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Computers in Human Behavior 27

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2011-01 Volume 27 Issue 1
  2. CHB 2011-03 Volume 27 Issue 2
  3. CHB 2011-05 Volume 27 Issue 3
  4. CHB 2011-07 Volume 27 Issue 4
  5. CHB 2011-09 Volume 27 Issue 5
  6. CHB 2011-11 Volume 27 Issue 6

CHB 2011-01 Volume 27 Issue 1

Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics and learning engagement: The Current State of the Art BIBFull-Text 1-4
  Femke Kirschner; Liesbeth Kester; Gemma Corbalan
Does cognitive load moderate the seductive details effect? A multimedia study BIBAKFull-Text 5-10
  Babette Park; Roxana Moreno; Tina Seufert; Roland Brünken
Several studies have shown that adding seductive details to instructional materials has a detrimental effect on learning. However, other studies have shown non-significant findings. The present study uses cognitive load theory as a theoretical framework to explain these controversial results in seductive details research. Using a 2 × 2 experimental design we asked a group of high-school students (N = 100) to learn about biology with a multimedia environment that manipulated the presence of seductive details (with vs. without) and the modality of the verbal information (high load, on-screen text vs. low load, narration). The findings showed that students' learning performance was significantly higher when seductive details were presented under the low load condition (narration) as compared to all other conditions. The theoretical implications for understanding the effects of non-redundant and interesting, but irrelevant learning material are discussed and future research directions are presented.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Modality; Seductive details; Multimedia learning; Motivation; Redundancy
Effectiveness of on-screen pinyin in learning Chinese: An expertise reversal for multimedia redundancy effect BIBAKFull-Text 11-15
  Chee Ha Lee; Slava Kalyuga
The reported study is aimed at developing effective techniques for reducing learner cognitive overload while using pinyin (a phonetic system) to learn the Chinese language. According to the multimedia redundancy effect, commonly used concurrent visual presentations of characters and pinyin, as well as their auditory pronunciations might impose an unnecessary extraneous load on learners and thus eliminate any potential benefits of using pinyin. In this study, learning effects of three computer-based presentation techniques (full on-screen pinyin transcription, partial on-screen pinyin transcription, and no on-screen pinyin) were compared for learners with higher and lower levels of prior language proficiency and pinyin knowledge. Results demonstrated the superiority of the partial pinyin condition over the two other conditions for more experienced learners. No differences between the three experimental groups were found for learners with lower levels of prior knowledge. The effectiveness of different pinyin presentation techniques depended on levels of learner prior knowledge (an expertise reversal effect).
Keywords: Cognitive load; Classic Chinese; Pinyin; Multimedia redundancy effect; Expertise reversal effect
Adapting prior knowledge activation: Mobilisation, perspective taking, and learners' prior knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 16-21
  Sandra A. J. Wetzels; Liesbeth Kester; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer
This study investigates the effects of two prior knowledge activation strategies, namely, mobilisation and perspective taking, on learning. It is hypothesised that the effectiveness of these strategies is influenced by learners' prior domain knowledge. More specifically, mobilisation is expected to be the most effective activation strategy at lower levels of prior knowledge. Mobilisation is a bottom-up oriented strategy that serves a broad stage-setting function. It provides learners with a relevant context in which new information can be integrated, which might be especially beneficial for learners with lower levels of prior knowledge to help them extend their limited knowledge base. As prior knowledge increases, perspective taking is expected to become the most effective strategy for activating learners' prior knowledge. Perspective taking is a top-down oriented strategy that results in the activation of a corresponding schema. This schema guides the selection and processing of information relevant to the schema, which might especially support learners with higher levels of prior knowledge to refine their already elaborated knowledge base. The effectiveness of the activation strategies (in terms of learning task performance) was indeed influenced by learners' prior knowledge in the hypothesised direction.
Keywords: Prior knowledge activation; Mobilisation; Perspective taking; Prior knowledge
The role of spatial descriptions in learning from multimedia BIBAKFull-Text 22-28
  Florian Schmidt-Weigand; Katharina Scheiter
In the reported experiment we investigated how spatial information conveyed in an expository text influenced multimedia learning. It was based on a 2 × 2-design with the degree of spatial information given in the text (high vs. low spatial text) and the presentation format (written text-only vs. written text + animation) as between-subjects factors. As dependent variables learning outcomes as well as self-reported cognitive load were assessed. The results revealed that there was a multimedia effect with regard to learning outcomes only for low spatial text, but not for high spatial text. Moreover, the cognitive load measures showed an overall multimedia effect irrespective of the degree of spatial information conveyed by the text (i.e., higher cognitive load ratings in the text-only conditions). These results can be explained as a special instance of the redundancy effect as well as a consequence of processing interference within visuo-spatial working memory.
Keywords: Multimedia; Animation; Spatial information; Working memory; Redundancy; Conjoint retention
The influence of text modality on learning with static and dynamic visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 29-35
  Tim Kühl; Katharina Scheiter; Peter Gerjets; Jörg Edelmann
In this study we investigated the influence of text modality on learning with static and dynamic visualizations in a dynamic domain, namely the physical principles underlying fish locomotion. A 2 × 2-design with type of visualization (static vs. dynamic) and text modality (spoken vs. written) as independent variables was used. Concerning learning outcomes, it was hypothesized that (1) learners presented with dynamic visualizations would outperform learners presented with static visualizations, (2) learners presented with spoken text would outperform learners presented with written text, and (3) an interaction between type of visualization and modality would occur: the superiority of dynamic over static visualizations was expected to be more pronounced for spoken compared to written text. Subjective cognitive load measures were assessed and expected to mirror the aforementioned pattern of learning outcomes in accordance with Cognitive Load Theory (i.e., higher extraneous cognitive load (ECL) related to lower learning outcomes). For transfer tasks, the first two hypotheses could be confirmed. However, there was no interaction. Moreover, ECL was rated higher by subjects when learning with static compared to dynamic visualizations, but there were no differences for ECL with respect to the text modality. The results are discussed within the framework of Cognitive Load Theory.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Multimedia; Animation; Dynamic visualizations; Static visualizations; Modality
The attention-guiding effect and cognitive load in the comprehension of animations BIBAKFull-Text 36-40
  Franck Amadieu; Claudette Mariné; Carole Laimay
To be effective, instructional animations should avoid causing high extraneous cognitive load imposed by the high attentional requirements of selecting and processing relevant elements. In accordance with the attention-guiding principle (Bétrancourt, 2005), a study was carried out concerning the impact of cueing on cognitive load and comprehension of animations which depicted a dynamic process in a neurobiology domain. Cueing consisted of zooming in important information at each step of the process. Thirty-six undergraduate psychology students were exposed to an animation three times. Half of the participants received an animation without cueing while the other half received the same animation with cueing. Measures of cognitive load and comprehension performance (questions on isolated elements and on high-element interactivity material) were administered twice, after one and three exposures to the animation. The analyses revealed two main results. First, extraneous cognitive load was reduced by cueing after three exposures. Second, retention of the isolated elements was improved in both animation groups, whereas comprehension of high-element interactive material (i.e., the causal relations between elements) increased only in the cueing condition. Furthermore, a problem solving task showed that cueing supported the development of a more elaborate mental model.
Keywords: Animation; Attention; Cueing; Comprehension; Cognitive load; Element interactivity
Attention cueing in an instructional animation: The role of presentation speed BIBAKFull-Text 41-45
  Björn B. de Koning; Huib K. Tabbers; Remy M. J. P. Rikers; Fred Paas
Research has shown that guiding learners' attention in animations by cueing does not necessarily improve conceptual understanding. This study investigated whether the number of elements that are presented per unit of time influences the effectiveness of cueing by showing a cued or an uncued animation about the cardiovascular system at a high or at a low speed. It was hypothesized that cueing would be most helpful for learning when the animation was shown at a high rather than at a low speed. Unexpectedly, students showed equal performances on comprehension and transfer tests irrespective of cueing and the animation's speed. However, the low speed groups invested more mental effort to obtain this performance than the high speed groups. The findings and their implications for the design of animations are discussed in terms of cognitive load theory.
Keywords: Animations; Cueing; Cognitive load; Speed
An expertise reversal effect of segmentation in learning from animated worked-out examples BIBAKFull-Text 46-52
  Ingrid A. E. Spanjers; Pieter Wouters; Tamara van Gog; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer
Many animations impose a high cognitive load due to the transience of information, which often hampers learning. Segmentation, that is presenting animations in pieces (i.e., segments), has been proposed as a means to reduce this high cognitive load. The expertise reversal effect shows, however, that design measures that have a positive effect on cognitive load and learning for students with lower levels of prior knowledge, might not be effective, or might even have a negative effect on cognitive load and learning for students with higher levels of prior knowledge. This experiment with animated worked-out examples showed an expertise reversal effect of segmentation: segmented animations were more efficient than continuous animations (i.e., equal test performance with lower investment of mental effort during learning) for students with lower levels of prior knowledge, but not for students with higher levels of prior knowledge.
Keywords: Instructional animations; Cognitive load; Segmentation; Expertise reversal effect; Multimedia learning
Superiority of collaborative learning with complex tasks: A research note on an alternative affective explanation BIBAKFull-Text 53-57
  Femke Kirschner; Fred Paas; Paul A. Kirschner
Kirschner, Paas, and Kirschner (2009c) used the theoretical framework of cognitive load to explain why the learning of a group of collaborating individuals was more efficient than that of individuals learning alone with high-complexity tasks but not with low-complexity tasks. The authors argued that collaboration circumvented the limitations of an individual's working memory by creating an expanded cognitive capacity and by allowing for the distribution of cognitive load among group members. Inspired by research on efficacy, this study explored an alternative affective explanation of the results. By measuring the amount of mental effort learners expected to invest in working on a learning task before actually carrying out the task, this study showed that learners who had to collaboratively solve a high-complexity problem expected to invest less mental effort than learners who had to solve the problem alone. When confronted with low-complexity tasks, the expected amount of mental effort did not differ.
Keywords: Cognitive load theory; Efficacy; Learning efficiency; Collaborative learning; Individual learning
Effects of different ratios of worked solution steps and problem solving opportunities on cognitive load and learning outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 58-62
  Rolf Schwonke; Alexander Renkl; Ron Salden; Vincent Aleven
A crucial challenge for instructional designers is to determine the amount of support that is most beneficial for learning. This experiment investigated effects of different ratios of worked solution steps (high assistance) and to-be-solved problem steps (low assistance) on cognitive skill acquisition in geometry. High-school students (N = 125) worked on a geometry lesson in a Cognitive Tutor under five different ratios (from zero worked steps and five to-be-solved steps to four worked steps and one to-be-solved step). Effects on cognitive load and learning outcomes were assessed. We expected the effectiveness of different ratios to vary with the type of learning outcomes (i.e., procedural vs. conceptual knowledge) and the difficulty of the to-be-learned principles. Results showed that for procedural knowledge (but not for conceptual knowledge) problem solving alone was most beneficial for the acquisition of procedural knowledge related to an easy principle. For a difficult principle, no ratio of worked steps and problem solving showed an advantage over another. Problem solving induced more extraneous load than studying worked examples. Thus, in determining optimal amounts of guidance type of knowledge and difficulty of the single to-be learned knowledge chunks should be considered.
Keywords: Worked examples; Tutored problem solving; Cognitive load; Cognitive Tutors; Computer-supported learning; Mathematics education
Instructing in generalized knowledge structures to develop flexible problem solving skills BIBAKFull-Text 63-68
  Slava Kalyuga; José Hanham
In contrast to routine knowledge and skills, flexible problem solving is associated with the ability to apply one's knowledge structures in relatively new situations. In the absence of specific knowledge-based guidance, such processes could be very cognitively demanding. This paper suggests that learning flexible problem solving skills could be enhanced by explicitly instructing learners in generalized forms of schematic knowledge structures that are applicable to a greater variety of problems. The paper presents results of an experimental study that has investigated this approach in learning the operation of a technical device, and discusses implications of these results for the design of computer-based instruction.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Generalized schemas; Flexible problem solving; Transfer of knowledge; General-to-specific approach to instruction; Technical training
The double-edged effects of explanation prompts BIBAKFull-Text 69-75
  Kirsten Berthold; Heidi Röder; Daniel Knörzer; Wolfgang Kessler; Alexander Renkl
Explanation prompts usually foster conceptual understanding. However, it has been claimed within cognitive load theory that prompts can take cognitive load to the upper limit when learning complex contents. Under such circumstances, prompts focusing the learners' attention on specific aspects (e.g., conceptual aspects such as elaborations on domain principles) might have some costs: Other important aspects (e.g., procedural aspects such as how to calculate) cannot be processed deeply. Thus, we expected that conceptually-oriented explanation prompts would foster the detailedness of explanations, the number of elaborations on domain principles, and conceptual knowledge. In addition, we tested the influence of such prompts on the number of calculations performed during learning and procedural knowledge. We conducted an experiment in which we employed conceptually-oriented explanation prompts in a complex e-learning module on tax law. Tax law university students (N = 40) worked on this e-learning module under two conditions: (a) conceptually-oriented explanation prompts, (b) no prompts. The prompts led to double-edged effects: positive effects on the detailedness of explanations and on the number of elaborations on domain principles, as well as on conceptual knowledge and simultaneously negative effects on the number of calculations performed during learning as well as on procedural knowledge.
Keywords: Cognitive load theory; Explanation prompts; Conceptual knowledge; Procedural knowledge; E-learning
Learner-controlled selection of tasks with different surface and structural features: Effects on transfer and efficiency BIBAKFull-Text 76-81
  Gemma Corbalan; Liesbeth Kester; Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer
Surface task features are more salient than structural task features and thus easier to recognize for novices. It is predicted that the more salient the task features the better learners can choose personally relevant and varied tasks, which enhances learning transfer. To investigate this prediction, a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with 72 participants studied the effects of control over tasks that differ in their surface features (learner, program) and in their structural features (learner, program). Learner control over the selection of tasks with salient surface features enables learners to select personally relevant and varied tasks. This is believed to yield higher effectiveness (i.e., higher near and far transfer test performance) as well as higher efficiency (i.e., higher transfer test performance combined with lower associated mental effort). Learner control over the selection of tasks with non-salient structural features does not enable learners to select personally relevant and varied tasks and is therefore not expected to yield beneficial effects on learning. The results show positive effects of learner control over the selection of tasks with salient surface features for efficiency on the far transfer test but not for effectiveness. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Learner control; Program control; Structural task features; Surface task features
Effectiveness of cognitive-load based adaptive instruction in genetics education BIBAKFull-Text 82-88
  Loredana Mihalca; Ron J. C. M. Salden; Gemma Corbalan; Fred Paas; Mircea Miclea
Research addressing the issue of instructional control in computer-assisted instruction has revealed mixed results. Prior knowledge level seems to play a mediating role in the student's ability to effectively use given instructional control. This study examined the effects of three types of instructional control (non-adaptive program control, learner control, adaptive program control) and prior knowledge (high school, 1st year and 2nd year college students) on effectiveness and efficiency of learning in a genetics training program. The results revealed that adaptive program control led to highest training performance but not to superior post-test or far-transfer performance. Furthermore, adaptive program control proved to be more efficient in terms of learning outcomes of the test phase than the other two instructional control types. College students outperformed the high school students on all aspects of the study thereby strengthening the importance of prior knowledge in learning effectiveness and efficiency. Lastly, the interaction effects showed that for each prior knowledge level different levels of support were beneficial to learning.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Adaptive instruction; Learner control; Non-adaptive program control; Learning efficiency; Problem selection algorithm
Cognitive load and instructionally supported learning with provided and learner-generated visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 89-93
  Annett Schwamborn; Hubertina Thillmann; Maria Opfermann; Detlev Leutner
This study investigated, whether learning from science texts can be enhanced by providing learners with different forms of visualizations (pictures) in addition to text. One-hundred-two 9th and 10th graders read a computer-based text on chemical processes of washing and answered questions on cognitive load (mental effort, perceived difficulty) and comprehension (retention, transfer, drawing). Instruction varied according to a 2 × 2-factorial design with 'learner-generated pictures' (yes, no) and 'provided pictures' (yes, no) as factors. Results indicate positive main effects of provided pictures on all three comprehension measures and negative main effects on both cognitive load measures. Additional analyses revealed a mediation effect of perceived difficulty on retention and transfer, that is learning with provided pictures decreased cognitive load and enhanced comprehension. Furthermore, results show a positive main effect of learner-generated pictures on drawing and mental effort, but no mediation effect. Taken together, computer-based learning with provided pictures enhances comprehension as it seems to promote active processing while reducing extraneous cognitive processing. Learners, generating pictures, however, seem to have less cognitive resources available for essential and generative processing, resulting in reduced comprehension. These results are in line with cognitive load theory, cognitive theories of multimedia learning, and generative theories of learning.
Keywords: Cognitive load; Multimedia learning; Generative processes; Reading comprehension
Examining different types of collaborative learning in a complex computer-based environment: A cognitive load approach BIBAKFull-Text 94-98
  Liming Zhang; Paul Ayres; KaKin Chan
This study compared the effects of two collaborative learning strategies (Open-ended and Task-based) with an individualized learning strategy on individual learning in a computer-based environment. The experiment sought ecological validity by conducting it under real teaching and homework conditions. Ninety-four students from grade 9 participated in a webpage design task. Cognitive load theory was used to predict that the collaborative approaches would outperform the individualized approach due to reduced cognitive load. This hypothesis was confirmed by performance scores and cognitive load only in the case of the Open-ended collaborative learning condition. Evidence was also found that the Open-ended collaborative learning condition outperformed the Task-based collaborative one. It was concluded that in collaborative learning a more Open-ended task design together with moderate independent sub-task requirements leads to more effective learning.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Individual learning; Computer-based learning environment; Cognitive load theory; Cognitive load measurement; Quasi-experiment
Contemporary cognitive load theory research: The good, the bad and the ugly BIBAFull-Text 99-105
  Paul A. Kirschner; Paul Ayres; Paul Chandler
This paper reviews the 16 contributions of the special issue entitled Current Research in Cognitive Load Theory. Each paper is briefly summarized and some critical comments made. The overall collection is then discussed in terms of the positive contributions they make to the field of learning and instruction, and cognitive load theory in particular (the good), as well as problematical issues such as unresolved explanations and conflicting results (the bad) and the special case of measuring cognitive load (the ugly).
Using company web sites to e-recruit qualified applicants: A job marketing based review of theory-based research BIBAKFull-Text 106-117
  Steven D. Maurer; David P. Cook
In their rapidly expanding attempts to use company web sites to e-recruit job applicants in a world-wide labor market, employers have often found their hiring systems to be unexpectedly overwhelmed by large numbers of applications from poorly qualified individuals. To both limit and understand this phenomenon, this article employs a job marketing perspective to organize and review contemporary theory-based studies of the effects of web site recruiting sources on job seeker attitudes and employment application behaviors. To accomplish this task, recruiting research based on theoretical elements of Realistic Job Previews (RJPs), Person-Organization (P-O) Fit, the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and signaling theory is examined in terms of its implications for the ability of companies to e-recruit high quality job applicants. Overall, results of this analysis reveal that each of these theoretical areas offer useful insights but that considerably more theory-based research is needed to assess the effect of e-recruiting sources on the attitudes and decisions of highly qualified job seekers actively engaged in the job search process.
Keywords: Web-based recruitment; Internet; Organizational web sites; Recruiting; Organizational attractiveness; Literature review
The contribution of learner characteristics in the development of computer-based adaptive learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 118-130
  Mieke Vandewaetere; Piet Desmet; Geraldine Clarebout
The development of learner models takes an active part in upcoming adaptive learning environments. The purpose of learner models is to drive personalization based on learner and learning characteristics that are considered as important for the learning process, such as cognitive, affective and behavioral variables. Despite the huge amount of theoretical propositions of learner characteristics considered as relevant for learner models, practical payoffs are rather sparse. This study aims to overview the empirical research on the mere value of learner models in the development of adaptive learning environments. The results show that a lot of high-quality studies are situated in a rather shattered research field, building few bridges from theory to practice. We conclude with the call for a theory or framework integrating current and past research results that is able to guide theory-based and systematic empirical research having concrete hypotheses on the merits of learner characteristics in adaptive learning environments.
Keywords: Adaptive learning environments; Learner characteristics; Learner model; Instructional design; Effectiveness research
Contextuality and computer-mediated communication: a cross cultural comparison BIBAKFull-Text 131-137
  Jan Pflug
The purpose of this study is to assess the applicability of Hall's cultural dimension of contextuality to computer-mediated communication (CMC) in internet forums. A content analysis of 376 postings from German (a low-context culture) and Indian (a high-context culture) internet forums was conducted. The results partially validate the explanatory power of contextuality. Congruent with Hall's cultural perspective, it was found that Indians disclose less private information in online discussions than Germans. Furthermore, Indians used more emoticons than their German counterparts, reflecting the higher importance of nonverbal communication in high-context cultures.
Keywords: CMC; Hall; Contextuality; India, Germany; Self-disclosure
A Primer to Human Threading BIBAKFull-Text 138-143
  Christopher Liapis
Human Threading is new approach in developing innovative computing technologies. It uses novel physiologic combinations to measure the human brain and body in an effort to create greater efficiency among human and machine. A divergent group of measurement techniques are employed in this process including EEG, NIRS, fMRI, GSR, Saccade testing and more. An overarching goal in this area of study will be the development of simultaneous, multi-modal operating platforms providing efficiency and interchangeability. As an example this paper provides a comparison of efficiency between two email systems. The first system is a standard Microsoft Outlook-based email application using Microsoft XP. The next is a voice-based email system created at the Human Threading research laboratory. EEG and time trials were performed on ten participants with a total of 30 trails. Voice-based email was shown to be 220% faster and use statistically less cognitive load on participants prefrontal cortex. This paper shows initial results in support of Human Threading and the potential power behind efficient, modal specific operating platforms.
Keywords: Human Threading; HCI; BCI; EEG; Information systems
Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming BIBAKFull-Text 144-152
  Jeroen S. Lemmens; Patti M. Valkenburg; Jochen Peter
Pathological use of computer and video games has been associated with indicators of psychosocial well-being, such as loneliness, low self-esteem, low social competence, and low life satisfaction. However, few studies have decisively demonstrated whether these indicators of psychosocial well-being are causes or consequences of pathological gaming. To address this gap in the literature, we conducted a two-wave panel study among 851 Dutch adolescents (543 gamers). Causal relations were analyzed using autoregressive structural equation models. These analyses indicated that social competence, self-esteem, and loneliness were significant predictors of pathological gaming six months later. Thus, lower psychosocial well-being can be considered an antecedent of pathological gaming among adolescent gamers. Our analyses further indicated that loneliness was also a consequence of pathological gaming. This suggests that displacement of real-world social interaction resulting from pathological use of video games may deteriorate existing relationships, which could explain the increase in adolescent gamers' feelings of loneliness.
Keywords: Pathological gaming; Game addiction; Psychosocial well-being; Longitudinal; Adolescents; Youth
Getting to know you: Face-to-face versus online interactions BIBAKFull-Text 153-159
  Bradley M. Okdie; Rosanna E. Guadagno; Frank J. Bernieri; Andrew L. Geers; Amber R. Mclarney-Vesotski
It is an open question as to how impressions formed via computer-mediated communication (CMC) differ from those formed face-to-face (FtF). Some research suggests that judgments of others formed while interacting over CMC are more favorable than judgments formed in FtF, while other researchers argue the pattern is in the opposite direction. We sought to settle this conflict by examining impressions formed via each communication mode while controlling for the other. Participants interacted with a partner twice: once FtF and once CMC. When controlling for each communication mode, participants interacting FtF, formed more positive impressions of their partner than did those in the other sequence. Furthermore, FtF participants had greater self-other agreement then those who interacted via CMC. Implications for impressions formed over the Internet are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Person perception; Personality; Self-other agreement; Impression formation
Avatar-based innovation: Consequences of the virtual co-creation experience BIBAKFull-Text 160-168
  Thomas Kohler; Johann Fueller; Daniel Stieger; Kurt Matzler
Virtual worlds, such as the prominent Second Life (SL), offer unprecedented opportunities for companies to tap the innovative potential of consumers and consumer communities. Despite the potential, the studied corporate open innovation initiatives fail to attract sustained engagement among co-creating participants. The underdeveloped state of these islands in terms of innovation tasks and the lack of knowledge about how to attract innovative avatars raise key concerns about the nature of the experience avatars have on corporate sites. In a quantitative study we examine the importance of the experience in encouraging active participation in the innovation tasks. When participants experience an inspiring, intrinsically motivating, involving and fun co-creation experience, they participate more intensely. Prior research on virtual new product development is extended to the virtual world context and insights of the virtual co-creation experience serve as guidelines for the conception of avatar-based innovation initiatives.
Keywords: Co-creation; Virtual worlds; Innovation
Affective, anxiety and behavioral effects of an aversive stimulation during a simulated navigation task within a virtual environment: A pilot study BIBAKFull-Text 169-175
  C. Maïano; P. Therme; D. Mestre
This study investigated the impact of an aversive environmental stimulation on self-reported affective and anxiety states and movement behaviors during a simulated navigation task in a virtual environment (VE). In the experimental task, participants were asked to virtually navigate (within two consecutive sessions), from a starting point to a destination location, across a spatial configuration consisting in three successive corridors (A-C). In the first session, all corridors were non-aversive. In the second session, the corridor B contained an aversive stimulation (i.e., fire, smokescreen, and warning alarm). Fourteen participants were involved in the experiment. Self-reported anxiety and affective states were measured at the end of each session. However, movement indicators (i.e., execution, time, average speed, speed and trajectory variability) were recorded on-line during the experiment. Results showed a significant increased (i) level of self-reported negative affects and state-anxiety between the two sessions, and (ii) speed and trajectory variability between the two sessions, while the participants were in corridor B. In conclusion, these results support the experimental validity of virtual reality for the induction of negative affects and state-anxiety. The relationships between reported negative affects and state-anxiety and behavior are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Negative affects; Anxiety; Movement behavior; Variability
Uses of a private "virtual margin" on public threaded discussions: An exploratory lab-based study BIBAKFull-Text 176-184
  Carl Forde; Kevin O'Neill
Threaded discussion environments are commonly used to support educational dialogue; however their interfaces do not directly support the private work that students do to interpret and prepare responses to public postings. We examine the use of a private "virtual margin" added to an existing threaded discussion environment via a proxy server architecture. This margin area provided users with their own private writing space adjacent to the public space, allowing persistent annotations both on individual posts and indexes to posts. Unprompted uses of the system were examined in an exploratory lab-based study. Four graduate students completed an assignment designed to be authentic to typical course work, in which they reviewed a set of posts made by other students and developed at least one new post that would contribute to the group's understanding of the course material. We discuss the unprompted uses made of the virtual margin during participants' completion of this task, and discuss what these uses suggest about the potential for private marginalia to contribute to students' learning via public threaded discussions.
Keywords: Threaded discussion; Asynchronous discussion; Privacy; Marginalia
Marching in-step: Facilitating technological transitions through climate consensus BIBAKFull-Text 185-194
  Tracey E. Rizzuto; Susan Mohammed; Robert J. Vance
This study explored the benefits of strong and positive climate attitudes throughout the implementation of new workplace information technology (IT). Unit-level climate attitudes, perceived work stress, and training completion were measured in a field-setting over a 6-year period. Trends and moderating influences of climate consensus were estimated from data collected from several sources (employees, managers, supervisors, and technical coordinators) using multiple methods (archival records, interviews, and surveys). As expected, climate consensus weakened over time, and interacted with climate for innovation to predict training completion with varying effects that depended upon implementation period and training type (Internet versus general technology). More training completion occurred when climate consensus was strong prior to implementation and weak during and after implementation indicating that the merits of strong and positive climate attitudes may be specific to early implementation stages. Less attitudinal agreement may be more beneficial to units once implementation is underway.
Keywords: Climate; Longitudinal; Technology implementation; Training; Stress
Hypermedia and learning: Contrasting interfaces to hypermedia systems BIBAKFull-Text 195-202
  Amy Tracy Wells; Raven McCrory
This study explores selected theoretical and design issues associated with the use of hypermedia learning environments to promote the recall, synthesis, integration and retention of information. The study contrasts two different hypermedia systems that contain resources on a complex historical domain. The experimental condition incorporates design features related to complexity, context-dependency and interconnectedness in order to highlight different aspects of its instructional content. The experimental condition was hypothesized to foster greater achievement on tests for synthesis, integration and retention of knowledge and to be more favorably rated by users. The control condition incorporates simple linear design features including several features that are antithetical to those of the experimental condition. The control condition presents the same instructional content in a more rigid and decontextualized manner and was hypothesized to foster greater mastery of factual recall but less synthesis, integration and retention of knowledge. Results however demonstrated that participants in the control condition were able to recall more facts, make more connections between themes in the test for synthesis and retain more facts than participants in the experimental condition. However, differences in overall performance for both hypermedia systems were not statistically significant: neither system had a different effect on learning.
Keywords: Hypermedia; Multimedia; Human-computer interaction; Comprehension; Learning; Memory
Will you spend more money and time on internet shopping when the product and situation are right? BIBAKFull-Text 203-208
  Jyh-Shen Chiou; Chien-Chien Ting
Different from past online shopping research which focuses on exploring the cognitive and attitudinal aspects of online consumption behaviors, this study focuses on examining how online shopping motivation and product type affect the searching and spending behavior in an online website. In particular, the interactive effect between online shopping motivation and product type are explored in the study. A 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial experiment with two shopping motivations (i.e., goal-oriented and experiential) and two product types (i.e., hedonic and utilitarian product) was conducted. In addition to the main effects of online shopping motivation and product type, the results show that there is an interactive effect between online shopping motivation and product type on budget control. Participants conducted the loosest budget control when purchasing hedonic products in a goal-oriented online shopping trip because the shopping motivation provides a good justification for online shoppers to purchase hedonic goods without guilt or regret.
Keywords: Online shopping; Goal-oriented shopping motivation; Experiential shopping motivation; Hedonic goods; Utilitarian goods
The role of spatial ability in learning from instructional animations -- Evidence for an ability-as-compensator hypothesis BIBAKFull-Text 209-216
  Tim N. Höffler; Detlev Leutner
In two experiments, the role of spatial ability in learning from an instructional animation versus a series of static pictures was studied. In both experiments, a statistical interaction of spatial ability and type of visualization was obtained: Low-spatial ability students showed poor learning outcome when learning from pictures while high-spatial students did not; when learning from animation, however, learning outcome was independent from spatial ability. The results are in line with an ability-as-compensator hypothesis which states that constructing mental animations from non-dynamic materials needs spatial ability; with animated learning materials, however, spatial ability is not required. No overall differences between static pictures and animation were found.
Keywords: Spatial ability; Instructional animation; Static pictures; Visualization; Interaction
Treating cockroach phobia using a serious game on a mobile phone and augmented reality exposure: A single case study BIBAKFull-Text 217-227
  C. Botella; J. Breton-López; S. Quero; R. M. Baños; A. García-Palacios; I. Zaragoza; M. Alcaniz
In vivo exposure has proved its efficacy in the treatment of specific phobias; however, not all patients benefit from it. Communication and information technologies such as Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) have improved exposure treatment adherence and acceptance. Serious games (SG) could also be used in order to facilitate exposure treatment. A line of research on SG is emerging which focuses on health issues. We have developed a SG for the treatment of cockroach phobia that uses a mobile phone as the application device. This work examines results of an N = 1 study about whether the use of this mobile game can facilitate treatment of this specific phobia preparing her for the AR exposure. A 25-year-old woman with cockroach phobia participated in the study. Results showed that the use of the mobile game reduced her level of fear and avoidance before a "one-session" AR exposure treatment was applied, following the guidelines by Öst. The participant found very helpful the use of the SG before the AR exposure session and she was willing to use it after the AR exposure session as a homework assignment. Although the results of this study are preliminary, SG appears to be a line of research of high interest in clinical psychology for the treatment of specific phobias.
Keywords: Serious games; Augmented reality; Virtual reality; Phobias; Mobile phones; Exposure treatment
A longitudinal study of the effects of Internet use and videogame playing on academic performance and the roles of gender, race and income in these relationships BIBAKFull-Text 228-239
  Linda A. Jackson; Alexander von Eye; Edward A. Witt; Yong Zhao; Hiram E. Fitzgerald
In this research we examined the effects of Internet use and videogame playing on children's academic performance. Gender, race, and income were also considered. Participants were 482 youth, average age 12 years old. One-third were African American and two-thirds were Caucasian American. All measures were completed twice, first in Year 1 and then one year later, Year 2. Results indicated that greater Internet use was associated with better reading skills, but only for youth initially low in reading skills. Videogame playing was associated with better visual-spatial skill but also with lower GPAs. Gender, race and income influenced Internet use, videogame playing and academic performance but not the relationships between using these technologies and academic performance. Implications of the results for increasing the benefits of technology use are discussed.
Keywords: Technology; Academic performance; Internet; Videogames
Construct validation of the Use, Abuse and Dependence on the Internet inventory BIBAKFull-Text 240-247
  Augusto Gnisci; Marco Perugini; Roberto Pedone; Angiola Di Conza
This study aims to validate the structure of the Use, Abuse and Dependence on the Internet (UADI) inventory on a sample of 1056 high school (n = 820) and university (n = 236) students. In particular, we performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on sub-samples (cross-validation), tested the construct convergent validity, and tested correlations of UADI dimensions with HEXACO personality inventory (HEXACO-PI, where HEXACO stands for the six assessed dimensions: Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness and Openness to experience) and external criteria (daytime internet use, etc.). Five dimensions (Compensatory Escape, Dissociation, Real Life Impact, Experience Making and Addiction) were best captured by a second-order factor structure with a factor reflecting Real Life Impact and Dependence saturated by the other four dimensions. This latter factor converged with other traditional measures of internet dependence. The results are discussed in light of the relationships with validity criteria.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Internet dependence; UADI; Validation; Confirmatory analysis; HEXACO-PI personality traits
Analysis of the collaborative activities in software development processes from the perspective of chronotopes BIBAKFull-Text 248-267
  Mohammad Hannan
The theory of 'Chronotope' was introduced by Mikhail Bakhtin in his study of literary genres and subsequently investigated in the fields of media, education, arts, music, film and other disciplines. Class-room chronotopes analyzing student-teacher collaborative activities in real world have already been investigated by the researchers over a decade, but a similar study is absent in the software world and specially in CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work). The focus of this article is to show how collaborative activities in a software development process in real world might fit into certain types of chronotope, thus applying and extending Bakhtin's theory of chronotope in the area of software development process and methodologies, providing further motivation for research and applicability of chronotopes in the area of CSCW.
Keywords: Chronotope; Dialogism; Software development process; Software design methodology
What I won't do in pixels: Examining the limits of taboo violation in MMORPGs BIBAKFull-Text 268-275
  Monica T. Whitty; Garry Young; Lewis Goodings
This paper examined the emotional impact that engaging in or witnessing Symbolic Taboo Activities (STAs), as represented in MMORPGs (massively multiplayer online role-playing game), such as killing, torture and rape, has on adults. We focused our study on two games: World of Warcraft and Sociolotron. The study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which was chosen because of its emphasis on 'lived experienced' and how participants make sense of their experiences. Five participants, all over the age of 18 years, were interviewed via Instant Messenger, four of which were men. Most of our participants felt they could easily separate gamespace from the real world; however, when asked to examine specific actions in-depth, we found this was not the case for all STAs. Activities that did not have a sanctioned equivalence (e.g., rape) were found by most to be more difficult to separate, especially emotionally. However, this was not the case for all participants. The findings suggest that not all individuals can psychologically cope with engaging in and/or witnessing certain STAs in MMORPGs. The results, we believe are important for game designers, censoring bodies of video games and psychologists.
Keywords: Symbolic Taboo Activities; Videogames; World of warcraft; Sociolotron; Psychological harm; Violent video games
Encouraging user participation in a course recommender system: An impact on user behavior BIBAKFull-Text 276-284
  Rosta Farzan; Peter Brusilovsky
User participation emerged as a critical issue for collaborative and social recommender systems as well as for a range of other systems based on the power of user community. A range of mechanisms to encourage user participation in social systems has been proposed over the last few years; however, the impact of these mechanisms on users behavior in recommender systems has not been studied sufficiently. This paper investigates the impact of encouraging user participation in the context of CourseAgent, a community-based course recommender system. The recommendation power of CourseAgent is based on course ratings provided by a community of students. To increase the number of course ratings, CourseAgent applies an incentive mechanism which turns user feedback into a self-beneficial activity. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of our course recommendation system and its incentive mechanism. We also report a dual impact of this mechanism on user behavior discovered in two user studies.
Keywords: User participation; Incentive mechanism; User study
Effectiveness of hand- and foot-operated secondary input devices for word-processing tasks before and after training BIBAKFull-Text 285-295
  Fredrick P. Garcia; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Previous research has shown that, without practice, users are slower using the foot than the hand to control input devices. This study compared the performance (before and after practice) of users operating a foot-controlled secondary input device (foot mouse) with the performance of users operating a hand-controlled secondary input device (hand trackball) to complete four word-processing tasks requiring various amounts of keyboard and secondary input device use. Before practice, hand trackball performance was better on all tasks. After practice, hand trackball performance was better on all tasks except the task requiring the greatest amount of keyboard use, for which there was no significant difference between devices. For all tasks, practice improved performance with the foot mouse but not with the hand trackball. These findings suggest that, with enough practice, it may be efficient for users to use a foot input device for tasks that also require keyboard input.
Keywords: Input devices; Foot input; Hand input; Practice; Skill acquisition; Word processing
Sheltered in cyberspace? Computer use among the unsheltered 'street' homeless BIBAKFull-Text 296-303
  Karin M. Eyrich-Garg
Although physical health, mental health, and substance use problems are disproportionately high among the homeless, those with greater access to their social support systems report better outcomes than others. Communication with loved ones can be challenging for this population because of lack of access to telephone landlines. Computer technology may be an alternative medium for this population to access their social support systems, which, in turn, could lead toward better health outcomes. This exploratory study examined the computer use of 100 unsheltered homeless men and women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Participants were interviewed using the Homeless Supplement to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, a technology use module created for this investigation, and the substance use and psychiatric sections of the Addiction Severity Index. Almost half (47%) of the sample reported computer use in the past 30 days (averaging 17.67 h and 30 days). Participants used computers to maintain their sense of social connectedness, for business purposes (job and housing searches), and for leisure. Computer technology could be used to disseminate information, prevent, screen, and treat many conditions, and collect data with this difficult-to-reach population. This technology has the potential to increase access to much needed services at a relatively low cost.
Keywords: Homeless; Technology; Computer; Internet; Methods; Social support
Even in virtual environments women shop and men build: A social role perspective on Second Life BIBAKFull-Text 304-308
  Rosanna E. Guadagno; Nicole L. Muscanell; Bradley M. Okdie; Nanci M. Burk; Thomas B. Ward
The present study examined whether traditional gender role expectations (Eagly, 1987) influence behaviors in non-traditional contexts such as online virtual environments. Participants were 352 Second Life users who reported their activities and experiences in Second Life. Results indicated that men and women differed in the types of activities they engaged in a manner predicted by social role theory. Specifically, as compared to women, men were more likely to report building things (e.g. objects), to own and work on their own virtual property, and were less likely to change their avatar's appearance. Women, as compared to men, were more likely to meet people, shop, regularly change their avatar's appearance, and buy clothes/objects for their avatar. The present study adds to our understanding of how traditional gender role expectations may carry over to online virtual worlds and influence online behavior.
Keywords: Gender roles; Virtual environments; Online behavior; Social role theory
Differences in learning processes between successful and less successful students in computer-supported collaborative learning in the field of human nutrition and health BIBAKFull-Text 309-318
  Omid Noroozi; Harm J. A. Biemans; Maria C. Busstra; Martin Mulder; Mohammad Chizari
This study aimed to investigate the differences in learning processes between successful and less successful pairs of students in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) in the field of human nutrition and health. As part of their regular MSc (and optional BSc) course "Exposure assessment in nutrition and health research" at Wageningen University, 44 students were asked (as an individual pretest) to design and analyze a study which evaluates a certain dietary assessment method. Subsequently, they were asked to discuss their evaluation studies in randomized pairs using a CSCL platform. As an individual posttest, students had to re-design and re-analyze the same evaluation study. The quality of students' knowledge construction in both tests and characteristics of their learning processes in the CSCL environment were assessed through two coding schemes. Based on their learning outcomes (quality of knowledge construction), pairs of students were divided into two subgroups: successful and less successful students. Next, the learning processes of these subgroups were compared. This study revealed that the learning processes of successful and less successful students in the CSCL environment differed in terms of relevance, width and depth of discussion and justification and reasoning. Based on these findings, recommendations for further research and educational practice are formulated.
Keywords: Interactive learning environments; Cooperative/collaborative learning; Computer-mediated communication; Teaching/learning strategies
Explaining physicians' acceptance of EHCR systems: An extension of TAM with trust and risk factors BIBAKFull-Text 319-332
  José Manuel Ortega Egea; María Victoria Román González
This paper explains physicians' acceptance, in terms of usage intentions, of a central component of health information technology: electronic health care records (EHCR systems). For this purpose, the original version of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which included perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, attitude towards usage, and usage intentions, is extended with trust and risk-related factors such as physicians' perceptions of institutional trust, perceived risk, and information integrity. The results stress the special importance of attitudinal factors (attitude towards usage and perceived institutional trust) and cognitive instrumental processes (mainly, usefulness perceptions) in determining physicians' intention to use EHCR systems. Perceptions of institutional trust exerted strong direct effects on physicians' perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude towards the use of EHCR systems. In addition, trust fully mediated the influences of perceived risk and information integrity perceptions on physicians' acceptance of EHCR systems.
Keywords: Health information technology; EHCR systems; TAM; Trust; Risk; Physicians
Keeping in constant touch: The predictors of young Australians' mobile phone involvement BIBAKFull-Text 333-342
  Shari P. Walsh; Katherine M. White; Stephen Cox; Ross McD. Young
Little is known about the psychological underpinnings of young people's mobile phone behaviour. In the present research, 292 young Australians, aged 16-24 years, completed an online survey assessing the effects of self-identity, in-group norm, the need to belong, and self-esteem on their frequency of mobile phone use and mobile phone involvement, conceptualised as people's degree of cognitive and behavioural association with their mobile phone. Structural equation modelling revealed that age (younger) and self-identity significantly predicted the frequency of mobile phone use. In contrast, age (younger), gender (female), self-identity and in-group norm predicted young people's mobile phone involvement. Neither self-esteem nor the need to belong significantly predicted mobile phone behaviour. The present study contributes to our understanding of this phenomenon and provides an indication of the characteristics of young people who may become highly involved with their mobile phone.
Keywords: Australia; Identity; Mobile phone; Motivations; Youth
Factors affecting the intention to use a web-based learning system among blue-collar workers in the automotive industry BIBAKFull-Text 343-354
  Demet Karaali; Cigdem Altin Gumussoy; Fethi Calisir
This study aims to identify, using an extended Technology-Acceptance Model (TAM), the factors affecting the decision of using a web-based learning system among blue-collar workers in the automotive industry. A structural equation-modeling approach was applied to identify the variables that significantly affect the decision of using the system. Using LISREL 8.54, data collected from 546 blue-collar workers were used to test the proposed research model. Empirical testing of the extended TAM found all paths to be significant in the hypothesized directions, that is, the results of the study strongly support the application of extended TAM in predicting the blue-collar workers' intention to use a web-based learning system. Among the factors, social influence is a much stronger predictor of user intention compared to others. The study concludes with the implications of this study for managers and recommendations for possible future research.
Keywords: Web-based learning; Technology-Acceptance Model; Anxiety; Facilitating conditions; Blue-collar workers
A study on factors that affect users' behavioral intention to transfer usage from the offline to the online channel BIBAKFull-Text 355-364
  Yaobin Lu; Yuzhi Cao; Bin Wang; Shuiqing Yang
Increasingly more service providers offer both offline and online services simultaneously, but consumers still seem to prefer using offline services rather than online ones. Our research focuses on factors that influence users' intention to transfer their usage from the offline to the online channel that offer similar services. Drawing on the valence framework and prior research related to habit, innovativeness, and Internet experience, we propose a research model that incorporates motivators and inhibitors of usage transfer from both the offline and online channels. Using banking services in China as the research context, our study reveals that innovativeness in new technology and relative benefit have positive effects on users' intention to transfer usage. Conversely, habits that consumers form in the offline channel have a negative effect on the intention to transfer usage. Moreover, our findings indicate that Internet experience moderates the relationship between relative benefit and consumers' intention to transfer usage from offline to online services. These results provide a better understanding of consumers' usage-transfer behavior and offer suggestions to providers in boosting their consumers' use of online services.
Keywords: Online banking service; Usage transfer; Valence framework; Habit; Innovativeness; Internet experience
Cultural difference in motivations for using social network sites: A comparative study of American and Korean college students BIBAKFull-Text 365-372
  Yoojung Kim; Dongyoung Sohn; Sejung Marina Choi
While the explosive growth of social network sites is a common phenomenon across many countries, the ways people use them and their reasons for doing so may differ depending on their social and cultural milieu, for fundamental values are divergent from culture to culture. This study is an attempt to examine how cultural contexts shape the use of communication technology by examining the motives for and patterns of using social network sites among college students in the US and Korea. The findings of this study suggest that the major motives for using social network sites -- seeking friends, social support, entertainment, information, and convenience -- are similar between the two countries, though the weights placed on these motives are different. Reflecting the unique social nature of the medium, Korean college students put more weight on obtaining social support from existing social relationships, while American students place relatively greater emphasis on seeking entertainment. Additionally, American college students' networks in an online social venue are far larger than their Korean counterparts, which may reflect the cultural difference between the two countries regarding developing and managing social relationships.
Keywords: Social network sites; Culture; Uses-and-gratifications
What comes with technological convenience? Exploring the behaviors and performances of learning with computer-mediated dictionaries BIBAKFull-Text 373-383
  Tzu-Chien Liu; Po-Han Lin
As technology develops, the prevalence of conventional book dictionaries has slowly declined due to advancements in computer-mediated aids, such as online type-in dictionaries and program-installed pop-up aids. The goal of this study was to examine how technology "may" have changed the long-standing pedagogical practice of book dictionary usage by identifying the learning processes associated with various dictionaries and verifying how these processes are related to learning. Cognitive load theory was applied to generate predictions about learning performance and, therefore, to determine the nature of these processes. Information contained in each dictionary was specifically controlled, and thus we focused on the effect of the learning process alone. In the experiment, students first read a simulated online text in one of four conditions: pop-up, type-in, book dictionaries or no aid. They were later tested for reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. Results indicated that all dictionaries enhanced vocabulary learning but not comprehension. Close examination revealed that vocabulary-learning efficiency was significantly higher for the pop-up dictionary than the other two aids. In addition, a complex relationship existed between reading comprehension and vocabulary learning. This study has important implications for future dictionary design and pedagogical advice regarding dictionary usage.
Keywords: (e)Learning environments; Computer-assisted language learning; Cognitive process; Cognitive load; Reading comprehension; Word recognition
Gender differences in adoption of information systems: New findings from China BIBAKFull-Text 384-390
  John Qi Dong; Xiaoya Zhang
The paper explores regional gender differences in information systems adoption based on a sample of 496 Chinese individuals from four universities and one firm, by a lens of theory of planned behavior. It enriches the literature by explaining and examining the moderating effects of gender on the relationships between antecedents and behavioral intention of using information systems for Chinese users. Contrary to prior findings in the US-based research, Chinese women were found to be more strongly influenced by their computer attitudes whereas Chinese men were found to be more strongly affected by their subject norms. Perceived behavior control was important for both sexes without significant difference. The results were robust across prior experience, ages, educational levels, as well as academic disciplines and job occupations. Meanwhile, the paper uncovers under what conditions perceived behavior control and subject norms will be salient determinants of Chinese user acceptance of information systems. Practical implications about gender sensitivity in information systems adoption are discussed.
Keywords: Theory of planned behavior; Gender differences; Technology adoption; User acceptance; Computer attitudes; Behavioral intention
Human choice between computerized and traditional methods: Assessing tool readiness from the activity perspective BIBAKFull-Text 391-401
  Jun Sun
Based on the premises of activity theory, this study examines how people choose between computerized and traditional methods for various tasks. From the activity perspective, different methods are the tools that a person uses to transform a target object into a desirable outcome. The previous experiences with each method from the external (overt) activities shape the internal (psychological) activities that lead to the formation of the attitude toward using it for future tasks. To capture such a psychological state, a construct called tool readiness and its measure were developed. The results obtained from an empirical study were used to evaluate the content validity, construct validity and predictive validity of the scale.
Keywords: Activity theory; Computerized methods; Traditional methods; Choice making; Tool readiness; Measurement validity
Does social desirability bias favor humans? Explicit-implicit evaluations of synthesized speech support a new HCI model of impression management BIBAKFull-Text 402-412
  Wade J. Mitchell; Chin-Chang Ho; Himalaya Patel; Karl F. MacDorman
Do people treat computers as social actors? To answer this question, researchers have measured the extent to which computers elicit social responses in people, such as impression management strategies for influencing the perceptions of others. But on this question findings in the literature conflict. To make sense of these findings, the present study proposes a dual-process model of impression management in human-computer interaction. The model predicts that, although machines may elicit nonconscious impression management strategies, they do not generally elicit conscious impression management strategies. One such strategy is presenting oneself favorably to others, which can be measured as social desirability bias when comparing self-reported preferences with implicit preferences. The current study uses both a questionnaire and an implicit association test (IAT) to compare attitudes toward human and machine speech. Although past studies on social desirability bias have demonstrated people's tendency to under-report their preference for the preferred group when comparing two human groups, the current study found that, when comparing human speech and machine-synthesized speech, participants instead over-reported their preference for the preferred (human) group. This finding supports the proposed dual-process model of impression management, because participants did not consciously treat computers as social actors.
Keywords: Arab-Muslim speech IAT; Audio 2AFC; Female speech IAT; IVR systems; Self-presentational bias; Social agency theory
The influence of achievement goals and perceptions of online help on its actual use in an interactive learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 413-420
  Nathalie Huet; Christian Escribe; Caroline Dupeyrat; Jean-Christophe Sakdavong
This study explored the influence of achievement goals and perceptions of help-seeking on a learner's actual use of help in an interactive learning environment. After being shown a web site on statistics, 49 psychology students answered a questionnaire on achievement goals and their perceptions of help-seeking. They were then asked to solve statistics problems in an interactive learning environment. In this environment, they were allowed to use instrumental and executive help. The results showed that high mastery goals were related to a high perception of a threat to the learner's autonomy but not to the use of help. Performance goals were positively related to a perception of threat of not being considered competent and negatively related to the use of help and especially instrumental help. The implications of these results for future research on the help-seeking process in an interactive learning environment are discussed particularly in relation to the Technology Acceptance Model of the use of help.
Keywords: Help-Seeking; Achievement goals; ILE
Sophistication of Internet usage (SIU) and its attitudinal antecedents: An empirical study in Hong Kong BIBAKFull-Text 421-431
  Tai-Quan Peng; Jonathan J. H. Zhu
The measurement of Internet use in empirical studies has undergone a progression from uni-item measurement to multi-item measurement. Based on several operationalizations of Internet use in existing studies, the paper proposes a reflective measurement model, called 'sophistication of Internet usage' (SIU), with five indicators (online time, online activities, online skills, diversity of online method, and diversity of online places). With data from a longitudinal random survey conducted in Hong Kong from 2003 to 2005, a uni-dimension measurement model is established based on confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent and discriminant validity of the uni-dimension model is also established within multi-trait-multi-method (MTMM) paradigm by confirmatory factor analysis. The model shows that individuals' positive life outcome expectation, expected ease of use, and perceived popularity of the Internet are significant antecedents of SIU with demographic characteristics controlled.
Keywords: Sophistication of Internet usage; Outcome expectation; Expected ease of use; Perceived popularity of the Internet
The effects of video game realism on attention, retention and aggressive outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 432-439
  Marina Krcmar; Kirstie Farrar; Rory McGloin
This study used a between subjects, post-test only design to test the effects of video game realism (Doom 1 vs. Doom 3) and a control condition on attention, retention and aggressive outcomes. Overall, those who played Doom 3 perceived it as significantly more realistic than those who played Doom 1, thus providing validity for the manipulation. Next, those who played Doom 3 were significantly more attentive and experienced more presence than those who played Doom 1. Furthermore, playing either Doom game resulted in more aggression than playing no game and physically aggressive intentions were higher among those who played Doom 3 as compared to those who played Doom 1. Lastly, we tested for any possible interaction between realism and the attention and retention subfunctions on production and we found that, compared to the other players, those who experienced greater identification among those playing Doom 3 had higher verbal aggression. For physical aggression, those who played Doom 3 and experienced more attention and greater identification had higher aggression scores than those in the other conditions.
Keywords: Video games; Realism; Aggression; Attention
A motivational approach to information providing: A resource exchange perspective BIBAKFull-Text 440-448
  Gyudong Lee; Won Jun Lee; Clive Sanford
Although the use of information resources is a competitive advantage for many firms, empirical research on individuals' motivations for information providing is complex. We therefore assess both intrapersonal and interpersonal motivations and relevant work conditions that moderate the effects of motivation on information providing. The results of this study of employees from 51 firms in Korea show that altruistic traits, social rewards, and reciprocity all positively influence willingness to provide information. These effects are moderated by individuals' tenure in the organization. The results of this study help shed light on intrapersonal motivations and the dynamic role of interpersonal motivations in information providing.
Keywords: Information providing; Resource exchange; Knowledge management; Organizational communication; Knowledge sharing
Assessing e-moderation behavior from synchronous discussion protocols with a multi-dimensional methodology BIBAKFull-Text 449-458
  Christa S. C. Asterhan
The role of the human instructor in online learning has received increasingly more attention in the e-learning literature. In the present paper we focus on the particular case of human moderation of peer-to-peer debates in educational settings. A multi-dimensional methodology is proposed to identify and characterize different moderation styles in such settings. The method triangulates superficial and qualitative features of both moderation actions as well as the discussion as a whole. The application of this methodology to a sample of synchronous group discussions moderated by assigned peer moderators yielded five distinctively different moderation styles: A scaffolding, an orchestrating, an authoritative, an observing and a participative style. Implications and limitations of the coding methodology are discussed, as well as future directions for research and methodology development.
Keywords: E-moderation; Computer-mediated communication; Peer discussions; Multi-dimensional methodology; Moderation styles
Vertical versus dynamic menus on the world wide web: Eye tracking study measuring the influence of menu design and task complexity on user performance and subjective preference BIBAKFull-Text 459-472
  Stefan Leuthold; Peter Schmutz; Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Alexandre N. Tuch; Klaus Opwis
Web sites need fast and effective navigation systems. An eye tracking laboratory study with n = 120 participants was conducted to compare the influence of different navigation designs (vertical versus dynamic menus) and task complexity (simple versus complex navigation tasks) on user performance, navigation strategy, and subjective preference. With vertical menus, users needed less eye fixations, were faster and more successful. We conclude that, firstly, vertical menus fit better to perception and cognition than dynamic menus, where the navigation items are hidden and must be accessed by an additional mouse click. Secondly, navigation systems should be extended with different kinds of navigation items adapted to the complexity of the users' navigation tasks, because users tend to switch their navigation strategy when confronted with complex tasks.
Keywords: Navigation; Menus; Grouping; Links; Browsing; Task complexity
Beyond the fascination of online-games: Probing addictive behavior and depression in the world of online-gaming BIBAKFull-Text 473-479
  Birgit U. Stetina; Oswald D. Kothgassner; Mario Lehenbauer; Ilse Kryspin-Exner
This study examined problematic gaming behavior and depressive tendencies among people who play different types of online-games. Other game-related variables were investigated to determine if other differences between three game types could be established. Participants in the current research (n = 468) can be classified into three independent groups. Subjected users either solely played massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) or they preferred online-ego-shooters (OES) or real-time-strategy games (RTS). Results indicate that MMORPG users show more often problematic gaming behavior, depressive tendencies and lower self-esteem compared to users playing other online-games. MMORPG users reported to playing significantly more often in order to escape from real-life problems, which might be a valuable coping strategy but might also lead to problematic gaming behavior.
Keywords: MMORPG; MMO; Online-games; Problematic internet use; Depression
The development of a general Internet attitudes scale BIBAKFull-Text 480-489
  Brendan J. Morse; Nicole L. Gullekson; Samantha A. Morris; Paula M. Popovich
The popularity of Internet use has generated a need for reliable and valid Internet attitude assessments. Current practices in the development and validation of Internet attitude scales have raised several methodological and practical issues. The purpose of this study was to develop general Internet attitudes measure as well as to explore the psychometric and methodological concerns surrounding the construct validity of existing Internet attitude scales. A three-study sequence was conducted that included the development and refinement of the Attitudes Towards the Internet Scale (ATIS), an investigation of differences between Internet and paper-and-pencil administrations, and differential item and person functioning. The ATIS demonstrated appropriate psychometric qualities and is suitable for general use. Suggestions for future researchers and practitioners interested in the assessment of Internet attitudes are provided.
Keywords: Internet attitudes; Construct validity; Scale development; Psychometrics
Online collaboration: Collaborative behavior patterns and factors affecting globally distributed team performance BIBAKFull-Text 490-503
  Fatma Cemile Serçe; Kathleen Swigger; Ferda Nur Alpaslan; Robert Brazile; George Dafoulas; Victor Lopez
Studying the collaborative behavior of online learning teams and how this behavior is related to communication mode and task type is a complex process. Research about small group learning suggests that a higher percentage of social interactions occur in synchronous rather than asynchronous mode, and that students spend more time in task-oriented interaction in asynchronous discussions than in synchronous mode. This study analyzed the collaborative interaction patterns of global software development learning teams composed of students from Turkey, US, and Panama. Data collected from students' chat histories and forum discussions from three global software development projects were collected and compared. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods were used to determine the differences between a group's communication patterns in asynchronous versus synchronous communication mode. K-means clustering with the Ward method was used to investigate the patterns of behaviors in distributed teams. The results show that communication patterns are related to communication mode, the nature of the task, and the experience level of the leader. The paper also includes recommendations for building effective online collaborative teams and describes future research possibilities.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Distributed teams; Collaborative behavior; Global software development; K-means clustering
The role of presence in the level of anxiety experienced in clinical virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 504-512
  Ivan Alsina-Jurnet; José Gutiérrez-Maldonado; María-Virgina Rangel-Gómez
Recent reviews point towards that Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) can be an effective medium to provide exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. The concept of presence, usually defined as the sense of being inside the virtual environment, has been considered the principal mechanism that leads to the experience of anxiety in clinical virtual environments. The present study sought to examine the relationship between sense of presence and in-session anxiety in a sample of 210 students showing high and low test anxiety when exposed to both clinical and non-stressful virtual environments. This is the largest study conducted to date with the aim of examining the relationship between presence and anxiety in clinical virtual environments, and the first to explore separately the relationship between presence and state-anxiety in phobic and non-phobic participants. The results suggest that presence was not related to anxiety in a non-stressful environment. It was also found that although presence is related to anxiety in both groups of students when exposed to clinical virtual environments, this relationship was clearly stronger for high test anxiety students. This line of research will broaden our understanding of the mechanisms that lead to the efficacy of VRET.
Keywords: Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy; Virtual environments; Presence; Affect; Media technology; Media reception
A closer look on social presence as a causing factor in computer-mediated collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 513-521
  Miriam Weinel; Maria Bannert; Jörg Zumbach; H. Ulrich Hoppe; Nils Malzahn
So far, research in computer-mediated collaboration has investigated various factors influencing the amount of social presence experienced in online settings. This experimental study broadens the perspective and investigates social presence as a causing factor on participants' perception on task, medium and collaboration. Therefore an experiment with between subject design was conducted, with manipulation of three different levels of social presence: Full (f2f), medium online and low social presence (each n = 20). Participants had to solve an online puzzle in dyads.
   Findings mainly confirm a favourable influence of social presence on the perception of task and collaboration. Additionally, this study supports the importance of considering the reciprocal nature of social presence.
Keywords: Social presence; Computer-mediated collaboration; Chat; ICT experience; Online media experience
A quasi-experiment approach to study the effect of e-mail management training BIBAKFull-Text 522-531
  Eugenia Y. Huang; Sheng Wei Lin; Shu-Chiung Lin
This study investigates the question as to whether e-mail management training can alleviate the problem of time pressure linked to inadequate use of e-mail. A quasi-experiment was devised and carried out in an organizational setting to test the effect of an e-mail training program on four variables, e-mail self-efficacy, e-mail-specific time management, perceived time control over e-mail use, and estimated time spent in e-mail. With 175 subjects in the experimental group, and 105 subjects in the control group, data were collected before and after the experiment. ANCOVA analysis of the data demonstrated possible amount of time saving with an e-mail management training program. In addition, better perceived time control over e-mail use was observed. Since the change of e-mail-specific time management behavior was not significant, but e-mail self-efficacy improved substantially, it suggested that the major mediating process for better perceived time control over e-mail use and less estimated time spent in e-mail was through improved e-mail self-efficacy rather than a change of e-mail-specific time-management behavior.
Keywords: E-mail management training; Quasi-experiment; E-mail self-efficacy; Time management; Time control; Time pressure
Children's choices and strategies in video games BIBAKFull-Text 532-539
  Karla R. Hamlen
It is important to develop an understanding of children's engagement and choices in learning experiences outside of school as this has implications for their development and orientations to other learning environments. This mixed-methods study examines relationships between the genres of video games children choose to play and the learning strategies they employ to improve at these games. It also explores students' motivations for playing the games they choose to play. One hundred eighteen fourth- and fifth-grade students participated in this study. Qualitative analyses of student responses resulted in a model for classifying motivation for game choices. Children primarily cite reasons that can be classified as psychological or cognitive reasons for choosing to play certain video games, and are motivated by the challenge and thinking required in the games. Analyses using Chi-square tests of association demonstrated significant relationships between video game genre and learning strategy used for two of the six learning strategies (p < .05). Children playing action games are more likely to use repetition to learn the game and children playing adventure games are more likely to use their imaginations to take on the role of the character in the game and think the way the character would to make decisions in the game. There were also several gender differences in learning preferences.
Keywords: Video games; Mixed-methods; Learning strategies; Motivation; Elementary school children
Analyzing the emotional outcomes of the online search behavior with search engines BIBAKFull-Text 540-551
  Carlos Flavián-Blanco; Raquel Gurrea-Sarasa; Carlos Orús-Sanclemente
The affective component has been acknowledged as critical to understand information search behavior and user-computer interactions. There is a lack of studies that analyze the emotions that the user feels when searching for information about products with search engines. The present study analyzes the emotional outcomes of the online search process, taking into account the user's (a) perceptions of success and effort exerted on the search process, (b) initial affective state, and (c) emotions felt during the search process. In addition, we identify profiles of online searchers based on the emotional outcomes of the search process, which allow us to differentiate the emotional processes and behavioral patterns that lead to such emotions. The results of the study stress the importance of the affective component of the online search behavior, given that these emotional outcomes are likely to influence all the subsequent actions that users perform on the Web.
Keywords: Online search behavior; Search engines; Perceived effort; Emotions; Eye tracking
Video game experience predicts virtual, but not real navigation performance BIBAKFull-Text 552-560
  Anthony E. Richardson; Morgan E. Powers; Lauren G. Bousquet
In recent years, studies have shown that video game experience is related to improvements across a variety of cognitive and visuospatial tasks. This study investigated the relationship between prior video game experience and spatial performance in virtual and real environments. Across two experiments, gaming experience was related to performance in desktop virtual environments; those with more video game experience were more accurate in pointing to nonvisible targets. In contrast, gaming experience was unrelated to three different real environment tasks, suggesting that video games may primarily influence perceptual and cognitive abilities in the visual domain over abilities that also involve kinesthetic or vestibular input. Contrary to expectations, gaming experience was also related to performance in immersive virtual environments, which may be related to the use of a joystick interface during immersive travel. Video game experience was also positively related to performance in a dynamic spatial task and to verbal SAT and math SAT scores. Sex differences in desktop virtual navigation and dynamic spatial ability were eliminated when game experience was included as a covariate.
Keywords: Spatial navigation; Virtual environments; Sex differences; Video games; Dynamic spatial tasks
Showing emotions through movement and symmetry BIBAKFull-Text 561-567
  Jesús Ibáñez
This paper proposes and explores a minimalist abstract approach to express emotions through movement and symmetry, which intends to minimize the user's expectations. Emotions are represented in terms of arousal and valence dimensions and they are visually expressed in a simple way through the behaviour and appearance of a series of dynamic horizontal and vertical lines. In particular, the arousal value is expressed through the movement of these lines, while the valence value is expressed through their symmetry. The line movement is controlled by a flocking algorithm which is influenced by the arousal value, while the line symmetry/asymmetry is expressed through their rotation and length. Furthermore, the paper describes a user experiment which investigated whether the arousal and valence expressed by our model are appropriately perceived by the users or not. The results suggest that combinations of movement and symmetry are perceived correctly as particular emotions, that movement and symmetry are perceived as arousal and valence respectively and that they are independent of each other.
Keywords: Arousal; Valence; Movement; Symmetry
Predicting secondary school teachers' acceptance and use of a digital learning environment: A cross-sectional study BIBAKFull-Text 568-575
  Bram Pynoo; Pieter Devolder; Jo Tondeur; Johan van Braak; Wouter Duyck; Philippe Duyck
In this study, secondary school teachers' acceptance of a digital learning environment (DLE) was investigated. Questionnaires were taken on three times (T1/T2/T3) during the same school year, with the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) as theoretical framework. Next to questionnaires, user-logs were collected during the entire school year. A total of 72 teachers completed a questionnaire on at least one occasion: 64 teachers responded at T1, 41 at T2, and 55 at T3. We first investigated which factors influence teachers' acceptance of a DLE. The main predictors of DLE acceptance were performance expectancy and social influence by superiors to use the DLE. Effort expectancy and facilitating conditions were of minor importance. We then investigated how well the amount of final observed use could be predicted, and found that at T1 about one third, at T2 about one fourth and at T3 about half of the variance in observed use was predicted by attitude, behavioral intention and self-reported frequency of use. Our study showed that to maximize use of a DLE, its usefulness should be demonstrated, while school boards or principals should strongly encourage teachers to (start to) use the DLE.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; UTAUT; Digital learning environment; Teacher; Observed use
Applying a 3D virtual learning environment to facilitate student's application ability -- The case of marketing BIBAKFull-Text 576-584
  Yufang Cheng; Shwu-Huey Wang
In order to understand whether a 3D virtual learning environment is effective in facilitating students' application ability, we designed a 3D virtual supermarket (3DVS) to help business students to transform abstract class theory into concrete application ability in the real world. In the 3DVS, a virtual customer poses questions to the participant, and then the participant, as a simulated clerk, has to reply to the questions. All of the questions in the 3DVS were developed from marketing mix theory and given a scenario-based form. To understand the effects of the 3DVS, the participants were randomly divided into control group (CG) and experiment group (EG), and only the EG participants were trained with the 3DVS. After examined by pretest and posttest, the results of posttest indicated that the participants of the EG performed significantly better in terms of knowledge application than did those of the CG.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Improving classroom teaching; Media in education
The impact of the Internet on the social lives of users: A representative sample from 13 countries BIBAKFull-Text 585-589
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Zack Hayat
One of the most vociferous criticisms of the Internet has always been that it contributes to loneliness among its users. This study analyses results from the World Internet Project, comprised of representative samples from 13 countries (22,002 participants). Thus creating an exceptional international representative sample. In analyzing those results, we argue that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the Internet's influence over individuals' social lives; it is essential to consider the different types of social connections that might be influenced by the Internet. We assess the influence of Internet use over social interactions in separate life domains (e.g. with family members; friends; colleagues). Our analysis confirms that Internet usage can actually enhance the social lives of its users. Qualifications to the research are discussed while highlighting the different life domains in which we found significant correlations between Internet usage and increased social interactions.
Keywords: Social interactions; World Internet Project
Factors mediating disclosure in social network sites BIBAKFull-Text 590-598
  Fred Stutzman; Robert Capra; Jamila Thompson
In this paper, we explore how privacy settings and privacy policy consumption (reading the privacy policy) affect the relationship between privacy attitudes and disclosure behaviors. We present results from a survey completed by 122 users of Facebook regarding their information disclosure practices and their attitudes about privacy. Based on our data, we develop and evaluate a model for understanding factors that affect how privacy attitudes influence disclosure and discuss implications for social network sites. Our analysis shows that the relationship between privacy attitudes and certain types of disclosures (those furthering contact) are controlled by privacy policy consumption and privacy behaviors. This provides evidence that social network sites could help mitigate concerns about disclosure by providing transparent privacy policies and privacy controls.
Keywords: Privacy; Social networking; Social network sites; Facebook; Policy; Survey
Internet use, videogame playing and cell phone use as predictors of children's body mass index (BMI), body weight, academic performance, and social and overall self-esteem BIBAKFull-Text 599-604
  Linda A. Jackson; Alexander von Eye; Hiram E. Fitzgerald; Edward A. Witt; Yong Zhao
In this research we examined the prediction of children's body mass index (BMI), body weight, academic performance, social self-esteem and overall self-esteem from their IT (information technology) use, specifically, their Internet use, cell phone use and videogame playing, after controlling for the effects of gender, race, age and household income on these measures. Participants were 482 children whose average age was 12 years old. One-third was African American and two-thirds were Caucasian American. Results indicated that IT use did not predict BMI or body weight, contrary to one previous survey and the widespread belief that screen time is responsible for the obesity epidemic among our nation's children. Instead, BMI and body weight were higher for African Americans, older children and children from lower income households. The sole and strong positive predictor of visual-spatial skills was videogame playing, which also predicted lower grade point averages (GPAs). Gender and Internet use predicted standardized test scores in reading skills. Females and children who used the Internet more had better reading skills than did males and children who used the Internet less, respectively. Implications of these findings for future research on the benefits and liabilities of IT use are discussed.
Keywords: Information technology (IT) use; Internet; Cell phones; Videogames
Corrigendum to "A proposed model for evaluating the success of WebCT course content management system" [Comp. Hum. Beh. 26 (2010) 1795-1805] BIBFull-Text 605
  Adeyinka Tella; S. Mutula

CHB 2011-03 Volume 27 Issue 2

Special Issue on Web 2.0 in travel and tourism: Empowering and changing the role of travelers BIBFull-Text 607-608
  Marianna Sigala
Influence of personality on travel-related consumer-generated media creation BIBAKFull-Text 609-621
  Kyung-Hyan Yoo; Ulrike Gretzel
While a growing number of travelers engages in consumer-generated media (CGM) use and creation, the gap between the number of users and the number of actual content creators remains large. It is important to find out what drives this minority of creators and what makes them different from those who only use CGM. Personality has been found to be a particularly influential trait that predicts behavior. The influence of personality on travel CGM creation was investigated and the results indicate that travelers' personality traits significantly influence perceived barriers to content creation, motivations to engage in CGM creation, and specific creation behaviors. Contributions and implications are discussed from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.
Keywords: Web 2.0; Consumer-generated media; Personality; Online content creation; Motivations; Barriers
Understanding the intention to follow the advice obtained in an online travel community BIBAKFull-Text 622-633
  Luis V. Casaló; Carlos Flavián; Miguel Guinalíu
Online travel communities are an increasing phenomenon that is motivating great changes in consumer behavior in the travel sector. Travelers prefer to rely on peers' recommendations and thus visit these communities to look for unbiased information. This work analyzes some of the precursors of the consumer intention to follow the advice obtained in an online travel community. Data show the relevant role of attitude toward the advice, trust in the online community that provides the advice and perceived usefulness of this information in order to determine the consumer intention to follow the advice obtained in the community. As well, trust and usefulness have been found to influence consumer attitude, and usefulness is also directly affected by trust in the community that provides the advice. Finally, a specific personal attribute -- namely, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence -, moderates the effects of the antecedents of the intention to follow the advice obtained in a travel community. Based on these results, some implications for practice are widely discussed.
Keywords: Online communities; Travel sector; Attitude; Trust; Usefulness; Intention to follow the advice
The influence of user-generated content on traveler behavior: An empirical investigation on the effects of e-word-of-mouth to hotel online bookings BIBAKFull-Text 634-639
  Qiang Ye; Rob Law; Bin Gu; Wei Chen
The increasing use of web 2.0 applications has generated numerous online user reviews. Prior studies have revealed the influence of user-generated reviews on the sales of products such as CDs, books, and movies. However, the influence of online user-generated reviews in the tourism industry is still largely unknown both to tourism researchers and practitioners. To bridge this knowledge gap in tourism management, we conducted an empirical study to identify the impact of online user-generated reviews on business performance using data extracted from a major online travel agency in China. The empirical findings show that traveler reviews have a significant impact on online sales, with a 10 percent increase in traveler review ratings boosting online bookings by more than five percent. Our results highlight the importance of online user-generated reviews to business performance in tourism.
Keywords: User-generated content; Traveler behavior; Hotel; Online bookings
Intentions to use social media in organizing and taking vacation trips BIBAKFull-Text 640-654
  Eduardo Parra-López; Jacques Bulchand-Gidumal; Desiderio Gutiérrez-Taño; Ricardo Díaz-Armas
This work proposes a theoretical model to explain the factors determining the intentions to use social media when organizing and taking vacation trips. Understanding the antecedents of the tourists' use of these technologies is considered to be crucial for organization managers and destination policy makers. This use of social media technologies determines which elements of the trip might be used by the tourist thus having a great impact on the market. The model and its hypotheses have been tested by means of an approach based on structural equations with the PLS technique. The study was conducted on a sample of 404 individuals who normally use the Internet and had traveled on vacation in the previous 12 months. The conclusions of the study reveal that the intentions to use social media are directly influenced by the perceived benefits of that use (functional, psychological and hedonic and social); however, the costs do not significantly affect the predisposition to use such technologies. It is also shown that there is a series of incentives such as altruism, availability, individual predisposition or trust in the contributions of others which facilitate and promote the use of this type of technology when organizing and taking tourist trips.
Keywords: Vacation trips; Social media; Web 2.0; Tourism; Tourist opinions; Travel 2.0
eCRM 2.0 applications and trends: The use and perceptions of Greek tourism firms of social networks and intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 655-661
  Marianna Sigala
Although previous CRM studies treat eCRM as a synonymous with 1:1 communications and personalised service at an individual basis, web 2.0 further enables firms and users to generate customer value and build customer relations through social networking, co-learning, co-production and collaboration. The paper advocates the development of eCRM 2.0 strategies aiming at exploiting both the networking and social/customer intelligence of web 2.0 by integrating and engaging customers and communities along firms' value chain operations. The usage and readiness of Greek tourism firms to embark on eCRM 2.0 strategies was examined by conducting an e-mail survey and focused groups with tourism professionals. Despite the low adoption rates of eCRM 2.0, respondents were aware and greatly concerned about the practical implications of this field, which in turn elucidated an agenda for future research studies.
Keywords: e-Customer Relationship Management; Web 2.0; Readiness; Challenges; Usage
Students' and teachers' use of Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 662-676
  Khe Foon Hew
The purpose of this article is to review current published research studies focusing on the use of Facebook by students and teachers. The aim of the review is not to solely discuss Facebook in relation to teaching or learning purposes, or about its educational value per se, but also to present a detailed account of the participants' Facebook usage profile or the extent to which users are engaged in Facebook activities. The emphasis of this review will be upon empirical findings rather than opinion- or theoretical explanations. Following the review guidelines set by Creswell (Research Design Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 1994), I summarize the hitherto accumulated state of knowledge concerning Facebook and highlight questions or issues that research has left unresolved. This review is organized into three sections that cover the major topics of current research: (a) students' Facebook usage profile or extent of Facebook use (e.g., time students spend on Facebook each day, students' motives for using Facebook, as well as various factors that may affect these usage profiles), (b) the effects of Facebook use (e.g., effects of Facebook self-disclosure on teacher credibility, effects of Facebook use on student social presence and discussion, and effects of Facebook on students' academic performance), and (c) students' attitudes toward Facebook. The conclusions overall suggest that Facebook thus far has very little educational use, that students use Facebook mainly to keep in touch with known individuals, and that students tend to disclose more personal information about themselves on Facebook; hence attracting potential privacy risks upon themselves.
Keywords: Facebook; Empirical research; Review; Students; Teachers
A hybrid computational model for an automated image descriptor for visually impaired users BIBAKFull-Text 677-693
  Tarek Helmy; Mohammad M. Hassan; Muhammad Sarfraz
Nowadays, with the development of high-quality software, most presentations contain images. This makes a problem for visually impaired people, as there is a support for text-to-voice conversion but not for image-to-voice. For documents which combine images and text, we propose a hybrid model to make a meaningful and easily recognizable descriptor for images in three main categories (statistical, geometrical and non-geometrical). First, a neural classifier is trained, by mining the associated texts using advanced concepts, so that it can assign each document to a specific category. Then, a similarity matching with that category's annotated templates is performed for images in every other category. We have made a classifier by using novel features based on color projection and able to differentiate geometrical images from ordinary images. Thus we have significantly improved the similarity matching, to achieve more accurate descriptions of images for visually impaired users. An important feature of the proposed model is that its specific matching techniques, suitable for a particular category, can be easily integrated and developed for other categories.
Keywords: Classification; Image analysis and descriptor
Evaluating learners' motivational and cognitive processing in an online game-based learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 694-704
  Wen-Hao Huang
This paper describes the process and results of an evaluation on an online game-based learning environment (GBLE) by focusing on learners' motivational processing and cognitive processing. The goal is to explore how online GBLE might initiate and support learners' goal-setting activities and impact learners' cognitive loads. The study surveyed 144 undergraduate students after their autonomous participation in the online game available at the Nobel Prize Foundation website teaching the Heckscher-Ohlin Theory on international trade. Grounded in the integrative theory of motivation, volition, and performance (MVP), the evaluation indicated that participants felt significantly confident in learning the subject. The perceived satisfaction, however, was lower than the rest of motivational components possibly due to heavy cognitive processing. The finding of cognitive load reported that learners perceived a significantly higher level of intrinsic load than the germane load due to the novelty of the subject matter. Data analysis further indicated a significant canonical correlation between learners' motivational and cognitive processing. This particular finding could inform future research to investigate specific motivational processing components' effects on learners' cognitive load levels in online GBLEs.
Keywords: Motivation; Cognitive load; Game-based learning; Mental effort investment
Social networking site or social surveillance site? Understanding the use of interpersonal electronic surveillance in romantic relationships BIBAKFull-Text 705-713
  Robert S. Tokunaga
Social network sites (SNSs) are commonly used to maintain existing relationships and form connections with new contacts. Recently, concerns of have been expressed over the way these Web-based technologies are used. Estimates suggest that people are increasingly using SNSs for engaging in the surveillance of others. Given the relatively high rates of prevalence, it can be argued that SNSs have been reinvented into a tool for interpersonal surveillance along with their social networking capabilities. This article expands on the concept of interpersonal electronic surveillance and applies it in the specific context of romantic partners' use of SNSs. The relationships between surveillance over SNSs and demographic, relational, and Internet use and efficacy variables are studied. The findings reveal that interpersonal surveillance over SNSs is influenced by age, the time individuals spend on their partners' profiles, the integration of SNSs into daily routines, and Internet self-efficacy.
Keywords: Social network sites; Surveillance; Romantic relationships; Internet; Measurement development
Structural relationships among internal locus of control, institutional support, flow, and learner persistence in cyber universities BIBAKFull-Text 714-722
  Young Ju Joo; Sunyoung Joung; Woo Jin Sim
Although cyber education has become significant due to the development of appropriate information and communication technology, it has a problem as compared to traditional educational methods' learning outcomes: a low rate of learner persistence. Learning outcomes in the cyber environment are complex phenomena affected by various factors, which need integrative comprehension regarding how the variables affect learning outcomes, for qualitative improvement. The current study aimed to establish a structural equation model explaining the causal relationships among internal locus of control, institutional support, flow, and learner persistence, and to examine the practical direct and indirect effects among them. Therefore, we conducted surveys on these variables, in order to examine the causal relationships among them. We received responses from 568 students at W Cyber University. The results indicate direct effects between learner's internal locus of control and flow (ß = .273), between institutional support and flow (ß = .487), between internal locus of control and flow (ß = .333), and between flow and learner persistence (ß = .705). In addition, we found flow has an intermediating effect between internal locus of control and learner persistence and between institutional support and learner persistence. We propose strategies to raise learner persistence by improving the learner's internal locus of control, institutional support, and flow based on these results.
Keywords: Internal locus of control; Institutional support; Flow; Learner persistence; Cyber University
'Dealing with My Emails': Latent user needs in email management BIBAKFull-Text 723-729
  Agnieszka Matysiak Szóstek
Email is a communication channel that provides a number of benefits. It can be stored, retrieved and forwarded. It also allows a recipient to choose when to uptake communication and how to pace it. However, email also incurs one prevalent cost: the feeling of email overload. One of the reasons leading to that feeling lays in the fact that current email clients do not provide an inbox structure that facilitates email prioritization, information structuring and work-flow management. The goal of this study was to understand the latent user needs regarding handling emails. We identified six such needs: three pertaining to email organization (email annotation, reliable structure and no urgency to classify) and three related to email retrieval (informative overview, flexible sorting and efficient search). We further investigated the dominance, importance and dependencies between these needs. The results were then discussed and implications for future inbox design were proposed.
Keywords: User issues; User-Centered design; Web-based interaction; Electronic mail; Email overload; Implications for inbox design
Developers' perceptions of object-oriented frameworks -- An investigation into the impact of technological and individual characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 730-740
  Gregor Polancic; Marjan Hericko; Luka Pavlic
Framework-based development is currently regarded as one of the most promising software development approaches, boasting increases in lead time, productivity and quality. However, many frameworks and framework-related projects still fail, which indicates that frameworks still have unsolved problems. In this article, we will identify and investigate the major framework characteristics and individual differences that impact the most important users' perceptions about frameworks. To test the causal relationships between these factors, we performed an online survey and analyzed the results using structural equation modeling. The results support the technology acceptance model (TAM), which was used as an underlying theory. In addition, we found that framework characteristics and individual differences have a significant impact on users' perceptions, especially in the case of voluntary framework use. Beside TAM constructs, the results also suggest an additional determinant for the acceptance of frameworks: "confidence". Despite the limits of our research, we foresee future research activities as well as theoretical and practical implications. Our results might be used to develop acceptable frameworks and for the evaluation of existing frameworks, their constituent parts and framework-related guidelines.
Keywords: Object-oriented frameworks; System characteristics; Individual differences; Empirical research; Developer's perceptions; Technology acceptance model
Facial expression of emotion and perception of the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters BIBAKFull-Text 741-749
  Angela Tinwell; Mark Grimshaw; Debbie Abdel Nabi; Andrew Williams
With technology allowing for increased realism in video games, realistic, human-like characters risk falling into the Uncanny Valley. The Uncanny Valley phenomenon implies that virtual characters approaching full human-likeness will evoke a negative reaction from the viewer, due to aspects of the character's appearance and behavior differing from the human norm. This study investigates if "uncanniness" is increased for a character with a perceived lack of facial expression in the upper parts of the face. More important, our study also investigates if the magnitude of this increased uncanniness varies depending on which emotion is being communicated. Individual parameters for each facial muscle in a 3D model were controlled for the six emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise in addition to a neutral expression. The results indicate that even fully and expertly animated characters are rated as more uncanny than humans and that, in virtual characters, a lack of facial expression in the upper parts of the face during speech exaggerates the uncanny by inhibiting effective communication of the perceived emotion, significantly so for fear, sadness, disgust, and surprise but not for anger and happiness. Based on our results, we consider the implications for virtual character design.
Keywords: Uncanny Valley; Facial expression; Emotion; Characters; Video games; Realism
Further evidence on the validity of web-based research on associative learning: Augmentation in a predictive learning task BIBAKFull-Text 750-754
  Miguel A. Vadillo; Helena Matute
Most demonstrations of the validity of Internet-based research methods are based on replications of well-known experimental phenomena on the Internet. However, in order to test whether the lack of control over the experimental conditions usually found in Internet studies has an effect on the quality of data, it would be more interesting to show that the Internet cannot only be used to replicate common and well-documented effects, but also less-known experimental findings or elusive phenomena that tend to occur only in very specific conditions. The present experiment explores one such effect, namely augmentation in associative learning, and shows that it can be readily found in the laboratory and on the Internet.
Keywords: Internet-based research; Associative learning; Augmentation; Cue interaction
Tweet this: A uses and gratifications perspective on how active Twitter use gratifies a need to connect with others BIBAKFull-Text 755-762
  Gina Masullo Chen
Twitter is an Internet social-network and micro-blogging platform with both mass and interpersonal communication features for sharing 140-character messages, called tweets, with other people, called followers. Hierarchical OLS regression of survey results from 317 Twitter users found that the more months a person is active on Twitter and the more hours per week the person spends on Twitter, the more the person gratifies a need for an informal sense of camaraderie, called connection, with other users. Controlling for demographic variables does not diminish this positive relationship. Additionally, frequency of tweeting and number of @replies, public messages between Twitter users, mediate the relationship between active Twitter use and gratifying a need for connection. Results are discussed in light of uses and gratifications theory.
Keywords: Twitter; Connection; Uses and gratifications; Social media
Trends in youth's videogame playing, overall computer use, and communication technology use: The impact of self-esteem and the Big Five personality factors BIBAKFull-Text 763-769
  Edward A. Witt; Adam J. Massman; Linda A. Jackson
The objective of the current research is to model trends in video game playing, overall computer use, and communication technology use in a longitudinal sample of youths, aged 11-16 over a 3-year interval. In addition, individual difference characteristics that may be predictive of these trends were included, namely, socio-demographic characteristics (gender, ethnicity, and parental income) and personality characteristics (self-esteem, the Big Five personality factors). Findings suggested that youth increased their overall computer and communication technology use but decreased their videogame playing over time. Many individual differences predicted mean levels of these technologies with fewer predicting slopes. Conclusions, implications, and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Technology; Youth; Individual differences; Socio-demographic characteristics; Longitudinal
Call of (civic) duty: Action games and civic behavior in a large sample of youth BIBAKFull-Text 770-775
  Christopher J. Ferguson; Adolfo Garza
The positive and negative influences of violent/action games, henceforth called "action games", remains controversial in the scholarly literature. Although debate continues whether action games influence aggressive behavior, little research has examined the influence of action games on civic engagement. The current study addresses this gap by examining the correlation between exposure to action games on civic engagement and on-line prosocial behavior in a sample of 873 teenagers. Results indicated that girls as well as teens who had parents who were more technologically savvy tended to engage in more civic behaviors. Exposure to action games predicted more prosocial behavior on-line, but did not predict civic engagement either positively or negatively. However, exposure to action games and parental involvement interacted to promote youth civic engagement. Action-game-playing-youth whose parents were involved in game play and supervision were most civically involved, compared to youth who did not play action games, or whose parents were less involved. These results indicated little support for the belief that exposure to violence in video games decreases prosocial behavior and/or civic engagement. Conversely some support was found for the possibility that playing action games is associated with small increased prosocial behavior and civic engagement in the real world, possibly due to the team-oriented multiplayer options in many of these games.
Keywords: Computer games; Prosocial behavior; Civic engagement; Adolescence; Child development
How and why pop-ups don't work: Pop-up prompted eye movements, user affect and decision making BIBAKFull-Text 776-783
  G. Susanne Bahr; Richard A. Ford
The average user reacts to pop-ups with responses ranging from mild irritation to vocal annoyance. Meanwhile, software designers and engineers, as well as advertisers and malware distributors, rely on pop-ups for user input and decision making. We conducted two studies, each with twelve participants, using eye tracking and video-cued self-reports with a dual task paradigm: while users were engaged in a series of three primary tasks, a secondary task was introduced in the form of a pop-up dialogue box requiring a user decision. Nine pop-ups were administered; three during each task. The self-reports' results indicate high levels of negative affect associated with pop-ups, especially annoyance. The eye tracking results reveal that the time it took the participants to first glance at a pop-up was relatively stable (1.3-1.5 s on average). However, response patterns and total time spent viewing the pop-ups suggest that users quickly learn to visually and cognitively dismiss pop-ups. We present an interaction model based on dynamic human social contexts that integrates cognitive processes, including decision making, with affect and polite social behavior. This leads us to a set of three, radical guidelines for the constructive design of efficient and mindful pop-up dialogues.
Keywords: Pop-ups; Affect; Eye tracking; Designing for security; Polite interaction; Design guidelines
A reexamination of gender-based attitudes toward group projects: Evidence from the Google Online Marketing Challenge BIBAKFull-Text 784-792
  James Wolf
Using data from the Google Online Marketing Challenge participant survey, we reexamined the notion that women have a universal preference for group work. Our data suggest that there are gender differences in respondents' answers to group-related questions. However, our analysis suggests that -- in most cases -- these differences are accounted for by the tendency of males to have greater confidence in their Internet-related skills than females. For the most part, our results are consistent with expectations. That is, males, or more specifically those with greater confidence in their technical skills, are more likely to prefer working alone on difficult tasks or tasks in which the needed information is spread across several sources (e.g., the Internet, journals, and books). When asked about a generic project, however, the results contradicted expectations, indicating that women are more likely to prefer working alone. More importantly, the data suggest that confidence in Internet skills also plays a role in explaining this counter-intuitive result. That is, females with low confidence in their skills prefer to work in groups, while those with greater confidence are more independent. Finally, female participants, of all confidence levels, reported that their groups were less cooperative during the Challenge.
Keywords: Gender; Group work; Internet skills; Pedagogy; Google Online Marketing Challenge
Turning to learn: Screen orientation and reasoning with small devices BIBAKFull-Text 793-797
  Christopher A. Sanchez; Russell J. Branaghan
While the prevalence and use of mobile devices to gather important information is increasing rapidly, a critical question is whether information gathering and reasoning with these devices produces acceptable levels of performance, especially relative to more traditional desktop environments? Across two studies, participants were evaluated on their ability to not only remember information conveyed on small devices, but also reason with said information in complex ways. Results indicated that, when compared to a full-size display, there is a reasoning deficit when using a small device. However, changing the small device to landscape orientation effectively eliminated this performance decrement. Further, this orientation manipulation appears to most support individuals who are lower in working memory capacity, as these individuals have been shown previously to struggle with learning from scrolling interfaces. This suggests that consideration of learner differences, through adaptive design, can promote optimal use of small technologies.
Keywords: Mobile devices; Small screens; Working memory; Reasoning
Cognitive-bias toward gaming-related words and disinhibition in World of Warcraft gamers BIBAKFull-Text 798-810
  Seamus A. Decker; Jessica N. Gay
This study investigated cognitive biases toward gaming-related words and differences in cognitive performance among twelve World of Warcraft players (WWP) and thirty non-players (NP). We measured response to valenced common English and WoW jargon words using a computer-based go/no-go task. Sometimes positive valence words were the targets for the 'go' response, with negative-valence words as the distracters, sometimes the reverse. Target discrimination (d′) and response disinhibition (C) were calculated using a signal detection analysis. Based on questionnaire responses, there were no differences between groups in depression, anxiety, smoking or drinking, but WWP reported significantly more screen and gaming time (17.31 h/week versus 4.12 among NP). WWP had faster reaction time (RT) and better discrimination of targets from distracters (high d′) but also showed higher disinhibition (low C). WWP also showed cognitive-bias toward game-related words in the form of higher d′ for WoW jargon than common English and more disinhibition to positive-valence WoW jargon. Similar to past studies which have found alcoholics to have cognitive biases toward alcohol-related words, WWP who play frequently showed cognitive biases toward words related to the World of Warcraft game.
Keywords: Excessive computer game playing; Implicit association; Attentional bias; Pre-frontal cortex; Addiction
What affects information systems development team performance? An exploratory study from the perspective of combined socio-technical theory and coordination theory BIBAKFull-Text 811-822
  Yaobin Lu; Chunjie Xiang; Bin Wang; Xiaopeng Wang
Quality is an important factor in information systems development (ISD), and ISD team performance closely relates to quality. To better understand ISD teams, we empirically tested a model on ISD team performance by combining socio-technical theory and coordination theory. Using existing empirical studies and data collected from three well-known ISD companies in China, our research results identified influential characteristics of ISD team performance, and revealed similarities and differences between China's ISD team performance and those in other countries. By the results, we find that knowledge sharing and major do not affect team performance. The compensation satisfaction to job performance is not significant in China, either. Our research provides suggestions for building and supporting ISD teams that could lead to performance improvements.
Keywords: Information systems development; Team performance; Socio-technical theory; Coordination theory
Determination of optimal paths to task goals using expert system based on GOMS model BIBAKFull-Text 823-833
  Samuel A. Oyewole; Joel M. Haight
Website users often experience several difficulties while trying to access or navigate a website. This is mostly due to their inability to familiarize themselves with the structures in the website or as a result of complex procedures which prevent them from reaching their goals. It is therefore, important to develop a methodology or guidance technique for assisting website users to achieve their goals. A type of expert system that provides the needed guidance necessary in order to achieve these goals was proposed in this paper. A sample website was initially designed, and the analysis of website menu structure was conducted. The rules to find the optimal path are established based on the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules (GOMS) model by considering individual preferences on input devices. Derivatives of the GOMS model such as the Cognitive Perceptual Model GOMS, Natural GOMS Language, GOMS Language and GOMS Language Evaluation and Analysis were reviewed. The Card, Moran and Newell (CMN) GOMS technique was selected as the primary inference engine of the proposed expert system. This was primarily based on the highly efficient and exemplary capability of the CMN-GOMS to predict both operator sequence and execution time. The expert system was finally constructed from the result of the acquired knowledge base and other applicable rules.
Keywords: Expert system; GOMS; CMN-GOMS; Optimal paths; Task goals; Analytic hierarchy process
Comparative study of netbooks and tablet PCs for fostering face-to-face collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 834-844
  Claudio Alvarez; Christian Brown; Miguel Nussbaum
With the recent appearance of netbooks and low-cost tablet PCs, a study was undertaken to explore their potential in the classroom and determine which of the two device types is more suitable in this setting. A collaborative learning activity based on these devices was implemented in 5 sessions of a graduate engineering course of 20 students, most of whom were aged 22-25 and enrolled in undergraduate computer science and information technology engineering programs. Student behavior attributes indicating oral and gesture-based communication were observed and evaluated. Our findings indicate that in the context in which this study was undertaken, tablet PCs strengthen collective discourse capabilities and facilitate a richer and more natural body language. The students preferred tablet PCs to netbooks and also indicated greater self-confidence in expressing their ideas with the tablet's digital ink and paper technology than with the netbooks' traditional vertical screen and keyboard arrangement.
Keywords: Netbooks; Tablets; Face-to-face computer supported collaborative learning; Comparative study; Collaboration 1:1; Technology in the classroom
Technology acceptance model for the use of information technology in universities BIBAKFull-Text 845-851
  Alberto Un Jan; Vilma Contreras
The problem described in this research is to identify which factors influence on engineering students about their acceptance of an academic administrative information system in private universities in Lima, Peru. The objective is to identify factors by proposing a Technology Acceptance Model of an Academic and Administrative Information System. University population is described, both private and public. The investigation is based on two private universities. The results show the relationship between the selected variables. Finally, recommendations are given to act on the variables that determine the acceptance of information technology.
Keywords: Perceived usefulness; Technology acceptance model
Why do people play social network games? BIBAKFull-Text 852-861
  Dong-Hee Shin; Youn-Joo Shin
Recently, Social Network Games (SNGs) over social network services have become popular and have spawned a whole new subculture. This study examines the perceived factors which contribute to an SNG user's behaviors. It proposes an SNG acceptance model based on integrating cognitive as well as affective attitudes as primary influencing factors. Results from a survey of SNG players validate that the proposed theoretical model explains and predicts user acceptance of SNG very well. The model shows fine measurement properties and establishes the perceived playfulness and security of SNGs as distinct constructs. The findings also reveal that flow plays a moderation role that affects various paths in the model. Based on the results of this study, both the appropriate practical implications for SNG marketing strategies and the theoretical implications are provided.
Keywords: Social network games; Perceived playfulness; Perceived security; User modeling
Assessing information quality of e-learning systems: a web mining approach BIBAKFull-Text 862-873
  Mona Alkhattabi; Daniel Neagu; Andrea Cullen
E-learning systems provide a promising solution as an information exchanging channel. Improved technologies could mean faster and easier access to information but do not necessarily ensure the quality of this information; for this reason it is essential to develop valid and reliable methods of quality measurement and carry out careful information quality evaluations. This paper proposes an assessment model for information quality in e-learning systems based on the quality framework we proposed previously: the proposed framework consists of 14 quality dimensions grouped in three quality factors: intrinsic, contextual representation and accessibility. We use the relative importance as a parameter in a linear equation for the measurement scheme. Formerly, we implemented a goal-question-metrics approach to develop a set of quality metrics for the identified quality attributes within the proposed framework. In this paper, the proposed metrics were computed to produce a numerical rating indicating the overall information quality published in a particular e-learning system. The data collection and evaluation processes were automated using a web data extraction technique and results on a case study are discussed. This assessment model could be useful to e-learning systems designers, providers and users as it provides a comprehensive indication of the quality of information in such systems.
Keywords: E-learning; Information quality; Information system; Quality framework; Quality metrics; Web mining
Linguistically-tailored video feedback increases total and positive emotional expression in a structured writing task BIBAKFull-Text 874-882
  Jason E. Owen; Eric R. Hanson; Doug A. Preddy; Erin O'Carroll Bantum
A strength of computer-based interventions is the capacity to tailor to individual differences, but most studies have tailored to self-report, rather than linguistic, data. The purpose of the present study was to develop and evaluate the effects of linguistically-tailored feedback on an Internet-based expressive writing intervention. Two hundred eighty-one participants were asked to engage in 3 days of expressive writing and were randomly assigned to one of 3 feedback conditions: control (no feedback), simple (feedback about levels of emotional expression), and directive (simple feedback + suggestions for emotional processing). A Perl-based implementation of Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) was developed in order to provide dynamic feedback to participants based on levels of emotional expression identified in their writing. This implementation provided near-perfect correlations with standard LIWC output, r's = .98-1.00. Positive and total, but not negative, emotional expression increased over time for those who received simple or directive feedback. These findings suggest that linguistically-tailored feedback has the potential to alter patterns of engagement in computer-based interventions. However, additional research is needed to identify the most effective types of feedback in order to enhance immediate effects on writing and longitudinal effects on relevant outcomes.
Keywords: Emotion; Trauma; Tailored feedback; Expressive writing
Examining mobile instant messaging user loyalty from the perspectives of network externalities and flow experience BIBAKFull-Text 883-889
  Tao Zhou; Yaobin Lu
Due to the intense competition and low switching cost, building user loyalty is critical for mobile instant messaging (IM) service providers. Integrating both perspectives of network externalities and flow experience, this research identified the factors affecting mobile IM user loyalty. Network externalities include referent network size and perceived complementarity. Flow experience includes perceived enjoyment and attention focus. We conducted data analysis with structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that both network externalities and flow experience significantly affect perceived usefulness and satisfaction, further determining user loyalty. Thus mobile service providers need to improve their IM platforms, and deliver positive network externalities and good usage experience to users. Then they can facilitate users' loyalty.
Keywords: Network externalities; Flow experience; Mobile IM; Loyalty
Exploring the impact of use context on mobile hedonic services adoption: An empirical study on mobile gaming in China BIBAKFull-Text 890-898
  Yong Liu; Hongxiu Li
Unlike traditional technologies, the use of mobile technology is exposed to shifting use contexts. Use context has frequently been described as an important factor influencing the adoption of mobile innovations. However, empirical evidence about the impact of use context is limited. This paper investigated the effect of use context on the formation of users' perceptions of mobile hedonic services by using mobile gaming as an example. Through the employment of structural equation modelling technology, an adoption model of mobile gaming is proposed and assessed based on results from 267 questionnaires. The results show that use context is the strongest predictor of mobile game adoption. It directly or indirectly affects all different perceptions of mobile gaming in significant ways, including perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, cognitive concentration, attitude and behavioral intention. Additionally, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment and cognitive concentration all have a positive influence on the attitudinal variables of mobile game acceptance. We concluded that the formation of people's perceptions about mobile gaming is conditional and based on the special consideration of certain use contexts. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Use context; Technology acceptance model; Perceived usefulness; Cognitive concentration; Mobile game; Mobile services
Computer usage questionnaire: Structure, correlates, and gender differences BIBAKFull-Text 899-904
  Ulrich Schroeders; Oliver Wilhelm
Computer usage, computer experience, computer familiarity, and computer anxiety are often discussed as constructs potentially compromising computer-based ability assessment. After presenting and discussing these constructs and associated measures we introduce a brief new questionnaire assessing computer usage. The self-report measure consists of 18 questions asking for the frequency of different computer activities and software usage. Participants were N = 976 high school students who completed the questionnaire and several covariates. Based on theoretical considerations and data driven adjustments a model with a general computer usage factor and three nested content factors (Office, Internet, and Games) is established for a subsample (n = 379) and cross-validated with the remaining sample (n = 597). Weak measurement invariance across gender groups could be established using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. Differential relations between the questionnaire factors and self-report scales of computer usage, self-concept, and evaluation are reported separately for females and males. It is concluded that computer usage is distinct from other behavior oriented measurement approaches and that it shows a diverging, gender-specific pattern of relations with fluid and crystallized intelligence.
Keywords: Computer usage; Computer experience; Questionnaire; Gender differences
Students' perceptions of collaboration, self-regulated learning, and information seeking in the context of Internet-based learning and traditional learning BIBAKFull-Text 905-914
  Silvia Wen-Yu Lee; Chin-Chung Tsai
This study aims to investigate students' perceptions of three aspects of learning -- collaboration, self-regulated learning (SRL), and information seeking (IS) in both Internet-based and traditional face-to-face learning contexts. A multi-dimensional questionnaire was designed to evaluate each aspect in terms of perceived capability, experience, and interest. The analyses explore (1) potential differences of students' perceptions between Internet-based and face-to-face learning environments and (2) potential differences in the three aspects in relation to learners' attributes and the use of the Internet and enrollment in online courses. This study surveyed students in a higher education institute who had had experiences with Internet-based and face-to-face learning. The results showed that students perceived higher levels of collaboration (capability only), SRL (capability and experience) and IS (capability, interest, and experience) in Internet-based learning than in traditional learning environments. In terms of students' education level, graduate students perceived higher levels of capabilities and interests in some of the aspects, than undergraduate students. In addition, for Internet-based learning, significant differences in collaboration and SRL were found derived from time spent on the Internet related to learning; and students' perceptions of collaboration, SRL, and IS were all positively correlated to students' online course-taking experience. Implications for online learning practices and instructor's facilitation are discussed.
Keywords: Internet-based learning; Perception; Collaboration; Self-regulated learning; Information seeking
Modeling job effectiveness and its antecedents from a social capital perspective: A survey of virtual teams within business organizations BIBAKFull-Text 915-923
  Chieh-Peng Lin
This study develops two alternative models concerning job effectiveness, knowledge sharing, and their antecedents related to individuals' perception about their job effectiveness in a team. Model 1 of this study intends to be as parsimonious as theoretically justifiable. It posits that three dimensions of social capital -- structural, relational, and cognitive social capital -- simultaneously influence knowledge sharing and job effectiveness indirectly through the mediation of team commitment, while job effectiveness is also influenced by knowledge sharing. Based on Model 1, Model 2 further adds that knowledge sharing is influenced directly by three dimensions of social capital. The two models are tested by collecting data from professionals of virtual teams in high-tech industries. The test results support seven out of nine hypotheses in Model 2. Finally, managerial implications of the empirical findings are also discussed.
Keywords: Team commitment; Job effectiveness; Structural social capital; Relational social capital; Cognitive social capital
Is communication competence still good for interpersonal media?: Mobile phone and instant messenger BIBAKFull-Text 924-934
  Yoosun Hwang
The concept of communication competence has developed in the area of nonmediated interpersonal communication. With the advent of digital media, interpersonal communication has been heavily dependent on interpersonal media. The sharp distinction between theories for nonmediated communication and mediated communication is disappearing. The interconnectedness of face-to-face communication and mediated interpersonal communication is a salient current phenomenon. To explore the relation between two communication types this study investigated the relevance of the concept of communication competence with the interpersonal digital media; mobile phone, SMS, and instant messenger. Three facets were examined in particular: namely, the direct effects of communication competence and the indirect effects through individuals' cognitive process for interpersonal media and individuals' characteristics in interpersonal communication. The hypothesized model of mediated interpersonal communication competence was analyzed using structural equation model. The results revealed that communication competence was positively associated with mediated interpersonal communication competence. The indirect effects of communication competence through media efficacy and social presence were empirically supported. Relationship maintenance was found to mediate the effect of communication competence on mediated interpersonal communication competence. The links of two different communication fields and the theoretical implications of the findings were further discussed.
Keywords: Interpersonal media; Mediated interpersonal communication competence; Communication competence; Media efficacy; Social presence; Relational maintenance behaviors
How different information types affect viewer's attention on internet advertising BIBAKFull-Text 935-945
  Yu-Chen Hsieh; Kuo-Hsiang Chen
The effect of internet advertising has been a controversial issue, especially on the topic of how to effectively draw more attention from internet users. According to traditional attention theory, we know people pay lesser attention on other objects if the main browsing contents occupy more of the viewer's mental resources. Therefore, we know different information types of webpage should have different influences on users' attention. On the other hand, an effect called 'banner blindness' makes viewers naturally overlook the advertising based on their previous experience. It is therefore becoming more and more difficult to increase viewer's attention on advertisement simply by adding salient features on the advertisements. In light of this new challenge in Internet advertising, verifying the different influences of the information types on advertising attention is the main goal of this study.
   Great amounts of previous studies relevant to internet advertising focused on the advertisement itself, like the form, color, size and location. However, this study put focus on how the information types and the webpage structure influence the viewer's attention on banner advertising. This research tested the effect on user attention of four common information types on Internet webpages: (1) text-based webpage; (2) text-picture mixed webpage; (3) picture-based webpage; and (4) video-based webpage. This study hopes to provide valuable information for matching advertising with viewing tasks that will stimulate the most user attention.
Keywords: Attention; Internet advertising; Banner blindness; Viewing tasks; Web structure
Collaborative argumentation and justifications: A statistical discourse analysis of online discussions BIBAKFull-Text 946-955
  Jingyan Lu; Ming Ming Chiu; Nancy WaiYing Law
As justifications (such as evidence or explanations) are central to productive argumentation, this study examines how the discourse moves of students engaged in collaborative learning are related to their justifications during computer mediated communication (CMC). Twenty-four students posted 131 messages on Knowledge Forum, an online collaborative learning environment. These messages were coded and analyzed with a multiple outcome, multilevel logit, vector autoregression. When students disagreed or made claims, they were more likely to use evidence. After a student made an alternative claim, the next student posting a message was less likely to use evidence. When students made claims, disagreed, disagreed with other's justifications, or read more messages, they were more likely to use explanations. Boys were more likely than girls to make new claims. Together, these results suggest that discourse moves and sequences are linked to justifications on online forums.
Keywords: Computer mediated communication; Argumentation; Justification; Collaborative learning; Discourse analysis
Why would online gamers share their innovation-conducive knowledge in the online game user community? Integrating individual motivations and social capital perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 956-970
  Yong Sauk Hau; Young-Gul Kim
The user community has been an important external source of a firm's product or service innovation. Users' innovation-conducive knowledge sharing enables the community to work as a vital source of innovation. But, traditional economic theories of innovation seem to provide few explanations about why such knowledge sharing takes place for free in the user community. Therefore, this study investigates what drives community users to freely share their innovation-conducive knowledge, using the theory of planned behavior. Based on an empirical analysis of the data from 1244 members of a South Korean online game user community, it reveals that intrinsic motivation, shared goals, and social trust are salient factors in promoting users' innovation-conducive knowledge sharing. Extrinsic motivation and social tie, however, were found to affect such sharing adversely, contingent upon whether a user is an innovator or a non-innovator. The study illustrates how social capital, in addition to individual motivations, forms and influences users' innovation-conducive knowledge sharing in the online gaming context.
Keywords: Online game; Innovation-conducive knowledge sharing; Online game user community; User innovation; Individual motivations; Social capital
The contribution of social network sites to exposure to political difference: The relationships among SNSs, online political messaging, and exposure to cross-cutting perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 971-977
  Yonghwan Kim
The increasing popularity of social network sites (SNSs) has raised questions about the role of social network media in the democratic process. This study explores how use of SNSs influences individuals' exposure to political difference. The findings show a positive and significant relationship between SNSs and exposure to challenging viewpoints, supporting the idea that SNSs contribute to individuals' exposure to cross-cutting political points of view. Partisanship was not found to interact with SNS use, suggesting that SNSs contribute to expanding exposure to dissimilar political views across individuals' partisanship. Online political messaging also has a direct effect on exposure to dissimilar viewpoints, and it mediates the association between SNSs and exposure to cross-cutting political views.
Keywords: Social network sites; Internet; Political difference; Exposure to cross-cutting viewpoints; Online political messaging
Are we talking about the task or the computer? An examination of the associated domains of task-specific and computer self-efficacies BIBAKFull-Text 978-987
  Ana Ortiz de Guinea; Jane Webster
Much research has investigated computer self-efficacy. Despite these efforts, the relation between efficacy beliefs concerning the task being performed on the computer and beliefs dealing with the computer application remains overlooked. In this study, we apply associationism to show how task-specific self-efficacy beliefs (TSE) positively influence computer-specific self-efficacy (CSE) judgments. We also show that this relation might be more complex than first thought: the degree of match between the novelty of the task and the novelty the application moderates this relation. That is, when both the task and the application are novel (or not), the influence of TSE on CSE is greater than when one is novel and the other is not. Furthermore, we show that CSE positively influences perceptions of usefulness, and as such, CSE represents one of the building blocks of the formation of beliefs about computer applications. Finally, several implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Keywords: Self-efficacy; Social cognitive theory; Associationism; Use; Learning; SEM
Behavioral aspects of enterprise systems adoption: An empirical study on cultural factors BIBAKFull-Text 988-996
  Yujong Hwang; Delvin Grant
Recently, behavioral aspects of enterprise systems have been called to investigate further in the information systems (IS) community. The purpose of this paper is to apply individual-level measurement of cultural orientation, such as power distance and uncertainty avoidance, to the recent findings of computer self-efficacy and ERP adoption belief, such as perceived ease of use, based on the survey of 101 ERP system experts. An online survey methodology is used to gather data from the various industrial fields. The research model is constructed based on the findings of the previous studies in IS, management, and cultural psychology. The results indicate that low power distance and high uncertainty avoidance cultural orientation influence general CSE. In addition, uncertainty avoidance positively influences ease of use of ERP systems. As expected, general CSE positively influences ease of use of ERP systems. Training and managerial interventions through communication to improve these cultural orientations would be effective for the successful ERP systems project. The findings of this research would be helpful to the project managers, IS researchers, and ERP practitioners who want to understand the behavioral aspects of ERP systems adoption in the organization.
Keywords: ERP; Computer self-efficacy; Power distance; Uncertainty avoidance; Perceived ease of use
An interactive computer-based interface to support the discovery of individuals' mental representations and preferences in decisions problems: An application to travel behavior BIBAKFull-Text 997-1011
  Diana Kusumastuti; Els Hannes; Benoît Depaire; Koen Vanhoof; Davy Janssens; Geert Wets; Benedict G. C. Dellaert
Growing emphasis is currently given in decision modeling on process data to capture behavioral mechanisms that ground decision-making processes. Nevertheless, advanced applications to elicit such data are still lacking. The Causal Network Elicitation Technique interview and card-game, both face-to-face interviews, are examples of a behavioral process method to obtain individuals' decision-making by eliciting temporary mental representations of particular problems. However, to portray and model these representations into formal modeling approaches, such as Bayesian decision networks, an extensive set of parameters has to be gathered for each individual. Thus, data collection procedures for large sample groups can be costly and time consuming. This paper reports on the methodological conversion and enhancement of the existing elicitation methods into a computer-based interface that allows to not only uncover individuals' mental representations but also to automate the generation of preference parameter elicitation questions. Results of such studies can be used to understand individuals' constructs and beliefs with respect to decision alternatives, predict individuals' decision behavior at a disaggregate level, and to assess behavioral changes due to differences in contexts and constraints.
Keywords: Computer-based survey; CNET; Mental representation; Fun-shopping
Anticipating information needs for senior portal contents BIBAKFull-Text 1012-1020
  Jongsoo Yoon; Tom E. Yoon; Joey F. George
Many senior portals are expected to appear as the elderly population and the number of aged Internet users continues to increase. This study defines a senior portal as an Internet portal that is specific to seniors. The purpose of the study is to investigate what kind of content of senior portals is preferred by prospective users of senior portals, and to analyze the preference for contents. The study administered a survey to prospective senior portal users over 50 years of age who are residing in two large cities in Korea. This study found that content preferences vary according to the individual characteristics of prospective users. The findings of this study could help organizations to explore business opportunities, develop business models, and formulate business strategies that can differentiate them from their competitors.
Keywords: Internet portals; Elderly population; Korea
An approach to quantitatively measuring collaborative performance in online conversations BIBAKFull-Text 1021-1032
  Paul Dwyer
Interpersonal dynamics often hinder people from optimizing collaboration. Researchers who monitor the intellectual activity of people as they converse online receive less value when such collaboration is impaired. How can they detect suboptimal collaboration? This study builds on a new metric for measuring collaborative value from the information content of participant contributions to propose a measure of collaborative efficiency, and demonstrates its utility by assessing collaboration around a sample of weblogs. The new collaborative value metric can augment qualitative research by highlighting for deeper investigation conversational themes that triggered elevated collaborative production. Identifying these themes may also define the cognitive box people have built within a collaborative venue. Challenging people to consider fresh ideas by deliberately introducing them into collaborative venues is recommended as the key to overcoming collaborative dysfunction.
Keywords: Collaboration; Cognitive modeling; Collective thinking
Working for one penny: Understanding why people would like to participate in online tasks with low payment BIBAKFull-Text 1033-1041
  Yongqiang Sun; Nan Wang; Zeyu Peng
The development of Internet technology has facilitated the emergence of online marketplace for various kinds of tasks (e.g., Amazon's Mechanical Turk in USA and Taskcn.com in China). Although the payment is relatively low, numerous people participate in the tasks in these online marketplaces. Drawing upon shopping value literature, we develop a research model by considering various value perceptions so as to better understand this interesting phenomenon. Specifically, it is proposed that hedonic value and utilitarian value (including benefit-cost ratio and net benefit) influence satisfaction and continuance intention. A field survey with 205 participants in an online working website in China was carried out to examine the proposed research model and hypotheses. The key findings are: (1) benefit-cost ratio significantly influences satisfaction, while net benefit does not; (2) there is a significant substitutive effect or negative interaction effect between benefit-cost ratio and net benefit; (3) hedonic value directly influences continuance intention, as well indirectly influences continuance intention via satisfaction. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Online working; Hedonic value; Utilitarian value; Satisfaction; Continuance intention

CHB 2011-05 Volume 27 Issue 3

Group awareness in CSCL environments BIBAKFull-Text 1043-1045
  Daniel Bodemer; Jessica Dehler
Group awareness is an emerging topic in research on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). It covers the knowledge and perception of behavioral, cognitive, and social context information on a group or its members. A central aim of CSCL-related research on group awareness is the development of tools that implicitly guide learners' behavior, communication, and reflection by the presentation of information on a learning partner or a group. This special issue comprises six empirical contributions and a concluding discussion that present a broad spectrum of current research on this topic including behavioral, cognitive and social group awareness. An introductory outline of how group awareness is formed, processed and translated in action along the contributions is intended to integrate the diverse research activities on group awareness in CSCL environments.
Keywords: Group awareness; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Technology-enhanced learning; Guidance
Group awareness tools: It's what you do with it that matters BIBAKFull-Text 1046-1058
  Jeroen Janssen; Gijsbert Erkens; Paul A. Kirschner
This study examined the effect of using a group awareness tool on online collaboration. Furthermore, we examined whether the effect of using a group awareness tool on online collaboration is mediated by group awareness (i.e., students' awareness of their group members' levels of participation). To answer these questions, we determined how often and how long 107 secondary education students used the Participation-tool (PT), a group awareness tool designed to visualize group members' relative contribution to the online collaborative process. Our analyses show that duration of PT use (how long students displayed the tool on their screens) significantly predicted group members' participation in the online dialogue, their participation when writing collaborative texts, equality of participation within the group, and coordination and regulation of activities in the relational space (i.e., discussing the collaboration process with group members). No effect of using the PT on group performance was found. Mediation analyses showed that the effect of using the PT is only partially mediated by group awareness: an indirect effect of using the PT, via enhanced awareness of participation, on student participation during chat discussions and the collaborative writing process was found.
Keywords: Group awareness; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Tool use; Group performance; Coordination and regulation
Facilitating peer knowledge modeling: Effects of a knowledge awareness tool on collaborative learning outcomes and processes BIBAKFull-Text 1059-1067
  Mirweis Sangin; Gaëlle Molinari; Marc-Antoine Nüssli; Pierre Dillenbourg
We report an empirical study where we investigated the effects, on the collaborative outcomes and processes, of a cognition-related awareness tool providing learners with cues about their peer's level of prior knowledge. Sixty-four university students participated in a remote computer-mediated dyadic learning scenario. Co-learners were provided (or not) with a visual representation of their peer's level of prior knowledge through what we refer to as a knowledge awareness tool (KAT). The results show that, providing co-learners with objective cues about the level of their peer's prior knowledge positively impacts learning outcomes. In addition, this effect seems to be mediated by the fact that co-learners provided with these objective cues become more accurate in estimating their partner's knowledge -- accuracy that predicts higher outcomes. Analyses on the process level of the verbal interactions indicate that the KAT seems to sensitize co-learners to the fragile nature of their partner's as well as their own prior knowledge. The beneficial effect of the KAT seems to mainly rely on this induction of epistemic uncertainty that implicitly triggers compensation socio-cognitive strategies; strategies that appear to be beneficial to the learning process.
Keywords: Computer supported collaborative learning; Group awareness; Knowledge awareness; Peer knowledge modeling; Spatially distributed groups
Guiding knowledge communication in CSCL via group knowledge awareness BIBAKFull-Text 1068-1078
  Jessica Dehler; Daniel Bodemer; Jürgen Buder; Friedrich W. Hesse
Computer-mediated collaboration is not in and of itself a beneficial setting for learning. Environments for computer-mediated collaboration need to trigger learning-productive interactions. In this paper, we propose to implement tools providing group knowledge awareness (GKA), i.e., information about collaborators' knowledge. GKA is typically restricted in CSCL environments. A GKA tool visualizing self-assessed learner knowledge, their partner's self-assessed knowledge, and thus the distribution of knowledge, was studied in a computer-mediated collaborative learning scenario. Thirty-eight dyads were randomly assigned to either the GKA condition (GKA tool) or a control condition (only learner's own knowledge was visualized). Results show that the GKA tool guided learners in their collaboration and, more specifically, in designing their communicative acts. Depending on the self- vs. partner-oriented purpose of the communicative act, the learner's own vs. the partner's knowledge guided communication. Guided communication was a mechanism for perceived learning gains and perceived knowledge convergence. A knowledge test failed to reveal a significant difference between the GKA and the control condition. In this paper, we will discuss characteristics of GKA tools and their impact on collaboration.
Keywords: Knowledge awareness; Knowledge communication; Group awareness tools; CSCL; Representational guidance
Tacit guidance for collaborative multimedia learning BIBAKFull-Text 1079-1086
  Daniel Bodemer
Collaborative multimedia learning is a scenario placing various demands on the learners that go beyond understanding complex issues and coordinating a learning discourse. On the one hand, individuals have to mentally interrelate multiple external representations in order to understand the learning material and the underlying concepts; on the other hand, during collaboration, learners have to use the differently coded information in order to exchange conceptual knowledge. In this paper, the development and experimental evaluation of a group awareness tool (collaborative integration tool) is presented that is intended to simultaneously support both individual and collaborative learning processes during dyadic collaborative multimedia learning. The tool was experimentally compared with an integration task that already proved to foster meaningful individual learning processes. The results suggest that providing group awareness can lead to better individual learning gains by reducing demanding processes and by tacitly guiding learner interactions.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Group awareness; Multiple external representations; Multimedia learning; Cognitive load; Representational tool
Group awareness of social and cognitive performance in a CSCL environment: Effects of a peer feedback and reflection tool BIBAKFull-Text 1087-1102
  Chris Phielix; Frans J. Prins; Paul A. Kirschner; Gijsbert Erkens; Jos Jaspers
A peer feedback tool (Radar) and a reflection tool (Reflector) were used to enhance group performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning environment. Radar allows group members to assess themselves and their fellow group members on six traits related to social and cognitive behavior. Reflector stimulates group members to reflect on their past, present and future group functioning, stimulating them to set goals and formulate plans to improve their social and cognitive performance. The underlying assumption was that group performance would be positively influenced by making group members aware of how they, their peers and the whole group perceive their social and cognitive behavior in the group. Participants were 108 fourth-year high school students working in dyads, triads and groups of four on a collaborative writing task, with or without the tools. Results demonstrate that awareness stimulated by the peer feedback and reflection tools enhances group-process satisfaction and social performance of CSCL-groups.
Keywords: Groupware; Peer assessment; Peer feedback; Reflection; Group performance
Mediating team effectiveness in the context of collaborative learning: The importance of team and task awareness BIBAKFull-Text 1103-1113
  Jos Fransen; Paul A. Kirschner; Gijsbert Erkens
Learning teams in higher education executing a collaborative assignment are not always effective. To remedy this, there is a need to determine and understand the variables that influence team effectiveness. This study aimed at developing a conceptual framework, based on research in various contexts on team effectiveness and specifically team and task awareness. Core aspects of the framework were tested to establish its value for future experiments on influencing team effectiveness. Results confirmed the importance of shared mental models, and to some extent mutual performance monitoring for learning teams to become effective, but also of interpersonal trust as being conditional for building adequate shared mental models. Apart from the importance of team and task awareness for team effectiveness it showed that learning teams in higher education tend to be pragmatic by focusing primarily on task aspects of performance and not team aspects. Further steps have to be taken to validate this conceptual framework on team effectiveness.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Higher education; Awareness; Team effectiveness; Learning team
Group awareness tools for learning: Current and future directions BIBAKFull-Text 1114-1117
  Jürgen Buder
Group awareness has become an important concept since it was introduced into the field of computer-supported collaborative learning. This paper discusses current trends and future directions in this research field. It is argued that the development and implementation of tools should be complemented by systematic explorations into the mechanisms that moderate the relationship between group awareness and learning. It is suggested that variations in tool design features are a starting point for furthering our understanding of the processes involved in group awareness. Based on the contributions in this special issue, eight areas for future empirical investigations are identified. The paper concludes with some theoretical considerations on the nature of group awareness.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Group awareness; Design features
The effect of the external regulator's absence on children's speech use, manifested self-regulation, and task performance during learning tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1118-1128
  Adel M. Agina; Piet A. M. Kommers; Michael F. Steehouder
The present study was conducted to explore the effect of the absence of the external regulators on children's use of speech (private/social), task performance, and self-regulation during learning tasks. A novel methodology was employed through a computer-based learning environment that proposed three types/units of encouragement with only two sequences of instructional conditions, Verbal-Gesture-Silent (VGS) versus Silent-Gesture-Verbal (SGV). The Knowledge of response (KR) was applied as: verbal KR feedback with verbal encouragement during the verbal unit, visualization-representation of KR without verbal encouragement during the gesture unit, and no KR feedback without any encouragement during the silent unit. Three measurements were used: speech analysis, novel criteria to measure self-regulation and task performance, and a computer-based friendly chat questionnaire to measure children's satisfaction. Forty preschool children were divided by their teachers between the two conditions equivalently. It was hypothesized that children in the VGS condition were more speech productive, manifested higher self-regulation, task performance, and satisfaction. The results showed significant differential effect on the speech intensity and manifested self-regulation with no significant differential effect on task performance and satisfaction during learning tasks. However, the results were not confirmed Vygotsky's view as it were supported (neutralizing, at best) to Piaget's view of self-regulation development.
Keywords: Isolated computer-based learning environment; Zone of proximal development (ZPD); Zone of children's motivation (ZCM); Self-regulation learning (SRL); Private speech
The effect of nonhuman's versus human's external regulation on children's speech use, manifested self-regulation, and satisfaction during learning tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1129-1142
  Adel M. Agina; Piet A. M. Kommers; Michael M. Steehouder
Because of several analytical and methodological critiques on the findings and contexts of children's private speech (PS), self-regulation learning (SRL), and thinking aloud (TA), the present study was conducted to shed new light on the effect of the nonhuman's/computer's versus human's/teacher's intervention (C-Condition versus T-Condition) on young children's speech use, SRL, and satisfaction during learning tasks. Four developmental measurements with novel criteria were used to measure: (1) speech analysis, (3) SRL as a function of task level selection, (3) SRL as a function of task precision, and (4) a friendly-chat questionnaire to measure children's satisfaction. Two types of intervention (enacted versus verbal encouragement) were applied through computer-based learning environment and investigated by forty preschool children divided by their teachers between the two conditions equivalently. It was hypothesized that children who acted alone (C-Condition) were more PS productive, manifested higher SRL, task performance, and satisfaction. The results confirmed the hypothesis with no significant differential effect of the gender on performance, showed that the injudicious use of encouragement hindered the children's regulation behavior, and proved that PS and TA elicitation were fully different. However, the results were not confirmed Vygotsky's view and simultaneously not fully inline with Piaget's view of self-regulation development.
Keywords: Zone of proximal development (ZPD); Zone of children's motivation (ZCM); Self-regulation learning (SRL); Private speech (PS); Thinking aloud (TA); Isolated computer-based learning environment
Reading skills and children's navigation strategies in hypertext BIBAKFull-Text 1143-1151
  Ladislao Salmerón; Victoria García
Prior research has identified two important navigation strategies that have a clear impact on hypertext comprehension: link selection and overview processing strategies. The first relate to the order in which students select hyperlinks while trying to comprehend a hypertext, whereas the second relate to when and for how long students process navigation overviews, a text device that conveys the text structure by displaying sections, titles and their relations. Most prior research in navigation strategies has been conducted with undergraduate students. We extend prior research by exploring the navigation strategies used by sixth-graders while reading a hypermedia system. We also investigate how reading skills relate to the use of navigation strategies, and how both shape students' comprehension in hypertext. Results from an electronic reading study replicated in sixth-graders the results on navigation strategies previously found in undergraduate samples. In addition, the results revealed that reading skills predicted the use of link selection but not of overview processing strategies. We discuss our results in light of new models of electronic reading proficiency, and propose some instructional guidelines to improve children' electronic reading proficiency.
Keywords: Navigation strategies; Reading skills; Hypertext comprehension; Graphical overviews
Why people use social networking sites: An empirical study integrating network externalities and motivation theory BIBAKFull-Text 1152-1161
  Kuan-Yu Lin; Hsi-Peng Lu
Fast-developing social networking sites (SNS) have become the major media by which people develop their personal network online in recent years. To explore factors affecting user's joining SNS, this study applies network externalities and motivation theory to explain why people continue to join SNS. This study used an online questionnaire to conduct empirical research, and collected and analyzed data of 402 samples by structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. The findings show that enjoyment is the most influential factor in people's continued use of SNS, followed by number of peers, and usefulness. The number of peers and perceived complementarity have stronger influence than the number of members on perceived benefits (usefulness and enjoyment). This work also ran clustering analysis by gender, which found notable difference in both number of peers and number of members between men and women. The number of peers is an important factor affecting the continued intention to use for women but not for men; the number of members has no significant effect on enjoyment for men. The findings suggest that gender difference also produces different influences. The implication of research and discussions provides reference for SNS operators in marketing and operation.
Keywords: Continued intention to use; Motivation theory; Network externalities; Perceived benefit; Social networking site
Using technology to control intimate partners: An exploratory study of college undergraduates BIBAKFull-Text 1162-1167
  Sloane C. Burke; Michele Wallen; Karen Vail-Smith; David Knox
This study examined the extent to which a sample of 804 undergraduates at a large southeastern university used communication technology (e.g., cell phone, email, social network sites) to monitor or control partners in intimate relationships and to evaluate their perceptions of the appropriateness of these behaviors. Results of the online survey revealed that half of both female and male respondents reported the use of communication technology to monitor partners, either as the initiator or victim. Females were significantly more likely than males to monitor the email accounts of their partners (25% vs. 6%) and to regard doing so as appropriate behavior. Limitations and implications are suggested.
Keywords: Cyber relationships; Undergraduates; Control; Monitor; Computers
Exploring factors influencing consumers' behavioral intention to adopt broadband in Malaysia BIBAKFull-Text 1168-1178
  Keng-Boon Ooi; Jia-Jia Sim; King-Tak Yew; Binshan Lin
The purpose of this paper is to examine various normative, attitudinal and control factors influencing consumers' intention to adopt broadband internet in a developing country such as Malaysia. This study is based on empirical data collected using a self-administered questionnaire relating to the normative, attitudinal and control variables. Structural equation modeling analysis is conducted to test the role of numerous variables on consumers' behavioral intentions to adopt broadband internet in Malaysia. Results revealed that Primary Influences (PI), Relative Advantage (RA), Hedonic Outcomes (HO), Facilitating Conditions Resources (FCR), and Self-Efficacy (SE) are positively associated with consumers' Behavioral Intention (BI) to adopt broadband in Malaysia. The significance of this research study is twofold. Practically, this research study provide some useful guidelines to industry players, be it the internet service providers (ISPs) or the policy makers, to understand which are the factors (primary influences, self-efficacy, relative advantage, hedonic outcomes and facilitating conditions resources) that can have an influence on consumers' intention to adopt broadband technology. It was found that primary influences, self-efficacy and relative advantage are the key determinants that influences consumers' broadband adoption. From here, practitioners could take into consideration our findings when revising and restructuring their marketing strategy. Theoretically, the research framework used in this study is an extension from the past research models used (i.e. TPB, DOI and MATH). With the newly integrated framework, a greater level of comprehension can be attained with regards to the broadband acceptance among the Malaysian consumers.
Keywords: Broadband; Malaysia; Adoption; Consumer behavior; Structural equation modeling; Developing countries
Understanding motivation in internet gaming among Singaporean youth: The role of passion BIBAKFull-Text 1179-1184
  Chee Keng John Wang; Woon Chia Liu; Stefanie Chye; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis
This study examined the motivation of young people in internet gaming using the dualistic model of passion. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships between the two types of passion: obsessive and harmonious passion, behavioral regulations, and flow. A total of 1074 male secondary school students from Singapore took part in the study. The results of the path analysis showed that external, introjected, and identified regulations positively predicted obsessive passion, while harmonious passion was predicted by identified and intrinsic regulations. Flow in digital gaming was predicted directly by harmonious passion, as well as indirectly through intrinsic regulation. This study supports the proposed dualistic model of passion in explaining young people's motivation in internet gaming.
Keywords: Harmonious passion; Obsessive passion; Perceived Locus of Causality; Flow
The concept of flow in collaborative game-based learning BIBAKFull-Text 1185-1194
  Wilfried Admiraal; Jantina Huizenga; Sanne Akkerman; Geert ten Dam
Generally, high-school students have been characterized as bored and disengaged from the learning process. However, certain educational designs promote excitement and engagement. Game-based learning is assumed to be such a design. In this study, the concept of flow is used as a framework to investigate student engagement in the process of gaming and to explain effects on game performance and student learning outcome. Frequency 1550, a game about medieval Amsterdam merging digital and urban play spaces, has been examined as an exemplar of game-based learning. This 1-day game was played in teams by 216 students of three schools for secondary education in Amsterdam. Generally, these students show flow with their game activities, although they were distracted by solving problems in technology and navigation. Flow was shown to have an effect on their game performance, but not on their learning outcome. Distractive activities and being occupied with competition between teams did show an effect on the learning outcome of students: the fewer students were distracted from the game and the more they were engaged in group competition, the more students learned about the medieval history of Amsterdam. Consequences for the design of game-based learning in secondary education are discussed.
Keywords: Game-based learning; Engagement; Collaborative learning; Secondary education
Personality and media influences on violence and depression in a cross-national sample of young adults: Data from Mexican-Americans, English and Croatians BIBAKFull-Text 1195-1200
  Christopher J. Ferguson; John Colwell; Boris Mlacic; Goran Milas; Igor Miklousic
The issue of potential media effects on psychological health of youth and young adults has been debated for decades. Research on media effects has not always been consistent. One issue that has been raised regards whether the relatively modest media effects found in some research might be explained through mediating personality variables. This hypothesis was examined in three samples of young adults: Mexican-Americans (n = 232), Croatians (n = 455) and English (n = 150). Results indicated that trait aggression was a consistent predictor of both violent crimes and depression across samples. General personality variables were less consistent predictors of violence, although neuroticism consistently predicted depression across samples. Media violence exposure did not predict negative outcomes except among Croatians for whom exposure to violent video games predicted fewer violent crimes, and exposure to television violence predicted increased violent crimes.
Keywords: Personality; Violent crime; Aggression; Mass media; Computer games; Television
Similarity effects in online training: Effects with computerized trainer agents BIBAKFull-Text 1201-1206
  Tara S. Behrend; Lori Foster Thompson
In this study, trainees worked with computerized trainer agents that were either similar to them or different regarding appearance or feedback-giving style. Similarity was assessed objectively, based on appearance and feedback style matching, and subjectively, based on participants' self-reported perceptions of similarity. Appearance similarity had few effects. Objective feedback similarity led to higher scores on a declarative knowledge test and higher liking for the trainer. Subjective feedback similarity was related to reactions, engagement, and liking for the trainer. Overall, results indicated that subjective similarity is more important in predicting training outcomes than objective similarity, and that surface-level similarity is less important than deep-level similarity. These results shed new light on the dynamics between e-learners and trainer agents, and inform the design of agent-based training.
Keywords: Intelligent agents; Similarity-attraction; E-learning; Web-based training; Social categorization; Diversity
Physical activity levels among adult computer users BIBAKFull-Text 1207-1210
  Gerald J. Jerome; Edward McAuley
As computer use becomes prevalent at work and in leisure pursuits it presents a potential barrier to regular physical activity. However an individual's confidence in overcoming such barriers may moderate the relationship between computer use and physical activity levels. This study examined the associations among computer use, self-efficacy in overcoming barriers to exercise, and physical activity levels among adult computer users. Participants (N = 615) were recruited through national email and newsletters announcements, and completed standardized self-report questionnaires online. Computer use was not associated with meeting physical activity guidelines (adjusted odds ratio, AOR = 0.63-1.00, n.s.). Among leisure computer users, the moderate efficacy group (AOR = 3.72, 95% CI = 1.59-8.69) and the high efficacy group (AOR = 5.31, 95% CI = 2.37-11.91) had higher odds of meeting physical activity guidelines compared to the low efficacy group. Among the work related computer users, the high efficacy group (AOR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.18-6.77) had higher odds of meeting physical activity guidelines than the low efficacy group. These results suggest that barriers posed by high levels of computer use are surmountable. Efforts to increase efficacy in overcoming barriers to exercise may be more practical and have a greater impact on physical activity levels than trying to decrease computer use among adults.
Keywords: Physical activity; Exercise; Self-efficacy; Barriers; Internet; Computers
Enhancing one life rather than living two: Playing MMOs with offline friends BIBAKFull-Text 1211-1222
  Jeffrey G. Snodgrass; Michael G. Lacy; H. J. Francois, II Dengah; Jesse Fagan
We use ethnographic, interview, and survey data to examine problematic play within the popular online game, World of Warcraft, or 'WoW' for short. Research shows that players drawn to the interpersonal dimensions of online games are more prone to experience negative outcomes associated with their computer use. Our study suggests that it is not only whether online gamers seek meaningful social interactions that determine if WoW play becomes problematic, but exactly how players interact with others in online game-worlds. Specifically, levels of problematic WoW play depend on the extent gamers play with offline or 'real-life' friends and relations. Our survey data reveals both a direct relationship between playing WoW with offline friends and problematic online gaming and also an indirect one mediated by 'immersion' (defined as the extent that players feel like they are in a virtual world and in some cases actually their character). Interpreting these results through ethnographic and interview data, we suggest that playing WoW with real-life-friends allows gamers to transfer in-game accomplishments and experiences into offline social networks. Rather than competing and conflicting with the world outside of the game, WoW played in this way tends to enhance gamers' offline lives. Further, by keeping gamers in touch with perspectives outside of WoW, playing with real-life-friends instills critical distance and greater awareness of how excessive play can damage offline commitments and relationships, allowing gamers to better monitor, evaluate, and ultimately regulate excessive game-play.
Keywords: Computer games; Social ties; Immersion; Internet addiction; Problematic MMO play
The effect of uniform virtual appearance on conformity intention: Social identity model of deindividuation effects and optimal distinctiveness theory BIBAKFull-Text 1223-1230
  Junghyun Kim; Hee Sun Park
This study integrates social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) and optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT) in investigating the effect of uniform virtual appearance on individuals' willingness to conform to a majority opinion in computer-mediated groups. SIDE posits that sharing the same visual cue can promote group identification process and eventually induce stronger conformity. Meanwhile, ODT indicates that too much visual similarity rather concerns individuals about their deprived uniqueness, so they would be reluctant to conform to a majority opinion as a way to restore their uniqueness. This study concurs with previous research based on SIDE by showing that group identification induced by uniform appearance increases conformity intention. It also showed that perceived deindividuation, another variable that is induced by a high level of visual similarity relative to others, decreases conformity intention. As a result, the current study shows that the effect of virtual uniform appearance on conformity intention is inconsistently mediated by group identification and perceived deindividuation.
Keywords: Virtual appearance; Virtual group identity; Computer-mediated communication; Uniqueness; Similarity
Age differences in constraints encountered by seniors in their use of computers and the internet BIBAKFull-Text 1231-1237
  Bob Lee; Yiwei Chen; Lynne Hewitt
The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore older computer users' constraints at various age stages. We investigated perceived barriers experienced by older adults in the use of computer-mediated information technology in different age segments (the pre-senior, the young-old, and the older-old). Two hundred forty-three senior computer users participated in the study. Respondents' ages ranged from 50 to 93. Results from exploratory factor analysis and one-way analysis of variance suggested that there were four dimensions of constraints encountered by seniors while dealing with computer-based technologies: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, structural, and functional constraints. These results indicated that senior users might face diverse barriers at different age stages. Implications for developing an effective programming for older adults and research limitations were discussed at the end.
Keywords: Constraints; Older adults; Computer; Internet; Information technology
I'm just burned out: Understanding information system compatibility with personal values and role-based stress in a nursing context BIBAKFull-Text 1238-1248
  Amy Hennington; Brian Janz; Robin Poston
Using the theory of role dynamics, we develop a model linking nurses' perceptions of an information system's compatibility with their values to work stress and burnout. We surveyed registered nurses and tested the research hypotheses via the partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Our results demonstrate a linkage between nurses' perceptions of IS compatibility with values, role conflict, and burnout, thus contributing to our understanding of the ways in which IS usage has the potential to impact users, especially in mandatory usage environments. Implications and study limitations are also discussed.
Keywords: IS impacts; Mandatory usage; Work stress; Role conflict; Burnout; Partial least squares
Applying social bookmarking to collective information searching (CIS): An analysis of behavioral pattern and peer interaction for co-exploring quality online resources BIBAKFull-Text 1249-1257
  Chia-Ching Lin; Chin-Chung Tsai
With the advancement of Web 2.0 applications, this study aims to advocate that social bookmarking (SB) applications could support mutual exchange of finding information in a manner of collective information searching (CIS). A social bookmarking system, namely 'WeShare,' was developed, and conducted with 127 junior high school students for performing the given assignment in this study. The participants' activities of collecting and reviewing relevant information were traced by log data for later analysis. To initially unveil the participants' behaviors in the use of social bookmarking for co-exploring the Internet resources, this study proposed some quantitative indicators to represent students' personal contributions ('Bookmarks from the Internet,' 'Bookmarks from WeShare,' 'Annotations on personal bookmarks,' 'Comments on others' bookmarks') and peer feedback ('The number of bookmarks collected by peers,' 'The number of bookmarks commented on by peers,' 'The number of comments from peers'). By the method of cluster analysis, some behavioral patterns regarding how participants collectively search the Internet by use of WeShare were identified. Furthermore, the findings suggest that personal contributions to citing and commenting on peers' bookmarks are important to the advancement of collective information searching activities for finding quality information on the Internet.
Keywords: Information searching; Information sharing; Distributed learning; Social bookmarking; Collaborative information filtering
Social organization in virtual settings depends on proximity to human visual aspect BIBAKFull-Text 1258-1261
  Catherine L. Lortie; Matthieu J. Guitton
Virtual environments are inherently social spaces, in which humans interact through avatars. However, the parameters which favor inter-individual social structuring in those settings are still far to be understood. Particularly, the putative influence of anthropomorphic similarity of visual aspect on social organization of avatars is a key issue to understand the cognitive processes used to form social interactions in virtual worlds. Using the highly popular massively multiplayer online role-playing game World of Warcraft as a model of socially-active virtual setting, we analyzed the social behavior of 11,649 avatars as a function of their visual aspect. Our results show that social structuring in virtual settings depends on proximity to human visual aspect. Social groups formed by human-like avatars display more homogeneity than what the optimal use of the interface would predict, while this effect is not observed for social groups formed by non-human avatars. Thus, immersion in virtual environments depends more on visually-triggered social dynamics (role-play) than on optimal use of the interface (game-play). Furthermore, social aspect may override the immediate reward of interface optimization, thus representing a major factor of immersion in virtual environments.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Avatar; Group dynamics; Social interactions; Virtual setting; Visual representation
Pornography-seeking behaviors following midterm political elections in the United States: A replication of the challenge hypothesis BIBAKFull-Text 1262-1264
  Patrick Markey; Charlotte Markey
The current study examined a prediction derived from the challenge hypothesis; individuals who viciously win a competition of rank order will seek out pornography relatively more often than individuals who viciously lose a competition. By examining Google keyword searches during the 2006 and 2010 midterm elections in the United States, the relative popularity of various pornography keyword searches was computed for each state and the District of Columbia the week after each midterm election. Consistent with previous research examining presidential elections and the challenge hypothesis, individuals located in traditionally Republican states tended to search for pornography keywords relatively more often after the 2010 midterm election (a Republican victory) than after the 2006 midterm election (a Democratic victory). Conversely, individuals located in traditionally Democratic states tended to search for pornography relatively less often following the 2010 midterm election than they did following the 2006 midterm election.
Keywords: Pornography; Challenge hypothesis; Google; Politics; Elections
Less effortful thinking leads to more social networking? The associations between the use of social network sites and personality traits BIBAKFull-Text 1265-1271
  Bu Zhong; Marie Hardin; Tao Sun
Social network sites (SNS) have become an important social milieu that enables interpersonal communication by allowing users to share and create information. This study explored the associations between SNS use and personality traits, i.e., need for cognition (NFC) and information and communication technology (ICT) innovativeness. The findings showed that the SNS use had a negative association with NFC and a positive association with ICT innovativeness. Specifically, people who were more likely to engage in effortful thinking used SNS less often, and those who were high in ICT innovativeness used SNS more often. Meanwhile, those who spent more time on SNS were more likely to be multitaskers. Additionally, those who spent more time on SNS also spent more Internet time in general, more online time for study/work and more time in surfing the Web with no specific purpose. This study, which could be a first look at the link between social networking and our thinking, provides evidence for the associations between social media use and personality traits.
Keywords: Social media; Social network site; Personality; Need for cognition; ICT innovativeness; Media multitasking
Using SERVQUAL to assess the quality of e-learning experience BIBAKFull-Text 1272-1283
  Godwin J. Udo; Kallol K. Bagchi; Peeter J. Kirs
Distance learning programs have been dramatically expanding in accordance with demand. Assessment of the quality of e-learning has become a strategic issue, one that is critical to program survival. In this study we propose a modified SERVQUAL instrument for assessing e-learning quality. The instrument consists of five dimensions: Assurance, Empathy, Responsiveness, Reliability, and Website Content. Data analysis from 203 e-learning students shows that four out of these five dimensions (except Reliability) play a significant role in perceived e-learning quality, which in turn affects learners' satisfaction and future intentions to enroll in online courses. Managerial implications of the major findings are provided.
Keywords: E-learning quality; E-learner satisfaction; Behavioral intention; SERVQUAL

CHB 2011-07 Volume 27 Issue 4

Web Wisdom: An essay on how Web 2.0 and Semantic Web can foster a global knowledge society BIBAKFull-Text 1285-1293
  Christopher Thomas; Amit Sheth
Admittedly this is a presumptuous title that should never be used when reporting on individual research advances. Wisdom is just not a scientific concept. In this case, though, we are reporting on recent developments on the web that lead us to believe that the web is on the way to providing a platform for not only information acquisition and business transactions but also for large scale knowledge development and decision support. It is likely that by now every web user has participated in some sort of social function or knowledge accumulating function on the web, many times without even being aware of it, simply by searching and browsing, other times deliberately by e.g. adding a piece of information to a Wikipedia article or by voting on a movie on IMDB.com. In this paper we will give some examples of how Web Wisdom is already emerging, some ideas of how we can create platforms that foster Web Wisdom and a critical evaluation of types of problems that can be subjected to Web Wisdom.
Keywords: Human and social computation; Social networking; Problem solving
How is the Semantic Web evolving? A dynamic social network perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1294-1302
  Lina Zhou; Li Ding; Tim Finin
Finding how the Semantic Web has evolved can help understand the status of Semantic Web community and predict the diffusion of the Semantic Web. One of the promising applications of the Semantic Web is the representation of personal profiles using Friend of a Friend (FOAF). A key characteristic of such social networks is their continual change. However, extant analyses of social networks on the Semantic Web are essentially static in that the information about the change of social networks is neglected. To address the limitations, we analyzed the dynamics of a large-scale real-world social network in this paper. Social network ties were extracted from both within and between FOAF documents. The former was based on knows relations between persons, and the latter was based on revision relations. We found that the social network evolves in a speckled fashion, which is highly distributed. The network went through rapid increase in size at an early stage and became stabilized later. By examining the changes of structural properties over time, we identified the evolution patterns of social networks on the Semantic Web and provided evidence for the growth and sustainability of the Semantic Web community.
Keywords: Semantic Web; Social network; FOAF; Dynamics; Evolution; Structural properties
CONQUIRO: A cluster-based meta-search engine BIBAFull-Text 1303-1309
  Maria Vargas-Vera; Yesica Castellanos; Miltiadis D. Lytras
This paper presents CONQUIRO a cluster based information retrieval engine. The main task of CONQUIRO is to organize documents in groups/clusters relevant to the request or query. The main purpose of CONQUIRO is to help to manage information in an efficient manner. CONQUIRO uses Machine learning algorithms (Clustering methods) as underlying technology. It has been equipped with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering algorithms both using Euclidean and cosine similarity as distance measures. Authors believe that CONQUIRO represents a solution to the problem of information management since CONQUIRO goes beyond just a ranked list of documents (Google like).
The Lecomps5 framework for personalized web-based learning: A teacher's satisfaction perspective BIBAFull-Text 1310-1320
  Carla Limongelli; Filippo Sciarrone; Marco Temperini; Giulia Vaste
Adaptive web-based educational systems provide learners with personalized courses, where learning material is delivered to learners taking into account their personal learning needs, learning styles and learning progresses. In this paper we show the Lecomps5 system, a didactic framework, supporting the automated production and adaptation of personalized courses, implemented in the Lecomps5 system. In particular, this framework was designed in order to address the teacher's satisfaction issue, arising in many systems that are quite demanding in terms of the teacher's work and range of activities. Lecomps5 allows the teacher, through a simple and intuitive didactic tool, to define learning material, specify its characteristics pertaining to personalization and define, to some extent, the didactic strategies to be applied. In order to support both the management of learning material and the automated construction of personalized courses, the system embeds a planner, based on Linear Temporal Logic. The selection of learning material, its sequencing, and the delivery of courses, is performed according to both learners' initial and run-time knowledge and learning styles. The teacher can focus more on her didactic tasks and preferences rather than on the available authoring tools, and spend less time to generate courses. Finally we show encouraging results from experimentation we conducted to test the system from a teacher's point of view.
Extracting multilayered Communities of Interest from semantic user profiles: Application to group modeling and hybrid recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 1321-1336
  Iván Cantador; Pablo Castells
A Community of Interest is a specific type of Community of Practice. It is formed by a group of individuals who share a common interest or passion. These people exchange ideas and thoughts about the given passion. However, they are often not aware of their membership to the community, and they may know or care little about each other outside of this clique. This paper describes a proposal to automatically identify Communities of Interest from the tastes and preferences expressed by users in personal ontology-based profiles. The proposed strategy clusters those semantic profile components shared by the users, and according to the clusters found, several layers of interest networks are built. The social relations of these networks might then be used for different purposes. Specifically, we outline here how they can be used to model group profiles and make semantic content-based collaborative recommendations.
Keywords: Communities of Practice; Communities of Interest; Ontology; User profile; Group modeling; Content-based collaborative filtering
Online social networks: Why do students use facebook? BIBAKFull-Text 1337-1343
  Christy M. K. Cheung; Pui-Yee Chiu; Matthew K. O. Lee
The growth and popularity of online social networks has created a new world of collaboration and communication. More than a billion individuals around the world are connected and networked together to create, collaborate, and contribute their knowledge and wisdom. Despite the importance of online social networks, there is relatively little theory-driven empirical research available to address this new type of communication and interaction phenomena. In this paper, we explored the factors that drive students to use online social networks (e.g., Facebook). Specifically, we conceptualized the use of online social networks as intentional social action and we examined the relative impact of social influence, social presence, and the five key values from the uses and gratification paradigm on We-Intention to use online social networks. An empirical study of Facebook users (n = 182) revealed that We-Intention to use online social networks is strongly determined by social presence. Among the five values, social related factors had the most significant impact on the intention to use. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Online social networks; Social influence; Social presence; Uses and gratifications; Facebook; We-Intention
A semi-automatic strategy for achieving learning content and practice repurposing BIBAKFull-Text 1344-1351
  Maria Helena L. B. Braz; Sean W. M. Siqueira; Diva de S. e S. Rodrigues; Rubens N. Melo
The development of instructional content using Information Technologies is an expensive, time-consuming and complex process that requires new methodologies. It was in this context that the concept of Learning Objects (LOs) was proposed in order to promote reuse. However, this goal is not yet fully attained and new contributions to increase reuse are still welcome. Besides, if content is conveyed in LOs that are easier to reuse, they must be combined and sequenced in order to build more elaborated and complex content. This paper presents a strategy to deal with these problems based on the definition of small LOs here called Component Objects (COs). These COs are structured and combined according to a conceptual metamodel, which is the basis for the definition of conceptual schemas representing the existing material, including not only content but also practice. This strategy for searching, extracting, and sequencing COs, supports a teacher to better control the implementation of complex content, reducing errors in the authoring process. This approach includes a specification language and an algorithm for semi-automatic sequencing learning content and practice. Finally, a case study that shows the proposed approach and some results of using the algorithm are presented.
Keywords: E-learning; Learning objects; Conceptual schema; Content sequencing; Component objects
Annotation-based access control for collaborative information spaces BIBAKFull-Text 1352-1364
  Peyman Nasirifard; Vassilios Peristeras; Stefan Decker
Web 2.0 social platforms (e.g., Flickr, YouTube) and Collaborative Working Environments (e.g., Microsoft SharePoint, BSCW) provide Web-based collaborative information spaces which enable common users and/or professionals to work together and share their online resources. Most of these collaborative information spaces provide role-based or group-based, coarse-grained access control policies which cannot successfully cope with the requirements posed by massive and open collaboration. In this paper, we present an annotation-based access control (AnBAC) model supported by a Collaboration Vocabulary (CoVoc) as a more flexible and user-centric access control approach. Based on this, we developed two tools: Uncle-Share is a gadget that provides annotation-based access control and can be equipped with CoVoc for annotating collaborative relationships. Who-With-Whom uses CoVoc to visualize extended social networks in order to help users to select appropriate contacts to grant access to resources.
Keywords: Annotation; Collaboration; Social Computing; Access control; Information sharing; Collaboration Vocabulary
Towards a new era for Cultural Heritage Education: Discussing the role of ICT BIBAKFull-Text 1365-1371
  Michela Ott; Francesca Pozzi
Living and being part of today's Knowledge Society implies recognizing the importance of the past and imposes considering Cultural Heritage as a fundamental background of our identity.
   This paper investigates how ICT tools can contribute to enhancing Cultural Heritage Education. It is an attempt to answer the question concerning whether ICT can really provide any added value to Cultural Heritage pedagogy, education and learning. By focusing on those Cultural Heritage artifacts that pertain to the field of arts and archeology, the paper assumes a methodological perspective and provides examples of some of the most innovative experiences in the field, thus driving the reader to reflect on the pedagogical impact that may derive from exploiting ICT potentialities. ICT, in fact, on the one hand, offers an easier access and a multi-perspective view of Cultural Heritage artifacts, and, on the other, may also enrich and improve Cultural Heritage Education thanks to the adoption of innovative learning/teaching methods.
Keywords: ICT; Cultural Heritage Education; Educational Technology; Innovation
Providing effective feedback, monitoring and evaluation to on-line collaborative learning discussions BIBAKFull-Text 1372-1381
  Santi Caballé; Thanasis Daradoumis; Fatos Xhafa; Angel Juan
Learning and knowledge building have become critical competences for people in the knowledge society era. In this paper, we propose a sociolinguistic dialogue model for understanding how learning evolves and how cognitive process is constructed in on-line discussions. The knowledge extracted from this model is used to assess participation behavior, knowledge building and performance. The ultimate purpose is to provide effective feedback, evaluation and monitoring to the discussion process. Seven hundred students from the Open University of Catalonia in Spain participated in this study. Results showed that learning and knowledge building may be greatly enhanced by presenting selected knowledge to learners as for their particular skills exhibited during interaction. In addition, this valuable provision of information is used as a meta cognitive tool for tutors and moderators for monitoring and evaluating the discussion process more conveniently. This contribution presents our conceptual model for interaction management as well as key design guidelines and evaluation results. Implications of this study are remarked and further research directions are proposed.
Keywords: Teaching/learning strategies; Cooperative/collaborative learning; Computer-mediated communication; Interactive learning environments; Architectures for educational technology system
Securization of policy making social computing. An application to e-cognocracy BIBAKFull-Text 1382-1388
  José María Moreno-Jiménez; Joan Josep Piles; José Ruiz; José Luis Salazar; Alberto Turón
Policy making social computing conform a set of social software tools that deal with the e-participation of citizens in policy making, that is to say, with the conjoint (representatives and citizens) design and selection through the internet of public policies. E-cognocracy is a cognitive democracy oriented to the extraction and sharing of knowledge associated with the scientific resolution of public decision making problems related with the governance of society. This model of democracy takes advantage of the potential of the Knowledge Society with the incorporation of the knowledge and the preferences of the actors involved in the decision making process. This uses different rounds in order to incorporate the preferences through an e-voting module and the arguments that support the individual positions through e-discussion. Considering e-cognocracy as the democracy model that supports interaction between citizens and their representatives in the construction of a better world, this paper presents a new proposal for the technological securization of the e-voting (prioritization) and e-discussion stages of e-cognocracy. This new suggestion, in which the electoral authority has been eliminated through the use of short linkable ring signatures, is a more simple and efficient system than our previous proposals.
Keywords: Social computing; Policy making; e-Cognocracy; Security; e-Voting; e-Discussion
Modeling instructional-design theories with ontologies: Using methods to check, generate and search learning designs BIBAKFull-Text 1389-1398
  Miguel-Ángel Sicilia; Miltiadis D. Lytras; Salvador Sánchez-Alonso; Elena García-Barriocanal; Miguel Zapata-Ros
Instructional theories have been defined as practice-oriented theories offering explicit guidance on how to help people learn that offer situation-specific methods. The descriptions of many instructional theories include recommendations or rules that can be subject to modeling in formal knowledge representation languages. Further, recent work in the application of ontologies to learning technology has made openly available formal representation schemas for activity sequences and learning resource descriptions, based on evolving standards. Combining these with the representation of instructional-design theories provides a framework for developing rule-based, instructional theory-aware support tools for different practical purposes. These purposes include (partially) checking the compatibility of learning designs with instructional theories in authoring tools, using methods as query criteria in learning resource repositories, and the generation of tentative learning activities for some given instructional design methods. This paper addresses the main epistemological issues and the representation of the main elements of instructional models using the formal ontology language OWL, which can be used in conjunction with the SWRL rule language for the purposes described. Following existing conceptualizations, methods and conditions are modeled in a generic way able of capturing a plurality of views.
Keywords: Instructional design; Ontologies; Learning objects; IMS LD; OWL; SWRL
Web 2.0-based webstrategies for three different types of organizations BIBAKFull-Text 1399-1407
  Senoaji Wijaya; Marco Spruit; Wim Scheper; Johan Versendaal
Lately, web technology has gained strategic importance. It can be seen in the growing number of organizations that realize the importance of a proper webstrategy in this globalization era, where distributed work environment, knowledge-based economy and collaborative business models have emerged. The phenomenon of web 2.0 technologies has led many internet companies and communities, such as Google, Amazon, Wikipedia, and Facebook, to successfully adjust their webstrategy by adopting web 2.0 concepts to sustain their advantage and reach their objectives. As a consequence, interest has risen from more traditional organizations to benefit from web 2.0 concepts in enhancing their competitive advantage. This paper discusses the influence of web 2.0 concepts in the webstrategy formulation for organizations with differing requirements, characteristics and objectives. The research categorizes organization types into Customer Intimacy, Operational Excellence and Product Leadership, based on the Value Disciplines model.
Keywords: Web 2.0; Webstrategy; Framework; Collaboration; Business model; Value disciplines
Design for All in multimedia guides for museums BIBAKFull-Text 1408-1415
  Belén Ruiz; José Luis Pajares; Francisco Utray; Lourdes Moreno
The Design for All principles define the characteristics which a device should possess in order for it be utilised by every type of user, independent of his or her sensory disabilities or technological competency. These principles are realised in the current work as an integrative tool with which to facilitate universal access to museums via multimedia and portable guides, making access available to all. Based on these principles, this article describes the main findings of the design and use of the MGA (Multimedia Guides for All) approach proposed in this paper. This approach involves a series of recommendations for the selection, application, preparation of content, and maintenance of this type of computerized device, in order to achieve these principles. Firstly, a comparative analysis of the principal types of electronic guides available in museums which incorporate accessibility criteria is provided. Subsequently, a real case study case is presented which conforms to the MGA approach. The MGA approach can be applied to other domains, which should be explored in further research. The conclusions in this article have been drawn from two R&D projects financed by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology supported by the EC FEDER R&D Program.
Keywords: Mobile media; Design for All; Museums; Cultural heritage; Interactive guides
Towards an ICT-based psychology: E-psychology BIBAKFull-Text 1416-1423
  Athanasios Drigas; Lefteris Koukianakis; Yannis Papagerasimou
Cognitive science is the scientific domain which studies, analyzes, simulates and infers for various aspects, functions and procedures of human mentality such as, thinking, logic, language, knowledge, memory, learning, perception and the ability to solve problems. E-psychology is in close relation with the cognitive science domain, but expands beyond it, as e-psychology is the efficient convergence of psychology and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). E-psychology offers a number of services such as supporting, diagnosis, assessment, therapy, counseling, intervention and tests through an effective exploitation of ICTs. This article presents a user-friendly, flexible and adaptive electronic platform, which supports both synchronous and asynchronous e-psychology activities through the use of informative and communicative tools and services, which can be adapted to support various methods of e-psychology activities. It is important to underline that e-psychology is not an alternative psychology field, but a resource to enhance the conventional psychology process.
Keywords: E-psychology; E-learning; ICTs; Cognitive science; E-diagnosis; Evaluation tests
Digital libraries and Web 3.0. The CallimachusDL approach BIBAKFull-Text 1424-1430
  Ángel García-Crespo; Juan Miguel Gómez-Berbís; Ricardo Colomo-Palacios; Francisco García-Sánchez
The constantly increasing volume of information available on the Internet is changing the forms of classification and access to data. Given the immense collection of information stored on the Internet, digital libraries constitute a fundamental subject of research. Among the challenges of classifying, locating and accessing knowledge in digital libraries tackling with the huge amount of resources the Web provides, improving digital libraries by means of different strategies, particularly, using semantics remains a promising and interesting approach. In this paper, CallimachusDL is presented, a semantics-based digital library which provides faceted search, enhanced access possibilities and a proof-of-concept implementation. CallimachusDL represents a novel approach to digital libraries, integrating social web and multimedia elements in a semantically annotated repository. The results of the implementation indicate that the features proposed in CallimachusDL are encouraging and extendable in the use of digital libraries.
Keywords: Digital library; Semantic Web; Ontologies; Faceted search
Knowledge hoarding and user acceptance of online discussion board systems in eLearning: A case study BIBAKFull-Text 1431-1437
  Habin Lee; Jong Woo Kim; Ray Hackney
This paper aims to reveal the determinants of the effectiveness of online discussion board systems (ODBSs) in eLearning environments to foster the interactions among the learners and/or instructors. A case in which an ODBS failed to foster the interactions among learners/instructors for knowledge sharing is introduced and hypotheses to explain the failure are developed based on thorough literature review in technology acceptance model (TAM) and knowledge hoarding. The hypotheses are tested via statistical analysis on the data collected from a questionnaire survey against the students who actually involved in the case study. The result shows that the low perceived usefulness of the ODBS by the students played major role in the failure of the system. Also it is hinted that network externalities as an intrinsic motivator is more effective than extrinsic motivators to increase the students' activities on the ODBS. Finally the paper provides the designers of eLearning systems with advice for successful operation of ODBS in eLearning.
Keywords: eLearning; Online discussion board system; User acceptance; Knowledge hoarding; Motivation
Parallels in knowledge cycles BIBAKFull-Text 1438-1444
  Carla Curado; Nick Bontis
Knowledge management as an academic discipline is realizing phenomenal growth and international acceptance. However, there still exists no universally accepted framework or model. This paper reviews three of the most well known KM models from similar epistemological and ontological views. The three models reviewed are: Nonaka's SECI (Japan), March's Ex-Ex (USA) and Boisot's I-space (Europe). A number of recommendations for future research based on the similarities and differences among these models pertaining to knowledge management are presented.
Keywords: Knowledge management; Models; Knowledge-based view of the firm; Tacit; Explicit
Recommendation System based on user interaction data applied to intelligent electronic books BIBAKFull-Text 1445-1449
  Rubén González Crespo; Oscar Sanjuán Martínez; Juan Manuel Cueva Lovelle; B. Cristina Pelayo García-Bustelo; José Emilio Labra Gayo; Patricia Ordoñez de Pablos
Nowadays, new technologies and the fast growth of the Internet have made access to information easier for all kind of people, raising new challenges to education when using Internet as a medium. One of the best examples is how to guide students in their learning processes.
   The need to look for guidance from their teachers or other companions that many Internet users experience when endeavoring to choose their readings, exercises o practices is a very common reality. In order to cater for this need many different information and recommendation strategies have been developed. Recommendation Systems is one of these.
   Recommendation Systems try to help the user, presenting him those objects he could be more interested in, based on his known preferences or on those of other users with similar characteristics.
   This document tries to present the current situation with regards to Recommendation Systems and their application on distance education over the Internet.
Keywords: Recommendation Systems; Interaction; Intelligent e-book; Internet; Learning objects
Enhancing Enterprise Resource Planning users' understanding through ontology-based training BIBAKFull-Text 1450-1459
  Aristomenis M. Macris
An ERP system is a set of highly integrated and parametric applications, designed to fit to a variety of business. Because of this inherent complexity its implementation can be very demanding and the users involved must undertake extensive training, using sophisticated training materials. Existing training materials present major weaknesses, that the current paper aims to overcome, such as (1) semantic inconsistencies, (2) lack of explicit definition of constructs and (3) lack of knowledge reusability.This paper proposes a prototype model for the design and development of ERP training material, where both the multimedia objects used in training scenarios and the knowledge built into them are captured and fully reusable. The proposed approach helps trainees understand: (i) which are the building blocks of an ERP application, (ii) how they relate with each other and (iii) how they can be used in order to solve business specific problems.
Keywords: ERP ontology; ERP training; Ontology-based training; Semantic web training
Inclusive social tagging and its support in Web 2.0 services BIBAKFull-Text 1460-1466
  Michael Derntl; Thorsten Hampel; Renate Motschnig-Pitrik; Tomás Pitner
This paper investigates the Web 2.0 phenomenon of social tagging in the context of existing approaches to semantic data structuring. Social tagging is embedded into the space spanned by current structuring approaches like taxonomies, meta-data, and ontologies in order to identify its semantic and pragmatic foundations. Thereby, we use the Inclusive Universal Access paradigm to assess social tagging with respect to socio-technical criteria for inclusive and barrier-free provision and usage of web services. As a result of this analysis we propose a concept we chose to call "Inclusive Social Tagging". We subsequently use the requirements set forth by this concept to assess the tagging functionality of currently popular Web 2.0 services. We found that these services differ significantly in their implementation of tagging functionality, and we did not discover any service providing full compliance with Inclusive Social Tagging requirements.
Keywords: Social tagging; Folksonomy; Web 2.0; Inclusive Universal Access; Web services

CHB 2011-09 Volume 27 Issue 5

Special issue on advanced intelligent computing theory and methodology BIBFull-Text 1467
  De-Shuang Huang
Missing data imputation in multivariate data by evolutionary algorithms BIBAKFull-Text 1468-1474
  Juan C. Figueroa García; Dusko Kalenatic; Cesar Amilcar Lopez Bello
This paper presents a proposal based on an evolutionary algorithm to impute missing observations in multivariate data. A genetic algorithm based on the minimization of an error function derived from their covariance matrix and vector of means is presented.
   All methodological aspects of the genetic structure are presented. An extended explanation of the design of the fitness function is provided. An application example is solved by the proposed method.
Keywords: Missing data; Evolutionary optimization; Multivariate analysis; Multiple data imputation
DepthLimited crossover in GP for classifier evolution BIBAKFull-Text 1475-1481
  Hajira Jabeen; Abdul Rauf Baig
Genetic Programming (GP) provides a novel way of classification with key features like transparency, flexibility and versatility. Presence of these properties makes GP a powerful tool for classifier evolution. However, GP suffers from code bloat, which is highly undesirable in case of classifier evolution. In this paper, we have proposed an operator named "DepthLimited crossover". The proposed crossover does not let trees increase in complexity while maintaining diversity and efficient search during evolution. We have compared performance of traditional GP with DepthLimited crossover GP, on data classification problems and found that DepthLimited crossover technique provides compatible results without expanding the search space beyond initial limits. The proposed technique is found efficient in terms of classification accuracy, reduced complexity of population and simplicity of evolved classifiers.
Keywords: Genetic Programming; Crossover; DepthLimited; Bloat; Classification; Data mining
Interactive genetic algorithms with individual's fuzzy fitness BIBAKFull-Text 1482-1492
  Dun-wei Gong; Jie Yuan; Xiao-yan Sun
Interactive genetic algorithms are effective methods to solve an optimization problem with implicit or fuzzy indices, and have been successfully applied to many real-world optimization problems in recent years. In traditional interactive genetic algorithms, many researchers adopt an accurate number to express an individual's fitness assigned by a user. But it is difficult for this expression to reasonably reflect a user's fuzzy and gradual cognitive to an individual. We present an interactive genetic algorithm with an individual's fuzzy fitness in this paper. Firstly, we adopt a fuzzy number described with a Gaussian membership function to express an individual's fitness. Then, in order to compare different individuals, we generate a fitness interval based on α-cut set, and obtain the probability of individual dominance by use of the probability of interval dominance. Finally, we determine the superior individual in tournament selection with size two based on the probability of individual dominance, and perform the subsequent evolutions. We apply the proposed algorithm to a fashion evolutionary design system, a typical optimization problem with an implicit index, and compare it with two interactive genetic algorithms, i.e., an interactive genetic algorithm with an individual's accurate fitness and an interactive genetic algorithm with an individual's interval fitness. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is advantageous in alleviating user fatigue and looking for user's satisfactory individuals.
Keywords: Optimization; Genetic algorithms; Individual's fitness; Fuzzy number; Fashion design
Emergency resources scheduling based on adaptively mutate genetic algorithm BIBAKFull-Text 1493-1498
  Liming Zhang; Yuhua Lin; Guofeng Yang; Huiyou Chang
The emergency resources dispatch is critical in emergency relief, while it is quite difficult to achieve an optimized scheduling, adjusting to a practical situation. In this paper, an emergency resources scheduling model is built, which simulates realistic problems, this model includes multiple suppliers with a variety of resources, a single accident site and some restrictions, all these elements closing to a practical event. Then we applied an adaptively mutate genetic algorithm to figure out a superior solution, which adopts the Binary Space Partitioning tree for heuristic searching and adaptive mutation. Finally, we compare the experimental results obtained by canonical genetic algorithm and the adaptively mutate genetic algorithm, respectively. As is observed, this novel method proposed in our work has acquired better solutions than canonical genetic algorithm.
Keywords: Emergency resources scheduling; BSP tree; Adaptively mutate; Genetic algorithm
Machine learning approach to model sport training BIBAKFull-Text 1499-1506
  Edward Mezyk; Olgierd Unold
The aim of this study was to use a machine learning approach combining fuzzy modeling with an immune algorithm to model sport training, in particular swimming. A proposed algorithm mines the available data and delivers the results in a form of a set of fuzzy rules "IF (fuzzy conditions) THEN (class)". Fuzzy logic is a powerful method to cope with continuous data, to overcome problem of overlapping class definitions, and to improve the rule comprehensibility. Sport training is modeled at the level of microcycle and training unit by 12 independent attributes. The data was collected in two months (February-March 2008), among swimmers from swimming sections in Wroclaw, Poland. The swimmers had minimum of 7 years of training and reached the II class level in swimming classification from 2005 to 2008. The goal of the performed experiments was to find the rules answering the question -- how does the training unit influence swimmer's feelings while being in water the next day? The fuzzy rules were inferred for two different scales of the class to be predicted. The effectiveness of the learned set of rules reached 68.66%. The performance, in terms of classification accuracy, of the proposed approach was compared with traditional classifier schemes. The accuracy of the result of compared methods is significantly lower than the accuracy of fuzzy rules obtained by a method presented in this study (paired t-test, P < 0.05).
Keywords: Machine learning; Fuzzy logic; Artificial immune system; Data mining; Sport training
HDR Image Generation based on Intensity Clustering and Local Feature Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 1507-1511
  Kang-Hyun Jo; Andrey Vavilin
This paper describes a cluster-based method for combining differently exposed images in order to increase their dynamic range. Initially an image is decomposed into a set of arbitrary shaped regions. For each region we compute a utility function which is based on the amount of presented information and an entropy. This function is used to select the most appropriate exposure for each region. After the exposures are selected, a bilateral filtering is applied in order to make the interregional transitions smooth. As a result we obtain weighting coefficients for each exposure and pixel. An output image is combined from clusters of input images using weights. Each pixel of the output image is calculated as a weighted sum of exposures. The proposed method allows recovering details from overexposed and underexposed parts of image without producing additional noise. Our experiments show effectiveness of the algorithm for the high dynamic range scenes. It requires no information about shutter speed or camera parameters. This method shows robust results even if the exposure difference between input images is 2-stops or higher.
Keywords: HDR; Image clustering; Bilateral filtering; Local feature analysis
Interactive component extraction from fEEG, fNIRS and peripheral biosignals for affective brain-machine interfacing paradigms BIBAKFull-Text 1512-1518
  Tomasz M. Rutkowski; Toshihisa Tanaka; Andrzej Cichocki; Donna Erickson; Jianting Cao; Danilo P. Mandic
This paper investigates whether some well understood principles of human behavioral analysis can be used to design novel paradigms for affective brain-computer/machine interfaces. This is achieved by using the visual, audio, and audiovisual stimuli representing human emotions. The analysis of brain responses to such stimuli involves several challenges related to the conditioning of brain electrical responses, extraction of the responses to stimuli and mutual information between the several physiological recording modalities used. This is achieved in the time-frequency domain, using multichannel empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which proves very accurate in the joint analysis of neurophysiological and peripheral body signals. Our results indicate the usefulness of such an approach and confirm the possibility of using affective brain-computer/machine interfaces.
Keywords: Brain/human-computer interaction; EEG; Intelligent brain signal processing; EMD application to EEG; Interactive brain-computer interfacing; Affective human/brain-computer interfacing paradigm
Analysis of shipbuilding fabrication process with enterprise ontology BIBAKFull-Text 1519-1526
  Ji-Hyun Park; Kyung-Hoon Kim; Jae-Hak J. Bae
This paper describes the analysis and evaluation of shipbuilding process based on an enterprise ontology. Shipbuilding process is composed of steel fabrication, assembly, erection, launching, sea trials, naming, and delivery. Among them, the fabrication process has been analyzed and evaluated in this study. An enterprise ontology is a cognitive model containing knowledge unique to the enterprise, and enables the representation and sharing of the enterprise's process knowledge. We have built an enterprise ontology, and represented the shipbuilding process using plug-ins of Protégé. In addition, we have analyzed the current state of the process and dependency among the workflow elements using a Prolog inference engine, and evaluated the shipbuilding process.
Keywords: Enterprise ontology; Business process analysis; Shipbuilding fabrication process; Protégé
Assisted-care robot based on sociological interaction analysis BIBAKFull-Text 1527-1534
  Wenxing Quan; Hitoshi Niwa; Naoto Ishikawa; Yoshinori Kobayashi; Yoshinori Kuno
This paper presents our on-going work in developing service robots that provide assisted-care to the elderly in multi-party settings. In typical Japanese day-care facilities, multiple caregivers and visitors are co-present in the same room and any caregiver may provide assistance to any visitor. In order to effectively work in such settings, a robot should behave in a way that a person who needs assistance can easily initiate help from the robot. Based on findings from observations at several day-care facilities, we have developed a robot system that displays availability to multiple persons and then displays recipiency to an individual who initiates interaction with the robot. In this paper we detail this robot system and its experimental evaluation.
Keywords: Human-robot interaction; Ethnomethodology; Service robot; Non-verbal communication; Computer vision
Self-adaptation of learning rate in XCS working in noisy and dynamic environments BIBAKFull-Text 1535-1544
  Maciej Troc; Olgierd Unold
An extended classifier system (XCS) is an adaptive rule-based technique that uses evolutionary search and reinforcement learning to evolve complete, accurate, and maximally general payoff map of an environment. The payoff map is represented by a set of condition-action rules called classifiers. Despite this insight, till now parameter-setting problem associated with LCS/XCS has important drawbacks. Moreover, the optimal values of some parameters are strongly influenced by properties of the environment like its complexity, changeability, and the level of noise. The aim of this paper is to overcome some of these difficulties by a self-adaptation of a learning rate parameter, which plays a key role in reinforcement learning, since it is used for updates of classifier parameters: prediction, prediction error, fitness, and action set estimation. Self-adaptive control of prediction learning rate is investigated in the XCS, whereas the fitness and error learning rates remain fixed. Simultaneous self-adaptation of prediction learning rate and mutation rate also undergo experiments. Self-adaptive XCS solves one-step problems in noisy and dynamic environments.
Keywords: Machine learning; Adaptation; Self-adaptation; XCS
Segment-based emotion recognition from continuous Mandarin Chinese speech BIBAKFull-Text 1545-1552
  Jun-Heng Yeh; Tsang-Long Pao; Ching-Yi Lin; Yao-Wei Tsai; Yu-Te Chen
Recognition of emotion in speech has recently matured to one of the key disciplines in speech analysis serving next generation human-machine interaction and communication. However, compared to automatic speech recognition, that emotion recognition from an isolated word or a phrase is inappropriate for conversation. Because a complete emotional expression may stride across several sentences, and may fetch-up on any word in dialogue. In this paper, we present a segment-based emotion recognition approach to continuous Mandarin Chinese speech. In this proposed approach, the unit for recognition is not a phrase or a sentence but an emotional expression in dialogue. To that end, the following procedures are presented: First, we evaluate the performance of several classifiers in short sentence speech emotion recognition architectures. The results of the experiments show that the WD-KNN classifier achieves the best accuracy for the 5-class emotion recognition what among the five classification techniques. We then implemented a continuous Mandarin Chinese speech emotion recognition system with an emotion radar chart which is based on WD-KNN; this system can represent the intensity of each emotion component in speech. This proposed approach shows how emotions can be recognized by speech signals, and in turn how emotional states can be visualized.
Keywords: Mandarin Chinese; Speech emotion recognition; WD-KNN
Estimation of word emotions based on part of speech and positional information BIBAKFull-Text 1553-1564
  Kazuyuki Matsumoto; Fuji Ren
Recently, studies on emotion recognition technology have been conducted in the fields of natural language processing, speech signal processing, image data processing, and brain wave analysis, with the goal of letting the computer understand ambiguous information such as emotion or sensibility. This paper statistically studies the features of Japanese and English emotional expressions based on an emotion annotated parallel corpus and proposes a method to estimate emotion of the emotional expressions in the sentence. The proposed method identifies the words or phrases with emotion, which we call emotional expressions, and estimates the emotion category of the emotional expressions by focusing on the three kinds of features: part of speech of emotional expression, position of emotional expression, and part of speech of the previous/next morpheme of the target emotional expression.
Keywords: Emotion recognition; Emotion corpus; Sensibility
Personal identification based on finger-vein features BIBAKFull-Text 1565-1570
  Jinfeng Yang; Yihua Shi; Jinli Yang
Finger-vein recognition refers to a recent biometric technique which exploits the vein patterns in the human finger to identify individuals. The advantages of finger vein over traditional biometrics (e.g. face, fingerprint, and iris) lie in low-risk forgery, noninvasiveness, and noncontact. This paper here presents a new method of personal identification based on finger-vein recognition. First, a stable region representing finger-vein network is cropped from the image plane of an imaging sensor. A bank of Gabor filters is then used to exploit the finger-vein characteristics at different orientations and scales. Based on the filtered image, both local and global finger-vein features are extracted to construct a finger-vein code (FVCode). Finally, finger-vein recognition is implemented using the cosine similarity measure classifier, and a fusion scheme in decision level is adopted to improve the reliability of identification. Experimental results show that the proposed method exhibit an exciting performance in personal identification.
Keywords: Biometrics; Finger vein; Gabor filter
Shot retrieval based on fuzzy evolutionary aiNet and hybrid features BIBAKFull-Text 1571-1578
  Xian-Hui Li; Yong-Zhao Zhan; Jia Ke; Hong-Wei Zheng
As the multimedia data increasing exponentially, how to get the video data we need efficiently become so important and urgent. In this paper, a novel method for shot retrieval is proposed, which is based on fuzzy evolutionary aiNet and hybrid features. To begin with, the fuzzy evolutionary aiNet algorithm proposed in this paper is utilized to extract key-frames in a video sequence. Meanwhile, to represent a key-frame, hybrid features of color feature, texture feature and spatial structure feature are extracted. Then, the features of key-frames in the same shot are taken as an ensemble and mapped to high dimension space by non-linear mapping, and the result obeys Gaussian distribution. Finally, shot similarity is measured by the probabilistic distance between distributions of the key-frame feature ensembles for two shots, and similar shots are retrieved effectively by using this method. Experimental results show the validity of this proposed method.
Keywords: Shot retrieval; Fuzzy evolutionary aiNet; Hybrid features; Probabilistic distance; Similarity measure; Key-frame extraction
A representation method for performance specifications in UML domain BIBAKFull-Text 1579-1592
  S. Distefano; A. Puliafito; M. Scarpa
Performance related problems play a key role in the Software Development Process (SDP). In particular an early integration of performance specifications in the SDP has been recognized during last years as an effective approach to speed up the production of high quality and reliable software. In this context we defined and implemented a technique for automatically evaluating performance aspects of UML software architectures. To achieve this goal the starting UML model of the software architecture under exam has been mapped into a performance domain afterwards analyzed. The performance indices are inserted in the UML model exploiting the OMG Profile for Schedulability, Performance and Time Specification standard. However, to really automate the process, it was mandatory to specify the UML software representation by fixing semantic rules. The goal of this paper is the formalization of the model representation, characterizing the syntax and the semantics through which specifying performance requirements and behaviors into UML models in order to be compliant with the technique we implemented.
Keywords: Software Development Process; UML; Software performance engineering; Semantics; Meta-modeling
On the relation between cognitive and biological modelling of criminal behaviour BIBAKFull-Text 1593-1611
  Tibor Bosse; Charlotte Gerritsen; Jan Treur
This article discusses how a cognitive modelling approach for criminal behaviour can be related to a biological modelling approach. The discussion is illustrated by a case study for the behaviour of three types of violent criminals as known from literature within the area of Criminology. A cognitive model is discussed that can show each of the behaviours of these types of criminals, depending on the characteristics set and inputs in terms of stimuli from the environment. Based on literature in Criminology about motivations and opportunities and their underlying biological factors, it is shown by a formal interpretation mapping how the model can be related to a biological grounding. This formal mapping covers ontology elements for states and dynamic properties for processes, and thus shows how the cognitive model can be biologically grounded.
Keywords: Biological modelling; Cognitive modelling; Simulation; Logic; Criminal behaviour
Age and technology innovation in the workplace: Does work context matter? BIBAKFull-Text 1612-1620
  Tracey E. Rizzuto
Two workplace trends will become increasingly important in years to come: reliance on information technology (IT) and workforce aging. This study explores the influence of workplace context on employee reactions to the implementation of a new IT initiative to better understand innovation enhancers and inhibitors. Employees from multiple workplace departments completed a questionnaire that assessed their reactions to the implementation. Age-based differences and contextual influences were estimated to predict satisfaction with the implementation process. Hierarchical linear models indicate that younger workers reported less satisfaction than older workers -- an effect that was more pronounced in relatively young departments. These findings challenge ageist notions and emphasize the role of context on attitudes formation. Multi-institutional and multilevel field-setting data are rare making this a unique research contribution.
Keywords: Age; Organizational climate; Technology; Implementation
The lies we tell and what they say about us: Using behavioural characteristics to explain Facebook activity BIBAKFull-Text 1621-1626
  Jean D. M. Underwood; Lianne Kerlin; Lee Farrington-Flint
Are there two definable groups of users of social networking sites based on the individual's interaction style, that is whether the prime goal is to self-promote (broadcast) or maintain relationships (communicate)? Do such groups indulge in differing patterns of deceptive behaviour? Measures of personality, behaviour, and Facebook activity were completed by 113 undergraduate students all of which were active Facebook users. Regression analyses showed that while broadcasting behaviour was predicted by risk taking, an out-going personality and an absence of quality interaction; low mild social deviance predicted communication behaviour. Unexpectedly, cluster analysis identified three, not two, distinct groups of users: high broadcasters, high communicators and a high interaction group. Although each group mainly interacted with known others, their style of the interaction varied. Communicators' interaction style supported group cohesion often through the use of 'white lies' or social oil; while the remaining two groups indulged in deceptive behaviour designed to self-promote or aggrandize the individual.
Keywords: Facebook; Social networking; Behavioural characteristics; Interactional style; Personality traits; Impression management; Lying and deception
Enhancing graph production skills via programmed instruction: An experimental analysis of the effect of guided-practice on data-based graph production BIBAKFull-Text 1627-1633
  Darrel R. Davis
A computer-based graphing simulator used tutorial modules to teach 61 undergraduate college students how to create cumulative graphs from sets of data. One group was required to complete the steps of constructing an appropriate graph within a computer-provided graphical workspace, while the other group did not have graphic construction requirements during the tutorial, but could optionally construct the graph within the workspace. Following the tutorial instruction, each student was given three blank sheets of graph paper, a pencil, two sets of data, and the requirement of physically constructing graphs based on the given data. Students who were required to actively complete graph construction steps during their tutorial subsequently produced graphs from the new data that were significantly better than those students who had the option of practicing in the workspace. Results suggest that the presence of response contingencies within the graphical workspace increases subsequent graph construction performance. The efficiencies possible with electronic instruction are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-based instruction; Programmed instruction; Graphing; Simulation
Revealing only the superficial me: Exploring categorical self-disclosure online BIBAKFull-Text 1634-1642
  Alison Attrill; Rahul Jalil
Despite previous research demonstrating that online self-disclosure occurs in an accelerated manner compared to offline interactions, little is known about the content of online disclosures. This study highlights a number of issues that arise when exploring the self-disclosure of different types of personal information in initial general online communications. Forty-eight students and 48 non-students completed a purpose-developed attitude towards online relationship formation questionnaire and Magno's (2009) self-disclosure for beliefs, relationships, personal matters, interests and intimate feelings questionnaire. Findings suggest that people are more likely to self-disclose information online the more positive is their attitude towards forming relationships online. Moreover, this self-disclosure initially occurs only for superficial self-information relating to personal matters and interests, implying that it is the quantity of online exchanges that is enhanced rather than the quality thereof. These findings raise a number of issues relating to type of self-information disclosed online, as well as intent, Internet arena, social identity, privacy, trust, and general methodological issues that would benefit from further experimental exploration. Implications of the findings for future research to explore categorical self-disclosure online within an existing theoretical framework of self-categorisation and self-identity theory as well as the self-memory-system model of autobiographical memory are discussed.
Keywords: Self-disclosure online; Categorical self-memory online; Internet interactions; Relationships online
Designing motivational agents: The role of praise, social comparison, and embodiment in computer feedback BIBAKFull-Text 1643-1650
  Jonathan Mumm; Bilge Mutlu
The present study draws on theories of attribution, social comparison, and social facilitation to investigate how computers might use principles of motivation and persuasion to provide user feedback. In an online experiment, 192 participants performed a speed-reading task. The independent variables included whether or not the verbal feedback from the computer involved praise, whether the objective feedback showed that the participants were performing better or worse from their peers, and whether or not the feedback was presented by an on-screen agent. The main dependent variables included a subjective measure of participants' intrinsic motivation and an objective measure of their task persistence. Results showed that providing participants with praise or comparative information on others' performance improved intrinsic motivation. When praised, participants whose performances were comparatively low persisted in the task longer than those whose performances were comparatively high did. Additionally, the mere presence of an embodied agent on the screen increased participants' motivation. Together, these results indicate that praise and social comparison can serve as effective forms of motivational feedback and that humanlike embodiment further improves user motivation.
Keywords: Computer agents; Feedback; Motivation; Praise; Social comparison; Embodiment
The effect of video feedback delay on frustration and emotion communication accuracy BIBAKFull-Text 1651-1657
  Stacie Renfro Powers; Christian Rauh; Robert A. Henning; Ross W. Buck; Tessa V. West
Previous research has demonstrated that for unacquainted dyads and groups interacting over video, feedback delay can interfere with the impression-formation process and increase cognitive load, in turn leading to incorrect interpersonal judgments. In this study, 35 dyads participated in two 10-min conversation periods over video monitors. In one period there was a 1-s delay in the audio/video signal and in the other there was no delay. In period 1 the presence of feedback delay was associated with decreased frustration and increased ability to accurately judge a partner's emotions. In period 2, however, feedback delay was associated with increased frustration and had no effect on emotion communication accuracy, which was decreased in both conditions by inaccurate assumed similarity. Results supported and expanded the relation-alignment perspective, which states that individuals will consciously attempt to manage their impressions over technological channels, but that they can also be unconsciously influenced by technological distortion.
Keywords: Video communication; Emotion; Dyadic analysis; Feedback delay; Assumed similarity
Who uses Facebook? An investigation into the relationship between the Big Five, shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage BIBAKFull-Text 1658-1664
  Tracii Ryan; Sophia Xenos
The unprecedented popularity of the social networking site Facebook raises a number of important questions regarding the impact it has on sociality. However, as Facebook is a very recent social phenomenon, there is a distinct lack of psychological theory relating to its use. While research has begun to identify the types of people who use Facebook, this line of investigation has been limited to student populations. The current study aimed to investigate how personality influences usage or non-usage of Facebook. The sample consisted of 1324 self-selected Australian Internet users (1158 Facebook users and 166 Facebook nonusers), between the ages of 18 and 44. Participants were required to complete an online questionnaire package comprising the Big Five Inventory (BFI), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory -- 29-item version (NPI-29), the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale (RCBS), and the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults -- Short version (SELSA-S). Facebook users also completed a Facebook usage questionnaire. The results showed that Facebook users tend to be more extraverted and narcissistic, but less conscientious and socially lonely, than nonusers. Furthermore, frequency of Facebook use and preferences for specific features were also shown to vary as a result of certain characteristics, such as neuroticism, loneliness, shyness and narcissism. It is hoped that research in this area continues, and leads to the development of theory regarding the implications and gratifications of Facebook use.
Keywords: Facebook; Big Five; Personality; Narcissism; Shyness; Loneliness
Effects of spatial ability and richness of motion cue on learning in mechanically complex domain BIBAKFull-Text 1665-1674
  Doo Young Lee; Dong-Hee Shin
This study seeks to examine the impact of individual differences in the spatial ability of learners to integrate verbal information and three modes of visual representations. Several hypotheses were tested, including that (1) individual difference in spatial ability should influence the learning of theoretical knowledge when the instructional materials present a static visual representation at the lowest motion cue richness, and (2) both animations and the static visual representation containing motion cues should be more effective than static visual representation, especially for learners with low spatial ability. In the experiment, 60 learners were classified as having either low or high spatial ability on the basis of their performance on the Kit of Factor Referenced Cognitive Tests. The learners got knowledge from written explanations describing a four-stroke engine mechanism in a computer-based format. Also, written explanations were reinforced by corresponding visual representations with three levels of motion cue richness (static images, static images with motion cues or animations). Understanding was measured by a problem-solving transfer test. The results indicate that (1) presenting written explanations with corresponding animations did not improve performance of the learners with high spatial ability, (2) for the learners with low spatial ability, learning was enhanced by the use of animations, (3) merely adding motion cues to the static visual representation did not improve learning of the learners with low spatial ability, and (4) use of animations did not help learners with low spatial ability more than those with high spatial ability.
Keywords: Spatial ability; Motion cue richness; Visualization; Animation; Visual representation; Computer-based instruction
Exposure to violent computer games and Chinese adolescents' physical aggression: The role of beliefs about aggression, hostile expectations, and empathy BIBAKFull-Text 1675-1687
  Shuangju Zhen; Hongling Xie; Wei Zhang; Shujun Wang; Dongping Li
Previous research shows that playing violent computer games (VCG) influences physical aggression. However, the mediation processes of this influence and potential gender and age differences have not been well investigated. The present study (a) tested, in an integrated model, how three factors (i.e., beliefs about aggression, hostile expectations, and empathy) simultaneously mediated the relationship between playing VCG and physical aggression, and (b) determined if the mediation process varied across gender and age groups. A total of 795 (44% females) Chinese adolescents from three grade levels (Grade 5, 8 and 11) completed measures of exposure to VCG, physical aggression, beliefs about aggression, hostile expectations, and empathy. Results indicated that paths involving each of the three mediators as the sole mediator were significant in the whole sample. Beliefs about aggression (e.g., "it's O.K. to hit someone") were the most robust mediator across gender and age groups. Empathy was a more important mediator in females than in males in Grade 5 and Grade 8. The direct and/or indirect associations (e.g., VCG → beliefs about aggression → physical aggression) between playing VCG and physical aggression were stronger among younger adolescents than among older adolescents. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Violent computer games; Physical aggression; Beliefs about aggression; Hostile expectations; Empathy
Empirical investigation of customers' channel extension behavior: Perceptions shift toward the online channel BIBAKFull-Text 1688-1696
  Shuiqing Yang; Yaobin Lu; Ling Zhao; Sumeet Gupta
An increasing number of traditional (offline) firms are opening up their online sales channels. However, a number of them are finding it difficult to increase the utilization of their online channels from their existing customers. The purpose of the current study is to identify factors that influence customers channel extension from the offline to online channel and to understand how these factors influence customers' behavior towards online channel extension. Drawing on the theory of entitativity formulated by Campbell, we propose a research model of customers channel extension by focusing on the shift of perception from offline to the online channel. The data for the study is collected from a large bank in China. The structural equation modeling analysis results indicate that perceived offline service quality influences perceived online service quality both directly as well as indirectly through perceived entitativity. Perceived online service quality, in turn influences customers' behavior towards the online channel extension. The results also demonstrate that self-efficacy for change directly influences behavior towards the online channel extension, and it also has an important moderating influence on relationship between perceived offline service quality and perceived online service quality. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Customer channel extension; Behavioral intention; Perceived service quality; Self-efficacy; Online channel
"Sexting" and adult romantic attachment BIBAKFull-Text 1697-1701
  Robert S. Weisskirch; Raquel Delevi
"Sexting" refers to sending and receiving sexually suggestive images, videos, or texts on cell phones. As a means for maintaining or initiating a relationship, sexting behavior and attitudes may be understood through adult attachment theory. One hundred and twenty-eight participants (M = 22 and F = 106), aged 18-30 years, completed an online questionnaire about their adult attachment styles and sexting behavior and attitudes. Attachment anxiety predicted sending texts that solicit sexual activity for those individuals in relationships. Attachment anxiety also predicted positive attitudes towards sexting such as accepting it as normal, that it will enhance the relationship, and that partners will expect sexting. Sexting may be a novel form for expressing attachment anxiety.
Keywords: Sexting; Adult attachment; Romantic relationships; Couples; Computer-mediated communication
Internet and mobile phone text-messaging dependency: Factor structure and correlation with dysphoric mood among Japanese adults BIBAKFull-Text 1702-1709
  Xi Lu; Junko Watanabe; Qingbo Liu; Masayo Uji; Masahiro Shono; Toshinori Kitamura
Unhealthy use of the Internet and mobile phones is a health issue in Japan. We solicited participation in this questionnaire-based study from the employees of a city office in Kumamoto. A total of 92 men and 54 women filled in the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (IAQ), the Self-perception of Text-message Dependency Scale (STDS), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of "light Internet addiction" and "severe Internet addiction" were 33.7% and 6.1% for men whereas they were 24.6% and 1.8% for women. The prevalence of "light mobile phone text-message addiction" was 3.1% for men and 5.4% for women. There were no cases of "sever text-message addiction". We found a two-factor structure for the IAQ and a three-factor structure for the STDS. We also performed an EFA of the IAQ and STDS subscales, and this revealed a two-factor structure -- Internet Dependency and Text-message Dependency. An STDS subscale, Relationship Maintenance, showed a moderate factor loading of the factor that reflected unhealthy Internet use. In a path analysis, Depression was associated with both Internet Dependency and Text-message Dependency whereas Anxiety was associated negatively with Text-message Dependency. These results suggest applicability of the IAQ and STDS and that Internet and Text-message Dependences are factorially distinct.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Text-messaging dependency; Depression; Anxiety
The effect of the nonhuman external regulator's answer-until-correct (AUC) versus knowledge-of-result (KR) task feedback on children's behavioral regulation during learning tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1710-1723
  Adel M. Agina; Piet A. M. Kommers; Michael M. Steehouder
The present study was conducted to shed a new light on the nonhuman's external regulation effect on children's behavioral regulation through investigating the effect of the computer's task feedback answer-until-correct (AUC) versus knowledge-of-result (KR) with 40 preschool children (boys/girls) divided into AUC-Condition versus KR-Condition. The Aginian's methodology (Agina, Kommers, & Steehouder, 2010) with the latest updates (Agina, Kommers, & Steehouder, 2011) was used, which involves an isolated, computer-based learning system with three different computer's agents for measuring self-regulation as a function of the task level selection, self-regulation as a function of task precision, and special agent for evaluating children's satisfaction. It was hypothesized that AUC-Condition will outperform KR-Condition in verbalization intensity, manifested self-regulation, and the degree of satisfaction. Despite the results were not confirmed the hypothesis, the results generated by the game were consistent with the statistical results in which this consistency increases, to a great extent, the reliability of the Aginian's measurements. However, both results were not confirmed Vygotsky's view or Piaget's view of self-regulation development as both concluded that thinking aloud and self-regulation have a reverse relationship and, therefore, thinking aloud, per se, can be used to explore the problems the children may not agree to talk about.
Keywords: Children's behavioral regulation (CBR); Self-regulation learning (SRL); Thinking aloud (TA); Zone of proximal development (ZPD); Zone of children's motivation (ZCM); Aginian's methodology
The effect of nonhuman's external regulation on detecting the natural development process of young children's self-regulation during learning tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1724-1739
  Adel M. Agina; Piet A. M. Kommers; Michael M. Steehouder
The present study explored the effect of nonhuman's external regulation on children's natural development of self-regulation and the effect of each natural developed class on children's spontaneous thinking aloud and satisfaction. The Aginian's methodology (Agina et al., 2011a) that relied on special computer agents for the external regulation, measuring self-regulation and children's satisfaction, and producing the final results in points was used with 40 preschool children, which were divided into classes based on their natural development of self-regulation during learning tasks. The results showed that children who followed Piagetian's view were outperforming children who followed Vygotskyian's view and Aginian's view, which is a new psychological view generated by computer indicates that the child either followed unknown class of self-regulation's natural development or the child holds an ambiguous psychological problem. The results also showed that the relationship between children's spontaneous thinking aloud and children's self-regulation is a reverse. The supplemental analysis showed that computer, as a nonhuman external regulator, can identify those children who hold psychological problems and can integrate the net signed of self-regulation of each child at each task through embedding the mathematics integration where the computer becomes fully conscious with all the occurrences of children's behavioral regulation.
Keywords: Self-regulation learning (SRL); Thinking aloud (TA); Zone of proximal development (ZPD); Zone of children's motivation (ZCM); Zone of children's regulation (ZCR); Aginian's methodology
Inter-relationships among dominance, energetic and tense arousal, and pleasure, and differences in their impacts under online vs. offline environment BIBAKFull-Text 1740-1750
  Dong-Mo Koo; Ji-Hoon Lee
Only a few studies have investigated dominance and observed mixed results. The impact of arousal on pleasure and behavior has also produced inconsistent or no meaningful results. In addition, emotional responses such as dominance, arousal, and pleasure have been assumed to be independent, which have resulted in a void in the relationships research among these constructs. Based on this research tradition, the present study proposed an inter-relationship among dominance, energetic and tense arousal, pleasure, and their impact on intention. A two-dimensional concept of energetic arousal and tense arousal has never been adopted and studied in previous retail research. Dominance, energetic arousal, and tense arousal are introduced to explain inconsistent relationships found in previous retail consumer studies. Results from a survey of 406 consumers (217 from offline store customers and 189 online store users) using PLS demonstrated that that (1) while dominance has a significant positive and/or negative effect on both energetic and tense arousal, it has no impact on pleasure and intention under both offline and online environment; (2) the effect of dominance on tense arousal is not statistically significant in an online shopping environment; (3) both energetic and tense arousal has a positive and/or negative impact on pleasure; (4) energetic arousal affects intention directly and indirectly mediated by pleasure, whereas tense arousal has an indirect effect on intention; and (5) the results found in testing differences in path coefficients under the two different shopping environment suggested that (1) the impact of dominance on energetic arousal is stronger under offline shopping context; (2) the effect of dominance on tense arousal is stronger in online environment; (3) the effect of energetic arousal on pleasure is stronger in offline shopping context; and (4) the impact of tense arousal on pleasure is stronger under offline shopping environment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in conclusion.
Keywords: Dominance; Energetic arousal; Tense arousal; Pleasure; Reactance; Cognitive appraisal
Personal Internet use at work: Understanding cyberslacking BIBAKFull-Text 1751-1759
  Jessica Vitak; Julia Crouse; Robert LaRose
Cyberslacking, typically defined as the use of Internet and mobile technology during work hours for personal purposes, is a growing concern for organizations due to the potential in lost revenue; however, the majority of academic research in this area has focused on a limited number of cyberslacking behaviors and/or employed small, non-representative samples. In order to address these limitations, the present study employs a nationally representative sample of American workers and tests the relationship between nine cyberslacking behaviors and a variety of demographic and work-specific predictors. Three measures of cyberslacking are employed to provide a richer analysis of the phenomenon: individual behaviors, frequency of cyberslacking, and variety of cyberslacking. Results indicate that being younger, male, and a racial minority positively predict cyberslacking variety and frequency, as do routinized Internet use at work and higher perceived Internet utility. Results are discussed as to how the present study expands on previous research, and directions for future research are indicated.
Keywords: Cyberslacking; Non-work-related computing; Internet use; Organizations; Communication technology; Productivity
Examining knowledge contribution from the perspective of an online identity in blogging communities BIBAKFull-Text 1760-1770
  Hee-Woong Kim; Jun Raymond Zheng; Sumeet Gupta
Knowledge contribution is one of the essential factors behind the success of blogging communities (BCs). This research studies knowledge contribution behavior in a BC from the perspective of knowledge contributors and their characteristics using the lens of social identity theory. Social identity theory asserts that individuals are fundamentally motivated to present or communicate their identities in everyday social life through behavior. A similar line of reasoning can be used to argue that members of a BC would also be motivated to communicate their online identities through their behavior, that is, through knowledge contribution in the BC. Specifically, this study conceptualized the online identity and examined the effects of its personal (online kindness, online social skills, and online creativity) and social aspects (BC involvement) on knowledge contribution. The data was collected using an online survey from the members of Cyworld, a popular BC in South Korea and a few other countries (members from South Korea were included in this study). The results indicate that both the personal and social aspects of online identity and their interactions significantly influenced knowledge contribution. Based on the findings, this study offers suggestions to organizers of BCs to enhance the knowledge contribution from their members.
Keywords: Knowledge contribution; Virtual community; Online identity; Social identity theory
Flashlight -- Recording information acquisition online BIBAKFull-Text 1771-1782
  Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck; Ryan O. Murphy; Florian Hutzler
A flashlight enables a person to see part of the world in the dark. As a person directs a flashlight beam to certain places in the environment, it serves as a manifestation of their attention, interest and focus. In this paper we introduce Flashlight, an open-source (free) web-based software package that can be used to collect continuous and non-obtrusive measures of users' information acquisition behavior. Flashlight offers a cost effective and rapid way to collect data on how long and how often a participant reviews information in different areas of visual stimuli. It provides the functionality of other open source process tracing tools, like MouselabWeb, and adds the capability to present any static visual stimulus. We report the results from three different types of stimuli presented with both the Flashlight tool and a traditional eye-tracker. We found no differences measuring simple outcome data (e.g., choices in gambles or performance on algebraic tasks) between the two methods. However, due to the nature of the more complicated information acquisition, task completion takes longer with Flashlight than with an eye-tracking system. Other differences and commonalities between the two recording methods are reported and discussed. Additionally we provide detailed instructions on the installation and setup of Flashlight, the construction of stimuli, and the analysis of collected data.
Keywords: Process tracing; Information acquisition; Online research; Decision making; Open source
Improving the scaffolds of a mobile-assisted Chinese character forming game via a design-based research cycle BIBAKFull-Text 1783-1793
  Lung-Hsiang Wong; Ivica Boticki; Jizhen Sun; Chee-Kit Looi
This paper reports on one cycle of a design-based research (DBR) study in which mCSCL was explored through an iterative process of (re)designing and testing the collaboration and learning approach with students. A unique characteristic of our mCSCL approach is the student-led emergent formation of groups. The mCSCL application assigns each student a component of a Chinese character and requires them to form groups that can assemble a Chinese character using the components held by the group members. The enactment of the learning design in two modes (with and without the digital technology) was observed, and the actual process of students being scaffolded technologically or socially to accomplish their task was analyzed. Students were found to favor the card mode over the phone mode due to the emergent game strategy (social scaffold) of "trial and error" that they found it comfortable in applying. That triggered us to examine the scaffolding strategies by conducting another round of literature review. We explored domain-oriented theories (i.e. in Chinese character learning) to inform and guide them in deciding how they should further accommodate or rectify the students' use of the strategy. This cycle of DBR in Chinese-PP project has effectively reshaped the overall learning model design. This paper brings to the fore the value of the interplay and iterations of theories, implementations and reflections, in no fixed order, as advocated by DBR.
Keywords: Mobile Computer-supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL); Chinese language learning; Design-based research (DBR); User interface design
Computer-mediated communication and risk-taking behaviour BIBAKFull-Text 1794-1799
  Lynette Y. Q. Goh; James G. Phillips; Alex Blaszczynski
In an unregulated environment Internet use is not without risk, and video has been proposed to influence riskiness and trust behaviour. This experiment explored the differences in willingness to take risks on events portrayed over the Internet via a videolink, relative to events occurring in close proximity (collocated). Thirty-four participants played a roulette game on a computer, wagering points upon the outcomes of spins of a real roulette wheel. The amounts, types of bets and the time to place them were analysed. It was found that confidence (points wagered) did not change, but people went for lower risk (when more was at stake), or thought more about the risks they took (when more was at stake) over a videolink. People accepted greater risk on outcomes occurring in close proximity, than those events portrayed over a videolink. Variations in perceived risk in response to online versus offline events probably reflect differences in the potential to influence outcomes.
Keywords: Videoconference; Risk; Gambling; Internet; Collaboration
Parenting style and parental monitoring with information communication technology: A study on Japanese junior high school students and their parents BIBAKFull-Text 1800-1805
  Michiko Nakayama
Data were collected from 286 pairs of Japanese junior high school students and their parents to explore the association between parenting style and the intention to use monitoring systems incorporating advanced information technology such as GPS devices and IC cards. Results indicated that a majority of the participants had not experienced advanced monitoring systems, but more than half of the parents had some degree of intention to use them. The relationship between the intention to use monitoring systems and two types of parenting styles (i.e., responsiveness and control) reported by both parents and children was investigated. Categorical regression analyses revealed that parenting style was a predictor of the intention to use monitoring systems, with parent-reported control being the most significant predictor of parents' intention to use. Child-reported responsiveness also had a significant positive effect on child's intention to use, whereas child-reported control did not have such an effect. It became clear that parenting style was differently affected the intention to use advanced monitoring systems between parents and children; the significant predictor of parents' intention to use is their tendency of control and that of children's to use is their perceived responsiveness.
Keywords: Monitoring system; GPS; IC card; Parenting style; Parental monitoring
The effect of informal social support: Face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication BIBAKFull-Text 1806-1814
  Joshua Lewandowski; Benjamin D. Rosenberg; M. Jordan Parks; Jason T. Siegel
Survey data were collected on a military sample to test two main hypotheses about the impact of face-to-face and computer-mediated social support following disruptive life events. We tested two main hypotheses: first, as previous research indicates, the impact of a disruptive life event is partially dependent upon the amount of social support one receives during the time of the event (H1). Second, the type of communication used will further impact the effectiveness of social support in comforting individuals following a negative life event. Results support both hypotheses, indicating that the buffering role of social support following a disruptive life event is not only dependent upon the amount of social support one receives, but is further affected by the type of communication that participants used to receive support. These findings provide support for the buffering hypothesis' utility in the realm of computer-mediated communication, as well as the application of the cues-filtered-out approach in the mediated social support domain.
Keywords: Buffering hypothesis; Computer-mediated communication; Cues-filtered-out; Military; Social support
The role of trait emotional intelligence in gamers' preferences for play and frequency of gaming BIBAKFull-Text 1815-1819
  Christothea Herodotou; Maria Kambouri; Niall Winters
This paper examines the role of trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) in gamers' preferences for play and frequency of gaming in a sample of 1051 young adult US/European gamers, who play frequently the online massively multiplayer game, World of Warcraft (WoW). Trait EI was shown to predict social and achievement preferences for play as well as frequency of gaming. In particular, trait EI was positively correlated to a preference for social practices per se and negatively correlated to a preference for achievement-oriented, instrumental practices. These findings advocate that gamers' preferences for play are in accordance with their emotion-related personality characteristics. Trait EI was also negatively associated with frequency of gaming suggesting that lower scorers on trait EI are more likely associated with more frequent game use.
Keywords: Trait EI; Preferences for play; Frequency of gaming; Online gaming
Internet use and online social support among same sex attracted individuals of different ages BIBAKFull-Text 1820-1827
  L. Baams; K. J. Jonas; S. Utz; H. M. W. Bos; L. van der Vuurst
The current research addressed age differences in internet use among Same Sex Attracted (SSA) individuals. In general, online communities are found to be a source of social support, especially for minority group members. However, it is unclear whether younger and older SSA people differ in their use of these communities. The present research examined age differences in use of online communities, hypothesizing that young SSA people primarily use these for social interaction and support, whereas older SSA people use online communities to seek sexual contacts. Study 1 examined age differences in motives to start using these websites. Study 2 examined age differences in use of online profiles and online social support. Results of both studies confirmed our hypotheses. Younger compared to older SSA people are found to receive more online social support, whereas older SSA use the internet more for sexual purposes. Our findings provide first time evidence of the relation between sexual orientation, age and internet use.
Keywords: Online communities; Online profiles; Social support; Age differences; Sexual minorities; Coming out
A picture is worth a thousand words: A content analysis of Facebook profile photographs BIBAKFull-Text 1828-1833
  Noelle J. Hum; Perrin E. Chamberlin; Brittany L. Hambright; Anne C. Portwood; Amanda C. Schat; Jennifer L. Bevan
This research examines identity construction and gender roles in social networking sites by studying and comparing the profile photographs of male and female Facebook users. Specifically, the number of photos in the profile album and the content of the main profile picture are studied by coding specific pictures, and determining if the content and amount of profile pictures differ significantly by gender. Participants include male and female Facebook users between the ages of 18 and 23 who are currently enrolled in a college or university. Profile pictures tended to be inactive, posed, appropriate, and only including the subject. The content and amount of Facebook profile photographs also did not significantly vary by gender. Implications of these findings, as well as suggestions for future research, are discussed.
Keywords: Facebook; Profile photographs; Online identity construction; Gender
Preventing human error: The impact of data entry methods on data accuracy and statistical results BIBAKFull-Text 1834-1839
  Kimberly A. Barchard; Larry A. Pace
Human data entry can result in errors that ruin statistical results and conclusions. A single data entry error can make a moderate correlation turn to zero and a significant t-test non-significant. Therefore, researchers should design and use human computer interactions that minimize data entry errors. In this paper, 195 undergraduates were randomly assigned to three data entry methods: double entry, visual checking, and single entry. After training in their assigned method, participants entered 30 data sheets, each containing six types of data. Visual checking resulted in 2958% more errors than double entry, and was not significantly better than single entry. These data entry errors sometimes had terrible effects on coefficient alphas, correlations, and t-tests. For example, 66% of the visual checking participants produced incorrect values for coefficient alpha, which was sometimes wrong by more than .40. Moreover, these data entry errors would be hard to detect: Only 0.06% of the errors were blank or outside of the allowable range for the variables. Thus, researchers cannot rely upon histograms and frequency tables to detect data entry errors. Single entry and visual checking should be replaced with more effective data entry methods, such as double entry.
Keywords: Data entry; Double entry; Visual checking; Outliers; Data cleaning
Understanding social networking sites adoption in China: A comparison of pre-adoption and post-adoption BIBAKFull-Text 1840-1848
  Ya Ping Chang; Dong Hong Zhu
Prior experience is an important determinant factor of individual behavior. This paper developed a theoretical model to predict the adoption intention of pre-adopters and post-adopters on social networking sites based on the theory of planned behavior. Using data from online surveys of netizens in China, the proposed model was tested in the context of pre-adoption and post-adoption by using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. Then, multi-groups analysis was explored to compare the difference between the two groups. The results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavior control have significant effect on the adoption intention of pre-adopters and post-adopters, and there is no significant difference between the two groups. In addition, information, meeting new people, and conformity motivations have the same significant effect on both groups. However, entertainment motivation has a significant effect on pre-adopters but connecting with old friends has none; in contrast, connecting with old friends has significant effect on post-adopters while entertainment motivation has no significant effect.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Pre-adoption; Post-adoption; Theory of planned behavior
Evaluating learning, design, and engagement in web-based learning tools (WBLTs): The WBLT Evaluation Scale BIBAKFull-Text 1849-1856
  Robin Kay
Web-based learning tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, are online, interactive tools that support the learning of specific concepts by enhancing, amplifying, and/or guiding the cognitive processes of learners. Research examining the effectiveness of WBLTs is somewhat limited because sound, reliable, valid evaluation metrics are sparse, particularly in the K-12 environment. The purpose of the following study was to re-examine the Learning Object Evaluation Scale for students (LOES-S), originally developed by Kay and Knaack (2009), to assess three key constructs: learning, design, and engagement. Over 800 middle and secondary schools students participated in high quality, pre-designed lessons intended to accentuate the use of WBLTs. Data collected from the new WBLT Evaluation Scale demonstrated good internal reliability, construct validity, convergent validity and predictive validity.
Keywords: Evaluate; Learning; Design; Scale; Web-based learning tools; Learning object
Internet use, happiness, social support and introversion: A more fine grained analysis of person variables and internet activity BIBAKFull-Text 1857-1861
  M. E. Mitchell; J. R. Lebow; R. Uribe; H. Grathouse; W. Shoger
The Internet is no longer an advanced technology accessible to a select few. It has become a ubiquitous tool for users ranging from professional programmers to casual surfers and young children. The exponential increase in time online has prompted curiosity and speculation about the interaction between this technology and individual person variables. While general survey data exist regarding broad patterns of Internet use, less is known about the relationship between specific usage and individual personality dimensions, mood variables, or social activity. This study sought to clarify several of these relationships. One hundred eighty-five undergraduate student volunteers completed two detailed measures of Internet use across various domains (for example: work/school, tasks/services, entertainment), as well as measures of happiness, perceived social support, and introversion. Specific types of Internet use, including gaming and entertainment usage, were found to predict perceived social support, introversion and happiness. Use of the Internet for mischief-related activities (for example: downloading without payment, fraud, snooping) was associated with lower levels of happiness and social support. These findings support the utility of and need for specific rather than general Internet research. Directions for future research clarifying the role of the Internet in quality of life and interpersonal relations are suggested.
Keywords: Internet use; Personality; Happiness; Introversion; Social support
Rate My Expectations: How online evaluations of professors impact students' perceived control BIBAKFull-Text 1862-1867
  Neneh Kowai-Bell; Rosanna E. Guadagno; Tannah Little; Najean Preiss; Rachel Hensley
Ratemyprofessors.com (RMP) is a website on which students can post their ratings of professors. The site is widely used; however, little research has examined the effect RMP content has on expectations and approach to the reviewed class. Two studies examined the hypothesis that Ratemyprofessors.com can have an impact on students' impressions of professors and directly affect student perceptions of control over the course outcome and their attitudes toward taking the course. In Study 1, participants recalled an experience visiting Ratemyprofessors.com and taking a class from the professor reviewed. Most participants reported a positive impression, an increase in perceived control, and a subsequent positive classroom experience that exceeded expectations. In Study 2, participants read and evaluated either a set of negative or positive comments about a given professor. Results indicated that positive comments had a more positive effect on perceived control, grade expectancy, and attitude toward the class, than did the negative comments. Thus, these results suggest that content on RMP can impact student expectations and approach to a potential class.
Keywords: Ratemyprofessors.com; Internet; Expectations; Student evaluations of teaching; Perceived control
E-Learning technologies: A key to Dynamic Capabilities BIBAKFull-Text 1868-1874
  Reychav Iris; Anand Vikas
The field of Dynamic Capabilities has evolved very rapidly in recent years. Enhancing Dynamic Capabilities is considered to be a major tool to achieving a sustained competitive advantage. However, Dynamic Capabilities are inherently complex and there is a great deal of research on their various contributing factors. On a parallel research track, much has been written on the significance and long-lasting contribution of Knowledge Management and Learning on competitive advantage. Today's learning in organizations is increasingly centred around Electronic-Learning (E-Learning). This paper suggests that there is a solid link between technological tools (E-Learning), management processes (Knowledge Management) and organizational outcome (Dynamic Capabilities), and discusses the impact of E-Learning technologies on for-profit organizations as a means of enhancing Dynamic Capabilities through Knowledge Sharing, both within and across the organization's boundaries. Managers and knowledge experts in three leading companies were surveyed. The findings show that firms can acquire significant Dynamic Capabilities by using E-Learning technologies to promote Knowledge Sharing. It is further concluded that using E-Learning for developing channels of Knowledge Sharing across the organization helps to ensure excellence and competitiveness by increasing much sought-after Dynamic Capabilities.
Keywords: E-Learning; Knowledge Sharing; Dynamic Capabilities
Reliability and validity of self-reported burnout in college students: A cross randomized comparison of paper-and-pencil vs. online administration BIBAKFull-Text 1875-1883
  Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos; Miriane Lucindo Zucoloto; Fernanda Salloume Sampaio Bonafé; Paula Cristina Jordani; João Maroco
Internet data collection is becoming increasingly popular in all research fields dealing with human perceptions, behaviors and opinions. Advantages of internet data collection, when compared to the traditional paper-and-pencil format, include reduced costs, automatic database creation, and the absence of researcher-related bias effects, such as availability and complete anonymity. However, the validity and reliability of internet gathered data must be established, in comparison to the usual paper-and-pencil accepted formats, before an inferential analysis can be done. In this study, we compared questionnaire data gathered from the internet with that from the traditional paper-and-pencil in a sample of college students. The questionnaires used were the Maslach Burnout Inventory -- Student Survey (MBI-SS), the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OBI-SS) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI-SS). Data was gathered through a within-subject cross randomized and counterbalanced design, on both internet and paper-and-pencil formats. The results showed no interference in the application order, and a good reliability for both formats. However, concordance between answers was generally higher in the paper-and-pencil format than on the internet. The factorial structure was invariant in the three burnout inventories. Data gathered in this study supports the Internet as a convenient, user-friendly, comfortable and secure data gathering method which does not affect the accepted factorial structures existent in the paper format of the three burnout inventories used.
Keywords: Internet questionnaires; Paper-and-pencil questionnaires; Reliability; Validity; Student Burnout
Core capabilities for practitioners in achieving e-business innovation BIBAKFull-Text 1884-1891
  Li-Min Lin; Tzyh-Lih Hsia
The rapid advance of information technology and its penetration into the core elements of the business model and organizational structures is enabling profound and significant organizational changes. In such a dynamic environment, firms must be able to continually evolve their capabilities to facilitate electronic business (e-business) innovation. Yet, current research pays little attention to the core capabilities that contribute to e-business innovation in general. This research seeks to identify the core capabilities that are necessary for achieving e-business innovation. We propose a tri-core model of e-business innovation adopted from Swanson (1994), which knits together three cores: business technology, the business model and the value network. We use this model initially to specify the functional areas of the capabilities. Based on data collected through an intensive literature review and an exploratory Delphi study, thirteen essential capabilities were considered as the keys to e-business innovation exploitation and exploration. Firms can facilitate their e-business solutions over time through the successful development of these capabilities. These findings provide great insights for practitioners and scholars alike to better understand the core capabilities for achieving e-business innovation. It can also help practitioners form a template of the requisite in-house management for identifying knowledge gaps and developing action plans.
Keywords: E-business; E-business innovation; IS innovation; Dynamic capabilities
'Migrating to a new virtual world': Exploring MMORPG switching through human migration theory BIBAKFull-Text 1892-1903
  Avus C. Y. Hou; Ching-Chin Chern; Houn-Gee Chen; Yu-Chen Chen
Online gaming has become a popular leisure-time activity. In this study, we enlisted and adapted the Push-Pull-Mooring model, which analyzes human migratory behavior based on the Demographic Migration Theory, to study the game switching of gamers. Data was obtained via an empirical survey of 654 online gamers and then was analyzed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique. The results indicate that the Push-Pull-Mooring model can be extended to explain the switching intentions of online gamers. The "mooring effect" appears to have a stronger influence on the player's switching intention than the "pull effect", while the "push effect" appears to have no influence at all. We discuss the implications of our findings and offer possible avenues of exploration for managers of online game providers in order to help them understand their customers better.
Keywords: Online gaming; Switching intention; Migration; Push-Pull-Mooring model
A generic dynamic control task for behavioral research and education BIBAKFull-Text 1904-1914
  Cleotilde Gonzalez; Varun Dutt
Recent research in behavioral sciences presents strong evidence of poor human understanding for dynamic systems. Computer-based dynamic control tasks have an important potential for helping behavioral scientists advance research that investigates reasons for poor understanding and for helping students understand how dynamic systems work. In this paper, we introduce a simulation called Dynamic Stocks and Flows (DSF) that portrays the basic building blocks of dynamic systems: an accumulation; an inflow and outflow determined by an environment; and an inflow and outflow determined by a decision maker. In DSF, decision makers control the accumulation to a goal level by making repeated inflow and outflow decisions. We provide details of an experiment conducted with DSF that highlight some problems people face in controlling a dynamic system with different kinds of environmental inflow and outflow functions. DSF is flexible enough to represent dynamic systems with continuous or discrete accumulations, and with real-time or event-driven decision-making. We suggest that these and other features in DSF make it a good research and educational tool.
Keywords: Dynamic task; Dynamic Stocks and Flows; Slope; Microworld; Behavioral research; Education
Do millennial undergraduates' views of writing differ when surveyed online versus on paper? BIBAKFull-Text 1915-1921
  Ayshegul B. Musallam; Diane L. Schallert; Hyunjin Kim
The purpose of this study was to test whether different survey delivery conditions made a difference in assessing college students' practices, affect, and conceptions of academic and nonacademic writing. The delivery conditions represented combinations of three underlying factors: survey format (online versus paper-and-pencil), location (classroom, lab, home), and supervision (proctored or not). Participants (N = 268) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) a paper version of the survey administered in classrooms at scheduled proctored sessions; (2) an online version administered in scheduled proctored sessions in a computer lab; (3) an online version at a location and time of the students' choice. The survey had 103 closed-ended and three open-response questions. Results showed different participation rates across conditions and more variability in time spent for the "home online" group. However, there were few differences by condition to substantive questions regarding the students' practices, conceptions, and affective responses associated with writing. The only place where responses differed by condition was in response to the optional open-ended evaluation of the survey.
Keywords: Survey formats; Online survey; Electronic medium; Survey delivery; Writing experiences of millennial undergraduates
Antecedents of computer self-efficacy: A study of the role of personality traits and gender BIBAKFull-Text 1922-1936
  Huma Saleem; Anne Beaudry; Anne-Marie Croteau
Empirical evidence suggests that computer self-efficacy plays an important role in one's acceptance and use of new information technology. Little is however known about the antecedents of computer self-efficacy. This paper reports on a study of 143 non-users of a self-checkout library system available at a large Canadian university which was conducted to investigate the relationships between stable personality traits and gender with computer self-efficacy. Results indicate that four of the five stable personality traits, as measured by the Big-5 factors of personality, contribute to explain computer self-efficacy. Taking gender into account, results show that the traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness are significantly related to computer self-efficacy for women but not for men. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Computer self-efficacy; Gender; Personality traits; Big-5 factors of personality; Five-factor model of personality; IT acceptance
Validity and reliability of the IAT: Measuring gender and ethnic stereotypes BIBAKFull-Text 1937-1941
  Ali R. Rezaei
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) was developed in response to reports of low validity of explicit (self-report) measures of attitudes, stereotypes, and prejudices. Usually, people are unwilling to report what they think and feel about other races, groups, and nationalities. The IAT has been written about in many books, newspapers, journal articles, websites, and has been featured frequently on radio and television many times; its web site has now reached a peak of 5 million visits. However, despite this popularity its validity and particularly its reliability is under question. This article reports on the validity and reliability of the IAT. Four different experiments were conducted on 150 students at California State University, Long Beach to investigate the temporal reliability of IAT. Also students' opinion (trust) about the validity and reliability of the test was evaluated. The results showed that while there are numerous reports of moderate validity of the test, its reliability as measured in this study, particularly for the first time users, is relatively low. Familiarity with similar tests, however, improves its reliability.
Keywords: Assessment; Implicit association; IAT; Reliability; Validity; Stereotypes
Attentional bias in excessive massively multiplayer online role-playing gamers using a modified Stroop task BIBAKFull-Text 1942-1947
  Olivia Metcalf; Kristen Pammer
There is considerable dispute regarding the nature of excessive or problematic Internet-related behaviour and whether it constitutes a clinical addiction. Classification of excessive gaming is hindered by a lack of experimental research investigating behavioural responses from gamers and comparing these patterns to those found in established addictions. We investigated whether an attentional bias for gaming-related words existed for addicted Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Gamers (MMORPGers) identified using the Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire.
   Forty frequent MMORPGers (15 female) and 19 non-MMORPGers (eight female) completed a computerised modified Stroop task comprised of game-related, negative and neutral word lists, Addiction-Engagement Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21, gaming-related variables. The results indicated that addicted MMORPGers had significantly longer reaction times to negative and MMORPG words compared to neutral words, whereas highly engaged and non-MMORPG participants showed no such bias. The presence of an attentional bias in addicted MMORPGers is comparable with research investigating this behavioural response in established addictions.
Keywords: MMORPG; Attentional bias; Stroop; High engagement; Online gaming addiction
Passively recognising human activities through lifelogging BIBAKFull-Text 1948-1958
  Aiden R. Doherty; Niamh Caprani; Ciarán Ó Conaire; Vaiva Kalnikaite; Cathal Gurrin; Alan F. Smeaton; Noel E. O'Connor
Lifelogging is the process of automatically recording aspects of one's life in digital form. This includes visual lifelogging using wearable cameras such as the SenseCam and in recent years many interesting applications for this have emerged and are being actively researched. One of the most interesting of these, and possibly the most far-reaching, is using visual lifelogs as a memory prosthesis but there are also applications in job-specific activity recording, general lifestyle analysis and market analysis.
   In this work we describe a technique which allowed us to develop automatic classifiers for visual lifelogs to infer different lifestyle traits or characteristics. Their accuracy was validated on a set of 95 k manually annotated images and through one-on-one interviews with those who gathered the images. These automatic classifiers were then applied to a collection of over 3 million lifelog images collected by 33 individuals sporadically over a period of 3.5 years. From this collection we present a number of anecdotal observations to demonstrate the future potential of lifelogging to capture human behaviour. These anecdotes include: the eating habits of office workers; to the amount of time researchers spend outdoors through the year; to the observation that retired people in our study appear to spend quite a bit of time indoors eating with friends. We believe this work demonstrates the potential of lifelogging techniques to assist behavioural scientists in future.
Keywords: Lifelogging; SenseCam; Algorithms; Psychology; Sociology
The associations between young adults' face-to-face prosocial behaviors and their online prosocial behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 1959-1962
  Michelle F. Wright; Yan Li
Drawing on the co-construction theory (Subrahmanyam, Smahel, & Greenfield, 2006), this study investigated the relationship between online and face-to-face prosocial behaviors among 493 (345 women) young adults (ages 18-25 years). Findings indicated that face-to-face prosocial behaviors were positively associated with the engagement in online prosocial behaviors through social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, Myspace, Twitter), chat programs (e.g., Google Talk, AOL Instant Messenger, Yahoo Messenger), email, and text messages, after controlling for gender and time spent using each type of technology. These findings extend the application of the co-construction theory to online prosocial behaviors. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the internet is also a place for positive interactions and call for more research investigating online prosocial behaviors.
Keywords: Online prosocial behavior; Face-to-face prosocial behavior; Electronic technology; Young adult; Emerging adult; Co-construction theory
To stick or not to stick: The social response theory in the development of continuance intention from organizational cross-level perspective BIBAFull-Text 1963-1973
  Jyun-Wei Huang; Chieh-Peng Lin
The rapid growth of online social network sites (SNSs) has raised the research question of why people continue sticking to these sites. This study proposes a social network site stick model based on social response theory to answer this question. This study hypothesizes that group-level social capital (e.g., environmental prompt cues or social cues) positively influences arousal. Group-level social capital includes group-level social interaction, group-level social trust cues, and group-level social shared codes and language. Arousal subsequently induces users to engage in knowledge sharing and social support behaviors, which, in turn, leads to continuance intention. Empirical analysis using a survey of registered users from a popular social network site supports all of these hypothesized effects. Finally, this study discusses the managerial implications and limitations of these findings.
Effects of self-disclosure on relational intimacy in Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 1974-1983
  Namkee Park; Borae Jin; Seung-A Annie Jin
The present study examined the association between self-disclosure and intimacy in the context of Facebook. As the antecedents of self-disclosure, the study included the need for affiliation and the motivations for relationship maintenance and initiation. Using data from an online survey (N = 249), structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-disclosure amount and positivity were positively associated with intimacy, while self-disclosure honesty and intent were not associated with intimacy. The study also found no direct association between the need for affiliation and self-disclosure. Rather, the need for affiliation was associated with the motivations for relationship maintenance and initiation, which in turn affected self-disclosure and intimacy. The theoretical implications of the study were discussed.
Keywords: Self-disclosure; Intimacy; Need for affiliation; Relational motivations; Facebook
Evaluation of complex and dynamic safety tasks in human learning using the ACT-R and SOAR skill acquisition theories BIBAKFull-Text 1984-1995
  Samuel A. Oyewole; Amey M. Farde; Joel M. Haight; Oladapo T. Okareh
This paper provides a human-centered analytical approach to learning dynamic and complex tasks using the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) and the State, Operator And Result (SOAR) models by comparing the task times of the model and the subjects. Twenty-one full time assembly line workers at a local computer company (14 men and 7 women) from ages 18-32 (Mean = 19.86 years, SD = 0.96 years) were randomly selected for this analysis. The task involved the placement of printed circuit board (PCB) components on the flow line of the desktop computer mother board manufacturing process. The overall timed performance of the subjects indicated that the match between the model and the subjects was good, resulting in an R2 -- value of 0.94. At the unit task level performance, and R2 -- value of 0.96 for placing the PCBs on the flow line. For tasks involving picking and searching of PCBs, the obtained R2 -- value was 0.76 and R2 of 0.68 at the keystroke level. Findings revealed that the model already started out with a complete strategy of performing the task, whereas the human participants had to acquire additional learning information during the trials. Efforts will be made in the future to determine how the performance of the human subjects could be enhanced to meet or the same level as the model performance.
Keywords: Skill acquisition; ACT-R; SOAR; Cognitive psychology; Declarative knowledge; Procedural knowledge
Intention to upload video content on the internet: The role of social norms and ego-involvement BIBAKFull-Text 1996-2004
  Namkee Park; Younbo Jung; Kwan Min Lee
This study examined the factors that are associated with people's intention to upload video content online within the framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Using data from a survey of college students (N = 241), structural equation modeling analyses revealed that individual descriptive norm is associated with the intention to upload video content online. In addition, ego-involvement played an essential role in accounting for both attitude toward the uploading behavior and the intention to upload. These findings suggest that integration of the constructs of the TPB, social norms, and ego-involvement can be a fruitful theoretical endeavor for understanding people's intention to upload video content online. The theoretical implications and limitations were discussed.
Keywords: Uploading videos; Subjective norm; Descriptive norm; Injunctive norm; Ego-involvement
Measurement invariance in training evaluation: Old question, new context BIBAKFull-Text 2005-2010
  J. William Stoughton; Amanda Gissel; Andrew P. Clark; Thomas J. Whelan
Technological advances that have been put to use by organizations have not escaped the training domain. With the shift towards computer-mediated surveys, training evaluations have been converted from traditional paper-and-pencil formats to Web-based environments. This begs the question as to whether or not these modalities are equivalent. Accordingly, this study examined the item functioning of parallel Web-based training evaluations and traditional paper-and-pencil evaluations of a training intervention. Item response theory (IRT) analyses revealed few differences between how an individual would respond to particular items (i.e., differential item functioning) regardless of the modality employed to complete a training evaluation. This provides evidence for the equivalence of paper-and-pencil and computer-mediated training evaluations.
Keywords: Surveys; Computer-mediated surveys; Training; Training evaluation; Differential item functioning; Item response theory
Cognitive consequences of making computer-based learning activities more game-like BIBAKFull-Text 2011-2016
  Krista E. DeLeeuw; Richard E. Mayer
Some students (base group) played the Circuit Game, a 10-level computer-based learning activity intended to help students learn how electrical circuits work. Other students (competition group) played the same game but with competition features added -- including a score bar showing performance on each level, the opportunity to earn one ticket per level if a performance criterion is met, and the opportunity to win a prize based on the number of tickets earned. On a retention test given after the game, the competition group remembered significantly more than the base group (d = 0.47). On an embedded transfer test constituting the final level of the game, the groups did not differ significantly. However, on the transfer test there was a significant gender by group interaction in which men performed worse in the competition group than the base group (d = -0.54) and women performed better in the competition group than the base group (d = 0.24). Overall, adding game-like features to a computer-based learning activity caused students to pay attention to game details but did not motivate students -- particularly men -- to learn more deeply.
Keywords: Computer game; Serious game; Educational game; Competition; Sex differences
Blog scrubbing: Exploring triggers that change privacy rules BIBAKFull-Text 2017-2027
  Jeffrey T. Child; Sandra Petronio; Esther A. Agyeman-Budu; David A. Westermann
An increasing number of individuals of all ages maintain important interpersonal relationships through blogs. Wide variation exists in how people disclose and manage their privacy on these blogs, particularly concerning the choices made about leaving information permanently visible on blogs or retrieving it sometime after an initial posting. This study applies Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory to explore the process of privacy rule adaptation for blogging by examining situations that have triggered bloggers to change their privacy rules to enact blog post deletion practices ("blog scrubbing"). Overall, open-ended responses from 356 bloggers were content analyzed. Chi-square analysis revealed differences in the frequency of triggers that changed the blogging post privacy rules and the proactive versus reactive nature of blogging privacy management deletion practices. Bloggers' critical incidents that activate privacy rule changes demonstrate that impression management triggers, personal safety identity triggers, relational triggers, and legal/disciplinary triggers resulted in greater alteration of individual privacy rules used to protect these bloggers from the privileged online community of individuals granted access to an individual's blog. Thus, bloggers essentially "scrubbed" their blog site and adapted their typical privacy rules with new ones that better protected them from the online community regarding that particular blogged information.
Keywords: Disclosure; Privacy rule adaptations; Blogging; Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory; Blogging privacy rule triggers
The effect of an information ethics course on the information ethics values of students -- A Chinese guanxi culture perspective BIBAKFull-Text 2028-2038
  Christina Ling-hsing Chang
The development of information technology has a significant influence on social structure and norms, and also impacts upon human behavior. In order to achieve stability and social harmony, people need to respect various norms, and have their rights protected. Students' information ethics values are of critical and radical importance in achieving this goal. Using qualitative approach, the present study utilizes Kohlberg's CMD model to measure improvement in students' "information ethics values" through "technology mediated learning (TML)" models, and to assess the extent to which it is influenced by gender and Chinese guanxi culture. We find that while e-learning improves female students' "respect rules," "privacy," "accessibility" and "intellectual property" values more than male students, the percentages relating to "intellectual property" for females in the higher stages remain lower than for males. Moreover, these results are interpreted from a Chinese guanxi culture perspective. In light of these results, educators should take account of such improvements when designing effective teaching methods and incentives.
Keywords: Information ethics values; Kohlberg's CMD model; Technology mediated learning; Chinese guanxi culture
Realism, idealization, and potential negative impact of 3D virtual relationships BIBAKFull-Text 2039-2046
  Richard L. Gilbert; Nora A. Murphy; M. Clementina Ávalos
One hundred and ninety-nine participants, each of whom was currently involved in an intimate relationship within the 3D virtual world of Second Life, completed measures assessing whether they (1) viewed their 3D virtual relationship as an exercise in fantasy or one that had a quality of realism, and (2) perceived the personality characteristics of their 3D partner in more positive or idealized terms than a current or recent real life partner. Additionally, 71 of the 199 participants (36%) who were concurrently involved in a real life romantic relationship as well as their Second Life relationship provided data regarding the potential negative impact of Second Life relationships on co-occurring real life relationships. Results indicated that (1) the majority of participants viewed their Second Life relationships as real rather than as a form of game-playing, (2) participants generally reported more positive or idealized personality traits for their Second Life partners compared to their real life partners, and (3) a portion of participants in co-occurring Second Life and real life relationships indicated that their virtual relationship served as an emotional competitor or potential threat to their real life relationship, with the potential for detrimental effects rising as the couple progressively adds non-immersive digital and physical channels of communication to the original 3D relationship.
Keywords: Internet; 3D; Relationships; Virtual worlds; Second Life
Effect of high-level content organizers on hypertext learning BIBAKFull-Text 2047-2055
  Zsofia Vörös; Jean-François Rouet; Csaba Pléh
This study investigates the cognitive abilities involved in hypertext learning and design approaches that can help users. We examined the effects of two types of high-level content organizers -- a graphic spatial map and an alphabetical list -- on readers' memory for hypertext structure. In the control condition, a simple "home" page with no navigational aid was offered. Subjects were asked to read the hypertext with the purpose of learning the content, but in the post test phase they also had to recall the layout of nodes and links. Memory for links and page places varied as a function of condition. When a spatial map was available participants reconstructed more accurate formal structure then in the two other conditions. Participants' memory about page places was the least accurate in the list condition. Results also indicate that participants use the content organizer when it is available in order to orientate during learning from hypertext documents.
   Our results prove that a content organizer showing the formal structure can facilitate the spatial mapping process. However, an organizer exposing a different structure than the real one would generate a conflict.
Keywords: Navigation; Hypertext learning; Content organizer; Mental map
Comparison of 3D and 2D menus for cell phones BIBAKFull-Text 2056-2066
  Kyungdoh Kim; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
Few prior studies have directly compared 3D and 2D menus for cell phones. Because the technology available for cell phone interfaces has changed in recent years, interface guidelines for cell phones need to be re-evaluated, especially with regard to the use of 3D interfaces. In the present study, we first compared performance of tasks for menus with different breadths using three 3D menus (revolving stage, 3D carousel, and collapsible cylindrical tree) shown on the small display screen of an iPhone® simulator. Performance was best with the revolving stage menu, and there was a nonsignificant tendency for it to be rated as preferred by the participants. Then, we compared the 3D revolving stage menu to a 2D overview menu, for tasks of different complexity and menus of different breadths, on an actual iPhone. The 3D menu was preferred by users at high breadth levels, and the 2D menu showed better performance than the 3D menu with low memory load. From the results, recommendations for the design of menus for small displays were developed.
Keywords: 3D menu; 2D menu; Revolving stage menu; Memory load; Breadth; iPhone

CHB 2011-11 Volume 27 Issue 6

A meta-analysis of e-learning technology acceptance: The role of user types and e-learning technology types BIBAKFull-Text 2067-2077
  Bostjan Sumak; Marjan Hericko; Maja Pusnik
Existing literature in the field of e-learning technology acceptance reflects a significant number of independent studies that primarily investigate the causal relationships proposed by technology acceptance theory, such as the technology acceptance model (TAM). To synthesize the existing knowledge in the field of e-learning technology acceptance, we have conducted a systematic literature review of 42 independent papers, mostly published in major journals. Furthermore, in order to view the research context by combining and analyzing the quantitative results of the reviewed research studies, a meta-analysis of the causal effect sizes between common TAM-related relationships was conducted. The main findings of this study, which is the first of its kind, are: (1) TAM is the most-used acceptance theory in e-learning acceptance research, and (2) the size of the causal effects between individual TAM-related factors depends on the type of user and the type of e-learning technology. The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated a moderating effect for user-related factors and technology-related factors for several evaluated causal paths. We have gathered proof that the perceived ease of use and the perceived usefulness tend to be the factors that can influence the attitudes of users toward using an e-learning technology in equal measure for different user types and types of e-learning technology settings.
Keywords: E-learning; Acceptance; Meta-analysis; Moderator analysis
Fostering sharing of unshared knowledge by having access to the collaborators' meta-knowledge structures BIBAKFull-Text 2078-2087
  Tanja Engelmann; Friedrich W. Hesse
The present experimental study focuses on two problems occurring in computer-supported collaborative learning situations: First, it has been empirically proven that groups discuss mainly shared information, that is, information already known to all group members, while unshared information, that is, information known to only one member, is often neglected. However, such unshared information could be task-relevant. Therefore, taking unshared information into consideration should be fostered. Second, Wegner's theory of transactive memory system points out that groups perform better when the group members are informed about their collaborators' knowledge. However, acquiring correct knowledge about what others know is difficult. An approach for solving these two problems is introduced which provides the group members with the collaborators' meta-knowledge structures by means of digital concept maps. The study compares 20 triads with spatially distributed group members that had access to their collaborators' meta-knowledge maps with 20 triads collaborating without these maps. Results showed, as expected, that the triads having been provided with such maps started sooner to discuss unshared information, applied more of their collaborators' unshared information, and processed unshared information more deeply. Additional results, however, demonstrated in contrast to Wegner's theory that being informed about the collaborators' meta-knowledge is not sufficient to increase group performance.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative problem solving; Knowledge and information awareness; Unshared knowledge; Collaborators' meta-knowledge
Teenagers in social virtual worlds: Continuous use and purchasing behavior in Habbo Hotel BIBAKFull-Text 2088-2097
  Matti Mäntymäki; Jari Salo
Social virtual worlds (SVWs) have become important environments for social interaction. At the same time, the supply and demand of virtual goods and services is rapidly increasing. For SVWs to be economically sustainable, retaining existing users and turning them into consumers are paramount challenges. This requires an understanding of the underlying reasons why users continuously engage in SVWs and purchase virtual items. This study builds upon Technology Acceptance Model, motivational model and theory of network externalities to examine continuous usage and purchase intention and it empirically tests the model with data collected from 2481 Habbo users. The results reveal a strong relationship between continuous usage and purchasing. Further, the results demonstrate the importance of the presence of other users in predicting the purchase behavior in the SVW. Continuous SVW usage in turn is predicted directly by perceived enjoyment and usefulness while the effect of attitude is marginal. Finally, perceived network externalities exert a significant influence of perceived enjoyment and usefulness of the SVW but do not have a direct effect on the continuous usage.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; Social virtual worlds; Network externalities; Virtual purchasing behavior; Continuous usage
Providing assistance to older users of dynamic Web content BIBAKFull-Text 2098-2107
  Darren Lunn; Simon Harper
The much vaunted Web 2.0 sees once static pages evolving into hybrid applications. Content that was once simple to surf is now becoming increasingly complicated due to the many updating components "dotted" throughout the page. In previous studies, we have shown that unlike younger users, older users have more varied interaction patterns when using dynamic content. In addition, some older users are not aware of what to expect when interacting with dynamic content and show signs of hesitancy when completing tasks. Therefore, a tool was developed to assist older users as they interacted with these kinds of pages. The tool used simple language and video demonstrations to explain how the dynamic content operated and what users could expect to happen as they were interacting with it. We found that: older users tend to deny the need for assistance technology even when non-subjective measures suggest they do use it; technology assists but cannot replace initial human training; Assistance Tools are seen as a 'security blanket' in case things go wrong; and that the actual needs of users are not that well understood by those users.
Keywords: Assistance; Dynamic content; Older users; Web widgets
Computer based assessment: Gender differences in perceptions and acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 2108-2122
  Vasileios Terzis; Anastasios A. Economides
This study identifies the constructs that affect male and female students' behavioural intention to use a computer based assessment (CBA). It extends the Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model (CBAAM) (Terzis & Economides, 2011) by taking into consideration the genders. An appropriate survey questionnaire was completed by 56 male and 117 female students. Results indicate that both genders are more likely to use the CBA if it is playful and its content is clear and relative to the course. Men are also motivated by their perceptions regarding how much useful the CBA is. Also, their attitude towards the CBA is influenced by their social environment. On the other side, women are more likely to use the CBA if it is easy to use and stimulates their efforts for better final exam preparation. The CBAAM incorporating genders explains approximately 50% of the variance of behavioural intention for each gender. These findings are useful for researchers and practitioners in order to understand better the different constructs that affect each gender regarding the acceptance of a CBA system.
Keywords: Computer Based Assessment Acceptance Model; Perceived Ease of Use; Perceived Playfulness; Perceived Usefulness; Gender differences
Interactive gaming reduces experimental pain with or without a head mounted display BIBAKFull-Text 2123-2128
  Nakia S. Gordon; Junaid Merchant; Catherine Zanbaka; Larry F. Hodges; Paula Goolkasian
While virtual reality environments have been shown to reduce pain, the precise mechanism that produces the pain attenuating effect has not been established. It has been suggested that it may be the ability to command attentional resources with the use of head mounted displays (HMDs) or the interactivity of the environment. Two experiments compared participants' pain ratings to high and low levels of electrical stimulation while engaging in interactive gaming with an HMD. In the first, gaming with the HMD was compared to a positive emotion induction condition; and in the second experiment the HMD was compared to a condition in which the game was projected onto a wall. Interactive gaming significantly reduced numerical ratings of painful stimuli when compared to the baseline and affect condition. However, when the two gaming conditions were directly compared, they equally reduced participants' pain ratings. These data are consistent with past research showing that interactive gaming can attenuate experimentally induced pain and its effects are comparable whether presented in a head mounted display or projected on a wall.
Keywords: Analgesia; Gaming; Head mounted display; Electrical stimulation; Virtual reality; Emotion
Effects of IS characteristics on e-business success factors of small- and medium-sized enterprises BIBAKFull-Text 2129-2140
  Li-Min Chang; She-I Chang; Chin-Tsang Ho; David C. Yen; Mei-Chen Chiang
The current research presents a theoretically sound model of the effects of the characteristics of information systems (IS) on the perception of end-users regarding computer self-efficacy and outcome expectations. The relationships among factors of small- and medium-sized enterprises in Taiwan are examined based on the IS success model and social cognitive theory. A mail survey was conducted, generating 284 usable responses with a total response rate of 51.64%. Structural equation modeling was employed to assess the relationships among related constructs. Data analysis shows that (1) no direct links exist between computer self-efficacy and either information quality or service quality, although certain effects are observable on system quality; (2) the relationships between outcome expectations and both system quality and service quality are significant; however, the relationship with information quality is insignificant; and (3) outcome expectations mediate the effects of computer self-efficacy on end-user satisfaction. The implications of the results are provided, and directions for future research are discussed in the study.
Keywords: Social cognitive theory; Information systems success model; Structural equation modeling; Small- and medium-sized enterprises
The interaction effects of familiarity, breadth and media usage on web browsing experience BIBAKFull-Text 2141-2152
  Jengchung Victor Chen; Chinho Lin; David C. Yen; Kyaw-Phyo Linn
Web technology is changing rapidly every day and the internet has become a lifestyle for people all over the world. The power of the web has changed the way people communicate and do business. With the advance of the internet era, a successful website becomes a critical factor for the success of most businesses. Website design is not only about the look of the website. There are many other factors to consider. A well-designed site can induce users to engage in the website, help them find what they are looking for, and understand where exactly they are on the website. This study investigates the user's perception disorientation, engagement, and intent to use a website in the future by manipulating these three basic factors into eight different experimental conditions. With 2 × 2 × 2 experimental design with content familiarity, site breadth, and media richness in website systems, this study suggests that both the main effects and the interaction effects of the experiment factors are significant. This implies that one or more factors can compensate for the weakness of other factors. Furthermore different people have preferences for different factors; therefore website design should not solely focus on a single factor, but should address all of these factors in accordance with the objective of the business.
Keywords: Disorientation; Engagement; Intention to use; Familiarity; Navigation; Website design
A study on the goal value for massively multiplayer online role-playing games players BIBAKFull-Text 2153-2160
  Yu-Ling Lin; Hong-Wen Lin
This study examines the goal of value sought by players of the massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). We drew on the Means-end Chains (MECs) model frequently used in marketing as a theoretical basis. Soft laddering method was also adopted as a tool for in-depth interviews. Content analysis was used to analyze the "Attributes-Consequences-Values" for MMORPGs players, then converted into a hierarchical value map (HVM). The study found that role-playing, interface design, multiplayer gaming, independent play, popularity and virtual pets were the order of game attributes users took into consideration when playing MMORPGs. The consequences benefits for the users were, in order, enhanced interaction, more fun, enhanced efficiency, fantasy fulfillment, winning, novelty, more insurance, increased wealth and stress relief. The value targets sought by players were concluded to be fun and enjoyment in life, sense of accomplishment, warm relationships with others, sense of belonging and security in order of importance.
Keywords: Means-end Chains; MMORPGs; Goal value; Product benefits
The mediator role of self-disclosure and moderator roles of gender and social anxiety in the relationship between Chinese adolescents' online communication and their real-world social relationships BIBAKFull-Text 2161-2168
  Jin-Liang Wang; Linda A. Jackson; Da-Jun Zhang
Based on theory and previous research, we examined relationships among gender, social anxiety, self-disclosure, quality of real-world friendships and online communication by Chinese adolescent Internet users. Results indicated that online communication and self-disclosure are not related to quality of friendship, and online communication is positively related to self-disclosure. For adolescent boys and adolescents with high social anxiety, online communication can explain more variance in users' self-disclosure, indicating that gender and social anxiety moderate the relationship between online communication and online self-disclosure.
Keywords: Adolescence; Online communication; Quality of friendship; Social anxiety; Self-disclosure; Gender
Introducing synchronous e-discussion tools in co-located classrooms: A study on the experiences of 'active' and 'silent' secondary school students BIBAKFull-Text 2169-2177
  Christa S. C. Asterhan; Tammy Eisenmann
Even though the advantages of online discussions over face-to-face discussion formats have been extensively discussed and investigated, the blending of synchronous online discussion tools in co-located classroom settings has been considered with far less intensity. In this paper, we report on secondary school students' experiences and preferences concerning two different discussion formats for critical debate in co-located classroom settings: face-to-face and synchronous, computer-mediated communication (CMC). Data was collected with the help of self-report questionnaires (N = 70) and structured interviews (N = 4). A differentiation was made between students that define themselves as active participants in face-to-face classroom discussions and those who usually remain silent in these settings. The findings highlight several potential advantages of the computer-mediated discussion format, especially in terms of the social-interactive and managerial aspects of classroom discussions. Comparisons between the two groups show that 'silent' students welcome the introduction of CMC with enthusiasm, whereas 'active' students do not show a clear preference. Practical implications as well as new directions for further research are discussed.
Keywords: Classroom discussions; Computer-mediated communication; Face-to-face communication; Classroom dialogue; Argumentation; Individual differences
Exploring the value of purchasing online game items BIBAKFull-Text 2178-2185
  Bong-Won Park; Kun Chang Lee
The aims of this paper are to: (1) modify the theory of consumption values in order to investigate online game users' perceived value of purchasable game items, and (2) develop a new construct -- the "integrated value of purchasing game items" -- based on the modified theory of consumption values. We found that the enjoyment, character competency, visual authority, and monetary values are appropriate for describing how online game users perceive the value of game items. Utilizing second order analysis, the "integrated value of purchasing game items" was developed. To show the validity of the new construct, we developed a research model and tested it using the results of 327 valid questionnaires. Results revealed that the new construct is statistically significant in affecting users' intention to purchase game items.
Keywords: Game item; Consumption value; Free-to-play game; Character identification; Purchase intention
A comparative study of four input devices for desktop virtual walkthroughs BIBAKFull-Text 2186-2191
  J.-F. Lapointe; P. Savard; N. G. Vinson
This paper presents the results of an experiment measuring the effect of four different input devices on overall task performance for desktop virtual walkthroughs. The input devices tested are: a keyboard, a mouse, a joystick and a gamepad. The results indicate that the participants completed the tasks in significantly less time and distance travelled with the mouse than with the three other input devices. The use of the mouse also significantly reduced the number of collisions, while the use of the gamepad resulted in significantly more collisions.
Keywords: Virtual walkthroughs; Input devices; Desktop virtual environments; Control devices; Navigation; Travel
Employee job attitudes and organizational characteristics as predictors of cyberloafing BIBAKFull-Text 2192-2199
  Benjamín Liberman; Gwendolyn Seidman; Katelyn Y. A. McKenna; Laura E. Buffardi
Cyberloafing is the personal use of the Internet by employees while at work. The purpose of this study is to examine whether employee job attitudes, organizational characteristics, attitudes towards cyberloafing, and other non-Internet loafing behaviors serve as antecedents to cyberloafing behaviors. We hypothesize that the employee job attitudes of job involvement and intrinsic involvement are related to cyberloafing. In addition, we hypothesize that organizational characteristics including the perceived cyberloafing of one's coworkers and managerial support for internet usage are related to cyberloafing. We also hypothesize that attitudes towards cyberloafing and the extent to which employees participate in non-Internet loafing behaviors (e.g., talking with coworkers, running personal errands) will both be related to cyberloafing. One hundred and forty-three working professional from a variety of industries were surveyed regarding their Internet usage at work. As hypothesized, the employee job attitudes of job involvement and intrinsic involvement were negatively related to cyberloafing. Also as predicted, the organizational characteristics of the perceived cyberloafing of one's coworkers and managerial support for internet usage were positively related to cyberloafing. Finally, results showed that attitudes towards cyberloafing and participation in non-Internet loafing behaviors were positively related to cyberloafing. Implications for both organizations and employees are discussed.
Keywords: Cyberloafing; Computer mediated communication; Internet; Organizations; Job attitudes; Production deviance
Media multitasking and the effectiveness of combining online and radio advertising BIBAKFull-Text 2200-2206
  Hilde A. M. Voorveld
Research on the effectiveness of cross-media campaigns has shown that combining online advertising with advertising in offline media can result in more positive consumer responses than using only one medium. However, when using computers, people increasingly engage in more than one media activity at a time (i.e. media multitasking), which might influence how consumers respond to advertisements they encounter in these media. Therefore, this paper investigates advertising effects during media multitasking. More specifically, the paper gives insight into the effectiveness of simultaneous exposure to online and radio advertising, because simultaneously surfing the internet and listening to the radio is a common media multitasking combination. Results of an experimental study with 111 participants showed that combining online and radio advertising resulted in more positive affective and behavioral responses than using only one medium. However, media multitasking seemed to have a negative influence on the recall and recognition of auditory information as combining media did not result in superior cognitive responses compared to using online ads alone.
Keywords: Online advertising; Banner; Radio; Media multitasking; Cross-media
Smartphones as smart pedagogical tools: Implications for smartphones as u-learning devices BIBAKFull-Text 2207-2214
  Dong-Hee Shin; Youn-Joo Shin; Hyunseung Choo; Khisu Beom
This study aims at understanding the fundamental factors influencing users' intentions to continually use smartphones as a ubiquitous learning (u-learning) tool. This study examines consumers' experiences with smartphone learning in order to investigate the areas of its development as a u-learning application. In this paper, the modified unified theory of acceptance and usage technology (UTAUT) model is used with constructs from expectation-confirmation theory (ECT). While the findings confirm the significant roles of users' cognitive perceptions, the findings also shed light on the possibility of the smartphone serving as an enabler of u-learning. Users may want to use the smartphone as a telecommunication tool, as well as a u-learning application. The proposed model brings together extant research on smartphones and provides an important cluster of antecedents to eventual technology acceptance via constructs of continuance intention to use and actual usage of u-learning. The empirical findings demonstrate that employing perceived usability and perceived quality would be a worthwhile extension of the UTAUT/ECT in the smartphone learning context, as both were found to be influential in predicting smartphone users' attitudes and behavioral intentions. Practical implications for industry can be drawn from these findings in terms of strategies and new models for u-learning and beyond.
Keywords: Smartphone; u-learning; u-campus; Expectation confirmation theory; Continuance intention; UTAUT
Antecedents of an experienced sense of virtual community BIBAKFull-Text 2215-2223
  Lisbeth Tonteri; Miia Kosonen; Hanna-Kaisa Ellonen; Anssi Tarkiainen
Sense of virtual community (SOVC) reflects the feeling that individual members have of belonging to an online social group. Yet there is a lack of investigation focusing on its individual-level antecedents. We argue that in order to enhance understanding of how SOVC develops we first need to distinguish between the individual expectations, actions, and the resulting community-related feelings. Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, we explore the community members' expected benefits, their linkages with different types of community participation and consequently with the experienced SOVC. We tested the hypotheses on a sample of 395 members of a virtual community hosted by a Finnish business newspaper. The findings suggest that both forms of participation -- reading and posting messages -- have a positive impact on SOVC, but the expected benefits differ. Participation by reading messages is mainly driven by the expectation of cognitive benefits, while posting messages seems to be largely driven by the anticipation of both social and personal integrative benefits. Our study contributes by providing a refined SOVC conceptualization and operationalization for virtual-community research, and by opening up the individual-level actions that build up a sense of virtual community.
Keywords: Virtual community; Participation; Sense of virtual community; Uses and gratifications; Approach
The role of social motivations in e-learning: How do they affect usage and success of ICT interactive tools? BIBAKFull-Text 2224-2232
  Blanca Hernandez; Teresa Montaner; F. Javier Sese; Pilar Urquizu
There is an increasing interest among educational institutions and private organizations to understand the role of ICT interactive tools (e.g. forums, blogs, chats, blackboards, newsgroups) in the successful implementation of an e-learning system. In this study, we offer a social perspective in the study of e-learning, and posit that individuals' actions are socially embedded. Therefore, we attempt to identify social motivations that underlie learners' attitudes and usage behavior of ICT interactive tools. We propose a comprehensive conceptual framework that identifies two groups of social motivations: (1) anticipated reciprocal relationships and (2) anticipated extrinsic rewards. The empirical test of the framework in a university setting reveals that both types of social motivations significantly influence learners' attitudes. Specifically, social influence and altruism, both of which relate to reciprocal relationships, and recognition by the instructor, which refers to extrinsic rewards and personal benefits, exert a strong positive effect on attitudes toward and usage of ICT interactive tools. The usage leads to improved intentions to continue using these technologies in the future.
Keywords: Social motivations; ICT interactive tools; e-Learning; Knowledge
I trust not therefore it must be risky: Determinants of the perceived risks of disclosing personal data for e-government transactions BIBAKFull-Text 2233-2242
  Ardion Beldad; Menno de Jong; Michaël Steehouder
Although it is plausible to assume that the risks of disclosing personal data online are inexorably more prevalent in transactions with commercial organizations than with government organizations, such risks can also thrive in exchanges with the latter. While it is argued that risk perceptions necessitate trust, several studies have also noted that trust in an interaction or an exchange partner could significantly contribute to the reduction of the perceptions of the risks involved in an interaction or an exchange. An Internet-based survey with 208 Internet users from three Dutch cities was conducted to collect the necessary data to test the research hypotheses. Results of the online survey reveal that Dutch Internet users' trust in a government organization's ability to protect citizens' personal data and users' assessment of the sensitivity of personal data disclosed for e-government transactions are related to the perceived risks of disclosing such data negatively and positively, respectively.
Keywords: Online risks; Online trust; Information privacy; Personal data protection; e-government transactions
The links that bind: Uncovering novel motivations for linking on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 2243-2248
  Kanghui Baek; Avery Holton; Dustin Harp; Carolyn Yaschur
Given the increasing uptake of the social network site Facebook, mass communication researchers have begun focusing on what drives people to use the site and what kinds of information they interact with. Perhaps because of the relative novelty of Facebook, little research has scratched beneath the surface to explore why people engage in certain functions the site offers. Attention to these engagements and the motivations behind them could help improve current mass communication approaches, especially in critical industries such as news media, where traditional models are struggling to evolve. This study explored user motivations for engaging in link-sharing through Facebook, uncovering motives that extend beyond those of previous research. The findings also consider the influence of those motivations on linking frequency, and link content, introducing motivations that add to current viewpoints of social network sites as information hubs. It also provides new media researchers and practitioners with novel insight into an increasingly important Facebook behavior.
Keywords: Motivation; Sharing links; Facebook; Social network sites; Uses and gratifications; Computer-mediated-communication
A semantic analysis approach for assessing professionalism using free-form text entered online BIBAKFull-Text 2249-2262
  Roger Blake; Oscar Gutierrez
This paper presents the results of an experimental study to measure professionalism for the purpose of assessing a professional development program. Soft skills such as professionalism are increasingly recognized as important, yet measuring and assessing these skills, typically best acquired experientially, has remained challenging. Following established research, we conceptualize professionalism as a construct with the dimensions of autonomy, commitment, belief in public service, self-regulation, and the use of a professional organization as a major referent. We demonstrate how these dimensions can be expressed and the professionalism of free-form text responses measured. These responses are reflections submitted online by participants in a professional development program for undergraduate business majors known as the Management Achievement Program (MAP). Latent semantic analysis is employed to measure the professionalism of these responses and to assess MAP along each of the five dimensions. The method demonstrated in this paper has several advantages over existing methods for assessment, which can be costly, require considerable time and training, and are often tied to subjective interpretation. The method demonstrated here is suitable for replication that leads to continuous improvement by "closing the loop."
Keywords: Professionalism; Computerized learning assessment; Learning outcomes; Latent semantic analysis (LSA)
Error analysis of task performance with laptop in vibration environment BIBAKFull-Text 2263-2270
  Ramasamy Narayanamoorthy; V. Huzur Saran
The present study investigates influences of vibration directions, vibration magnitudes, object sizes, object distances and angles of approach on producing errors while performing pointing and clicking activity on a laptop monitor similar to passengers working on moving trains. Attempts made outside the boundary of an object while performing the activity is registered as an error. The number of errors produced under different exposure conditions is computed. Higher vibration magnitudes, smaller size of the objects, and diagonal angular movements are found to create more errors and affected accuracy of the activity and hence showed difficulties to perform the activity.
Keywords: Error analysis; Pointing and clicking; Mouse; Whole body vibration; Activity comfort; Object selection task
Conceptualizing personal web usage in work contexts: A preliminary framework BIBAKFull-Text 2271-2283
  Sunny Jung Kim; Sahara Byrne
As the internet became the primary method of task-related communication within organizations, a social phenomenon was born: internet users going online for non-work-related purposes when supposedly working. However, there is little consensus on how to conceptualize this broad range of phenomena. Not only do many conceptual terms exist in the literature without clear distinctions, but also the degree to which specific behaviors belong under each concept remains unclear. In this article, we analyze each broad concept on specific dimensions found in the literature, including formal definitions, causes, and outcomes. We then provide a typology integrating this knowledge. Based on an empirical investigation of this typology, an initial framework of personal web usage in work contexts is proposed.
Keywords: Personal web usage in work contexts; Cyberloafing; Problematic internet use; Non-work-related internet uses; Internet addiction; Internet deviant behaviors
Teaching presence and regulation in an electronic portfolio BIBAKFull-Text 2284-2291
  M. Eulalia Torras; Rosa Mayordomo
Teaching presence provides conceptual coherence to construct, operationalise and interpret the regulation of online learning environments. Electronic portfolios contribute to the regulatory process moving from an internalisation to an external regulation. The aim of this research is to analyse the relationship between the techno-pedagogical design of an electronic portfolio (Transfolio), the teaching presence focused on the use of the tool and the student regulation processes. This study analyses the online teaching-learning processes supported by Transfolio of two post-graduate courses by focusing on the techno-pedagogical support and on the regulation process. The nature of our research objectives leads us to use a mixed methodology based on a naturalistic observation, content analysis and comparative statistics. Results show that the teaching-learning process is characterised by the patterns of co-regulation and self-regulation. Also, results show the importance of the techno-pedagogical support provided by the teacher, not only in regard to the nature of this instructional support but also concerning how it is presented to the student and the importance that is attributed to it in the teaching-learning process, that is, what it is that assistance is offered in.
Keywords: Teaching presence; Online teacher and learning processes; e-Learning; Self-regulation; Instructional support; Electronic portfolios
Social and attitudinal determinants of viral marketing dynamics BIBAKFull-Text 2292-2300
  Carmen Camarero; Rebeca San José
At this time of uncertainty, viral marketing is emerging as one of the most intriguing communication strategies, due to low cost and the results it obtains. However, the success of this kind of practice depends on a range of factors including what we explore and refer to in the present research as the individual's "viral dynamics". We thus propose a causal model in which viral dynamics is determined by the individual's social capital and prior attitudes. Based on a survey of young adults, the authors test the effects of structural and relational capital as well as attitudes on viral dynamics. The results evidence that the individual's connectedness in the email network does not impact viral dynamics, whereas the individual's integration and relationship with the network and the attitudes towards viral messages prove critical to the individual involved in the receiving-forwarding process.
Keywords: Viral marketing; Viral dynamics; Individuals' social network; Social capital; Email marketing; WOM
Learning demand and job autonomy of IT personnel: Impact on turnover intention BIBAKFull-Text 2301-2307
  Sheng-Pao Shih; James J. Jiang; Gary Klein; Eric Wang
Information technology jobs require a significant amount of learning to maintain currency and perform expected activities, more so than in many other professions. The sheer volume of learning can increase work exhaustion, with a negative effect on turnover. However, jobs can be designed to provide a large amount of autonomy over pace and process in the hands of the IT employee. According to job demand and control models, the ability of an employee to pace oneself and make task decisions can lessen negative impacts. From another perspective, IT employees differ in their desires to learn as part of personal and career growth. Thus, negative effects of learning demand should be lessened by the IT employee's motivation to learn, and motivation is a crucial antecedent in turnover models. A model based on the job demand-control model establishes and tests these relationships and finds them to hold in a sample of 306 IT employees. Work exhaustion is reduced by instilling job autonomy in the presence of learning demands and motivation, which then lessens turnover intentions of the IT workers.
Keywords: Information technology personnel; Learning demand; Job control; Job autonomy; Learning motivation; Work exhaustion
Examining users' preferences towards vertical graphical toolbars in simple search and point tasks BIBAKFull-Text 2308-2321
  Rafal Michalski
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of preferences and their relation to the objective measures in simple direct manipulation tasks involving both the cognitive process as well as the visually guided pointing activities. The conducted experiment was concerned with the graphical structures resembling toolbars widely used in graphical interfaces. The influence of the graphical panel location, panel configuration as well as the target size on the user task efficiency and subjects' preferences were examined. The participants were requested to express their attitudes towards the tested panels before and after the efficiency examination. This subjective evaluation was carried out within the framework of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP; Saaty, 1977, 1980). The subjective results that were obtained showed significant differences in the subjects' preferences towards examined panels before and after completing the tasks. It seems that the users are able to comparatively quickly change their minds after gaining some experience with the investigated stimuli. Additionally, the applied cluster analysis revealed that the subjects were not homogenous in their opinions, and they formed groups having similar preference structures.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Change in preferences; Subjective evaluation; Graphical toolbars; Analytic hierarchy process
Facebook as a toolkit: A uses and gratification approach to unbundling feature use BIBAKFull-Text 2322-2329
  Andrew D. Smock; Nicole B. Ellison; Cliff Lampe; Donghee Yvette Wohn
Research on social network sites (SNSs) typically employ measures that treat SNS use as homogenous although the user-base, user practices, and feature sets of these tools are increasingly diverse. Using a uses and gratifications approach, we address this problem by reconceptualizing SNSs as collections of features. Survey data collected from undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university (n = 267) revealed that users' motivations for using Facebook predict their use of different features, such as status updates and Wall posts, but features that share similar capabilities do not necessarily share underlying motivations for use. When these results are contrasted against models employing a more unidimensional measure of Facebook use, we find differences between motivations for both general Facebook use and use of specific features of the site. This suggests that unidimensional measures of SNS use obfuscate motivations for using specific features. Theoretical and methodological implications of these findings and this approach are discussed.
Keywords: Uses and gratifications; Social network sites; Facebook; Communication technology
Team shared mental model as a contributing factor to team performance and students' course satisfaction in blended courses BIBAKFull-Text 2330-2338
  Tristan E. Johnson; Ercan Top; Erman Yukselturk
The purpose of the study was to examine how team shared mental model (SMM), team performance, and students' course satisfaction change over time and how Team-SMM affects team performance and students' course satisfaction. Forty-eight preservice teachers from two undergraduate blended courses participated in this study. The data were obtained via two online questionnaires (shared mental model instrument and Course Satisfaction Scale) administered throughout Spring 2010. Data analysis was conducted using repeated measures ANOVA and multiple linear regression techniques. Results indicated that Team-SMM and students' course satisfaction changed slightly over time but the change was not statistically significant. Team performance increased significantly over the courses. Additionally, attitudes towards teammates and task were closely linked with effective team performance and students satisfaction. In the early stage of the courses, general team knowledge, resource, and environment explained a significant amount of variance in students' course satisfaction.
Keywords: Team shared mental model; Team performance; Course satisfaction; Blended learning
The change in user and IT dynamics: Blogs as IT-enabled virtual self-presentation BIBAKFull-Text 2339-2351
  Jinyoung Min; Heeseok Lee
Using the blogosphere as an enabling IT environment, this paper investigates how self-concept influences virtual self-presentation behavior and the use of IT artifacts. Self-presentation theory is adapted from the social psychology literature to develop a theoretical research model of virtual self-presentation. We tested the research model and hypotheses with data collected from 312 bloggers. Structural equation analysis of this data reveals a nomological net of self-concept leading to IT-enabled virtual self-presentation and the use of IT artifacts. Our findings provide a new perspective of users as heterogeneous individuals who have various self-concepts that change the sequence and dynamics among users, IT artifacts, and tasks. In contrast to traditional systems, in the social context of virtual self-presentation, users are the primary and essential drivers who determine vaguely defined tasks and systems.
Keywords: Self-presentation theory; Self-concept; Virtual self-presentation; IT artifacts; Blogs
The effects of collective MMORPG (Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games) play on gamers' online and offline social capital BIBAKFull-Text 2352-2363
  Zhi-Jin Zhong
This study examines the impact of collective MMORPG play on gamers' social capital in both the virtual world and the real world. Collective MMORPG play is conceptualized as the frequency of joint gaming actions and gamers' assessment of the experience in MMORPG guilds and groups. Social capital at the individual level refers to the resources and support provided by bonding and bridging social networks; collective-level social capital refers to people's civic engagement. A two-wave online survey was conducted to collect data from 232 Chinese MMORPG players.
   Two structural equation models were developed to test whether collective play influences offline social capital via the mediation of online social capital; the results did not demonstrate the existence of mediation effects. Specifically, collective play positively influences gamers' online bonding social capital, online bridging social capital and online civic engagement. The effect of collective play on offline bonding and bridging social capital is not significant; the effect of online bonding/bridging social capital on offline bonding/bridging social capital is not significant either. The study finds a significantly positive impact of collective play on offline civic engagement. The effect of online civic engagement on offline civic engagement is not significant. In contrast with collective play, the time of gaming is found to negatively influence online and offline social capital.
   This study contributes to the knowledge of social capital because it tests the effects of new media on online and offline social capital in the Chinese culture. In addition, this study provides empirical evidence for the positive effects of online games and highlights the social experience in MMORPG play and how it influences gamers' social networks and collective participation.
Keywords: Online games; Social capital; Social networks; Civic engagement
m-Brand loyalty and post-adoption variations for the mobile data services: Gender differences BIBAKFull-Text 2364-2371
  Ya-Ching Lee
This paper uses the value brand model in an attempt to determine the factors affecting post-adoption intentions through brand loyalty for the mobile data services. Data were collected online from 1266 respondents. The structural equation modeling was used to test the research model. The results show that post-adoption intentions are directly influenced by intangible attributes. Product deliverables and intangible attributes indirectly affect post-adoption intentions via m-brand loyalty. However, the results of current research do not show any effects of price on post-adoption intentions. The results also show genders differences in post-adoption intentions. Practical suggestions are provided. This paper advances our knowledge of post-adoption variations in business-consumer contexts and mobile business from the perspectives of utilitarian and non-utilitarian values of the mobile data services. This paper also contributes to the theory of post-adoption by offering across-gender examination.
Keywords: m-Brand loyalty; Intangible attributes; Product deliverables; Mobile data services; Post-adoption intentions
Mediating roles of self-presentation desire in online game community commitment and trust behavior of Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games BIBAKFull-Text 2372-2379
  Seung-bae Park; Namho Chung
Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs), which allow simultaneous participation of several gamers, have attracted a great deal of attention recently. Since MMORPGs can be categorized as a type of online community, the behavior of MMORPGs users needs to be considered as the general behavior in online communities. However, previous studies of online communities did not pay enough attention to MMORPGs, in which users can express themselves by interacting actively through games and game avatars. Understanding the characteristics of MMORPGs as online game communities where users communicate and interact will allow games to be vitalized and users to be immersed in games in a more positive way. Hence, using self-presentation theory and social identity theory, this study examined the factors influencing self-presentation desire and the mediating role of self-presentation desire examined in terms of trust of and commitments to online game communities. The results showed that the interactivity in the spaces of MMORPGs had the biggest impacts on self-presentation desire; personal innovativeness and game design quality also was influential. The results also indicated that self-presentation desire caused trust of online games and eventually led to even stronger commitments to gamers.
Keywords: Self-presentation desire; Design quality; Interactivity; Personal innovativeness; Trust; Community commitment
Social evaluations of embodied agents and avatars BIBAKFull-Text 2380-2385
  Rosanna E. Guadagno; Kimberly R. Swinth; Jim Blascovich
The purpose of this study was to examine social evaluations (i.e., perceptions of empathy and positivity) following peoples' interactions with digital human representations. Female research participants engaged in a 3-min interaction while immersed in a 3-D immersive virtual environment with a "peer counselor." Participants were led to believe that the peer counselor was either an embodied agent (i.e., computer algorithm) or an avatar (i.e., another person). During the interaction, the peer counselor either smiled or not. As predicted, a digitally-rendered smile was found to affect participants' social evaluations. However, these effects were moderated by participants' beliefs about their interaction partner. Specifically, smiles enhanced social evaluations of embodied agents but degraded them for avatars. Although these results are consistent with other findings concerning the communicative realism of embodied agents and avatars they uniquely demonstrate that people's beliefs alone, rather than actual differences in virtual representations, can impact social evaluations.
Keywords: Social interaction; Embodied agents; Avatars; Facial expressions; Collaborative virtual environments; Nonverbal behavior
Does online psychological test administration facilitate faking? BIBAKFull-Text 2386-2391
  Rachel Grieve; Hidee Tania de Groot
This study examined for the first time the effect of delivery mode on faking good and faking bad in psychological testing. Participants (N = 223) completed questionnaires either online or in pen-and-paper format in a mixed experimental design. After completing measures of personality (HEXACO-60, Ashton & Lee, 2009) and depression (DASS-21, Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) under standard instructions, participants then faked the personality measure as if applying for a job, and faked the depression measure as if experiencing severe depression. Equivalence of internet and pen-and paper-administration on faking was then measured between groups. As predicted, participants were able to fake good on the HEXACO-60 and to fake bad on the DASS-21. Also as predicted, there were no significant differences in faked scores as a function of test administration mode. Further, examination of effect sizes confirmed that the influence of test administration mode was small. It was concluded that online and pen-and paper presentation are largely equivalent when an individual is faking responses in psychological testing. Given the advantages of online assessment and the importance of valid psychological testing, future research should investigate whether the current findings can be generalised to other faking and malingering scenarios and to other psychological measures.
Keywords: Online assessment; Internet testing; Faking; Malingering; Psychological testing; Equivalence
Computer skills instruction for pre-service teachers: A comparison of three instructional approaches BIBAKFull-Text 2392-2400
  Joyce Hwee Ling Koh
The computer self-efficacy of teachers contributes positively to their technology integration self-efficacy. Many studies have examined instructional strategies that foster computer self-efficacy but not their corresponding impact on teachers' technology integration self-efficacy. This study investigated the instructional strategies used for pre-service teacher computer skills instruction and their corresponding impact on teacher computer self-efficacy and technology integration self-efficacy. Using a multiple case-study approach, video recordings were made of the class sessions of three participating instructors throughout a semester. Content analysis of these video recordings found the instructors using three approaches of computer skills instruction: Extensive behavioral modeling, targeted behavioral modeling, and independent problem-solving. Analysis of pre and post-study student survey responses also found that the three instructional approaches raised their perceived computer self-efficacy. However, the effect sizes were largest when the independent problem-solving approach was used. This approach was also found to have had better motivational effects on students than the extensive behavioral modeling approach. On the other hand, computer skills instruction increased students' technology integration self-efficacy only when instructors modeled teaching-related examples and provided students with multiple mastery experiences of technology integration practices. The applications of the three computer skills instructional approaches for teacher education are discussed.
Keywords: Computer skills instruction; Computer self-efficacy; Teacher education; Technology integration
Ethical decision-making in the Internet context: Development and test of an initial model based on moral philosophy BIBAKFull-Text 2401-2409
  Cheolho Yoon
This paper proposes an ethical decision-making model in the Internet context based on moral theories and then empirically tests the model. The model posits that five moral philosophy variables -- justice, relativism, egoism, deontology, and utilitarianism -- affect ethical judgment; ethical judgment, in turn, affects behavioral intentions. To empirically test the model, four scenarios, real-life situations containing an ethical dilemma on the Internet, were developed and empirically analyzed by structural equation modeling with data from 111 university students.
   The results showed the five moral philosophy variables affected ethical judgment, each having different effects according to the particular ethical situation. Also, justice, utilitarianism, and ethical judgment were found to influence behavioral intentions in ethical dilemma situations on the Internet.
Keywords: Internet ethics; Moral philosophy; Justice; Egoism; Deontology; Utilitarianism
Using eye-tracking technology to investigate the redundant effect of multimedia web pages on viewers' cognitive processes BIBAKFull-Text 2410-2417
  Han-Chin Liu; Meng-Lung Lai; Hsueh-Hua Chuang
This study utilized eye-tracking technology to determine the impact of redundant onscreen text information on viewers' cognitive processes with respect to multimedia information. Sixteen college students participated in the study and their eye-movement data and self-reported cognitive load ratings were collected as they viewed three web pages into which different forms of verbal explanations of thunderstorm systems were integrated. A repeated measure design was utilized to support the research purposes. The eye-tracking data showed that viewers relied on text information as the main information resource for determining meaning. Students' cognitive load reports reflected a redundant effect from the on screen text on their cognitive load level when both onscreen and narrative verbal messages were presented. However, eye-movement data revealed that viewers spent less time on the onscreen text when there was a narrative message presenting the same information. When the pictorial information was accompanied by both onscreen and narrative formats of verbal information, viewers seemed to be able to filter out redundant information. Additionally, replacing onscreen text with a voice-over seemed to globally orient viewers' eye fixations toward the illustration. Discussions on results and suggestions for future studies are provided in this paper.
Keywords: Eye-tracking technology; Cognitive load; Multimedia learning; Redundant effect