarative knowledge of the web as well as their search performance, thereby outperforming the conventional Internet training used in Study 1.
Effects of the metacognitive computer-tool met.a.ware on the web search of laypersons BIBAFull-Text 716-737
  Marc Stadtler; Rainer Bromme
Today, laypersons often consult the Internet to inform themselves about health-related issues. However, the competent use of these often complex and heterogeneous information provisions cannot be taken for granted, because many Internet users are lacking the necessary metacognitive prerequisites. Therefore, we developed the metacognitive computer-tool met.a.ware, which supports laypersons' Internet research for medical information by the means of metacognitive prompting and ontological classification. In an experimental investigation of met.a.ware a total of 118 participants with little medical knowledge were asked to conduct an Internet research on a medical topic. Participants were randomly assigned to four experimental groups that worked with met.a.ware and either received evaluation prompts, monitoring prompts, both types of prompts, or no prompts. All experimental conditions were additionally provided with ontological classification. One control group took paper and pencil notes. A further control group took notes using a blank text window. Results showed that laypersons receiving evaluation prompts outperformed controls in terms of knowledge about sources and produced more arguments commenting on the source of information in an essay task. In addition, laypersons receiving monitoring prompts acquired significantly more knowledge about facts, but did not perform better on a comprehension test than the controls. The availability of ontological categories helped to structure the notes laypersons in the conditions working with ontological classification took during Internet research. Analyses of the notes further demonstrated that the availability of ontological categories guided information search in direction of the selected categories. It is concluded, that met.a.ware is an effective tool that supports laypersons' Internet research.
The effect of embedded instruction on solving information problems BIBAFull-Text 738-752
  Iwan Wopereis; Saskia Brand-Gruwel; Yvonne Vermetten
In higher education students are often faced with information problems: tasks or assignments that require them to identify information needs, locate corresponding information sources, extract and organize relevant information from each source, and synthesize information from a variety of sources. Explicit and intensive instruction is necessary, because solving information problems is a complex cognitive skill. In this study instruction for information problem solving (IPS) was embedded in a competence and web-based course for distance education students about research methodology in the field of Psychology. Eight of the 16 students following this course received a version of the course with embedded IPS instruction. The other half received a variant of the course without extra IPS instruction. The analysis of the thinking aloud protocols revealed that after the course students in the experimental condition regulate the IPS process more often than students in the control condition. They also judged the information found more often.
Information problem solving instruction: Some cognitive and metacognitive issues BIBAFull-Text 753-765
  Ard W. Lazonder; Jean-François Rouet
Children, teenagers, and adults abundantly use the Web to search for information. Yet this high frequency of use stands in marked contrast with the users' relatively low awareness and mastery of metacognitive skills to search the Web effectively and efficiently. This paper provides a review of five different studies that sought to overcome these skill deficiencies by various kinds of instructional and environmental support. Following a discussion on the use of cognitive models of the search process in designing Web searching instruction and support, the studies' findings are considered in view of their aim and approach in supporting metacognition.
The role of emotion in computer-mediated communication: A review BIBAKFull-Text 766-785
  Daantje Derks; Agneta H. Fischer; Arjan E. R. Bos
It has been argued that the communication of emotions is more difficult in computer-mediated communication (CMC) than in face-to-face (F2F) communication. The aim of this paper is to review the empirical evidence in order to gain insight in whether emotions are communicated differently in these different modes of communication. We review two types of studies: (1) studies that explicitly examine discrete emotions and emotion expressions, and (2) studies that examine emotions more implicitly, namely as self-disclosure or emotional styles. Our conclusion is that there is no indication that CMC is a less emotional or less personally involving medium than F2F. On the contrary, emotional communication online and offline is surprisingly similar, and if differences are found they show more frequent and explicit emotion communication in CMC than in F2F.
Keywords: Emotion; CMC; F2F; Emoticons; Internet; Review
The effects of video on cognitive load and social presence in multimedia-learning BIBAKFull-Text 786-797
  Bruce D. Homer; Jan L. Plass; Linda Blake
Two studies examined the use of video in multimedia learning environments. In Study 1, participants (N = 26) viewed one of two versions of a computer-based multimedia presentation: video, which included a video of a lecture with synchronized slides, or no video, which included the slides but only an audio narration of the lecture. Learning, cognitive load and social presence were assessed, but a significant difference was found only for cognitive load, with video experiencing greater cognitive load, t (24) = 2.45, p < .05. In Study 2, students (N = 25) were randomly assigned to either video or no video condition. Background knowledge and visual/verbal learning preference were assessed before viewing the presentation, and learning, cognitive load, and social presence were assessed after viewing. No significant differences were found for learning or social presence. However, a significant visual/verbal learning preference by condition interaction was found for cognitive load, F (1,21) = 4.51, p < .05: low visual-preference students experienced greater cognitive load in the video condition, while high visual-preference students experienced greater cognitive load in the no video condition.
Keywords: Instructional media; Learning; Cognitive load; Social presence; Human channel capacity
Computer-mediated communication and persuasion: Peripheral vs. central route to opinion shift BIBAKFull-Text 798-815
  Paola Di Blasio; Luca Milani
Objective of this research was to investigate the differences between face-to-face communication and computer-mediated communication regarding opinion change in small group decision-making. We hypothesized that people in a discussion through computer-mediated communication accede to cognitive processes that could facilitate resisting the effects of a persuasive message.
   Participants were 108 degree students with a mean age of 21.5 (range 19-26): 51 males (mean age = 21.5) and 57 females (mean age = 21.4).
   Subjects had to discuss in a small group (three to five people) an issue given by the experimenter related to a fictitious reorganization of the university refectory. Subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions: face-to-face small group discussion and computer-mediated (chat) small group discussion. At the half-way point in the discussion the experimenter introduced a new piece of information supplied by an influential source. The piece of information was in contrast to the prevailing opinion in the group. Results show that there were fewer opinion changes in the chat condition (subsequent to the introduction of the persuasive message) than in the face-to-face condition.
   According to Petty and Cacioppo's Elaboration Likelihood Model (1986), we argue that discussion via computer could possibly activate the central route more easily than discussion face to face.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Face-to-face communication; Persuasive communication
Computer program in the treatment for major depression and cognitive impairment in university students BIBAKFull-Text 816-826
  Luz María Alvarez; José F. Cortés Sotres; Silvia Ortiz León; Judith Estrella; Juan José Sánchez Sosa
Introduction: A depressed patient presents cognitive impairment that remains in spite of depression's remission. This study intends to evaluate the impact of cognitive training in the treatment of depression, and also of the impairment that depression causes.
   Method: A program for cognitive training (Alcor) was designed for and applied to a group of patients (n = 10) with non-medicated MDD; a group (N = 10) with MDD that was treated with the program and with anti-depressants, and to another group (n = 11) that was given anti-depressors only. The impact of this intervention was assessed by applying the following instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, WAIS, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Externalized Problems Assessment Scale for Adolescents and Young Adults, and Attention Problems Assessment Scale. The program was applied to University students with MDD twice a week, until they had reached adequate levels of execution.
   Results: The patients of all three groups showed MDD event remission. Those who received cognitive training showed a substantial increase of intellectual performance. The cognitive treatment group increased IQ in 12.9 units and the combined group increase in 13.3 units. There was a slight decrease of 1.9 units within the anti-depressant treatment group. The changes in attention and in externalized problems showed the same trends.
Keywords: Depression; Cognitive impairment; Cognitive rehabilitation; Computer program
Understanding coordination in computer-mediated versus face-to-face groups BIBAKFull-Text 827-851
  Nancy J. Stone; Matthew Posey
Groups performed intellective and judgmental tasks in face-to-face (FTF) or computer-mediated communication (CMC) settings after coordination training or no training to determine the impact of CMC, training, and task type on group performance and coordination. Help seeking behaviors were stronger predictors of perceived and actual performance in CMC than FTF groups, but varied based on task type. In turn, training generally increased seeking behaviors, except non-task seeking behaviors in CMC groups; and seeking behaviors were stronger predictors for perceived performance in CMC than FTF groups. In addition, perceived performance was lower in CMC than FTF groups when untrained, but not when trained. Yet, performance agreement was similar on both tasks in FTF groups, but lower on the intellective than the judgmental task in CMC groups.
Keywords: Coordination; Teamwork; Groups; Computer-mediated; Distributed teams
Relative effectiveness of animated and static diagrams: An effect of learner prior knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 852-861
  Slava Kalyuga
This paper investigates the relationship between instructional effectiveness of animated vs. static diagrams and levels of learner expertise in the task domain of transforming graphs of simple linear and quadratic functions. It was demonstrated on many occasions that instructional formats that are effective for low-knowledge learners could be ineffective, or even deleterious, for high-knowledge learners, and vice versa (the expertise reversal effect). The levels of learner (university students) expertise in this study were measured using an online rapid diagnostic method, a rapid verification technique, that involves presenting learners with a series of possible solution steps reflecting various stages of the solution procedure and asking them to rapidly verify the suggested steps. The results indicated a significant interaction between levels of learner expertise and instructional formats. Novice learners benefited more from static diagrams than from animated diagrams, while more knowledgeable learners benefited more from animated rather than static diagrams. A theoretical explanation of the effect is suggested within the framework of cognitive load theory.
Keywords: Animations; Learner prior knowledge; Expertise reversal effect; Diagrams; Learner-tailored instruction
Endowment heterogeneity and identifiability in the information-exchange dilemma BIBAKFull-Text 862-874
  Ulrike Cress; Joachim Kimmerle
In a laboratory experiment providing an information-exchange dilemma we obtained evidence that people in an asymmetric dilemma situation apply a general cooperation norm as well as a norm of proportionality. The results showed that for privileged people the significance of the norm of proportionality is reduced. This egocentric bias allows them to justify that their privilege does not obligate them to contribute more than others. However, this bias is not strong enough to totally invalidate the norm of proportionality. Even with this bias privileged people contributed more than unprivileged. In addition, we found people to be more cooperative if their behavior in the information exchange is identifiable, whereas identifiability does not influence people's general cooperation norm nor their fairness concept.
Keywords: Information exchange; Computer-mediated communication; Social dilemma; Norm; Identifiability; Knowledge management
Cognitive load in hypermedia reading comprehension: Influence of text type and linearity BIBAKFull-Text 875-887
  Joerg Zumbach; Maryam Mohraz
In this paper the assumption of cognitive overhead in hypermedia learning is specified by cognitive load theory. This analysis is based on different types of cognitive load, the dimension of linearity/non-linearity as well as text characteristics. We propose a model stating that extraneous cognitive load in hypermedia learning is basically determined by the interaction of text presentation format (linear/non-linear) with text type (text with and without narrative structures). This assumption was tested by means of a 2 × 2 experimental design. Sixty participants completed a computer-based learning program that contained a narrative text or an encyclopaedia text in either linear or non-linear presentation format. Results confirm the suggested interaction hypothesis postulating that non-linear information presentation of narrative text structure increases cognitive load and decreases knowledge acquisition. However, for encyclopaedia text participants' knowledge acquisition was not affected by linear or non-linear presentation format. Furthermore, results suggest a cross-validation of cognitive load measures and propositional analysis.
Keywords: Hypertext; Hypermedia; Cognitive load; Reading comprehension
The segmented presentation of visually structured texts: Effects on text comprehension BIBAKFull-Text 888-902
  Julie Lemarié; Hélène Eyrolle; Jean-Marie Cellier
The effects of a segmented presentation applied to a visually structured text were examined in the context of the explosion of small-screen devices. Empirical research investigating the influence of text signaling on text processing suggests that the text visual structure may influence comprehension by facilitating the construction of a coherent text representation. Undergraduate students were asked to read a text under different segmented conditions varying on the type of information provided about the text visual structure and on the segmentation unit. When the segmented presentation did not supply any information or when it only offered local information about the text visual structure, text comprehension depended on the segmentation unit. When the segmentation unit did not fit the text visual structure, an erroneous text representation was constructed, whereas the compatible segmentation unit led to a correct text comprehension. When the segmented presentation rendered the global text visual structure, the segmentation unit had no effect on comprehension and more readers constructed a correct and close text representation. Thus, the text visual structure seems to play a role in text comprehension and this role has to be taken into account for text segmented presentation.
Keywords: Small-screen devices; Segmented presentation; Text visual structure; Text comprehension
The impact of computer versus paper-pencil survey, and individual versus group administration, on self-reports of sensitive behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 903-916
  Scott C. Bates; Jared M. Cox
The purpose of this study was to clarify the strengths and weaknesses of both computer based and paper-pencil methods of sensitive data collection in various administrative settings. A total of 180 students signed-up for optional course-credit and were randomly assigned to complete a questionnaire using either a paper-pencil, or a computer based method, and in one of the following administration settings: group, alone in a designated office, or being emailed/mailed the information and filling it out when/where they pleased. Results show that perceptions of anonymity and confidentiality were strongly correlated with self-reported accuracy. However, although perceptions of anonymity and confidentiality differed by condition, this had no statistically significant impact on responses. Though perceptions of anonymity and confidentiality differ between methods, neither method appears to be superior in the context of overall response bias.
Keywords: Computerized questionnaires; Sensitive information disclosure; Paper and pencil questionnaires; Anonymity
The use of computers in the assessment and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder BIBAKFull-Text 917-929
  Caleb W. Lack; Eric A. Storch
This article reviews the empirical literature related to the use of computer-administered, cognitive-behaviorally based assessment and treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Such research has increased steadily over the years, and has shown that treatments such as BT STEPS are effective at both assessing for and treating OCD. More large-scale studies examining the utility of such programs are needed, but initial research shows moderate to large effect sizes for reduction of OCD symptoms and impairment in functioning. The article concludes with recommendations for future directions for both clinical work and research in this area, including expansion of such services to assist in gaining more knowledge of how effective such treatments are, expand the number of people who could benefit from receiving such services, and examining the use of computers in treatments for other anxiety disorders to suggest new ways to move forward with OCD treatment.
Keywords: Obsessive-compulsive disorder; Treatment; Assessment; Computer
Online study tools: College student preference versus impact on achievement BIBAKFull-Text 930-939
  Genevieve Marie Johnson
Forty-eight college students participated in an ABAB analysis; the A condition was online study groups and the B condition was online practice tests. Students prepared for two in-class examinations under the A condition and two in-class examinations under the B condition. Based on Bloom's taxonomy, all examinations contained items that assessed student mastery of course content in terms of: (1) knowledge, (2) comprehension, (3) application, and (4) synthesis. Ten questionnaire items established that participating students preferred online practice tests over online study groups. Such preference, however, was not significantly related to any measure of academic achievement. While small sample size renders generalization of findings tenuous, the results of the investigation suggest that various online study tools may have differential effectiveness for knowledge, comprehension, application, and synthesis instruction objectives. Although student preference is an important consideration, instructors should select online study tools on the basis of established learning benefits.
Keywords: Online study tools; Online study; Online study groups; Online quizzes
Interactive processes and learning attitudes in a web-based problem-based learning (PBL) platform BIBAKFull-Text 940-955
  Kuo-Hung Tseng; Feng Kuang Chiang; Wen-Hua Hsu
This paper discusses the steps taken to set up a digital logic course problem through a problem-based learning (PBL) constructivist approach. PBL is the learning which results from the process of working toward the understanding and resolution of a problem. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement problem-based learning in a digital logic course in a senior vocational industrial high school. Data collection included content analysis and a questionnaire survey. Content analysis was used to evaluate the students' discussion messages, quality of dialogue, and the level of problem-solving activities. A survey was then administered to examine the students' learning attitudes and perceptions toward this platform as a possible tool for PBL learning. Researchers found "Peer-responses" category is the most messages; the contents of messages focus on "General explanation" and "Reaction"; the level results of all groups' problem-solving are similar; the index of the "Interaction" satisfaction level is the highest in PBL activity. Finally, some research suggestions were also proposed.
Keywords: Interactive processes; Learning attitudes; PBL; Collaborative learning; Senior vocational industrial high school students; Digital logic
Information system professionals' knowledge and application gaps toward Web design guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 956-968
  Yu-Hui Tao
Web design guidelines are adopted by many usability evaluation methods as one of the criteria for success, while usability is proven to significantly impact Website performance. Since Web design guidelines cover a broad range of system and interface design solutions, knowledge of them can be considered as a prominent indicator of Web design skills for information systems (IS) professionals. This study empirically assessed how much IS professionals know and apply Web design guidelines via a survey to 500 randomly selected companies from Taiwan's Fortune 2000 corporations. As expected, the knowledge-application gaps of IS professionals were statistically significant in all Web design guideline categories. Meanwhile, certain guideline categories were proven to be more difficult to acquire or apply than others. Finally, degree, gender, experience, training hours, and courses taken were also proven to be determining factors for Web design guideline skills. Implications for developing Web design guideline skills are also discussed.
Keywords: Guideline; Gap analysis; Usability; Web design
Gender differences in computer attitudes: Does the school matter? BIBAKFull-Text 969-985
  Martina R. M. Meelissen; Marjolein Drent
In most western countries, the participation of females in ICT professional careers is not only low but is also still falling [Anderson, N., Lankhear, C., Timms, C., & Courtney, L. (in press). Because it's boring, irrelevant and I don't like computers': Why high school girls avoid professionally-oriented ICT subjects. Computers & Education.]. Policy makers as well as researchers often assume that the interest of girls in computing and ICT-professions could be increased at school. For example, female teachers who are confident ICT-users, are expected to act as positive role models for girls. However, because most of the research on gender and computing has been focussing on the influence of none-school related factors, there is little empirical evidence that schools or teachers are able to influence girls' attitude toward ICT. Using the data of a Dutch large-scale survey on ICT use in primary education (almost 4000 grade 5 students), this study explores the influence of both none-school related factors and school related factors on students' computer attitude. Although the between-school variance of girls' computer attitude is higher than that of boys' computer attitude, multilevel analyses show that most of the variance in computer attitude is explained by none-school related student factors. Two school related factors turned out to have a small positive effect on the computer attitude of girls: a teacher-centred pedagogical approach and the computer experience of female teachers.
Keywords: Gender differences; Computer attitudes; Primary education
Comparing attitudes towards computer usage by undergraduates from 1986 to 2005 BIBAKFull-Text 986-992
  Paula M. Popovich; Nicole Gullekson; Samantha Morris; Brendan Morse
The importance and use of computers has increased dramatically over the last two decades. The Attitudes Towards Computer Usage Scale (ATCUS) was developed in 1986 [Popovich, P. M., Hyde, K. R., Zakrajsek, T., & Blumer, C. (1987). The development of the attitudes toward computer usage scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 47, 261-269.] and used in a variety of settings over the years. In order to examine how computer attitudes have changed from 1986 to 2005, the ATCUS was given to 254 male and female current undergraduate students. When comparing the 1986 with 2005 results, the amount of time spent using a computer was still positively related to computer attitudes; however, the number of college computer courses was not. There is no longer a significant relationship among any of the factors with college computer courses. Males and females no longer significantly differ in their attitudes toward computers, number of college computer courses, amount of time spent using computers, or degree of self-reported computer anxiety. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: Computer attitudes; Computer use
The effect of cyber-friends on loneliness and social anxiety: Differences between high and low self-evaluated physical attractiveness groups BIBAKFull-Text 993-1009
  Reiko Ando; Akira Sakamoto
This study examined the causal relationships between the number of cyber-friends participants had and their social anxiety or loneliness. We predicted that participants who gave low self-evaluations of physical attractiveness would be able to lower their social anxiety or reduce their loneliness through Internet-based interpersonal relationships. Also, such effects would be more prominent if the cyber-friends were of the opposite sex. A two-wave panel study was conducted with 178 Japanese undergraduate students (63 men and 115 women; mean age was 20.29). Results showed that for those who gave a low evaluation of their physical attractiveness, having a large number of cyber-friends lowered their social anxiety and reduced the loneliness felt in friendships. These effects differed by gender of the cyber-friends. In particular, for those who gave a low evaluation of their physical attractiveness, having a large number of cyber-friends of the same sex had a positive effect on social anxiety. In contrast, cyber-friends of the opposite sex had no effect on social anxiety, but had a complex effect upon loneliness. Namely, while a large number of cyber-friends of the opposite sex reduced the loneliness felt in friendships, it also heightened the loneliness felt in family relationships. Implications of these results for further research and practice are provided.
Keywords: Cyber-relationships; Social anxiety; Loneliness; Physical attractiveness; Causal relationships
The influence of temperament style on a student's choice of and performance in a computer programming course BIBAKFull-Text 1010-1020
  Pieter Blignaut; Annelie Naude
This study is an attempt to determine whether it is necessary to include temperament style when compiling an instrument to predict a student's chances of success in a computer programming course. Temperament style is seen as the combination of qualities which constitute the natural disposition of an individual and which affect actions, thinking and emotions. The DISC model, as adapted by Boyd [Boyd, C. F. (1994). Different children, different needs: the art of adjustable parenting. Oregon: Questar Publishers Inc.], views people as behaving along two orthogonal dimensions: the speed at which a person moves through life, and his/her general focus when doing things, i.e. on people or on tasks. This study proved that both of these dimensions have an influence on the performance of students in a computer programming course while one of them also has an influence on a student's choice to pursue a programming course.
Keywords: Human factors; Psychology; Training
Would I lie to you? Self-serving lies and other-oriented lies told across different media BIBAKFull-Text 1021-1031
  Monica T. Whitty; Siobhan E. Carville
This study set out to investigate the type of media individuals are more likely to tell self-serving and other-oriented lies, and whether this varied according to the target of the lie. One hundred and fifty participants rated on a likert-point scale how likely they would tell a lie. Participants were more likely to tell self-serving lies to people not well-known to them. They were more likely to tell self-serving lies in email, followed by phone, and finally face-to-face. Participants were more likely to tell other-oriented lies to individuals they felt close to and this did not vary according to the type media. Participants were more likely to tell harsh truths to people not well-known to them via email.
Keywords: Lies; Deception; Media; Internet; Other-oriented lie; Self-serving lie
Viability of virtual reality exposure therapy as a treatment alternative BIBAKFull-Text 1032-1040
  Jimmy Bush
Virtual reality (VR) has garnered the interest of many scientific communities over the last decade. One promising track of research lies in VR exposure therapy (VRET), where gradual exposure to a negative stimulus is used to reduce anxiety. Virtual exposure is desirable in many situations, as it can be less intimidating and less expensive than traditional in vivo treatment with much the same success. Examining the benefits and drawbacks of VRET is an important first step toward an accurate assessment of its viability as a treatment alternative. This paper will review current literature on the topic of VRET and answer several questions regarding the viability of the treatment. It will also provide some additional research direction for improving the case for mainstreaming VRET.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Psychotherapy; Treatment effectiveness evaluation; Anxiety disorders; Exposure therapy
Dynamics of cognitive load theory: A model-based approach BIBAKFull-Text 1041-1066
  Agata Sawicka
Since its conception nearly two decades ago, cognitive load theory (CLT) has been a fertile ground for both empirical and theoretical investigations. The research accumulated over the years has contributed not only to the theory's validation, but also generated new insights. These new insights helped to refine CLT, making it more precise, but also more complex. A formal (mathematical) simulation model is proposed as a new analytical tool for investigating CLT's increasingly intricate postulates and their dynamic implications. This paper describes how the theoretical relationships between certain features of instruction and the cognitive capacities of learners can be expressed formally, and how the resulting model can help gain insights into the learning dynamics that arise from these relationships, providing a new aid for research, teaching and practice in the field of instructional design.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Cognitive theory; Computer simulation
Correlates of different forms of cyberloafing: The role of norms and external locus of control BIBAKFull-Text 1067-1084
  Anita L. Blanchard; Christine A. Henle
Cyberloafing is the personal use of email and the Internet while at work. The purpose of this study is to identify the different forms of cyberloafing and their antecedents. We propose that cyberloafing has two primary forms: minor cyberloafing (e.g., sending and receiving personal email at work) and serious cyberloafing (e.g., online gambling, surfing adult oriented web sites). Additionally, we hypothesize that employees' perceptions of coworker and supervisor norms supporting cyberloafing are related to minor cyberloafing but not serious cyberloafing. We also hypothesize that external locus of control (i.e., a belief that chance and powerful others determines one's outcomes), as an antecedent of other counterproductive work behaviors, will be related to both minor and serious cyberloafing. Two hundred and twenty two employed graduate business students were surveyed. Two forms of cyberloafing were identified: one composed of minor cyberloafing behaviors and one composed of the more serious cyberloafing behaviors. As predicted, employees' perceptions of their coworkers' and supervisor's norms were positively related to minor cyberloafing, but not related to serious cyberloafing. Also as predicted, belief in chance was positively related to both minor and serious cyberloafing. A belief in powerful others was not related to minor or serious cyberloafing. Implications for policy development to regulate cyberloafing in organizations are discussed.
Keywords: Computer mediated communication; Internet; Organizations; Antisocial behavior; Social norms
A study of high school English teachers' behavior, concerns and beliefs in integrating information technology into English instruction BIBAKFull-Text 1085-1103
  Shu Ching Yang; Yen-Fen Huang
This study investigates the current trends and patterns of teachers' concerns and teaching behavior with respect to technology integration. The following concerns of English teachers are addressed: teaching practice, perceive barriers of technology integration in the English instruction and the technology deployed in the classroom. Participants in this study were 332 junior and senior high school English teachers from Taipei and Kaohsiung Cities. The study found that despite pressure on schools to increase the application of technology, the adoption of teaching and learning practices using new technologies has been limited in terms of teachers' SoCQ (The Stages of Concerns Questionnaire), their teaching behavior as well as their use of technology. Teachers' concerns are generally oriented toward Personal and informational issues. English teachers' technology-mediated English teaching behaviors are modest, and most teachers used technology to prepare their teaching activities instead of structuring higher levels of usage. As identified in the literature, higher levels of computer training, computer literacy, well-supported school environment, creative teaching practices and positive beliefs about technology integration among teachers result in higher task intensity, impact concerns and more technology-mediated teaching behaviors in the classroom. In terms of the difficulties affecting teachers' technology integration into English instruction, this study identified significant relationships between first and second-order barriers. Implications for teachers' technology integration are proposed.
Keywords: Technology integration; Stages of concerns; Technology-mediated English instruction behavior
How do varied populations interact with embodied conversational agents? Findings from inner-city adolescents and prisoners BIBAKFull-Text 1104-1138
  Robert C. Hubal; Diana H. Fishbein; Monica S. Sheppard; Mallie J. Paschall; Diana L. Eldreth; Christopher T. Hyde
Two studies were conducted to identify individual characteristics that predict behavioral responses to violence prevention interventions. These studies used embodied conversational agents (ECAs) to create hypothetical social situations (called virtual vignettes) to assess interpersonal competency skills. One study was of male inner-city African-American adolescents, and the second was of male prisoners in a state correctional system. In pre- and post-intervention sessions, participants interacted with an ECA that tried to entice them into making risky decisions. The virtual vignette sessions tested participants' negotiation and conflict resolution skills. Results showed differing tendencies for participants to be engaged by the virtual vignettes. The vignettes were sufficiently realistic to elicit differences in behavior among the adolescents, but generally not for the prisoners. Prior acceptance, accessibility, and usability data suggest that most users readily accept ECAs as valid conversational partners. The evidence presented here suggests that the technology -- or the setting in which the technology is used -- is not by itself sufficient to actively engage users. The usefulness of virtual vignettes to adequately predict future behavior may be at least partially influenced by participant characteristics.
Keywords: Embodied conversational agents; Adolescent participants; Prison inmates; User acceptance
Construction of cognitive maps of unknown spaces using a multi-sensory virtual environment for people who are blind BIBAFull-Text 1139-1155
  Orly Lahav; David Mioduser
Most of the information used by people for the cognitive mapping of spaces is gathered through the visual channel. People who are blind lack the ability to collect the required visual information either in advance or in situ. This study was based on the assumption that the acquisition of appropriate spatial information (perceptual and conceptual) through compensatory sensorial channels (e.g., haptic) within a virtual environment simulating a real target space may assist people who are blind in their anticipatory exploration and cognitive mapping of the unknown space. The two main goals of the study were: (a) the development of a haptic-based multi-sensory virtual environment enabling the exploration of an unknown space and (b) the study of the cognitive mapping process of the space by people who are blind working with the multi-sensory virtual environment. The findings suggest strong evidence that the work within the multi-sensory virtual environment provided a robust foundation for the participants' development of comprehensive cognitive maps of the unknown space.
The effect of the timing of instructional support in a computer-supported problem-solving program for students in secondary physics education BIBAKFull-Text 1156-1178
  Henk J. Pol; Egbert G. Harskamp; Cor J. M. Suhre
Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Researchers claim that the development of strategic knowledge (analyze, explore, plan, implement, verify) is just as necessary for solving problems as the development of content knowledge. In order to improve these problem-solving skills, it might be profitable to know at what time during problem solving is the use of instructional support most effective: before, during or after problem solving.
   In an experiment with fifth-year secondary school students, one experimental group (n = 18) received hints during and worked examples after problem solving, and another experimental group (n = 18) received worked examples only after problem solving. Both groups used versions of a computer program to solve a variety of problems. The control group (n = 23) used a textbook. There was a pre-test to estimate the measure of prior expertise of the students in solving physics problems. The results of a problem-solving post-test indicated that the version of the program providing hints during and examples after problem solving was the most effective, followed by the version which only supplied examples afterwards. There was no difference in effect for students with more than average prior knowledge or less prior knowledge.
Keywords: Physics; Science education; Problem solving; Individualized instruction; Computer-assisted instruction; Intelligent tutoring systems
What do they say about "Friends"? A cross-cultural study on Internet discussion forum BIBAKFull-Text 1179-1195
  Jyh-Shen Chiou; Jasi Lee
This exploratory study is to analyze the communication differences among viewers of US TV program Friends on Internet discussion forum in the US, Japan, and Taiwan. It intends to establish whether exposure to foreign TV could lead to similar communication content in the context of the virtual community between exporting and importing societies. Content analysis was used in this cross-cultural study, with the aim of understanding the ways in which dialogues posted on various discussion forums differed among the United States, Japan, and Taiwan. The results of this exploratory study support the notion that the process of cultural value influence is more complex than cultural imperialism advocates propose. Audiences respond actively rather than passively to foreign TV programs. Prior information structure of the audience is affecting the interpretation of subsequent information.
Keywords: Internet forum; Cross-cultural study; TV programs; Cultural imperialism
Efficacy of a planned behavior model: Beliefs that contribute to computer usage intentions of student teachers and experienced teachers BIBAKFull-Text 1196-1215
  Claudia Smarkola
The primary purpose of this study was to examine beliefs contributing to student teachers' and experienced teachers' intentions to use computer applications in their curricula. The secondary purpose was to investigate the efficacy of the decomposed theory of planned behavior for predicting such intentions. A purposeful sample of 19 teachers participated in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that both student and experienced teachers were motivated to use computers to prepare students for real world experiences. Although both groups reported high computer confidence, they expressed limitations in their usage. Student teachers focused on use of the Internet and not on using a variety of computer applications as tools for teaching and learning. Experienced teachers depended on both equipment resources and personal support from school administrators to successfully integrate technology into their classroom. Both teacher groups expressed the need for more computer-integrated training. This research provided support for using the decomposed theory of planned behavior to predict computer intentions and usage for teachers. Assessment of computer usage within any profession should be based upon a behavior model that complements the profession's cultural environment.
Keywords: Attitude measurement; Computer applications; Computer attitudes; Intention; Planned behavior; Teacher attitudes
Internet testing: Equivalence between proctored lab and unproctored field conditions BIBAKFull-Text 1216-1228
  Klaus J. Templer; Stefan R. Lange
Companies that use web-based testing do not need to invite applicants to their offices for screening purposes, and applicants are not required to travel. Given the world-wide accessibility of the Internet and the savings in travel costs, web-based testing expands the applicant pool to geographically distant regions. This advantage comes along with the tangible drawback of less control over the testing situation and therefore possible influence on the data quality of scores obtained via Internet testing. This study examined the equivalence of proctored and unproctored web-based psychological testing. Results from 163 potential applicants who participated in a combined laboratory-field and between-subject/within-subject design study with two experimental conditions and two control conditions did not provide evidence that testing conditions affected test results.
Keywords: Employee selection; Equivalence; Internet testing; Online assessment; Psychometrics; Screening
The effect of page layout on mental workload: A dual-task experiment BIBAKFull-Text 1229-1245
  Erik Wästlund; Torsten Norlander; Trevor Archer
In two dual-task experiments, the effects of page layout on mental workload were explored. Previous studies indicate that it is preferable to present a text document on paper than to display it on a computer screen (e.g. Mayes, D. K., Sims, V. K., & Koonce, J. M. (2001). Comprehension and workload differences for VDT and paper-based reading. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 28(6), 367-378; Wastlund, E., Reinikka, H., Norlander, T., & Archer, T. (2005). Effects of VDT and paper presentation on consumption and production of information: Psychological and physiological factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 377-394). However, critics have advocated improper matching of the materials between the two media as a confounding variable e.g. (Noyes, J. M., & Garland, K. J. (2003). VDT versus paper-based text: reply to Mayes, Sims and Koonce. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 31(6), 411-423). The focus of the present study has been to take one such variable, page layout, and then isolate and replicate it onscreen in order to assess its affect on user performance. The results of the present experiments showed that optimizing the page layout for onscreen viewing decreased mental workload. This not only confirms the importance of matching all aspects of the presentational modes in doing paper vs. computer comparisons, but also shows that reading from a computer screen can be facilitated by creating documents with a page layout that is adapted to the screen which they are intended to be presented on.
Keywords: Working memory; Dual-task; Mental workload; Information processing; Reading; Page layout
Landmarks or surveys? The impact of different instructions on children's performance in hierarchical menu structures BIBAKFull-Text 1246-1274
  Susanne Bay; Martina Ziefle
Which kind of instruction helps children aged 9-14 years interact efficiently with a mobile phone? Due to analogies between navigation in menu structures and the natural environment, three instructions providing different forms of spatial knowledge were under study: A step-by-step instruction featuring landmark knowledge of the menu functions to be selected, a diagram of the menu structure providing survey knowledge and a free exploration of the menu, also giving the children the opportunity to develop survey knowledge. Results show a superiority of the two instructions that provide survey knowledge, except for the youngest children aged 9-10 years. This group showed to have lower spatial abilities and is therefore presumably not able to understand and integrate this type of knowledge. For those very young children, the landmark information given in traditional step-by-step instructions is more helpful. It is concluded, that simple diagrams of the menu structure can help children from 11 years on to significantly ease their interaction with small menu driven devices.
Keywords: Children; Instructions; Manual; Mobile phone; Spatial orientation; Mental representation
Improving the development of instructional software: Three building-block solutions to interrelate design and production BIBAKFull-Text 1275-1292
  Eddy W. Boot; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer; Nicolet C. M. Theunissen
Currently, there is a focus on authentic tasks as the driving force for learning in integrated e-learning systems. This sets new criteria for instructional software, which should become much more flexible and allow for domain modeling and pedagogical modeling. A theoretical analysis and a survey (n = 37) amongst experienced developers show that current development methods are insufficient to develop such instructional software. New development methods such as "lean production" promise to satisfy the new criteria as they emphasize mass-customization by rigorously applying a pull-principle throughout the whole development process. However, a potential bottleneck is the lack of design languages to transfer the design outcomes to the production phase. Three building-block solutions are proposed to overcome this transition problem: (1) a 3D-model to support designers in stratifying, elaborating, and formalizing design documents, (2) instructional software templates to support designers in producing software themselves, and (3) an integrative approach to support designers in reusing learning objects.
Keywords: Instructional software; Development; Training; Computer-based training; e-Learning; Competency-based learning
How students structure and relate argumentative knowledge when learning together with diagrams BIBAKFull-Text 1293-1313
  Marije van Amelsvoort; Jerry Andriessen; Gellof Kanselaar
When students learn together by discussing a topic, they sometimes are asked to construct an argumentative diagram. An argumentative diagram consists of boxes with arguments and arrows that relate these boxes. Constructing argumentative diagrams can be especially useful for structuring and relating argumentative knowledge. However, students do not always seem to use a diagram's structure and relations to their benefit. To focus on structure and relations, 46 secondary school students were asked to either label the boxes in a diagram with argumentative labels such as 'argument in favor' and 'rebuttal', or to label the arrows with more causal labels such as 'but', and 'because'. The students discussed two topics in dyads using a computer environment with chat and diagram. Then a post-test was given to assess their opinion and arguments. We found no difference between conditions in the extent to which students broadened and deepened their discussion. However, students who labeled the arrows contrasted subtopics more. The students who contrasted subtopics more showed better results on the post-test. Instruction and diagram design can thus influence students' discussion, although the general results also show us that students need more instruction and reflection to optimally benefit from argumentative diagrams.
Keywords: Argumentation; Diagrams; Collaborative learning; Computer-support

CHB 2008-07 Volume 24 Issue 4

Integration of human factors in networked computing BIBFull-Text 1315-1316
  Gheorghita Ghinea; Sherry Y. Chen
Measuring quality of perception in distributed multimedia: Verbalizers vs. imagers BIBAFull-Text 1317-1329
  Gheorghita Ghinea; Sherry Y. Chen
This paper presents the results of a study which investigated the impact of cognitive styles on perceptual multimedia quality. More specifically, we examine the different preferences demonstrated by verbalizers and imagers when viewing multimedia content presented with different quality of service (QoS) levels pertaining to frame rates and color depth. Recognizing multimedia's infotainment duality, we used the quality of perception (QoP) metric to characterize perceived quality. Results showed that in terms of low and high dynamisms clips, the frame rate at which multimedia content is displayed influences the levels of information assimilated by Imagers. Whilst black and white presentations are shown to be beneficial for both Biomodals and Imagers in order to experience enhanced levels of information assimilation, Imagers were shown to enjoy presentations in full 24-bit colour.
Thinking style impacts on Web search strategies BIBAKFull-Text 1330-1341
  Gloria Yi-Ming Kao; Pei-Lan Lei; Chuen-Tsai Sun
Web searches entail complex cognitive processes influenced by individual differences, and users with similar cognitive or skill factors tend to develop multiple search strategies. The authors analyze such strategies in terms of level of thinking style (global versus local), search targets, and six search behavior indicators and report (a) a significant relationship between different thinking style levels and individual search target types and (b) that different thinking style level conditions can cause significant differences in search behavior performance regarding maximum depth of exploration, revisited pages, and Web pages visited for refining answers. The findings suggest that high global style users tend to disperse their targets to comprehend the search task while high local style users elaborate on a few specific topics. Furthermore, high global style users skim more, require less explicit answers, and are less likely to explore an issue in depth compared to high local style or bi-high style individuals. The results confirm that thinking style level is an important factor affecting search intention. To improve search experiences, search engine designers should incorporate human factors into their products so as to take advantage of personal learning approaches.
Keywords: Thinking styles; Search strategies; Information seeking; Human factors; Search interface design
"How do you know that I don't understand?" A look at the future of intelligent tutoring systems BIBAKFull-Text 1342-1363
  Abdolhossein Sarrafzadeh; Samuel Alexander; Farhad Dadgostar; Chao Fan; Abbas Bigdeli
Many software systems would significantly improve performance if they could adapt to the emotional state of the user, for example if Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs), ATM's, ticketing machines could recognise when users were confused, frustrated or angry they could guide the user back to remedial help systems so improving the service. Many researchers now feel strongly that ITSs would be significantly enhanced if computers could adapt to the emotions of students. This idea has spawned the developing field of affective tutoring systems (ATSs): ATSs are ITSs that are able to adapt to the affective state of students. The term "affective tutoring system" can be traced back as far as Rosalind Picard's book Affective Computing in 1997.
   This paper presents research leading to the development of Easy with Eve, an ATS for primary school mathematics. The system utilises a network of computer systems, mainly embedded devices to detect student emotion and other significant bio-signals. It will then adapt to students and displays emotion via a lifelike agent called Eve. Eve's tutoring adaptations are guided by a case-based method for adapting to student states; this method uses data that was generated by an observational study of human tutors. This paper presents the observational study, the case-based method, the ATS itself and its implementation on a distributed computer systems for real-time performance, and finally the implications of the findings for Human Computer Interaction in general and e-learning in particular. Web-based applications of the technology developed in this research are discussed throughout the paper.
Keywords: Affective tutoring systems; Lifelike agents; Emotion detection; Facial expressions; Human-computer interaction; Affective computing
Perceived usefulness and performance of human-to-human communications on television BIBAKFull-Text 1364-1384
  Hokyoung Ryu; Aaron Wong
A key assumption of future television (TV) environments is that the future TV viewing experiences will be more active and interactive. Currently several TV technologies based on networked computing, e.g., IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) or Mobile TV, have made it possible for people to interact with their TVs, or even with other viewers through their TVs, by allowing them to access additional functions, for example actively participating in a quiz show, instantly sharing other viewers' opinions and sending or receiving emails while they are watching a TV programme.
   To ensure uptake of these new TV technologies, it is essential to match the performance of the novel systems to both current TV viewing experiences and future user needs, since the characteristics of the additional tasks that TV viewers will perform will lead to other substantially different TV viewing experiences. This paper reports on the usefulness and performance evaluation of a novel TV-based human-to-human interaction environment, where audiences of a specific TV channel can exchange public and private text messages. It combines the two popular analogies (Internet chat and SMS) and embeds them into the viewers' TV experience.
   Our results showed that this TV hosted human-to-human communication environment could integrate well with the current TV viewing experience. This might lead to applications such as TV-based personal messengers and/or live bulletin board community for fans of a specific TV show. They also revealed several issues that need to be addressed in the development of new TV technologies.
Keywords: Television; Evaluation; Texting; SMS; Verbal conversation; Perceived usefulness; Performance
Mobile information access in the real world: A story of three wireless devices BIBAKFull-Text 1385-1403
  T. Serif; G. Ghinea
The importance of the user perspective to the wireless information access experience cannot be understated: simply put, users will not indulge in devices that are perceived to be difficult to use and in technologies that do not offer quality infotainment -- combined information and entertainment -- content. In this paper, we investigate the impact that mobile devices have on the user wireless infotainment access experience in practice. To this end, we have undertaken an empirical study placed in a 'real-world' setting, in which participants undertook typical infotainment access tasks on three different wireless-enabled mobile devices: a laptop, a personal digital assistant and a head mounted display device. Results show that, with the exception of participants' level of self-consciousness when using such devices in public environments, the user wireless information access experience is generally unaffected by device type. Location was shown, though, to be a significant factor when users engage in tasks such as listening to online music or navigation. Whilst the interaction between device and environment was found to influence entertainment-related tasks in our experiments, the informational ones were not affected. However, the interaction effects between device and user type was found to affect both types of tasks. Lastly, a user's particular computing experience was shown to influence the perceived ease of wireless information access only in the case of online searching, irrespective of whether this is done for primarily informational purposes or entertainment ones.
Keywords: Personal digital assistant; Head mounted device wireless information access; Context-dependent searching
The roles of sensory modalities in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) BIBAKFull-Text 1404-1417
  Chang S. Nam; Joseph Shu; Donghun Chung
This study was conducted to assess the effects of sensorial modalities on user performance, perception, and behavior in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs). Participants played a CVE game, air hockey, together with a remote partner under different sensory modality conditions, depending on the type of sensory feedback provided: visual-only (V), visual-haptic (V + H), and visual-haptic-audio feedback (V + H + A). Three types of measurements were used as dependent variables: (1) task performance measured as playing time, (2) user perception including the sense of presence, the sense of togetherness, and perceived collaboration, and (3) behavior measurement including the amount of force applied and the mallet deviation. Results of the study indicated that the task performance, perception, and user behavior in CVEs can be affected due to supported sensory modalities. Therefore, the multiple sensory information types that are required to perform the task at hand should be provided to effectively support collaboration between people in CVEs. The outcomes of this research should have a broad impact on multimodal user interaction, including research on physiological, psychophysical, and psychological mechanisms underlying human perception on multisensory feedback in CVEs.
Keywords: Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs); Haptic feedback; Presence; Copresence; Collaboration
Navigation methods of special needs users in multimedia systems BIBAKFull-Text 1418-1433
  Rita Mátrai; Zsolt Tibor Kosztyán; Cecília Sik-Lányi
In today's information society, computer users frequently need to seek for information on home pages as well as to select among software functions. A well-designed interface is essential in order to find everything necessary and meet the requirements of both the average user and users with special needs. Proper placement of objects on the screen is important to decrease perception time. One of the well-known researchers of web ergonomics, Jakob Nielsen (2006) established in an eye-tracking experiment that users scan displayed homepages in an F shape. In the present project the task was to find similar shapes in a number of playful visual search games. Several multimedia tasks were developed for this investigation. Our experiments included normal users and users with intellectual disabilities. We tested whether the characteristic searching routes and navigation methods differed between normal users and those with intellectual disabilities. The results of this investigation can inform the design and position of graphical user interface elements.
Keywords: Visual search; Navigation; Intellectual disability
Capturing essential intrinsic user behaviour values for the design of comprehensive web-based personalized environments BIBAKFull-Text 1434-1451
  Panagiotis Germanakos; Nikos Tsianos; Zacharias Lekkas; Constantinos Mourlas; George Samaras
Advances in Web-based oriented technologies and services are taking place with a considerable speed around the world. As communications and IT usage become an integral part of many people's lives and the available products and services become more varied and sophisticated, users expect to be able to personalize a service to meet their individual needs and preferences. Due to the heterogeneous users' needs and requirements, user modeling could be considered as a successful step towards the identification of users' preferences. However, could user profiling nowadays be considered complete enough? Are all the vital parameters of users' characteristics are taken into account in order for the Web-based systems to provide them with the most user-centric result? This paper introduces a comprehensive user profiling, incorporating the User Perceptual Preference Characteristics, that serves as the core element for filtering Web-based raw content. It further analyzes the main intrinsic users' characteristics like visual, cognitive, and emotional processing parameters as well as the "traditional" user profiling characteristics that together tend to give the most optimized, adapted and personalized result. It finally presents initial experimental results applied on the Educational field based on the abovementioned notions.
Keywords: Adaptation; Personalization; User profiling; Cognitive learning styles; Visual attention; Emotionality
Improving learner quality of experience by content adaptation based on network conditions BIBAFull-Text 1452-1472
  Cristina Hava Muntean
Apart from user characteristics, properties of the network over which the content is delivered and device on which the content is displayed affect end-user perceived quality. This paper presents a learner quality of experience (QoE) model that apart from the user-related content adaptation, considers delivery performance-based content personalisation in order to improve user experience when interacting with an online learning system.
   A comparison-based study on the benefit of using the proposed learner QoE model in adaptive and personalized education was conducted involving the original AHA! and QoEAHA -- a version of AHA! enhanced with the learner QoE model. Testing results demonstrate significant benefits in terms of learning achievement, learning performance, learner navigation and user QoE in favour of the learner QoE model-enhanced solution.
Choose your "buddy icon" carefully: The influence of avatar androgyny, anthropomorphism and credibility in online interactions BIBAKFull-Text 1473-1493
  Kristine L. Nowak; Christian Rauh
In both online and offline interactions, the visual representation of people influences how others perceive them. In contrast to the offline body, an online visual representation of a person is consciously chosen and not stable. This paper reports the results of a 2 step examination of the influence of avatars on the person perception process. Specifically, this project examines the reliance on visual characteristics during the online perception process, and the relative influence of androgyny, anthropomorphism and credibility. In the first step, 255 participants fill out a survey where they rated a set of 30 static avatars on their credibility, androgyny, and anthropomorphism. The second step is a between subjects experiment with 230 participants who interact with partners represented by one of eight avatars (high and low androgyny, and anthropomorphism by high and low credibility). Results show that the characteristics of the avatar are used in the person perception process. Causal modeling techniques revealed that perceptions of avatar androgyny influence perceptions of anthropomorphism, which influences attributions of both avatar and partner credibility. Implications of these results for theory, future research, and users and designers of systems using avatars are discussed.
Keywords: Avatars; Person perception; Computer mediated communication; Androgyny; Anthropomorphism; Uncertainty reduction
How social is social responses to computers? The function of the degree of anthropomorphism in computer representations BIBAKFull-Text 1494-1509
  Li Gong
Testing the assumption that more anthropomorphic (human-like) computer representations elicit more social responses from people, a between-participants experiment (N = 168) manipulated 12 computer agents to represent four levels of anthropomorphism: low, medium, high, and real human images. Social responses were assessed with users' social judgment and homophily perception of the agents, conformity in a choice dilemma task, and competency and trustworthiness ratings of the agents. Linear polynomial trend analyses revealed significant linear trends for almost all the measures. As the agent became more anthropomorphic to being human, it received more social responses from users.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Computer representations; Agents; Human-like; Social responses to computers
Emotions in direct and remote social interaction: Getting through the spaces between us BIBAKFull-Text 1510-1529
  Brian Parkinson
If emotions are oriented to other people's actions and reactions, then their expression will be affected by available modes of access to interpersonal feedback. This theoretical review paper applies such a relation-alignment perspective to emotions experienced in co-present and remote interpersonal interactions. The role of actual, anticipated, and imagined responses of others in emotion maintenance and adjustment is highlighted. In particular, it is argued that different modes of interpersonal contact afford different styles of emotion presentation, and encourage distinctive varieties of emotional creativity. Thus, although emotion may take different forms in social arrangements distributed through a virtual world, this need not result in more limited forms of interpersonal contact.
Keywords: Emotion; Anger; Emotional labour; Nonverbal communication; Communication technology
Impasse-driven learning in the context of video games BIBAKFull-Text 1530-1541
  Fran C. Blumberg; Sheryl F. Rosenthal; John D. Randall
This study was designed to elucidate the problem-solving skills used by frequent and infrequent video game players to negotiate impasses encountered while playing a novel video game. All participants were instructed to think aloud while playing a video game for 20 consecutive minutes. Comments made were then used to make inferences about the problem-solving skills that participants used to resolve impasses encountered during the game. Findings showed that frequent players made significantly greater reference to insight and game strategies than infrequent players. After reaching an impasse, all players also were most likely to comment on their game progress and potential game strategies to use. Over the course of game play, all participants showed increasing emphasis on their problem-solving skills as evidenced through their greater mention of insight, game strategies, and goal comments.
Keywords: Video games; Problem-solving
Effects of visual cue and spatial distance on exitability in electronic negotiation BIBAKFull-Text 1542-1551
  Taketoshi Hatta; Ohbuchi Ken-ichi
We examined the effects of the visual anonymity of self and spatial distance on exitability in electronic negotiation in a role-play experiment. Exitability is the psychological factor that causes one to perceive the negotiation as unstable. We predicted that the lack of visual information and the spread of spatial distance would reduce anticipation of retaliation, make the continuation norm less salient, and prompt to exit from the current negotiation. Visual anonymity was manipulated by two conditions (visual anonymity or non-anonymity conditions). Spatial distance was manipulated by two conditions (remote or close conditions). Forty-three students were assigned in one of these four conditions, and negotiated. The results showed both the visual anonymity and remote distance inhibited the activation of continuation norm, prompted to exit from the current negotiation.
Keywords: Electronic negotiation; Exitability; Visual anonymity; Spatial distance; Continuation norm; Exit behavior
Improving children's reading comprehension and use of strategies through computer-based strategy training BIBAKFull-Text 1552-1571
  Yao-Ting Sung; Kuo-En Chang; Jung-Sheng Huang
In this study, the attention-selection-organization-integration-monitoring (ASOIM) model, revised from Mayer's [Mayer, R. E. (1996). Learning strategies for making sense out of expository text: The SOI model for guiding three cognitive processes in knowledge construction. Educational Psychology Review, 8, 357-371] SOI model of text comprehension, was used as a foundation to design a multi-strategy based system, which was named Computer Assisted Strategy Teaching and Learning Environment (CASTLE). CASTLE aims to enhance learners' abilities of using reading strategies and text comprehension. The effects of CASTLE on students with different reading abilities were empirically evaluated. 130 sixth graders took part in an 11-week computer-based reading strategies course. The results show that CASTLE helps to enhance the students' use of strategies and text comprehension at all ability levels.
Keywords: Computer assisted reading; Strategies; Comprehension
Computer anxiety: A cross-cultural comparative study of Dutch and Turkish university students BIBAKFull-Text 1572-1584
  Erkan Tekinarslan
The purpose of this study is to determine Dutch and Turkish university students' computer anxiety levels and to find out whether their computer anxiety levels differ according to their culture, gender and computer experience (i.e., personal computer (PC) ownership, computer usage frequency, computer usage level). A total of 106 university students (30 Dutch female, 22 Dutch male, 26 Turkish female, 28 Turkish male) participated in this research. The data were collected through computer anxiety rating scale (CARS) validated by Heinssen et al. [Heinssen, R. K., Glass, C. R., & Knight, L. A. (1987). Assessing computer anxiety: Development and validation of the computer anxiety rating scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 3, 49-59]. The data were analyzed by t-test and one-way-analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicated that the Turkish students have significantly higher computer anxiety levels than the Dutch students. The students' computer anxiety levels do not differ depending on gender. However, post-hoc analysis revealed that the Turkish female students have significantly higher computer anxiety levels than the Dutch female and Dutch male students. Also, results indicated that while the students' computer experience increase their computer anxiety levels decrease significantly.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Culture; Gender; Computer experience; University students
Understanding e-learning continuance intention in the workplace: A self-determination theory perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1585-1604
  Juan Carlos Roca; Marylène Gagné
Based on self-determination theory (SDT), this study proposed an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in the context of e-learning service. In the proposed model perceived usefulness, perceived playfulness and perceived ease of use are predicted to be influenced by perceived autonomy support, perceived competence and perceived relatedness. Although TAM has received fairly extensive attention in prior research, this study is one of the first to examine the effects of motivational factors affecting TAM constructs. The results show that applying SDT to e-learning in a work setting can be useful for predicting continuance intention.
Keywords: Self-determination theory (SDT); Technology acceptance model (TAM); e-Learning
Assessing emotions related to learning new software: The computer emotion scale BIBAKFull-Text 1605-1623
  Robin H. Kay; Sharon Loverock
To date, little research has been done on the role of emotions with respect to computer related behaviours. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable, valid scale to assess emotions while learning with computers. Four emotions (anger, anxiety, happiness, and sadness), selected after a detailed review of the research, were evaluated. Internally reliability estimates were acceptable. Construct validity was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis. Convergent validity was supported by strong correlations among emotions and affective attitude, but not cognitive and behavioural attitudes. Finally, predictive validity was corroborated by consistent and significant correlations among emotion, computer knowledge, and use.
Keywords: Computer; Emotions; Anger; Anxiety; Scale; Measure; Computer use; Computer ability; Computer knowledge
Pedagogical lurking: Student engagement in non-posting discussion behavior BIBAKFull-Text 1624-1633
  Vanessa Paz Dennen
This paper presents the results of a study of student non-posting participation behavior in two online classes. Most often active message is assessed and thus implicitly valued in online class discussion, but the act of writing messages is not the only factor that contributes to student learning. However, it is the most visible and easiest to measure. Students may engage in processes of reading and reflection on the discussion board, not leaving their mark; it is these acts that may be referred to as pedagogical lurking. In this study, students were asked to self-report their non-visible course activities, the reasons behind these activities and their perceived usefulness related to learning. Findings show that about half of the students felt that they learned through the online discussion experience, and that they believe both posting and reading messages contributed to their ability to learn. These students were likely to enter the discussion before posting to obtain a model for participation, and to return at a later time to check for replies and reflect. Students who participated solely to meet course requirements and who focused on posting messages more than reading messages had less positive impressions of the discussion activity's impact on learning.
Keywords: Online discussion; Online learning; Lurking; Reflection
Assessing the computer attitudes of students: An Asian perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1634-1642
  Timothy Teo
Research has found that computer attitudes play a key role in influencing the extent to which students accept the computer as a learning tool and in determining the likelihood that computer will be used in the future for learning and study. A sample of 183 students reported their computer attitudes using a Likert-type questionnaire with three subscales, computer importance, computer enjoyment, and computer anxiety. One-way MANOVA revealed no significant differences in computer attitudes by gender although male students reported more positive towards the computer than female students. There were significant differences between students who own computers at home and those who do not and students who own a computer at home also reported a lower level of computer anxiety compared to those who do not.
Keywords: Computer attitudes; Gender; Computer ownership; Computer anxiety; Computer enjoyment
Spatial navigation in large-scale virtual environments: Gender differences in survey tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1643-1667
  Lorys Castelli; Luca Latini Corazzini; Giuliano Carlo Geminiani
Most of the studies on gender differences in spatial abilities have focused on traditional paper and pencil cognitive tests, while these differences have been less investigated in navigational tasks carried out in complex virtual environments (VEs). The aim of the present study has been to evaluate gender differences in route and survey knowledge by means of specific tasks (route-learning, pointing, landmark-placing) carried out in two separate VEs. In addition the male and female participants were subjected to a battery of spatial abilities tests and specific self-report questionnaires. The results showed a significant difference favouring males in the survey tasks, as well as in the spatial abilities tests; on the contrary, no gender differences were found in the route task. Moreover, a different pattern of correlations among the measures were found in the male and female sub-groups.
Keywords: Gender differences; Spatial navigation; Computer-simulated virtual environments; Route/survey knowledge
The effects of spatial contiguity within computer-based instruction of group personalized two-step mathematics word problems BIBAKFull-Text 1668-1685
  Christi A. Harter; Heng-Yu Ku
This study investigated the effects of the spatial contiguity principle within computer-based instruction (CBI) of group personalized two-step mathematics word problems on the achievement and attitude of 98 sixth-grade predominantly Hispanic students. Students were randomly blocked by ability level based on their pretest scores to a spatially contiguous or non-spatially contiguous version of the CBI. The results revealed students who received the spatially contiguous treatment made significantly greater pretest-to-posttest gains than students who received the non-spatially contiguous treatment. In addition, lower-ability students made significantly greater pretest-to-posttest gains than higher-ability students. Findings from the student attitude survey revealed no significant difference in treatment responses to the two survey factors on CBI Satisfaction and Attitude About Math. Student comments from the open-ended questions on the attitude survey and the focus group interview indicated that the spatially contiguous version of the CBI was more helpful and less confusing than the non-spatially contiguous version.
Keywords: Computer-based instruction; Mathematics word problems; Spatial contiguity
Monitoring, planning, and self-efficacy during learning with hypermedia: The impact of conceptual scaffolds BIBAKFull-Text 1686-1706
  Daniel C. Moos; Roger Azevedo
Self-report data and think-aloud data from 37 undergraduates were used to examine the impact of conceptual scaffolds on self-efficacy, monitoring, and planning during learning with a commercial hypermedia environment. Participants, randomly assigned to either the No Scaffolding (NS) or Conceptual Scaffolding (CS) condition, used a hypermedia environment for 30 min to learn about the circulatory system. Think-aloud data collected during this learning task was used to measure participants' self-regulated learning (SRL) with hypermedia. Additionally, participants completed a self-efficacy questionnaire at three points during the learning task (immediately prior to the 30-min hypermedia learning task, 10 min into the learning task, and 20 min into the learning task). Results indicated that participants from both conditions reported higher levels of self-efficacy immediately before the hypermedia learning task, and that they decreased their use of SRL processes related to monitoring as they progressed through the hypermedia learning task. In addition, results also indicated that participants in the CS condition used, on average, more SRL processes related to planning during the hypermedia learning task than participants in the NS condition.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning; Hypermedia; Self-efficacy; Motivation; Cognitive processes; Science; Mental models; Mixed methodology
Revealing the 'real' me, searching for the 'actual' you: Presentations of self on an internet dating site BIBAKFull-Text 1707-1723
  Monica T. Whitty
This paper considers the presentation of self on an internet dating site. Thirty men and 30 women were interviewed about their online dating experiences. They were asked about how they constructed their profiles and how they viewed other individuals' profiles. Which types of presentations of self led to more successful offline romantic relationships were also investigated. Additionally, gender differences were examined. In line with previous research on presentation of self online, individuals were quite strategic in their online presentations. However, important differences between initiating a relationship on an internet dating site and other spaces (online and offline) included the type of self disclosed as well as the depth of breadth of information individuals self-disclosed about themselves before any one-on-one conversations took place.
Keywords: Online dating; Internet dating; Internet relationships; Possible selves; Self-presentation; Identity
Targeting implementation efforts for maximum satisfaction with new computer systems: Results from four human service agencies BIBAKFull-Text 1724-1740
  Menachem Monnickendam; Riki Savaya; Mark Waysman
Human service management needs to pinpoint the areas in which to concentrate computer implementation efforts in order to achieve maximum satisfaction with new systems. This study sought to identify the most salient factors affecting user satisfaction in management and client oriented computer systems in human services. Along with commonly used factors to assess user computer satisfaction (UCS), congruence with human service norms was added. UCS was evaluated in newly implemented computer systems in four human services. Two had introduced management oriented systems and two had introduced client oriented systems (N = 517). Hierarchical regression was conducted to assess the relative effects of four classes of variable (user, environmental, process, and system), on UCS. Contrary to expectations, results show that the two types of system were analogous with respect to contributing variables to UCS. Preparedness, importance to management, integration, usefulness, and technical support best predict UCS. Moreover, the systems did not differ with respect to congruence with human service norms, and this variable did not load on the regression. A discussion of the implications of these findings for implementation theory and human service management concludes the paper.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Social services; Systems design; Computer acceptance; System types
Computer attitude in psychiatric inpatients BIBAKFull-Text 1741-1752
  Bernhard Weber; Barbara Schneider; Stefan Hornung; Tilman Wetterling; Jürgen Fritze
Negative computer attitude has been shown to be a possible co-variable in computerized examinations of psychiatric patients, affecting patient-computer interaction as well as reliability and validity of assessments.
   It remains still uncertain if the psychological construct of computer attitude can be dependably measured in acute psychiatric inpatients or whether it is impeded by the effects of mental illness. For that reason a German translation of the Groningen Computer Attitude Scale (GCAS) was evaluated in 160 acute psychiatric inpatients under naturalistic conditions.
   General test criteria (internal structure, item analysis, internal consistency, split half reliability) to a large extent corresponded to those formerly found in healthy subjects and psychiatric outpatients. The mean GCAS score was calculated as 56.2 ± 10.8 points and a significantly better computer attitude was found in male, better educated and younger patients. Some diverging correlation patterns were found in diagnostic subgroups, indicating a possible minor impact of mental disorder on computer attitude.
   Overall, the GCAS was found to be a suitable instrument for measuring computer attitude in acute psychiatric inpatients. It should be used in identifying patients with a negative attitude to computers in order to ensure reliability and validity of computerized assessment.
Keywords: Computer attitude; Computer anxiety; Psychological assessment; Mental health; Psychiatry
Enhancing self-perceived effects using Web-based portfolio assessment BIBAKFull-Text 1753-1771
  Chi-Cheng Chang
This study investigates how implementing a Web portfolio assessment system influences learning effects, including achievement and self-perceived learning performance. The experimental group uses the Web portfolio assessment system, whereas the control group uses conventional assessment. Study subjects are junior high school students in two computer classes. The experimental results are as follows. The Web portfolio assessment system has no significant influence on student achievement. Implementation of the Web portfolio assessment system significantly enhances self-perceived learning performance. The Web portfolio assessment system has different effects on work achievement and self-perceived work performance. The system has no significant effect on improving achievement for poorly and highly motivated students. However, the system is more effective for overall self-perceived learning performance of poorly motivated students than highly motivated students.
Keywords: Portfolio; Portfolio assessment; Web portfolio; Effect; Achievement

CHB 2008-09 Volume 24 Issue 5

Internet empowerment BIBFull-Text 1773-1775
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger
E-empowerment: Empowerment by the Internet BIBAKFull-Text 1776-1789
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Katelyn Y. A. McKenna; Samuel-Azran Tal
This article focuses on the concept of empowerment and the ways in which the Internet is being utilized as an empowering tool. This analysis ranges from the personal to the global levels and the consequences of that empowerment are also discussed. We propose a four-level model that serves to explain what we term E-empowerment and the effects that can be observed at each of the four levels, ranging from (1) the personal; (2) the interpersonal; (3) group; and (4) citizenship. The potential for future development of E-empowerment is also discussed.
Keywords: Empowerment; Internet
Predicting treatment outcome in internet versus face to face treatment of panic disorder BIBAKFull-Text 1790-1801
  Gerhard Andersson; Per Carlbring; Ann Grimlund
With the advent of guided self-help via the Internet it has become increasingly important to investigate predictors of treatment outcome. The present study analyzed predictors of outcome using data from a randomized controlled trial on panic disorder [Carlbring, P. et al. (2005). Treatment of panic disorder: Live therapy versus self-help via Internet. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 1321-1333]. Half of the sample received therapist guided Internet treatment (N = 25) and the other half face to face treatment (N = 24) in individual sessions during a 10-week study period. Results showed that agoraphobic avoidance was predictive of outcome in the face to face treatment, but not in the Internet treatment. A self-report screening of personality disorder (anxious cluster) was associated with worse outcome for the Internet treatment, but surprisingly associated with better outcome in face to face treatment. Cognitive capacity as measured by a test of verbal fluency was not predictive of outcome in the Internet group, and neither was a rating of treatment credibility. Overall, we conclude that in relation to face to face treatment different predictors of outcome should be investigated for Internet treatment. Internet treatment might be more suitable for certain clients who might benefit from remote treatment in the early phase of treatment.
Keywords: Predictor; Treatment outcome; Agoraphobic avoidance; Personality disorder; Verbal fluency
Internet use and personal empowerment of hearing-impaired adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 1802-1815
  Azy Barak; Yael Sadovsky
The Internet has become an ordinary and widely accepted alternative social environment -- known as cyberspace -- in which many people take part in numerous activities. For the hearing-impaired, cyberspace provides extra benefits for two basic reasons: means of communication, which is primarily based on visual (text and images) and not auditory channels, and the convenient possibility of concealing their handicap from other users, thus gaining more security and a sense of equality. The purpose of the current study was to examine characteristics, intensity, and types of use of the Internet by hearing-impaired adolescents compared to an equivalent group of normal-hearing participants, with gender and adolescence stage (age 12-15, or 16-19) as additional independent variables. In addition, the intensity of using the Internet as a possible moderator of deaf participants' well-being was examined by comparing measures of loneliness and self-esteem between low- and high-intensive hearing-impaired users on the one hand, and hearing participants, on the other. Questionnaires were administered to 114 hearing-impaired and 100 hearing participants, matched for intelligence and socio-economic status. Main results showed that for both genders and for the two adolescence stages, hearing-impaired participants were motivated to use, and actually did use, the Internet more intensively than their hearing counterparts. Furthermore, the hearing-impaired used the Internet more than did hearing participants for both personal and group communication. Hearing and intensively Internet-using deaf participants were similar in level of well-being, both higher than the well-being of less-intensively Internet-using deaf participants. The Internet may thus be viewed as an empowering agent for the hearing-impaired.
Keywords: Hearing-impaired; Empowerment; Adolescents; Internet; Well-being
Identity construction on Facebook: Digital empowerment in anchored relationships BIBAKFull-Text 1816-1836
  Shanyang Zhao; Sherri Grasmuck; Jason Martin
Early research on online self-presentation mostly focused on identity constructions in anonymous online environments. Such studies found that individuals tended to engage in role-play games and anti-normative behaviors in the online world. More recent studies have examined identity performance in less anonymous online settings such as Internet dating sites and reported different findings. The present study investigates identity construction on Facebook, a newly emerged nonymous online environment. Based on content analysis of 63 Facebook accounts, we find that the identities produced in this nonymous environment differ from those constructed in the anonymous online environments previously reported. Facebook users predominantly claim their identities implicitly rather than explicitly; they "show rather than tell" and stress group and consumer identities over personally narrated ones. The characteristics of such identities are described and the implications of this finding are discussed.
Keywords: Anonymity; Facebook; Identity; Internet; Self-presentation; Social networking sites
Liberating or debilitating? An examination of romantic relationships, sexual relationships and friendships on the Net BIBAKFull-Text 1837-1850
  Monica T. Whitty
Ever since the beginnings of the internet researchers have questioned its utility in developing and maintaining psychological healthy romantic and sexual relations. Advocates of the social presence theory and media richness theory purport that in leaner media individuals can be quite aggressive towards one another (e.g., in the form of flaming). In contrast, others believe that the lack of traditional cues in CMC can in fact be overcome and instead lead to more personal, intimate relationships. As this paper will demonstrate, when we consider how beneficial it is to form relationships online we also need to consider individuals' characteristics (e.g., personality characteristics and physical attractiveness), the amount of time people spend online, the duration of online relationships, and how these relationships effect individuals' offline activities and relationships. Overall, the view here is that online relationships can be empowering for many people; that is, cyberspace provides a unique environment for people to experience and learn about relationships and sexuality.
Keywords: Online relationships; Internet relationships; Online sexuality; Internet friendships
Analysis of E-learning innovation and core capability using a hypercube model BIBAKFull-Text 1851-1866
  Jen-Her Wu; Robert D. Tennyson; Tzyh-Lih Hsia; Yi-Wen Liao
New information and communication technologies and emerging learning models have triggered a new wave of educational innovation-electronic learning (E-learning). This study utilizes a hypercube innovation model to analyze the differences in technology and learning models (instruction model/environment) used in traditional classroom learning versus E-learning environments. The results show that the innovation from traditional classroom learning to E-learning is radical for both the learner and instructor, leading to drastic changes in the technology and learning model. For educational institutions, the technology is a fundamental change, while the learning model is reinforced. From the dynamic capability perspectives, a set of core capabilities needed for successfully exploiting E-learning is identified. These results provide insight for learners, instructors and educational institutions for enhancing their understanding of E-learning innovation, and provide guidelines to help E-learning stakeholders adapt from the traditional classroom to E-learning environments.
Keywords: E-learning; Innovation; Hypercube model; Core capabilities; Instructional design
Fostering empowerment in online support groups BIBAKFull-Text 1867-1883
  Azy Barak; Meyran Boniel-Nissim; John Suler
Online support groups have been used extensively, in numerous areas of distress, for 15 years. Researchers have presented conflicting findings and ideas about their effectiveness in helping people cope with respective problems. Our review of quantitative studies and our qualitative exploration of the nature of the experiences that occur in such groups show that several factors operate to potentially affect participants. Personal and interpersonal dynamics, which are central in producing effects in these groups, are induced and accelerated by the powerful online disinhibition effect. These factors, including the very impact of writing, expressions of emotions, collecting information and thereby improving understanding and knowledge, developing social relationships, and enhancing decision-making skills and consequent behavioral actions all serve as possible generators of a sense of personal empowerment for people in distress. This view may explain why empirical research has frequently found little or no specific outcomes from participating in online support groups; however, it has found much support for nonspecific personal impacts of this means of intervention. Thus, we contend that online support groups are designed to foster, and many of them actually do, well-being, a sense of control, self-confidence, feelings of more independence, social interactions, and improved feelings -- all nonspecific but highly important psychological factors. As such, participating in an online support group could foster personal empowerment, which is much needed in handling specific conditions of distress. Nonetheless, this participation has potential costs, too, especially developing dependence, distancing from in-person contacts, and exposure to unpleasant experiences typical of social engagement in cyberspace.
Keywords: Support groups; Empowerment; Internet; Online-therapy; Well-being
Empowering followers in virtual teams: Guiding principles from theory and practice BIBAKFull-Text 1884-1906
  Ashley A. G. Walvoord; Elizabeth R. Redden; Linda R. Elliott; Michael D. Coovert
Effective leadership requires relationship skills such as -- problem solving conflict management, motivation, communication, and listening [Yukl, G. A. (1998). Leadership in organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall]. Arguably, nothing is more important to a leader than the skills involved in communicating one's intent to followers, for it is only through effectively transmitting intent that followers may understand and then execute the goals of the team and leader. The modern work-world is dominated by computer-mediated communication, and this communication is the bread and butter of virtual teams; however, simple transmission of information from point A to point B is not enough -- the virtual environment presents significant challenges to effective communication. In this paper we review issues related to virtual teams and developments in multimodal displays that allow teams to communicate effectively via single or multiple modalities (e.g., visual, auditory, tactile). This discussion is grounded in guiding principles for design and use of information displays that were identified and culled based on multiple review criteria from an extensive review of the literature. We present an applied example of the utility of these guiding principles for multimodal display design, in the context of communicating a leader's presence to virtual followers via commander's intent.
Keywords: e-Leadership; Teams; Computer-mediated communication
Click to the past: The impact of extroversion by users of nostalgic websites on the use of Internet social services BIBAKFull-Text 1907-1912
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Hadar Kaplan; Nira Dorpatcheon
The digital era raises interesting questions as to the way in which the surfer interacts with different types of Internet sites. One of the most interesting debates is over the question of whether socially, the Internet enables "the poor to get rich," or whether it is actually the case that it is the "rich who get richer on the Internet." In other words, do the poor, that is the socially inhibited, benefit most from the Internet, or is the Internet actually a tool for the rich, that is the socially competent, to become even more socially successful.
   This study enters this debate in the context of nostalgic websites which allow members to find and meet up with their old friends. We examined the influence of extroversion-introversion personality traits of surfers through their use of HEVREA, a nostalgic website, and on their use of social services available on the Internet, that is websites designed for social interaction (e.g. chat, ICQ). One hundred students participated in the study: 50 were heavy users of HEVREA and 50 were not users of HEVREA or any other nostalgic website. Participants filled out a questionnaire relating to the different social services they use on the net. The questionnaire also ascertained the level of extroversion of the participant using the Eysenck personality questionnaire-revised (EPQ-R) [Eysenck, H. J. (1988). Eysenck personality inventory/questionnaires. In M. Hersen & A. Bellack (Eds.), Dictionary of behavioural assessment techniques (pp. 206-209). Oxford, UK: Pregamon Press]. A two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. No main effects were found, either pertaining to the use of the HEVREA website or to extroversion-introversion. However, an interaction between the two variables was found to be significant. These results are discussed in light of the two theories: the poor get richer and the rich get richer.
Keywords: Internet; Extroversion-introversion; Nostalgic websites
Wikibooks in higher education: Empowerment through online distributed collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 1913-1928
  Gilad Ravid; Yoram M. Kalman; Sheizaf Rafaeli
In this case study, wiki technology was applied to the development of an introductory academic textbook on information systems. While the development, production and distribution of traditional textbooks are influenced by commercial interests, the wikitextbook was developed collaboratively by faculty and by students, and was made available online free of charge. After about two years of activity, the wikitextbook accumulated 564 sub-chapters, co-authored by undergraduate and graduate students in more than 20 classes offered by seven academic departments across three Israeli universities. We discuss the potential of wikitextbooks as vehicles of empowerment to students, teachers, and the discipline. This type of collaborative online technology intimates an influence on the status-quo in academic education in favor of less empowered stakeholders. However, caution is advised in drawing premature conclusions from results reported here. The implementation of wikitextbook should be augmented by a careful study of cultural, societal, behavioral and pedagogic variables.
Keywords: E-book; Wiki; Empowerment; Education; Computer-mediated communication
Computer-based rating method for evaluating multiple visual stimuli on multiple scales BIBAKFull-Text 1929-1946
  Yaliang Chuang; Lin-Lin Chen; Ming-Chuen Chuang
In this research, two joint evaluation rating methods (focus-on-attribute and drag-and-drop) and a separate evaluation rating method (focus-on-stimulus) are proposed for rating multiple visual stimuli with respect to multiple scales. All three interactive methods incorporate a real-time adjusting mechanism, allowing respondents to interactively adjust their ratings. Using the traditional paper-and-pencil method as the basis for comparison, the performance of these computer-based rating methods and the proposed real-time adjusting mechanism were investigated. First, it was found that the computer-based methods not only produced results equivalent to those produced by the paper-and-pencil method, but also improved the data quality by preventing the occurrence of missing values and allowing respondents to adjust their scores. Second, the two joint evaluation methods performed better than the separate evaluation method in terms of usage experience, test-retest reliability, and the likelihood of simulating the daily shopping experience, in which multiple consumer products are often compared simultaneously. Of the two joint evaluation methods, the drag-and-drop method received better subjective evaluations than the focus-on-attribute method. Third, the proposed real-time adjusting mechanism was found to obtain better subjective satisfaction in rating. In summary, for measuring multiple visual stimuli with multiple scales, the computer-based joint evaluation rating methods using a real-time adjusting mechanism were found to be better choices among the measurement tools investigated.
Keywords: Joint evaluation; Separate evaluation; Comparative rating; Real-time adjustment
The impact of online game character's outward attractiveness and social status on interpersonal attraction BIBAKFull-Text 1947-1958
  Shao-kang Lo
Online games resemble miniature societies, in which social interactions occur within a virtual world. Previous studies have realized that the main motivation in playing games is to fulfill interpersonal needs. Players expect to own great interpersonal attraction to help them develop ideal interpersonal relationships. In the real world, individual outward appearance and social status are two important factors having influence on interpersonal attraction. In online games, the outward appearance of characters can be manipulated by changing the clothes and accessories used by those characters. This study proposes that difference in outward appearance, as in real society, affects player interpersonal attraction assessments. Additionally, when game experience and performance of players are accumulated, their grade in game would be raised. This study also proposes that the variation of role grade would influence its social status and the attitude of others. This study conducts experiments, and the results verify that a game character with high outward attractiveness and social status acquires higher online interpersonal attraction than one with low outward attractiveness and social status, and vice versa.
Keywords: Online game; Outward attractiveness; Social status; Interpersonal attraction; Interpersonal relationship
Constructing mental representation of reference by feedback in a computer system BIBAKFull-Text 1959-1976
  Yu-Fen Yang; Hui-Chin Yeh; Wing-Kwong Wong
This study reports on the design of a computer system which helps English as a Foreign Language (EFL) college students construct a mental representation of reference in reading. Three modules, User Interface, Recording, and Feedback, are implemented. The feedback module compares students' initial maps with that of an expert while students are constructing their mental maps. It then provides three candidate references for each referential device that needs correction back to students when they encounter difficulties figuring out the relationship between two words. This system aims to identify and understand how students perform and what thinking process is involved in reading. Results showed that more proficient readers integrated referential words in different parts of a text to form a coherent network of textual information, whereas less-proficient readers had difficulty constructing them. Negative correlations between feedback frequency and the number of errors and between feedback frequency and the missed rate of referring were also found. In other words, when students asked for more feedbacks, their percentage of incorrect and missed references decreased. Some recommendations for future improvement are discussed.
Keywords: Mental representation; Reference; Reading process; Scaffolding; Feedback
Herd behavior in purchasing books online BIBAKFull-Text 1977-1992
  Yi-Fen Chen
Previous studies on informational cascades have stressed the importance of informational social influences in decision-making. When people use the product evaluations of others to indicate product quality on the Internet, online herd behavior occurs. This work presents four studies examining herd behavior of online book purchasing. The first two studies addressed how two cues frequently found on the Internet, i.e., star ratings and sales volume, influence consumer online product choices. The last two studies investigated the relative effectiveness of different recommendation sources. The experimental results demonstrated that subjects use the product evaluations and choices of others as cues in making purchasing book decisions on the Internet bookstore. Additionally, recommendations of other consumers exerted a greater influence on subject choices than recommendations of an expert. Finally, recommendations from recommender system influenced online consumer choices more than those from website owners. The results and implications of this research are discussed.
Keywords: Herd behavior; Informational influence; Internet bookstore
Who blogs? Personality predictors of blogging BIBAKFull-Text 1993-2004
  Rosanna E. Guadagno; Bradley M. Okdie; Cassie A. Eno
The Big Five personality inventory measures personality based on five key traits: neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness to experience, and conscientiousness [Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment 4, 5-13]. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that individual differences on the Big Five factors are associated with different types of Internet usage [Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Ben-Artzi, E. (2003). Loneliness and Internet use. Computers in Human Behavior 19, 71-80; Hamburger, Y. A., & Ben-Artzi, E. (2000). Relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and the different uses of the Internet. Computers in Human Behavior 16, 441-449]. Two studies sought to extend this research to a relatively new online format for expression: blogging. Specifically, we examined whether the different Big Five traits predicted blogging. The results of two studies indicate that people who are high in openness to new experience and high in neuroticism are likely to be bloggers. Additionally, the neuroticism relationship was moderated by gender indicating that women who are high in neuroticism are more likely to be bloggers as compared to those low in neuroticism whereas there was no difference for men. These results indicate that personality factors impact the likelihood of being a blogger and have implications for understanding who blogs.
Keywords: Internet; Big Five; Blog; Blogging; Individual differences
Impact of the Internet on our lives: Male and female personal perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 2005-2013
  Ann Colley; John Maltby
Gender differences in Internet access and usage have been found in a number of previous investigations. The study reported here extends this work by providing an analysis of the impact of the Internet on men's and women's lives. A content analysis of 200 postings from men and 200 from women, on the topic of "Has the Internet changed your life" invited by a news website, was undertaken then examined for gender differences. Results showed more women's postings mentioned having made new friends or having met their partner, renewing old friendships, accessing information and advice, studying online, and shopping and booking travel online, while more men's postings mentioned that the Internet had helped or given them a career, positive socio-political effects, and negative aspects of the technology. The results are interpreted as supporting the view that the Internet represents an extension of broader social roles and interests in the "offline" world.
Keywords: Internet; Gender; Gender roles; Gender differences
Recording lying, cheating, and defiance in an Internet Based Simulated Environment BIBAKFull-Text 2014-2025
  Sara M. Russell; Lawrence R. James
This study explored the utility of an Internet Based Simulated Environment (IBSE) in eliciting and recording the behaviors of lying, cheating, and defiance. The IBSE created for the study simulated an online 'quiz' environment which was programmed to elicit frustration of the participants and record their actions based on pre-defined and pre-programmed descriptions of lying, cheating, and defiance. The study was successful in eliciting and recording a total of 85 occurances of these behaviors from 191 participants.
Keywords: Internet; Simulation; Aggression; Lying; Cheating; Defiance; Online behavior measurement; Elicit behavior; Record behavior
Computer Vision Syndrome: A widely spreading but largely unknown epidemic among computer users BIBAFull-Text 2026-2042
  Zheng Yan; Liang Hu; Hao Chen; Fan Lu
The present paper is intended to introduce behavioral researchers to Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS), a widely spreading but largely unknown epidemic among professional and ordinary computer users, and to call for behavioral research programs to help computer users address this visual epidemic. Beginning with three clinical cases, the paper analyzes the classic definition of CVS, discusses the prevalence of CVS, reviews five major symptoms of CVS (i.e. eyestrain, headache, blurred vision, dry eyes, and neck/back pain), summarizes five types of contributing factors of CVS (i.e. computer screens, computer environments, human eyes, computer users, and computer tasks), and presents basic preventive and treatment strategies. Finally, three future research directions for behavioral science research are briefly discussed.
Interpersonal perception in bulletin board systems among Chinese Internet users BIBAKFull-Text 2043-2054
  Tang Yunyu; Kong Keqin; Song Yi; You Xuqun
A study investigating the accuracy of interpersonal perception in Internet Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) and the variables that affect the accuracy were conducted in two phases: in the phase one, 58 participants were selected from the BBS which was built on the Internet in advance. During the phase two, participants were requested to complete the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to assess their personalities, and to choose another member in the BBS as their "target". The assessment packets were then administered to the participants in the following order: the demographic and Internet use survey, the MBTI used by the judge to assess their target's personality, and the relationship survey between judge and target. The results showed that 76.7% participants made the correct judgment on two to three out of four dimensions of the personality type. The correlation analysis indicated that the variables affected the accuracy were from four aspects: judge, target, relationship and similarity. The binary logistic regression analysis showed that the target's personality, the judge's education level, the similarity between them, the stereotypes and projection played important roles on the accuracy. Possibilities for future research on this issue are also briefly discussed.
Keywords: Interpersonal perception; MBTI; Internet
Exploring motivations for contributing to open source initiatives: The roles of contribution context and personal values BIBAKFull-Text 2055-2073
  Shaul Oreg; Oded Nov
We explore contextual and dispositional correlates of the motivation to contribute to open source initiatives. We examine how the context of the open source project, and the personal values of contributors, are related to the types of motivations for contributing. A web-based survey was administered to 300 contributors in two prominent open source contexts: software and content. As hypothesized, software contributors placed a greater emphasis on reputation-gaining and self-development motivations, compared with content contributors, who placed a greater emphasis on altruistic motives. Furthermore, the hypothesized relationships were found between contributors' personal values and their motivations for contributing.
Keywords: Personal values; Motivations; Open source; Wikipedia
The boundary of racial prejudice: Comparing preferences for computer-synthesized White, Black, and robot characters BIBAKFull-Text 2074-2093
  Li Gong
Humanoid social robots are predicted to interact with humans in various domains of social life as robot technology keeps advancing. One area for understanding the impact of robots on human society is interracial relations. Would robots constitute a nonhuman outgroup to trigger human ingroup favoritism which will confine the boundary of racial prejudice? A study (N = 105) assessed Whites' rank-ordered preferences for 15 White, Black and robot computer-synthesized characters. Explicit racial prejudice positively predicted White versus Black character preferences for liking and as one's avatar, virtual friend, and virtual tutor. The implicit racial prejudice, measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT), provided additional predictive utility for virtual friend. Among the 64 participants who reported minimal interest in robots, explicit racial prejudice negatively predicted preferences for Black over robot characters, showing a pattern that individuals with high prejudice preferred robot characters over Black ones. The results suggest alarming strength of racial prejudice and cast doubt on the notion of all-human ingroup favoritism in comparison to robots.
Keywords: Humanoid social robots; Racial prejudice; Explicit racial attitude; Implicit racial attitude; IAT; Computer-synthesized characters
Cognitive processing differences between frequent and infrequent Internet users BIBAKFull-Text 2094-2106
  G. M. Johnson
The Internet is rapidly transforming a range of human activities; socio-cognitive theory assumes that engagement in transformed activities, over time, transforms human cognition. Four hundred and six college students completed four modified cognitive assessment system subtests, each assessing one dimension of the PASS model of cognitive processing (i.e., planning, attention, simultaneous and successive processing). Students also completed a rating scale that determined the extent and nature of their use of the Internet. Without exception, frequent Internet users cognitively outperformed infrequent Internet users. Results are interpreted as supporting the validity of two theoretical positions; tool use increases cognitive capacity and tools represent extension of cognitive processes.
Keywords: Internet use; Cognition
Testing a model of sense of virtual community BIBAKFull-Text 2107-2123
  Anita L. Blanchard
A distinguishing feature of virtual communities is their sense of community, i.e., their participants' feelings of membership, identity, influence, and attachment with each other. This study tests a model in which members' perceptions of the group's norms mediate the relationships between supporting each other and identifying each other with the members' sense of virtual community. Two studies were conducted providing partial support for the model. The results show that the perception of norms mediate the relationship between SOVC and (a) observing and publicly exchanging support, (b) perceiving that others know one's identity, and (c) using technical features to learn and create identity. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual communities; Sense of virtual community; Social exchange; Social identity; Norms
The impact of emotionality and self-disclosure on online dating versus traditional dating BIBAKFull-Text 2124-2157
  Larry D. Rosen; Nancy A. Cheever; Cheyenne Cummings; Julie Felt
Online dating is unique in the pursuit of romance. The bond created between potential partners takes a different path than normal dating relationships. Online dating usually begins with a flurry of e-mail messages, each more intimate than the last. Traditional dating relationships that might take months to develop in the real world, take weeks or even days online. Much has been written about cyber-dating, but little research has been done. This series of four studies examines the online dating process, similarities and differences between online and traditional dating, and the impact of emotionality and self-disclosure on first (e-mail) impressions of a potential partner. Results indicate that the amount of emotionality and self-disclosure affected a person's perception of a potential partner. An e-mail with strong emotional words (e.g., excited, wonderful) led to more positive impressions than an e-mail with fewer strong emotional words (e.g., happy, fine) and resulted in nearly three out of four subjects selecting the e-mailer with strong emotional words for the fictitious dater of the opposite sex. Results for self-disclosure e-mails were complex, but indicate that levels of self-disclosure led to different impressions. Low levels of self-disclosure were generally preferred in choosing for the fictitious dater, although these preferences differed by gender, education, and ethnic background. Results were discussed in terms of theories of computer-mediated communication.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Self-disclosure; Relationship satisfaction; Emotionality (personality)
Measuring self-disclosure online: Blurring and non-response to sensitive items in web-based surveys BIBAFull-Text 2158-2171
  Adam N. Joinson; Carina Paine; Tom Buchanan; Ulf-Dietrich Reips
People are increasingly required to disclose personal information to computer- and Internet-based systems in order to register, identify themselves or simply for the system to work as designed. In the present paper, we outline two different methods to easily measure people's behavioral self-disclosure to web-based forms. The first, the use of an 'I prefer not to say' option to sensitive questions is shown to be responsive to the manipulation of level of privacy concern by increasing the salience of privacy issues, and to experimental manipulations of privacy. The second, blurring or increased ambiguity was used primarily by males in response to an income question in a high privacy condition. Implications for the study of self-disclosure in human-computer interaction and web-based research are discussed.
Undergraduates' metacognitive knowledge about the psychological effects of different kinds of computer-supported instructional tools BIBAKFull-Text 2172-2198
  Alessandro Antonietti; Barbara Colombo; Yuri Lozotsev
Literature about metacognition suggests that learners develop personal beliefs about the educational technologies that they are asked to employ and that such beliefs can influence learning outcomes. In this perspective, opinions about the psychological effects of computer-supported instructional tools were analysed by means of a questionnaire which included items about the motivational and emotional aspects of learning, the behaviour to have during the learning process, the mental abilities and the style of thinking required, and the cognitive benefits. Items were presented five times: each time they made reference to a different kind of tool (online courses, hypertexts, Web forums, multimedia presentations, and virtual simulations). The questionnaire was filled out by 99 undergraduates attending engineering courses. Results showed that students ranked the psychological effects of the computer-supported tools in a relative different order according to the kind of tool and attributed distinctive effects to each tool. Gender and expertise played a minor role in modulating undergraduates' beliefs. Implications for instruction were discussed.
Keywords: Metacognition; Belief; Learning; Education; Computer
User acceptance model of open source software BIBAKFull-Text 2199-2216
  M. Dolores Gallego; Paula Luna; Salvador Bueno
The development and implementation of open source software (OSS) is one of the most current topics within the academic, business and political environments. Traditionally, research in OSS has focused on identifying individual personal motives for participating in the development of an OSS project, analyzing specific OSS solutions, or the OSS movement, itself. Nevertheless, user acceptance towards this type of technology has received very little attention. For this reason, the main purpose of the current study is to identify the variables and factors that have a direct effect on individual attitude towards OSS adoption. Therefore, we have developed a technological acceptance model on behalf of the users towards a solution based on OSS. For this development, we have considered the technology acceptance model. Findings show that OSS is a viable solution for information management for organizations.
Keywords: Open source software; Technology acceptance model; Adoption
Strategies for designing effective psychotherapeutic gaming interventions for children and adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 2217-2235
  Dion H. Goh; Rebecca P. Ang; Hui Chern Tan
A range of face-to-face therapies and interventions for children and adolescents with mental health problems have been developed over the years and include cognitive-behavioral therapy, play therapy and applied behavior analysis. The popularity of computer games has grown exponentially in the last decade and has been widely accepted by children, adolescents and adults alike. Mental health professionals have therefore been exploring the use of these games to complement traditional treatment methods. To date however, there has been little known concrete evidence of the effectiveness of computer games for the treatment of children and adolescents with mental health conditions. Key to the success of such games is that at the outset, they must be well-designed. This paper reviews extant relevant computer gaming literature to propose a set of guidelines and strategies for the design of psychotherapeutic games targeted at children and adolescents. The issues raised concern both the game player as well as the game itself. As part of this review, limitations of existing work and areas of future research are also discussed.
Keywords: Psychotherapeutic games; Computer game design; Mental health; Treatment; Review
Online flow experiences, problematic Internet use and Internet procrastination BIBAKFull-Text 2236-2254
  Andrew Thatcher; Gisela Wretschko; Peter Fridjhon
This study explores the theoretical and practical overlap between online procrastination, problematic Internet use, and flow on the Internet. At the theoretical level there is a great deal of interrelatedness between these three concepts (for example, all three concepts deal with the issue of a lack of control over time spent online and acknowledge the distracting and entertaining properties of the Internet); yet, one can also argue that the concepts are theoretically distinct (for example, flow is a total absorption in the work at hand, whereas procrastination is the avoidance of the work at hand). All three concepts have been used to describe either desirable (flow) or undesirable (procrastination and problematic Internet use) states when online. In this study a sample of 1399 Internet users was obtained from a survey placed on a South African online information technology magazine. Using the problematic Internet use questionnaire (PIUQ), the distraction subscale of the online cognition scale (OCS), and a modified version of the Flow scale it was found that there were strong positive relationships between all three variables (the strongest relationship being between problematic Internet use and online procrastination). The results also suggested that procrastination may be a connector between PIU and flow; also that PIU is a connector between procrastination and flow, but that flow is independent of the relationship between PIU and procrastination. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies on problematic Internet use and in particular, whether these relationships are unique to respondents involved in the information technology sector.
Keywords: Procrastination; Flow theory; Flow experiences; Problematic Internet use; Information technology workers
Influence of individual factors on presence BIBAKFull-Text 2255-2273
  Ana Sacau; Jari Laarni; Tilo Hartmann
The present paper is a review of the role of individual factors in Spatial Presence. If Spatial Presence is a subjective mental phenomenon psychological factors must have an important role on it. Our review shows that, even though many authors claim about the need for a better understanding about this relation, empirical evidence is still very limited. Personality-related factors as absorption, and the capability to be immersed show to have an influence on the sense of Presence. Additional evidence is needed for the role of such factors as extraversion/introversion. Evidence of the impact of cognitive abilities on Presence in complex media environments is greatly indirect, and based on studies investigating the effect of those cognitive abilities on situation awareness and task performance. The role of practice and demographic factors is also considered.
Keywords: Spatial Presence; Individual difference; Personality; Cognitive ability; Cognitive style; Demographic factors; Media reception; Media technology
Playing online games against computer- vs. human-controlled opponents: Effects on presence, flow, and enjoyment BIBAKFull-Text 2274-2291
  David Weibel; Bartholomäus Wissmath; Stephan Habegger; Yves Steiner; Rudolf Groner
The purpose of this study was to examine whether playing online games against other users leads to different experiences in comparison with playing against computer-controlled opponents. Thereby, a one-factorial multivariate design was used (computer-controlled vs. human-controlled opponent). Dependent variables were the participants' feelings of presence and flow. Additionally, the amount of enjoyment was measured. The findings indicate that the type of opponent influences playing experiences: participants who played against a human-controlled opponent reported more experiences of presence, flow, and enjoyment, whereby the strongest effect refers to the experience of presence. Furthermore, strong relations between presence, flow, and enjoyment were observed. Further analyzes suggest that flow mediates the relationship between presence and enjoyment.
Keywords: Online games; Virtual reality; Presence; Flow theory; Immersion; Human-computer interaction
The influence of dispositions and Internet motivation on online communication satisfaction and relationship closeness BIBAKFull-Text 2292-2310
  Vikanda Pornsakulvanich; Paul Haridakis; Alan M. Rubin
Guided by the Uses and Gratifications (U&G) perspective, this study examined the influence of unwillingness to communicate, loneliness, Internet-use motives, and Internet (CMC) use and interaction (amount and types of use and self-disclosure) in online communication satisfaction and online relationship closeness. There were 261 participants in this study. Overall, participants who perceived their face-to-face communication to be rewarding, used CMC for self-fulfillment, and disclosed their personal feelings to others tended to feel close to their online partners. Moreover, those who used the Internet for purposes of self-fulfillment and affection and intended to disclose their feelings to others felt satisfied with their online communication. The associations among the constructs extend our knowledge of the U&G theoretical model, how and why people communicate interpersonally in CMC settings, and the influence of individual differences on CMC for relational communication.
Keywords: Individual differences; Internet motivation; Internet use; Online relationship closeness; Communication satisfaction
No mobile, no life: Self-perception and text-message dependency among Japanese high school students BIBAKFull-Text 2311-2324
  Tasuku Igarashi; Tadahiro Motoyoshi; Jiro Takai; Toshikazu Yoshida
A survey was conducted to investigate how self-perception of text-message dependency leads to psychological/behavioral symptoms in relation to personality factors. Japanese high school students completed a self-report questionnaire measuring frequency of text-messages, self-perception of text-message dependency, psychological/behavioral symptoms, extroversion and neuroticism. Self-perception of text-message dependency was composed of three factors: perception of excessive use, emotional reaction, and relationship maintenance. Although message frequency was significantly related to psychological/behavioral symptoms, this effect was qualified by self-perception and personality factors. In particular, self-perception of text-message dependency strongly affected psychological/behavioral symptoms. Importance of distinction between extroverted and neurotic text-message dependency through the process of self-perception of maladaptive behavior is discussed.
Keywords: Text-message dependency; Self-perception; Extroversion; Neuroticism; High school students
The role of metacognitions in problematic Internet use BIBAKFull-Text 2325-2335
  Marcantonio M. Spada; Benjamin Langston; Ana V. Nikcevic; Giovanni B. Moneta
Research has suggested that negative emotions are associated with problematic Internet use. This study investigated the role of metacognitions as a mediator of the relationship between negative emotions and problematic Internet use. A sample of 97 university students completed the following questionnaires: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Boredom Proneness Scale, Metacognitions Questionnaire 30, and Internet Addiction Test. All dimensions of metacognition were found to be positively and significantly correlated with problematic Internet use. Positive and significant correlations were also observed between problematic Internet use and negative emotions (anxiety, depression and boredom). Structural equation modeling was used to test a mediation model in which negative emotions predicted metacognitions which in turn predicted problematic Internet use. The results supported the hypothesis that the relationship between negative emotions and problematic Internet use is fully mediated by metacognitions, suggesting that metacognitive theory may be relevant to understanding problematic Internet use. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Anxiety; Boredom; Depression; Metacognitions; Negative emotions; Problematic Internet use
An investigation of user communication behavior in computer mediated environments BIBAKFull-Text 2336-2356
  Hsin Hsin Chang; I. Chen Wang
Computer Mediated Environments (CMEs) allow people to communicate and interact electronically, either synchronously or asynchronously, their key characteristic being online interactivity. This study attempts to provide a better understanding of communication behavior in CMEs, the study objective being to investigate the effects of the level of interactivity on web users' attitudes and intentions towards the use of online communication tools. It tests constructs based on system characteristics (interactivity), extrinsic motivation (the Technology acceptance model), and intrinsic motivation (Flow theory) in an integrated theoretical framework for online communication behavior. This study demonstrates the development of a reliable and valid measure to capture several critical constructs in order to understand online communication behavior. Questionnaires were placed on the website for voluntary participants who use online communication tools to complete. The statistical results revealed that attitude and behavioral intention are directly affected by users' internal and external motivation, and are indirectly affected by interactivity through the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and flow experience. This shows that interactivity is an important element of web-based information technology for absorbing users, and is not only mediated by task-oriented (external) motivation but also entertainment-oriented (internal) motivation.
Keywords: Computer mediated environment; Interactivity; Technology acceptance model; Flow theory
Explaining IS continuance in environments where usage is mandatory BIBAKFull-Text 2357-2371
  Øystein Sørebø; Tom Roar Eikebrokk
Several research efforts over the last decade have attempted to explain user acceptance in mandated environments. This research is an attempt in the same direction. It addresses users' satisfaction in mandated environments to further contribute to our understanding of how we can manage mandated use of information systems (IS) effectively beyond initial adoption. To better explain users' IS continuance a revised post-acceptance model is proposed and empirically tested using the structural equation modelling technique. The results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the proposed measurement model and further demonstrate that confirmed expectations and ease of use perceptions explain 61% of the users' satisfaction in this setting. Our findings have important implications for the management of users in mandated environments as well as for further research in the area of mandated use. To that end, we offer directions for future research.
Keywords: Confirmatory factor analysis; Expectation confirmation model; Expectation disconfirmation model; Mandated usage; Structural equation model
Leader emergence in an Internet environment BIBAKFull-Text 2372-2383
  Erika Kelly; Blake Davis; Jessica Nelson; Jorge Mendoza
With the progression of technology, particularly the Internet, it is becoming increasingly important for organizations, both business and academic, to effectively use the Internet for research and data collection. In this study, leaderless discussions conducted completely in an Internet environment were used to study how individuals emerged as leaders. The study assessed leaderless discussion variables as well as Internet process variables such as emoticons, web-based initializations, and technical speak as predictors of leader emergence. Traditional leaderless discussion variables were not predictive while many of the Internet process variables were found to have strong positive relationships with leader emergence.
Keywords: Leadership; Internet; Leader emergence; Virtual groups; Computer-mediated communication; Electronic communication
E-recruitment and the benefits of organizational web appeal BIBAKFull-Text 2384-2398
  Lori Foster Thompson; Phillip W. Braddy; Karl L. Wuensch
This study examined the influences of website design on prospective job seekers. A total of 182 participants accessed and reviewed an online job ad. Afterwards, they rated: (a) the attractiveness of the ad's formatting, (b) the usability of the website, (c) overall evaluations of the organization's web appeal, (d) impressions of the organization, and (e) willingness to pursue employment with the hiring organization. Although both the formatting attractiveness and usability of online recruitment materials influenced participants' inclinations to pursue jobs, formatting was more important than usability. Moreover, impressions of the employer mediated the relationship between satisfaction with the website and willingness to pursue employment with the organization. Overall, this research advances knowledge by applying signaling theory to the web-based recruitment domain and by testing a mediated relationship implied therein. In addition, this is the first study to introduce relative weights analysis to the recruitment literature.
Keywords: Job seeker attitudes; Organizational websites; Relative weights analysis; Signaling theory; Website characteristics; Web-based recruitment
Population trends in Internet sports gambling BIBAKFull-Text 2399-2414
  Debi A. LaPlante; Anja Schumann; Richard A. LaBrie; Howard J. Shaffer
The Internet is a controversial new medium for gambling. This study presents the first longitudinal analysis of online gambling participation and activity among a population of newly subscribed Internet bettors. Our analyses indicate that this population of gamblers adapted to the new subscription service rapidly, as evidenced by quickly developing declines in population participation, number of bets, and size of stakes. Adaptation was not uniformly evident in our population. Among subgroups of heavily involved bettors, adaptation was generally slower or not apparent. Rather than adapt, involved bettors often maintained the high level of betting they escalated to in the days following subscription. This was particularly evident for one type of game: live-action betting. These involved individuals and the effect of live-action play require close scrutiny and ongoing examination.
Keywords: Gambling; Public health; Internet
The roles of task difficulty and prior videogame experience on performance and motivation in instructional videogames BIBAKFull-Text 2415-2433
  Karin A. Orvis; Daniel B. Horn; James Belanich
Videogames are an increasingly popular instructional tool. This research investigated how various strategies for modifying task difficulty in instructional videogames impact learner performance and motivation. Further, the influence of prior videogame experience on these learning outcomes was examined, as well as the role prior experience played in determining the optimal approach for adjusting task difficulty. Participants completed a game-based training task under one of four task difficulty conditions: static, increasing, adaptive-low and adaptive-high. All participants completed an identical pre-training trial, 10 practice trials varying in difficulty level according to condition, and a final performance trial. Results demonstrate that learner performance and motivation significantly improved in all difficulty conditions. Further, prior videogame experience was found to significantly influence these learning outcomes and a three-way interaction was detected between performance, task difficulty condition, and experience. The results of this research provide information useful to instructional videogame developers and instructors utilizing videogames as instructional tools.
Keywords: Challenge; Instructional videogame; Motivation; Task difficulty; Training performance; Videogame experience
The effects of time-compressed audio and verbal redundancy on learner performance and satisfaction BIBAKFull-Text 2434-2445
  Albert D. Ritzhaupt; Neil D. Gomes; Ann E. Barron
Digital audio is becoming increasingly popular in higher education with faculty digitally recording and broadcasting lectures for students to learn-on-demand. Students have discovered accelerated playback features in popular computer software and use it to reduce the amount of time spent listening to audio-enhanced instruction. In the current study, 183 undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of three audio-enhanced multimedia presentations that were recorded at three speeds (1.0, 1.4, and 1.8). Results show no significant difference on performance across treatments and a significant difference on satisfaction in favor of 1.4 times the normal audio speed. The results also indicate statistical differences in favor of verbal redundancy, in which the same verbal information was presented on both an auditory and visual channel.
Keywords: Time-compressed audio; Multimedia learning; Verbal redundancy; Learner performance; Learner satisfaction
Effects of disease and leader type on moderators in online support groups BIBAKFull-Text 2446-2455
  Morton A. Lieberman
This study examines the effects of illness (cancer and Parkinson's [PD]) on three moderators, the expression of positive and negative emotions and cognitive mechanisms. Each illness makes its own unique demands on patients and may influence change mechanisms. Similarly, we are asking, what effects do the type of leadership have on mediators that have previously been linked to positive outcomes. Four types of groups were studied, professional, the wellness community (TWC) chat mixed cancer (N groups = 4) and TWC chat PD patient groups (N groups = 6). The two peer groups were bulletin boards for colorectal cancer (N groups = 1) and PD BBs (N groups = 6). The design was a 2×2, disease and leader type. Computer-based text analysis, the linguistic inquiry and word count assessed the dependent variables. The results of the Manova found that; disease is P = NS, leader type, P = .00, interaction, P = .00. The interaction between disease and leader type is statistically significant, indicating that disease in combination with whether the leader is a peer or professional effects the expression of emotions and cognitive mechanisms.
Keywords: Internet support groups; Leadership; Disease; Moderators; Emotional expression; Cognitive mechanisms; Cancer; Parkinson's
Sensitivity to the proportions of faces that vary in human likeness BIBAKFull-Text 2456-2474
  Robert D. Green; Karl F. MacDorman; Chin-Chang Ho; Sandosh Vasudevan
Despite the often quoted adage "beauty is in the eye of the beholder," studies indicate people perceive certain facial and bodily proportions as attractive regardless of their culture. This preference, which is present even in infants, may be more hardwired than learned. Designers of computer games, animation, virtual reality, and robots must make choices about how to depict humanlike forms. An understanding of human perception and preferences can lead to design principles for successful interaction. This study measured human responses to varying facial proportions in people, androids, mechanical-looking robots, and two- and three-dimensional characters. Participants showed greater agreement on the best proportions of faces they considered more humanlike and more attractive and less tolerance for deviation from these proportions in more attractive faces.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Attractiveness perception; Facial acceptability; Inter-rater agreement; Uncanny valley

CHB 2008-09-17 Volume 24 Issue 6

Computers in human behavior: Special issue: Electronic games and personalised elearning processes BIBFull-Text 2475-2476
  Daniel Burgos; Baltasar Fernández-Manjón; Griff Richards
Effective message synchronization methods for multiplayer online games with maps BIBAKFull-Text 2477-2485
  Doowon Paik; Chung-Ha Yun; Jooyeon Hwang
A solution for the message synchronization problem of the client-server based game system is to wait for a certain period of time (waiting period) until the server processes the messages from clients. However, identifying a suitable waiting period proves challenging. In this paper, we develop two methods to determine the waiting period using the probability of interaction among participants and ranking of the delay among participants. Our methods take advantage of the property of games with geographical mapping, where each participant usually interacts with other participants only in the immediate surroundings. Simulation is performed for the evaluation of the methods and the shows that the proposed methods produce better results with lower average unfair ratio while keeping the same responsiveness compared to the method with prefixed waiting period.
Keywords: Message synchronization; Waiting period; NVE; Online game; Client-server
Unreal PowerPoint: Immersing PowerPoint presentations in a virtual computer game engine world BIBAKFull-Text 2486-2495
  Colin B. Price
At a recent conference on games in education, we made a radical decision to transform our standard presentation of PowerPoint slides and computer game demonstrations into a unified whole, inserting the PowerPoint presentation to the computer game. This opened up various questions relating to learning and teaching theories, which were debated by the conference delegates. In this paper, we reflect on these discussions, we present our initial experiment, and relate this to various theories of learning and teaching. In particular, we consider the applicability of "concept maps" to inform the construction of educational materials, especially their topological, geometrical and pedagogical significance. We supplement this "spatial" dimension with a theory of the dynamic, temporal dimension, grounded in a context of learning processes, such as Kolb's learning cycle. Finally, we address the multi-player aspects of computer games, and relate this to the theories of social and collaborative learning. This paper attempts to explore various theoretical bases, and so support the development of a new learning and teaching virtual reality approach.
Keywords: PowerPoint; Computer games; Unreal tournament 2004; Concept maps; Experiential learning
Designing and analyzing collaboration in a scripted game for vocational education BIBAKFull-Text 2496-2506
  Raija Hämäläinen; Kimmo Oksanen; Päivi Häkkinen
This study attempts to combine the technological possibilities of 3D-game environments and collaborative learning scripts. The study is a design experiment (N = 64) with multiple data collection and analysis (quantitative and qualitative) methods. The aims were twofold: The aim was to develop a game environment to simulate issues of work safety in a vocational context and to answer the following questions on the basis of an empirical study: (1) What kind of activities did the scripted game environment generate among the players? (2) How did the least and the most successful groups differ in this respect despite the same scripted game environment? Findings indicated that scripted game environment enriched the learning activities by enabling aspects that would not have been possible in traditional classroom settings. The scripted game environment also helped the players proceed in the different phases. However, the groups differed in terms of results in the test, collaboration processes, and the type and quantity of discussion. Especially discussion differed between the groups with highest and lowest test scores.
Keywords: Learning games; Collaborative learning
A pen and speech-based storytelling system for Chinese children BIBAKFull-Text 2507-2519
  Danli Wang; Jie Li; Jie Zhang; Guozhong Dai
Storytelling plays an important role in language learning. Storytelling by a child, as an educational activity, influences the child's linguistic ability, thought process, imagination, and creativity significantly. Many researchers have made extensive studies in storytelling systems for children. While there presently exist many software-based storytelling applications, most are deemed not completely suitable for Chinese children. In this paper, combining the characteristics of Chinese children and using the multimodal interaction pattern based on speech and pen-gesture, we present children a 3D storytelling system which uses user-centered scenario-based design method. The usability of the storytelling system is evaluated and the results suggest that all the users generally feel pretty satisfied with the system.
Keywords: Storytelling system; Children; Scenario-based design; Multimodal interaction; Usability evaluation
A descriptive study of Turkish high school students' game-playing characteristics and their considerations concerning the effects of games BIBAKFull-Text 2520-2529
  Turkan Karakus; Yavuz Inal; Kursat Cagiltay
The purpose of this study is to examine high school students' preferences, playing habits, expectations, and thoughts concerning computer games. One-thousand two hundred and twenty-four (1224) vocational high school students, studying at eight different schools in six cities within four different regions in Turkey, participated in the study. The results reveal that female students expect games to have instructive elements, while males desire elements that are entertaining, competitive, and multi-player. Females complained about negative aspects of computer games, such as causation of laziness and motivation for aggressive behavior, more than males. The students suggested that computer games might be used in education for Mathematics or History courses, and that they can be used to improve mental skills. Females also stated a preference to play in "convenient" places, such as their homes or schools, rather than in Internet cafés or other outside places, which were more strongly favored by males.
Keywords: Computer games; Gender; Educational games; High school students
Educational game design for online education BIBAKFull-Text 2530-2540
  Pablo Moreno-Ger; Daniel Burgos; Iván Martínez-Ortiz; José Luis Sierra; Baltasar Fernández-Manjón
The use of educational games in learning environments is an increasingly relevant trend. The motivational and immersive traits of game-based learning have been deeply studied in the literature, but the systematic design and implementation of educational games remain an elusive topic. In this study some relevant requirements for the design of educational games in online education are analyzed, and a general game design method that includes adaptation and assessment features is proposed. Finally, a particular implementation of that design is described in light of its applicability to other implementations and environments.
Keywords: Educational game design; Game-based learning; Online education; Pedagogical model; Instructional design; e-Adventure
Exploring the link between teachers' educational belief profiles and different types of computer use in the classroom BIBAKFull-Text 2541-2553
  Jo Tondeur; Ruben Hermans; Johan van Braak; Martin Valcke
The purpose of the study reported in this article was to analyse the relationship between teachers' educational beliefs and their typical approach to computer use in the classroom. In this context, the question arises whether particular profiles of teachers can be distinguished based on their beliefs about good education. A survey of 574 elementary school teachers was conducted that focused both on teachers' traditional or constructivist beliefs about education and on different types of computer use: 'computers as an information tool', 'computers as a learning tool' and 'basic computers skills'. Cluster analysis resulted in four distinct teacher profiles, reflecting relatively homogeneous scale scores, based on varying levels of traditional and constructivist beliefs teachers hold about education. Overall results indicate that teachers with relatively strong constructivist beliefs who also have strong traditional beliefs report a higher frequency of computer use. In addition, results point at a specific relationship between teachers' belief profiles and how computers are used in the classroom. Implications for the role of educational beliefs in supporting teachers to integrate ICT in the classroom are discussed.
Keywords: Teachers; Computer use; Educational beliefs; Primary education
Communication goals and online persuasion: An empirical examination BIBAKFull-Text 2554-2577
  E. Vance Wilson; Ying Lu
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) is frequently applied as a tool for organizational marketing and consumer research. This paper explores the underlying structure of message receivers' communication goals and their impact on persuasiveness in the context of CMC. Extending prior research on the structure of primary and secondary goals, we identified five specific communication goals that are important to receivers. We conducted an online exercise in which subjects respond to a message requesting them to volunteer their time. The results demonstrate all five communication goals are important to one or more indicators of persuasiveness, including attitude toward the issue, source credibility, perceived information quality, and behavioral intention to comply with the request.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Influence goals; Uses and gratifications theory; Interpersonal influence; Interpersonal communication
An experimental assessment of semantic apprehension of graphical linguistics BIBAKFull-Text 2578-2596
  Michael Workman
Visual displays of information (such as dashboards) have become very sophisticated in rendering world semantics but neglect display semantics, leading to what is commonly called information overload. Underlying storage and retrieval research has been utilizing semantic and cognitive theory to drive the current implementations of ontology markup using the resource description framework (RDF) and Web ontology language (OWL) for over a decade. Yet despite these semantically rich underlying description logics, and despite the very large and mature stream of cognitive and neuroscience theory literature on visual perception and attention, memory, and linguistics, this is one aspect within the area of information visualization and human factors research where empirically tested semantic theory has not yet caught up, and begs for theory-driven research into display semantics using what might be termed "graphical linguistics." We conducted an experiment to assess the cognitive effort of interpreting domain general knowledge using the same information represented in three forms, and found that graphical linguistics reduce cognitive effort for a specific type of task involving high-density time-sensitive information typically found in situation control rooms.
Keywords: Graphical linguistics; Transformational grammar; Cognitive load
Factor structure for Young's Internet Addiction Test: A confirmatory study BIBAKFull-Text 2597-2619
  Man Kit Chang; Sally Pui Man Law
A number of diagnostic scales have been developed in recent years to assess Internet addiction. To better understand the structure, validity, and reliability of such assessment instruments, Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was evaluated using a confirmatory approach.
   Data collected through a survey of 410 Hong Kong university undergraduates was subjected to exploratory factor analysis and data from a hold-out sample was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis in order to assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of the IAT scale. Three dimensions, namely, "Withdrawal and Social Problems", "Time Management and Performance", and "Reality Substitute" were extracted.
   These dimensions were then correlated with a number of criterion variables, including academic performance, online activities, gender, and Internet usage. The results show that academic performance was negatively correlated with the Internet addiction scores. The degree of Internet addiction was also found to vary across different types of online activity, with people engaged in cyberrelationships and online gambling having higher Internet addiction scores.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Young's Internet Addiction Test; Confirmatory factor analysis
The Computer Aversion, Attitudes, and Familiarity Index (CAAFI): A validity study BIBAKFull-Text 2620-2638
  Stefan E. Schulenberg; Amanda M. A. Melton
This study's purpose was to provide additional psychometric data on the Computer Aversion, Attitudes, and Familiarity Index (CAAFI). The CAAFI is comprised of 40 items, yielding a total score and four factor scores with 10 items each (one familiarity, one attitudes, two aversion). The measure was administered to a sample of undergraduate psychology students (N = 293) along with the Computer Understanding and Experience Scale, the Computer Attitude Scale, and the Computer Aversion Scale. The factor structure of the CAAFI was supported via confirmatory factor analytic procedures and analysis of internal consistency reliability coefficients. In relation to the other measures of computer-related constructs, the strongest validity support was found for the CAAFI total score and Factors 1 (computer familiarity) and 3 (computer aversion-discomfort), followed by Factor 2 (computer attitudes). With regard to Factor 4 (computer aversion-fear), given the results of the analyses the decision was made to remove these items from the CAAFI in order to enhance the measure's psychometric properties and practical utility.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Computer attitudes; Computer aversion; Computer experience; Computer familiarity; Confirmatory factor analysis; Psychological assessment
Multivariate effects of gender, ownership, and the frequency of use on computer anxiety among high school students BIBAKFull-Text 2639-2648
  Mustafa Baloglu; Vildan Çevik
Studies that address the problems associated with computer anxiety are abundant; however, fewer studies took into account multivariate nature of the construct. Moreover, studies focusing on high school students are even more limited. Thus, the present study investigated the multivariate effects of gender, ownership, and the frequency of computer use on computer anxiety levels, after controlling for the possible effects of trait anxiety among 715 Turkish high school students. The Computer Anxiety Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were used to assess computer anxiety and state and trait anxiety levels, respectively. A 2 X 2 X 3 between-subjects factorial multivariate analysis of covariance was used on three dependent variables that are the three dimensions of computer anxiety: Affective Anxiety, Damaging Anxiety, and Learning Anxiety. Independent variables are gender, ownership (i.e., yes or no), and the frequency of computer use (i.e., everyday, several times a week, or once a week or less). Results showed a significant covariate effect of trait anxiety, significant main effects for gender, ownership, and the frequency of computer use on the dependent variables. No three-way or two-way interaction was detected. After the descriptive and comparative analyses, specific suggestions were provided based on the results.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; High school students; Ownership; Frequency of use
Shyness and the internet: Social problem or panacea? BIBAKFull-Text 2649-2658
  Peter Lee Saunders; Andrea Chester
Shyness is a debilitating experience for a large proportion of the population. Shyness can be defined as a form of excessive self-focus, a preoccupation with one's thoughts, feelings, and physical reactions and may vary from mild social awkwardness to total social inhibition. This article explores shyness, its prevalence and effects and examines the role of the internet in the experience and expression of shyness. Compared to research on shyness in the offline world, empirical work on shyness online is relatively scarce. Nevertheless, the research that does exist can be categorized into two seemingly contradictory positions. The first position views the internet as an isolating medium, attractive to shy people and enhancing shyness. The second position describes the internet as an empowering medium, offering opportunities to experience disinhibition and social competence. This paper considers how the two positions might be reconciled. In addition, in order to reduce inconsistencies in the literature and to determine how shy people use the internet, it is suggested that more research, incorporating objective measures and experimental methodologies, is needed.
Keywords: Shyness; Internet
Development and validation of a computer attitude measure for young students (CAMYS) BIBAKFull-Text 2659-2667
  Timothy Teo; Jan Noyes
An important aspect in successfully implementing instructional technology in educational settings is user acceptance, which is greatly influenced by users' attitudes towards computers. Today, computers have become an integral part of instruction at all levels of education and it is important for educators and policy makers to understand how various factors interact with the user's characteristics to influence the teaching and learning process involving the use of computers. Over the years, many scales have been developed to measure computer attitudes of secondary students and adults. Few have been develop to be used for students in the primary schools. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a computer attitude measure for young students (CAMYS). The revised 12-item CAMYS was piloted with 256 students aged 10-12 with a mean of 11.9 years (SD = 0.31). Several statistical analyses were performed to assess the reliability and validity of the measure. The measure, together with suggestions for administration and scoring are included.
Keywords: Computer attitudes; Development; Validation; Young students; Structural equation modeling
Using multimedia to teach inservice teachers: Impacts on learning, application, and retention BIBAKFull-Text 2668-2681
  Caroline R. Pryor; Gary G. Bitter
This study investigated teachers' ability to learn, apply in lesson plans, and retain knowledge of classroom discourse from a single module of a multimedia professional development program, used with 39 K-12 teachers enrolled in two graduate courses. Data collection and analysis included: (a) teacher development of -- and panel review of -- lesson plans integrating discourse, and (b) follow-up teacher interviews one year later. The study found: (a) the video modeling in the module was effective in helping teachers learn, and (b) discourse strategies were learned, applied, and retained. Implications for professional development with multimedia to teach classroom discourse include: (a) recursive use, (b) reflection, (c) multiple examples, (d) counter examples, and (e) prompts for observation.
Keywords: Professional development; Teaching mathematics; Online streaming video episodes; Online staff development; Anytime anywhere professional development; Elementary and secondary math teacher training; Inservice; Preservice; Digital video library
Spatial updating of objects after rotational and translational body movements in virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 2682-2696
  Ipek Sancaktar; Halime Demirkan
Spatial reasoning in architectural design can be better understood by considering the factors that affect the spatial updating process of the individual in an environment. This study focuses on the issue of spatial updating of viewed and imagined objects after rotational and translational body movements in a virtual environment (VE). Rotational and translational movements based on an egocentric frame of reference where there is no control of the user are compared in a desktop VE. Moreover, preference in architectural drawing medium and gender are analyzed as the factors that affect the spatial updating of objects in each body movement type. The results indicated that translational movement was more efficient than the rotational movement in judgment of relative directions in viewed objects. Furthermore, the viewed objects were more correctly spatially updated than the imagined ones both in translational and rotational body movements. In comparison of hand, computer and both as the drawing media, findings indicated that preference in computer medium in architectural design drawings was an effective one in spatial updating process in a VE. Contrary to the previous studies, it is found that there was no significant difference between gender and movement types.
Keywords: Gender; Rotational movements; Spatial updating; Translational movements; Virtual environments
Predicting knowledge sharing practices through intention: A test of competing models BIBAKFull-Text 2697-2722
  Feng-Yang Kuo; Mei-Lien Young
In knowledge management (KM)-related research, effective knowledge sharing is considered to be one of the most critical components of KM success. For the present research, the authors conducted a longitudinal, two-phased study to evaluate if the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and three variations of the Theory of Planned Behavior -- namely, TPB, decomposed TPB (DTPB), and revised TPB (RTPB) -- can adequately predict knowledge sharing behaviors. The first TRA-based study shows a severe limitation in the ability of the intention to predict actual knowledge sharing behaviors collected from a knowledge management platform. In a subsequent study, three variations of TPB-based models were employed to show that, although the independent variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control that is decomposed into controllability and self-efficacy) give satisfactory explanations of variance in intention (R2 > 42%), the intention-behavior gap still exists in each of the three models. Only the perceived self-efficacy in the revised TPB can directly predict knowledge sharing behaviors. This gap highlights the importance of knowledge sharing as a fundamentally social activity for which the actualization of intention into actions may be interrupted due to barriers such as a mistake-free culture or others' deliberate misinterpretations that may in turn cause unanticipated negative consequences to the person. The theoretical implication of this study is that in applying TPB to study knowledge sharing practices, researchers must focus on control beliefs that reflect people's capacity to overcome possible environmental challenges encountered in carrying out their knowledge sharing intentions.
Keywords: Knowledge management; Knowledge sharing; Theory of Reasoned Action; Theory of Planned Behavior
An examination of disposition, motivation, and involvement in the new technology context computers in human behavior BIBAKFull-Text 2723-2740
  Shaojing Sun
This study investigated the relationship among dispositions (i.e., Internet self-efficacy, Internet anxiety), Internet motives, and involvement (i.e., media involvement, interaction involvement). By integrating mass communication and interpersonal communication research, the author found the dispositions played a more important role in explaining involvement than demographics did. Interpersonal utility motive and pass-time motive were important predictors of involvement. An interesting finding is that interpersonal utility motive negatively predicted interaction involvement, and positively predicted cognitive media involvement. In addition, this study provided insight into the Internet motives typology proposed by Papacharissi and Rubin [Papacharissi, Z., & Rubin, A. M. (2000). Predictors of internet use. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, 44, 175-196.].
Keywords: Self-efficacy; Internet anxiety; Interaction involvement; Motive
Interface agents as social models for female students: The effects of agent visual presence and appearance on female students' attitudes and beliefs BIBAKFull-Text 2741-2756
  Rinat B. Rosenberg-Kima; Amy L. Baylor; E. Ashby Plant; Celeste E. Doerr
The current work investigates the use of interface agents as anthropomorphic social models to influence young women's negative beliefs and low self-efficacy regarding engineering. Experiment 1 focused on the impact of agent model visual presence vs. voice alone for changing the women's beliefs. Based on literature on human social models we hypothesized that the visual presence of the interface agent would result in more positive attitudes toward engineering and greater self-efficacy than the presence of a human voice alone. Experiment 2 focused on the impact of model appearance-related characteristics for changing the women's beliefs. Previous work with human social models suggests that people are more persuaded by models that are similar to them. Therefore, models that were young, female, and "cool" were predicted to be more effective in influencing young women's attitudes. In accordance with our hypothesis, results revealed that participants who interacted with the visible agents reported significantly greater utility for engineering, greater self-efficacy, and greater interest in engineering-related fields than those who interacted with a human voice. In addition, the agent models that were similar to the young women tended to be the most effective for positively influencing the women's stereotypes and self-efficacy.
Keywords: Persuasion; Interface agents; Engineering voice; Pedagogical agents
Relationship between the level of intimacy and lurking in online social network services BIBAKFull-Text 2757-2770
  Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Qin Gao; Yinan Ding
The rapid growth of online social network services (SNSs) leads to new research questions. Unlike in other online communities, people in SNSs expect to gratify social-emotional needs rather than informational needs, and they are connected in a person-to-person manner which is more direct and interpersonal. The author argued that the factors influencing members' public posting in SNSs differ from those in traditional online communities. Interpersonal intimacy was postulated to influence lurking behaviors in SNSs. To investigate the relationship between intimacy level and posting frequency in SNSs, an online survey was conducted in Wallop, a SNS provided by Microsoft. Responses (102) were collected, in which the first 40 posters and the first 40 lurkers were selected for statistical analysis. The result shows significant differences exist in both verbal and affective intimacy level between lurkers and posters. The level of verbal intimacy and the level of affective intimacy are positively correlated with posting frequency. The result of discriminant analysis shows that verbal intimacy and affective intimacy are useful for discriminating posting/lurking groups of users. In addition, significant gender differences in perceived intimacy and posting behaviors were found. The result implies that people lurk in SNSs because they believe that their social-emotional needs may not be satisfied even if they post.
Keywords: Computer mediated communication (CMC); Social networking; Interpersonal relationship; Intimacy
Interface design and emotions experienced on B2C Web sites: Empirical testing of a research model BIBAKFull-Text 2771-2791
  Jean Éthier; Pierre Hadaya; Jean Talbot; Jean Cadieux
This paper examines the impact of four Web site interface features on the cognitive process that trigger online shoppers' emotions, operationalized as mental states of readiness that arise from appraisal of events and considered as direct antecedents to approach or avoidance behaviors. A research model was tested with data collected from 215 Web shopping episodes for low-touch merchandise. Results show that shoppers experienced all six emotions posited in the model. The emotions of liking and joy were experienced intensively by a substantial number of shoppers. The results also demonstrate that interface features -- key components of the usability of a Web site -- influenced the three cognitive appraisals illustrated in the research model. Moreover, the cognitive appraisals of situational state and control potential impacted the six emotions examined. This paper also highlights several theoretical contributions and managerial implications that should help managers and Web site managers improve the interface design of their Web sites in order to facilitate information gathering and better support online shopping processes.
Keywords: Interface design; Emotions; Cognitive appraisals; Web site usability
The roles of personality and class size in student attitudes toward individual response technology BIBAKFull-Text 2792-2798
  Matthew Hunsinger; Christopher R. Poirier; Robert S. Feldman
The use of individual response technology (IRT) in college classrooms is becoming increasingly common. In order to understand why some students enjoy IRT use whereas others do not, we examined the relationship between personality and attitudes towards IRT use in large and small classrooms. In addition, we investigated the relationship between IRT use and classroom learning. We collected data from 452 undergraduate students (209 males and 243 females). The results show that students who are more extraverted and conscientious report more positive ratings of IRT. Furthermore, students who earn higher grades enjoy IRT use more than other students. Implications for the effective use of IRT in the classroom are discussed and future directions for research are suggested.
Keywords: Individual response technology; Big five personality factors; College students' attitudes
Security lapses and the omission of information security measures: A threat control model and empirical test BIBAKFull-Text 2799-2816
  Michael Workman; William H. Bommer; Detmar Straub
Organizations and individuals are increasingly impacted by misuses of information that result from security lapses. Most of the cumulative research on information security has investigated the technical side of this critical issue, but securing organizational systems has its grounding in personal behavior. The fact remains that even with implementing mandatory controls, the application of computing defenses has not kept pace with abusers' attempts to undermine them. Studies of information security contravention behaviors have focused on some aspects of security lapses and have provided some behavioral recommendations such as punishment of offenders or ethics training. While this research has provided some insight on information security contravention, they leave incomplete our understanding of the omission of information security measures among people who know how to protect their systems but fail to do so. Yet carelessness with information and failure to take available precautions contributes to significant civil losses and even to crimes. Explanatory theory to guide research that might help to answer important questions about how to treat this omission problem lacks empirical testing. This empirical study uses protection motivation theory to articulate and test a threat control model to validate assumptions and better understand the "knowing-doing" gap, so that more effective interventions can be developed.
Keywords: Information security; Omissive behaviors; Threat control model; Social cognitive theory; Protection motivation theory
Culture, gender and information technology use: A comparison of Chinese and US children BIBAKFull-Text 2817-2829
  Linda A. Jackson; Yong Zhao; Wei Qiu; Anthony, III Kolenic; Hiram E. Fitzgerald; Rena Harold; Alexander von Eye
This research addressed four basic questions about culture, gender and information technology (IT) use. First, are there differences between Chinese and US children in their computer and Internet use? Second, are there differences between Chinese and US children in their use of other technologies, namely, videogames and cell phones? Third, does gender moderate the influence of culture on the use of computers, the Internet and other technologies? Fourth, are there differences among subcultural groups within cultures in their IT use? Using samples of 600 Chinese and 600 US children whose average age was 12 years old, findings indicated cultural and gender differences in technology use as well as interactions between the two. US children used computers and the Internet more than did Chinese children, with Chinese females being the least intense users. Males played videogames more than did females, with US males playing more than did Chinese males. US females lead all other groups in cell phone use, whereas Chinese females were least likely to use them. Racial and ethnic group differences indicate that diversity within cultural groups among subcultures must be considered in understanding children's IT use. Implications of cultural, gender and subcultural group differences in technology use for equity in access to technology and educational interventions for children in the use of technology are discussed.
Keywords: Gender; Culture; Technology use
The effect of innovativeness on the adoption of B2C e-commerce: A model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour BIBAKFull-Text 2830-2847
  Ángel Herrero Crespo; Ignacio Rodríguez del Bosque
This paper analyses the factors that lead Internet users to becoming online shoppers. In particular, assuming that Internet is an innovation affecting the way individuals shop, a model of electronic commerce adoption is proposed that adds personal innovativeness to the traditional formulation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The theoretical model proposed is tested on a sample of Web users with no experience in online shopping. The results denote that electronic commerce acceptance is determined by attitudes to the system, subjective norm and personal innovativeness in the domain of information technology. Moreover, we find that personal innovativeness has a moderating effect on the acceptance of electronic commerce.
Keywords: Internet; Electronic commerce; Theory of planned behaviour; Innovativeness; Attitude; Subjective norm
Open source content contributors' response to free-riding: The effect of personality and context BIBAKFull-Text 2848-2861
  Oded Nov; George Kuk
We address concerns about the sustainability of the open source content model by examining the effect of external appropriation, whereby the product of open source contributors' efforts is monetized by a party that did not contribute to the project, on intended effort withdrawal (reduction in contribution level). We examine both the personality of contributors and their contextual motivations to contribute, using a scenario-based survey of Wikipedia contributors. The findings suggest that perceived justice of the open source license terms, and intrinsic motivations are both negatively related with effort withdrawal intentions. Moreover, we find that the effect of the fairness personality trait on effort withdrawal is stronger for individuals who are low in perceived justice and weaker for individuals high in justice. The findings of factors predicting effort withdrawal contribute to the open source literature, which tends to focus on contribution and motivations, but not on what impacts changes in individual contribution levels.
Keywords: Open source content; Wikipedia; Justice; Personality; Fairness; Motivation
Implicit learning as a design strategy for learning games: Alert Hockey BIBAKFull-Text 2862-2872
  Chad Ciavarro; Mike Dobson; David Goodman
Concussion education and prevention for youth hockey players has been an issue of recent concern amongst sport medicine practitioners and hockey's administrative bodies. This article details the assessment of a sports-action hockey video game that aims to reduce the aggressive and negligent behaviours that can lead to concussions. The game, termed Alert Hockey, was designed to modify game playing behaviour by embedding an implicit teaching mechanism within the gameplay. In Alert Hockey, participants were expected to learn by simply playing to win, in contrast to playing to learn. We studied learning in an experimental simulated environment where the possibility to win the game was exaggerated as a consequence of desirable safety behaviours (positive learning group) and effectively reduced as a consequence of undesirable (negative learning group) behaviour. The positive learning group significantly improved their mean score on a composite behavioural indicator compared with no significant change amongst control group participants. The results demonstrate that implicit learning embedded in a sports-action game can lead to changes in game-play behaviour.
Keywords: Implicit learning; Computer games; Brain concussion
Contextual multi-dimensional browsing BIBAKFull-Text 2873-2888
  Ling-Ling Wu; Ya-Lan Chuang; Yuh-Jzer Joung
Browsing efficiency depends to a large extent on the organization of the information being browsed. An emerging method of organizing Web content, called multi-faceted categorization, adopts a flat structure and treats different facets of the browsed content as equal and independent. The advantage of this structure is that it allows users to slice and dice the information space from any of the facets they wish to browse, and in any arbitrary order, thereby facilitating so-called multi-dimensional browsing. However, because of limited human information processing capacities, too many choices and too much browsing freedom tend to disorient users and increase the difficulty of information gathering. A more effective means of organizing information is therefore needed.
   In the literature, it is well documented that context plays a crucial role in making relevance judgments about categorical attributes. Since browsing always occurs in relation to certain contexts, we propose taking context into account for multi-faceted categorization to help organize different facets of information on the browsing interface. Our experiment results demonstrate that the context-sensitive arrangement of categories helps users find information more efficiently. Moreover, users perceive the context-sensitive interface as easier to use than non-contextual interfaces.
Keywords: Browsing; Interface design; Context; Web content categorization; Multi-dimensional browsing; Multi-faceted browsing
Development, content, process and outcome of an online peer supervision group for counselor trainees BIBAKFull-Text 2889-2903
  Christine J. Yeh; Tai Chang; Lillian Chiang; Christopher M. Drost; Dorota Spelliscy; Robert T. Carter; Yaowen Chang
This study investigated the development, content, process, and outcome of an online peer supervision group (OPSG) for counselor trainees. Outcome measures determined that participants felt comfortable, confident, and open to using the OPSG. In addition, counselor trainees reported a preference for using aliases online to foster more sharing. In terms of content, topics in the group focused on mostly professional identity (40.1%) and therapeutic techniques (22.5%). A discourse analysis of the group revealed a high percentage of messages were experiential self-disclosure (40.0%) and guidance (20.0%). Our findings indicate that the components and content found in supervision groups, and in group process more generally, can take place in OPSGs. The role of computers in psychological training is discussed.
Keywords: Peer supervision; Online support; Counselor training; Self disclosure; Discourse analysis; Web-based bulletin board
Learning multiplication through computer-assisted learning activities BIBAKFull-Text 2904-2916
  Kuo-En Chang; Yao-Ting Sung; Yu-Lung Chen; Long-Hua Huang
This study develops and implements a computer-assisted learning (CAL) program with both multiplicative facts practices and the instruction of meaning behind these facts. The effectiveness of CAL on the development of multiplication abilities is also explored. Eight CAL activities are developed to teach multiplication to second grade elementary school students. The CAL program is comprised of three stages of instruction that addressed in succession the basic concept of multiplication, the meaning and properties of multiplication and multiplication-related computation skills. Evaluation of the effects of the learning activities reveals that CAL activities are effective in improving comprehension of the concept of multiplication and the meaning and properties of multiplication for students who have lower prior knowledge of multiplication, but it does not significantly improve the development of multiplication-related computation skills. Nevertheless, CAL activities facilitate overall learning of multiplication.
Keywords: Elementary mathematical education; Multiplication learning; Computer-assisted learning
Cultural divide and the Internet BIBAKFull-Text 2917-2926
  Matías Recabarren; Miguel Nussbaum; Claudia Leiva
The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between culture and Internet usage. In the light of studies showing the existence of subcultures within a country, an experiment was designed and conducted based on the Hofstede cultural model and Tiwana's expert knowledge model to determine how social differences affect the Internet usage of first-year university students. Data-mining techniques were then used to find relationships between culture and Internet usage. We conclude that abilities and performance relating to Internet use differs among subcultures not only because of the digital divide but also because of cultural differences. We also show that subcultures tend to converge over time when placed in the same context.
Keywords: Culture; Human-computer interaction (HCI); User-interface design; Web sites design
The impact of customer interface quality, satisfaction and switching costs on e-loyalty: Internet experience as a moderator BIBAKFull-Text 2927-2944
  Hsin Hsin Chang; Su Wen Chen
Customer interface quality has been confirmed to critically influence the success of electronic commerce, and there has been extensive discussion about the effects of customer interface quality on consumer behavior. However, few studies have examined how customer interface quality affects e-loyalty. Furthermore, although satisfaction and switching costs are expected to be antecedents to customer loyalty, few studies have systematically examined how these elements are related to customer interface quality. This study proposes an integrating theoretical framework for testing the relationships among customer interface quality, satisfaction, switching costs, and e-loyalty. Moreover, this study argues that the relationships among these constructs are moderated by Internet experience. Empirical analyses are performed using structural equations modeling analysis. The findings confirm that customer interface quality, including customization, interaction, convenience and character, contributes to generating e-loyalty. Particularly, the results show that convenience directly enhances e-loyalty. Additionally, this study finds that customer interface quality positively influences switching costs for customers with higher Internet experience, a phenomenon that has not previously been explored.
Keywords: Customer interface quality; Customer satisfaction; Switching costs; E-loyalty; Internet experience
Cross-cultural deception in social networking sites and face-to-face communication BIBAKFull-Text 2945-2964
  Carmen C. Lewis; Joey F. George
Deception research has been primarily studied from a Western perspective, so very little is known regarding how other cultures view deception. Cross-cultural deception research is important due to the escalation of cross-cultural communication. Therefore, this study proposes a framework for understanding the role Korean and American culture plays in deceptive behavior for both face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC). The goal of this paper is to test theoretical explanations about the role of culture in deception by the development of a set of hypotheses predicting the conditions under which deception is likely to emerge. A research strategy and construct measures to test the hypotheses are presented. Results from online questionnaires indicated Korean respondents exhibited greater collectivist values, lower levels of power distance, and higher levels of masculine values than Americans. Furthermore, deceptive behavior was greater for FTF communication than for CMC for both Korean and American respondents. In addition to a significant relationship between culture and deception, differences were found between espoused cultural values and deceptive behavior, regardless of national culture. These results indicate the need for future research to consider cultural differences when examining deceptive behavior.
Keywords: Deception; Culture; Computer-mediated communication
Social facilitation and human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 2965-2971
  Byron Hall; David Dryden Henningsen
The Computers As Social Actors (CASA) research paradigm has examined how individuals respond to computers programmed to interact in various ways. In the current research, we extend the principles of CASA to determine whether computer icons can be used to produce social facilitation effects. Varying task difficulty and the presence or absence of a computer icon (i.e., Microsoft word's Clip), performance on a typing task is considered. Overall, results provide some support for the contention that the mere presence of a computer icon may influence task performance.
Keywords: Social facilitation; Computers As Social Actors
Social impact in technologically-mediated communication: An examination of online influence BIBAKFull-Text 2972-2991
  Michael D. Miller; C. Cryss Brunner
This study used Social Impact Theory to explore sources and functions of interpersonal influence in Computer-Mediated Communication. Participants were 43 female and 17 male graduate students ranging from 25 to 60 years of age. In each of five distinct graduate classes (n1 = 15, n2 = 11, n3 = 10, n4 = 12, n5 = 12) delivered online at a research university, participants engaged in anonymous and computer-mediated discourse and then nominated peers who were directive and/or influential (positive and negative) during the online interaction. High numbers of peer nominations were expected to characterize participants perceived as emanating social impact. Four interpersonal factors were chosen as strength operants in accordance with Social Impact Theory and were, therefore, expected to predict social impact. Of the four, assertiveness and exaggeration were significant, while emotional intensity and sensitivity were not. Two factors, contribution total and word total, were chosen as immediacy operants in accordance with Social Impact Theory. Both factors were found to be significant predictors of social impact. Implications of these findings relative to online learning and interpersonal influence as it occurs in an online context are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-Mediated Communication; Technologically-mediated communication; Influence; Personality; Social impact
Online recruiting: The effects of organizational familiarity, website usability, and website attractiveness on viewers' impressions of organizations BIBAKFull-Text 2992-3001
  Phillip W. Braddy; Adam W. Meade; Christina M. Kroustalis
Previous research on Internet recruitment has made the implicit assumption that recruitment websites influence viewers' opinions of recruiting organizations. This study tested this assumption using a pretest/posttest design. Findings revealed that participants' organizational favorability, image as employer, and organizational attractiveness perceptions were affected by their viewing of organizational recruitment websites. Greater increases in favorable organizational evaluations from the pretest measures to the posttest measures occurred with organizations maintaining websites that were easy to navigate and/or that were appealing. Contrary to predictions made by signaling theory, recruitment websites had similar effects on the organizational impressions of all individuals, regardless of their familiarity with the organizations maintaining the recruitment websites that they viewed.
Keywords: Internet recruiting; Online recruiting; Web recruiting; Website usability; Website attractiveness; Signaling theory
Technostress under different organizational environments: An empirical investigation BIBAKFull-Text 3002-3013
  Kanliang Wang; Qin Shu; Qiang Tu
Today's pervasive information and communications technologies (ICTs) enable us to get connected almost anywhere at anytime. ICTs such as the Internet, the advanced wireless technologies and mobile communications networks are becoming increasingly indispensable in many aspects of business and everyday life. But to keep up with the fast advancing pace of the new ICTs, employees have to constantly renew their technical skills as well as enduring pressure from a more complex system and higher expectations for productivity. This often leads to ICT related technostress experienced by employees in many organizations. Studies have found technostress to have significant negative impact on employee productivity. Based on large-scale survey responses Chinese employees, this paper investigates the effects of different organizational environment settings on employee technostress levels. The results show that employees from more centralized companies often perceive more technostress. In addition, in organizations that are both highly centralized and highly innovative, the overall technostress level is the highest. On the other hand, in organizations with low centralization and low innovation, technostress is the lowest. This research will provide a foundation for organizations to understand and alleviate technostress, thus improving employee performance.
Keywords: Technostress; Organizational internal environment; Factor analysis
Virtual social interactions: Evolutionary, social psychological and technological perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 3014-3026
  Ahmed Y. Mahfouz; Andreas G. Philaretou; Antonis Theocharous
This paper represents an exploratory and quantitative investigation into online dating from evolutionary, psychological, and technological points of view. In the past decade, the relatively inexpensive availability of user-friendly, fast, and reliable Internet technology has appealed to millions of consumers who suddenly found themselves engrossed by this sensational medium of communication, information, consumerism, and service. The majority of Internet users tend to be either recreational or utilitarian oriented, using such medium for a wide variety of tasks ranging from corresponding with friends and significant others, information gathering, purchasing goods and services, and, increasingly so, seeking and securing suitable dating and marital partners. The following research questions constitute the driving force for the current investigation: What are the evolutionary and social psychological intricacies of online dating? What are the technological variants or dimensions that render the consumption of online dating services appealing to users? An online survey was administered to 247 subjects to explore these questions and determine the technological dimensions of virtual social interaction. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to analyse the data. Eight technological dimensions emerged as a result of the analysis and served as the basis for the study's technological perspectives model of virtual social interactions.
Keywords: Online dating; Virtual environment; Evolutionary psychology; Experience; Social interaction
Internet addiction: Meta-synthesis of qualitative research for the decade 1996-2006 BIBAKFull-Text 3027-3044
  Alecia C. Douglas; Juline E. Mills; Mamadou Niang; Svetlana Stepchenkova; Sookeun Byun; Celestino Ruffini; Seul Ki Lee; Jihad Loutfi; Jung-Kook Lee; Mikhail Atallah; Marina Blanton
Internet addiction is "an individual's inability to control their Internet use, which in turn leads to feelings of distress and functional impairment of daily activities" [Shapira, N., Lessig, M., Goldsmith, T., Szabo, S., Lazoritz, M., Gold, M. et al. (2003). Problematic Internet use: Proposed classification and diagnostic criteria. Depression and Anxiety, 17(4), 207-216]. Previous research in this field has offered inconclusive data on whether Internet addiction can be classified as a disorder. This study provides an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of internet addiction through a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies on excessive Internet use published during the period of 1996-2006. Several constructs pertaining to the domain of Internet addiction have been identified and a theoretical model of Internet addiction has been proposed.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Internet Addiction Disorder (IAD); Meta-synthesis; Qualitative research design
The role of spatial abilities and age in performance in an auditory computer navigation task BIBAKFull-Text 3045-3051
  Richard Pak; Sara J. Czaja; Joseph Sharit; Wendy A. Rogers; Arthur D. Fisk
Age-related differences in spatial ability have been suggested as a mediator of age-related differences in computer-based task performance. However, the vast majority of tasks studied have primarily used a visual display (e.g., graphical user interfaces). In the current study, the relationship between spatial ability and performance in a non-visual computer-based navigation task was examined in a sample of 196 participants ranging in age from 18 to 91. Participants called into a simulated interactive voice response system and carried out a variety of transactions. They also completed measures of attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. The results showed that age-related differences in spatial ability predicted a significant amount of variance in performance in the non-visual computer task, even after controlling for other abilities. Understanding the abilities that influence performance with technology may provide insight into the source of age-related performance differences in the successful use of technology.
Keywords: Interactive voice response systems; Aging; Cognitive abilities; Interface
Psychologist treatment recommendations for Internet-based therapeutic interventions BIBAKFull-Text 3052-3062
  Louis Mora; Jeffrey Nevid; William Chaplin
A mailed survey was used to evaluate psychologists' endorsements of four Internet-based treatment modalities (e-mail, individual chat, group chat, and video conferencing) as either adjunctive or alternative forms of treatment. Participants were 138 psychologists recruited from a state psychological organization's membership directory. Participants provided endorsements for each Internet-based intervention based on a hypothetical case in which past treatment history was manipulated in a randomized design. Overall, psychologists provided low levels of endorsement of Internet-based services; however, significantly higher levels of endorsement were found for a case vignette that lacked any mention of past treatment history as compared to an otherwise identical case that mentioned previous treatment for major depression. Additionally, participants provided higher endorsements for e-mail applications than other modalities and cognitive-behaviorally-oriented practitioners more strongly endorsed the use of Internet-based interventions than psychoanalytically-oriented practitioners.
Keywords: Online therapy; Internet; Psychotherapy; Psychologist
Corrigendum to: "The role of the idea champion in innovation: The case of the Internet in the mid-1990s" [Computers in Human Behavior 24 (2008) 451-461] BIBFull-Text 3063
  Morell E. Mullins; Steve W. J. Kozlowski; Neal Schmitt; Ann W. Howell