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Computers in Human Behavior 29

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2013-01 Volume 29 Issue 1
  2. CHB 2013-03 Volume 29 Issue 2
  3. CHB 2013-05 Volume 29 Issue 3
  4. CHB 2013-07 Volume 29 Issue 4
  5. CHB 2013-09 Volume 29 Issue 5
  6. CHB 2013-11 Volume 29 Issue 6

CHB 2013-01 Volume 29 Issue 1


Youth internet and wellbeing BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger

Youth Internet and Wellbeing

The validation of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and the E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) for adolescents BIBAKFull-Text 3-7
  Lawrence T. Lam; Yongxin Li
This study investigates the psychometric properties of the E-Victimisation Scale (E-VS) and E-Bullying Scale (E-BS) designed to assess Cyber Bullying among Chinese adolescents. Participants were 484 adolescents aged between 11-16 years randomly recruited from high schools within a region. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were applied to investigate the factorial structure of these scales. Reliability was examined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients by sex. The convergent validity was investigated by correlations among these scales and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression for Children as well as the Zung's Anxiety Scales. A single-factor model for the E-VS and a 2-factor model for the E-BS were resulted from the EFA with large factor loadings and about 47% and 56% of variance explained respectively. Cronhach's alpha values provided evidence for good internal reliability with values ranging from 0.55 to 0.96. Correlations between the E-VS and Depression as well as Anxiety scales showed positive and significant relationships, however, the E-BS was only related to Depression. Psychometric evidence has shown that both E-VS and E-BS are valid instruments for measuring Cyber bullying behaviour and victimisation. Further studies are required on the test-retest reliability, discriminate validity, responsiveness, as well as normative information for standardisation.
Keywords: Cyber bullying; Aggression; Victimisation; Assessment; Psychometric; Factor structure
Managing peer relationships online - Investigating the use of Facebook by juvenile delinquents and youths-at-risk BIBAKFull-Text 8-15
  Sun Sun Lim; Yoke Hian Chan; Shobha Vadrevu; Iccha Basnyat
While extensive research has been conducted on young people's peer interaction via online communication, the focus has been on mainstream youths, with marginalized youth communities being understudied. To help address this inadequacy, the current study conducted interviews with Singaporean male juvenile delinquents (n = 36) to understand the role of online communication in their peer interactions and the salient characteristics of such interactions. Our findings show that Facebook was the principal tool of online peer interaction. However, given the particular circumstances of juvenile delinquents, online social networking presents issues that may compromise efforts to rehabilitate them. These include extending the time and opportunities for unstructured and unsupervised peer socialization, peer endorsement of delinquent acts and the pressure of having to display group loyalty in the online space. Even after rehabilitation, youths who attempt to distance themselves from their delinquent peers are challenged by the persistence of their online social networks.
Keywords: Internet; Online social networks; Facebook; Juvenile delinquents; Youths-at-risk; Youth rehabilitation
Facebook bullying: An extension of battles in school BIBAKFull-Text 16-25
  Grace Chi En Kwan; Marko M. Skoric
This study examines the phenomenon of cyberbullying on Facebook and how it is related to school bullying among secondary school students in Singapore, aged 13-17. We also focus on generic use of Facebook and risky Facebook behaviors as the predictors of cyberbullying and victimization on Facebook. 1676 secondary students, from two secondary schools, participated in a pen and paper survey. The findings show that the intensity of Facebook use and engagement in risky Facebook behaviors were related to Facebook victimization and Facebook bullying, respectively. Moderately strong positive relationships between school bullying and Facebook bullying, as well as between school victimization and Facebook victimization, were also uncovered.
Keywords: Facebook; Cyberbullying; Risky Facebook use; Singapore
The nature of cyberbullying, and strategies for prevention BIBAKFull-Text 26-32
  Robert Slonje; Peter K. Smith; Ann Frisén
Cyberbullying has been identified as an important problem amongst youth in the last decade. This paper reviews some recent findings and discusses general concepts within the area. The review covers definitional issues such as repetition and power imbalance, types of cyberbullying, age and gender differences, overlap with traditional bullying and sequence of events, differences between cyberbullying and traditional bullying, motives for and impact of cyber victimization, coping strategies, and prevention/intervention possibilities. These issues will be illustrated by reference to recent and current literature, and also by in-depth interviews with nine Swedish students aged 13-15 years, who had some first-hand experience of one or more cyberbullying episodes. We conclude by discussing the evidence for different coping, intervention and prevention strategies.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Bullying; Prevention; Coping strategies; Impact; Definitional issues
Friendship: An old concept with a new meaning? BIBAKFull-Text 33-39
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Mila Kingsbury; Barry H. Schneider
Today many young people form and maintain what they consider friendships through the net. Internet friendship appears to some as modifying the meaning of real friendship and replacing it with something more trivial. In this paper we explore the complexity of online friendship. We start by seeking to gain an understanding of why and how friendship relates to wellbeing. We then look at how friendships are formed, focusing on the concepts of propinquity and homophily and how they play out within the context of online friendships. We delineate the major dimensions of friendship that have emerged in theory and research and then comment on how these features of friendship may be affected by the advent of widespread electronic communication. The differences between offline and online companionship, social support, tangible support and protection, exclusiveness, conflict resolution and relationship stability are also considered. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the challenges of conducting research on the behaviour of children and young people on the Internet and the difficulties in defining the term "friendship.'
Keywords: Friendship; Friendship formation and continuation
Does the use of social networking sites increase children's risk of harm? BIBAKFull-Text 40-50
  Elisabeth Staksrud; Kjartan Ólafsson; Sonia Livingstone
Although research findings have been equivocal as to whether the use of social networking sites (SNSs) increases experiences of online risk among children, the affordances of SNS lend support to this possibility, attracting much policy and public concern. The present article examines whether the use of such services increases the risks that children and young people encounter by analyzing data from a random stratified sample of approximately 1000 internet-using children aged 9-16 years in each of 25 European countries. Four hypotheses were formulated and tested. The first hypothesis, namely that children who use social networking sites will encounter more risks online than those who do not, is supported by the data. The second hypothesis stated that SNS users with more digital competence will encounter more online risk than those with less competence; this was also supported, despite being counter to common assumptions. Thirdly, we hypothesized that SNS users with more risky SNS practices (e.g. a public profile, displaying identifying information, with a very large number of contacts) will encounter more online risk than those with fewer risky practices: this too was supported by the data; thus what matters for risk is how SNS are used, a useful point for awareness-raising initiatives. The fourth hypothesis stated that SNS users with more digital competence in using the internet will experience less harm associated with online risk. The data did not support this hypothesis, since digital competence did not reduce the probability of children saying that they have been bothered or upset by something on the internet. Finally, the study found that, although this had not been predicted, whether or not risks are experienced as harmful depends on the specific relation between risks and platforms (website, instant messaging, gaming or social networking). We call on future research to explore how particular affordances sustain particular communicative conditions and, in turn, are responded to differently by children. The research and policy implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Children; Social networking sites; Skills; Risk; Harm; Internet
Knowing when not to use the Internet: Shyness and adolescents' on-line and off-line interactions with friends BIBAKFull-Text 51-57
  Fiorenzo Laghi; Barry H. Schneider; Irene Vitoroulis; Robert J. Coplan; Roberto Baiocco; Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Natasha Hudek; Diana Koszycki; Scott Miller; Martine Flament
The goal of the study was to explore the content of on-line and off-line peer interactions among shy and non-shy adolescents. Participants were 148 ten-to-eighteen year old adolescents in Rome, Italy (n = 98) and Ottawa, Canada (n = 50). Participants completed self reports of shyness and loneliness and web logs of their interactions with friends both in person and on-line. Among the results, there was little general difference in the general content and emotion expressed during the two modalities of interaction with friends, both of which were used in a wide variety of ways. Importantly, shy participants used the on-line modality more extensively than their non-shy counterparts to express negative emotions and to convey content regarding negative exchanges with peers. Such use of electronic communication may be an important contributor to their loneliness.
Keywords: Electronic communication; On-line interactions; Off-line interactions; Shyness; Loneliness; Adolescence
Adolescents' use of Instant Messaging as a means of emotional relief BIBAKFull-Text 58-63
  Michal Dolev-Cohen; Azy Barak
Instant Messaging (IM) plays a major role in online communication, whether through dedicated software or through chat integrated in a social network's platform. IM-based online conversation enables private, synchronous, interpersonal communication while being invisible and possibly anonymous; facilitates self-disclosure and intimacy; and possesses advantageous features of expressive writing and social support. For adolescents, the use of IM is a legitimate, available, and free alternative vehicle for communicating with peers to ventilate negative emotions and to receive social support and advice. The present study examined effects of IMing friends on the emotional state of distressed adolescents through both pre-post (n = 100) analyses and comparison with an un-distressed group (n = 50). Dependent measures included self-report questionnaires, textual analysis, and expert judges' evaluations of the conversations. Findings revealed that IM conversation significantly contributed to the well-being of distressed adolescents. In addition, participants' level of introversion-extroversion moderated the degree of their perceived emotional relief, so that introverted participants profited from IMing more than did extraverts. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of online communication theory, as well as the practical implementations for troubled adolescents.
Keywords: Adolescence; Well-being; Instant Messaging; Internet and personality
To give or to keep? Affective influences on selfishness and fairness in computer-mediated interactions in the dictator game and the ultimatum game BIBAKFull-Text 64-74
  Joseph P. Forgas; Hui Bing Tan
Selfishness vs. fairness are basic dimensions of relating to others, and many computer-mediated communications among young people involve subtle decisions balancing selfishness vs. fairness. We report five experiments investigating the influence of affect on interpersonal decisions in CMC in strategic games such as the dictator game and the ultimatum game. In the dictator game, proposers have unlimited power to make selfish or fair allocations. In the ultimatum game, decisions by proposers are subject to the veto powers of responders. These experiments predicted and found that negative mood consistently increased, and positive mood reduced concern with the fairness of allocations. Proposers in a negative mood showed greater fairness and offered more resources to a partner than did those in a positive mood, and such decisions also took longer confirming mood-induced processing differences. The results are discussed in terms recent affect-cognition theories, suggesting that positive affect recruits more assimilative, internally focused processing promoting selfishness, while negative affect induces more externally oriented, accommodative thinking and greater concern with social norms. The implications of the findings for everyday interpersonal behaviors and computer-mediated interactions involving selfishness vs. fairness are considered.
Keywords: Affect; Computer-mediated interaction; Fairness vs. selfishness; Interpersonal allocations; Dictator game; Ultimatum game
Forging friendship, soliciting support: A mixed-method examination of message boards for pregnant teens and teen mothers BIBAKFull-Text 75-85
  Lauren E. Sherman; Patricia M. Greenfield
Among pregnant youth, relationships with parents and romantic partners are correlated with overall wellbeing; however, this relationship does not exist with friends. Friends who have also experienced a pregnancy, however, may offer more effective support than friends who have not. One way that pregnant and mothering adolescents can connect is through online message boards. We hypothesized that adolescents would use these sites primarily to establish friendships and develop a supportive community, rather than simply to solicit pregnancy-related advice. We randomly selected 200 threads from four message boards for pregnant and mothering teens and performed a mixed-methods content analysis of the original posts and responses. Most original posts were categorized as "Community Oriented Posts,' rather than "Soliciting Pregnancy or Motherhood Advice.' Furthermore, qualitative analysis revealed frequent instances of emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support in both categories. In message board communities where pregnant teens and teen mothers were in the majority, messages were predominantly positive. In sharp contrast, in the one message board in which they were in the minority, as they are in the adolescent community at large, messages were significantly more negative. The dynamics of these message boards indicate the possibility that social support from other pregnant or mothering teens may enhance the wellbeing of pregnant teens and explain why peer "support' from teens who have not had this experience may often have a negative influence on wellbeing.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Message boards; Adolescent pregnancy; Adolescent parenting; Social support

Regular Articles

The homeless use Facebook?! Similarities of social network use between college students and homeless young adults BIBAKFull-Text 86-89
  Rosanna E. Guadagno; Nicole L. Muscanell; David E. Pollio
This research compared technology use among homeless young adults with that of college students as a means of understanding technology use among young adults today; people who have grown up with technology. Specifically, social network site (SNS) usage was assessed for two age-matched young adult samples, one drawn from a large introductory psychology subject pool, and a second from homeless young adults who were approached for participation when they entered metropolitan shelters. Overall, technology use was strikingly similar. These results call for a paradigm shift in researchers' understanding of technology use and indicate that contemporary young adults sampled across socio-economic class and varying ethnicities are far more similar than prior research would suggest. These results call into question whether the term "digital divide' is useful for describing group differences in technology use as our results suggest the divide has narrowed considerably.
Keywords: Internet; Homeless; Social network sites; Digital divide
Examining students' online interaction in a live video streaming environment using data mining and text mining BIBAKFull-Text 90-102
  Wu He
This study analyses the online questions and chat messages automatically recorded by a live video streaming (LVS) system using data mining and text mining techniques. We apply data mining and text mining techniques to analyze two different datasets and then conducted an in-depth correlation analysis for two educational courses with the most online questions and chat messages respectively. The study found the discrepancies as well as similarities in the students' patterns and themes of participation between online questions (student-instructor interaction) and online chat messages (student-students interaction or peer interaction). The results also identify disciplinary differences in students' online participation. A correlation is found between the number of online questions students asked and students' final grades. The data suggests that a combination of using data mining and text mining techniques for a large amount of online learning data can yield considerable insights and reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviors. Limitations with data and text mining were also revealed and discussed in the paper.
Keywords: Educational data mining; Text mining; Live video streaming; Clustering analysis; Online interaction; Social interaction
Why do you play World of Warcraft? An in-depth exploration of self-reported motivations to play online and in-game behaviours in the virtual world of Azeroth BIBAKFull-Text 103-109
  Joël Billieux; Martial Van der Linden; Sophia Achab; Yasser Khazaal; Laura Paraskevopoulos; Daniele Zullino; Gabriel Thorens
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are video games in which players create an avatar that evolves and interacts with other avatars in a persistent virtual world. Motivations to play MMORPGs are heterogeneous (e.g. achievement, socialisation, immersion in virtual worlds). This study investigates in detail the relationships between self-reported motives and actual in-game behaviours. We recruited a sample of 690 World of Warcraft players (the most popular MMORPG) who agreed to have their avatar monitored for 8 months. Participants completed an initial online survey about their motives to play. Their actual in-game behaviours were measured through the game's official database (the Armory website). Results showed specific associations between motives and in-game behaviours. Moreover, longitudinal analyses revealed that teamwork- and competition-oriented motives are the most accurate predictors of fast progression in the game. In addition, although specific associations exist between problematic use and certain motives (e.g. advancement, escapism), longitudinal analyses showed that high involvement in the game is not necessarily associated with a negative impact upon daily living.
Keywords: Massively multiplayer online role-playing games; Motivation; Longitudinal; World of Warcraft; Virtual worlds; Internet addiction
Strategic self-presentation online: A cross-cultural study BIBAKFull-Text 110-118
  Jian Rui; Michael A. Stefanone
Contemporary social networking sites (SNSs) make idealized self-presentation and image maintenance difficult because users' audiences are becoming more diverse and individual users must negotiate often unanticipated other-provided information in the form of text posts and digital images on their profile pages. This cross-cultural study examines how audience-related variables affect a range of strategic self-presentation and image management behaviors online. Results from samples of Singaporean and American SNS users (N = 411) show that while Americans update their profiles with text-based wall posts more frequently, Singaporeans share significantly more photos. Audience diversity is positively associated with active management of other-provided information, and females share more photos and actively manage unwanted photo tagging. Cultural identity and the tendency to 'friend' unknown others interact on managing other-provided wall posts; individualistic cultural identity exhibited positive relationships with these reactions for those less likely to friend unknown others but negative ones for those more likely to friend unknown others. Implications for the theoretical understanding of and practical suggestions about self-presentation online are discussed.
Keywords: Self-presentation; Social network site; Culture; Audience
Mirrored selves: The influence of self-presence in a virtual world on health, appearance, and well-being BIBAKFull-Text 119-128
  Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz
Though considerable research has investigated spatial and social presence, little research has examined the influence of self-presence in a mediated environment. The present work is an empirical study of the role of self-presence in a social virtual world on individuals' offline health, appearance, and well-being. Second Life users (N = 279) completed an online questionnaire about their experiences of presence in the virtual world, the influence of their avatar on their offline appearance and health behaviors, and their level of satisfaction with the relationships they developed online. It was hypothesized that self-presence would be positively associated with avatar influence on health and appearance and that self-presence would render the influence of spatial and social presence statistically non-significant. Additionally, it was hypothesized that self-presence would be positively associated with satisfaction with relationships developed in the virtual world. Support was found for these predictions. Results suggest that self-presence is uniquely linked to the influence of the virtual self on offline health and appearance and is a significant predictor of the development of satisfying online relationships. Individual differences and potential prosocial effects of virtual worlds are also discussed.
Keywords: Self-presence; Virtual worlds; Avatar; Health; Appearance; Relationships
Motivations in virtual health communities and their relationship to community, connectedness and stress BIBAKFull-Text 129-139
  Jennifer L. Welbourne; Anita L. Blanchard; Marla B. Wadsworth
This study explores the relationships between motivations for joining virtual health communities, online behaviors, and psycho-social outcomes. A sample of 144 women from two virtual health communities focusing on infertility completed survey measures assessing motivations, posting and receiving support, connectedness, community, and stress. Our results indicate that socio-emotional support motivations for joining the community were associated with posting support within the virtual community, while informational motivations were related to receiving support. Further, receiving support was associated with greater sense of virtual community as well as more general feelings of connectedness, which was related to less stress. Implications for virtual health community research are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual health communities; Motivations; Connectedness; Stress; Sense of virtual community; Infertility
Nomophobia: Dependency on virtual environments or social phobia? BIBAKFull-Text 140-144
  A. L. S. King; A. M. Valença; A. C. O. Silva; T. Baczynski; M. R. Carvalho; A. E. Nardi
Background The increasing use of new technologies and virtual communication involving personal computers (PCs), tablets and mobile phones are causing changes in individuals' daily habits and behavior. We report the case of an individual with social phobia who developed a dependency on communication through virtual environments (i.e., nomophobia), and used a PC as a form of relating to the outside world to reduce stress and to avoid direct social relations. Nomophobia refers to the discomfort or anxiety caused by the non-availability of a mobile phone, PC or any another virtual communication device. Social phobia is described as an anxiety disorder of chronic evolution. Objective To study nomophobia as a manifest behavior that might serve as an indication of a possible anxiety disorder. Methodology The treatment consisted of the use of medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and the application of evaluation tools (interviews, scales, inventories and questionnaires). Results The individual responded satisfactorily to medication and CBT treatment, which reduced his time using the PC and increased his exposure to real-life situations. Conclusion Nomophobic behavior produces changes in daily habits and can reveal other aspects to be investigated, such as the presence of comorbid mental disorders.
Keywords: Dependency; Anxiety; Panic; Phobia; Behavior
Why advice on task selection may hamper learning in on-demand education BIBAKFull-Text 145-154
  Elisabeth M. C. Taminiau; Liesbeth Kester; Gemma Corbalan; Stephen M. Alessi; Erling Moxnes; Wim H. Gijselaers; Paul A. Kirschner; Jeroen J. G. Van Merriënboer
In on-demand education, learners are required to plan their own learning trajectory by selecting suitable learning tasks. A positive effect on learning is expected when learners select tasks that help them fulfil their individual learning needs. However, the selection of suitable tasks is a difficult process for learners with little domain knowledge and suboptimal task-selection skills. A common solution for helping learners deal with on-demand education and develop domain-specific skills is to give them advice on task selection. In a randomized experiment, learners (N = 30) worked on learning tasks in the domain of system dynamics and received either advice or no advice on the selection of new learning tasks. Surprisingly, the no-advice group outperformed the advice group on a post-test measuring domain-specific skills. It is concluded that giving advice on task selection prevents learners from thinking about how the process of task selection works. The advice seems to supplant rather than support their considerations why they should perform the advised task, which results in negative effects on learning. Implications for future research on giving advice in on-demand education are discussed.
Keywords: Advice; Task selection; On-demand education
A virtual "Room' with a cue: Detecting personality through spatial customization in a city simulation game BIBAKFull-Text 155-159
  Donghee Yvette Wohn; Rick Wash
Online simulation games provide an opportunity for people to express their personality through the design of their in-game virtual environment in a manner visible to third-party observers. We found that zero-acquaintance observers of these games can identify personality traits by simply looking at screenshots of the created virtual environment, and that the observed personality is closer to the self-reported "real' personality than "ideal' personality of the creator. These results contradict studies on avatar customization and personality, suggesting that spatial customization is more reflective of unintentional behavioral residue than conscious selective self-presentation.
Keywords: Personality; Spatial customization; Behavioral residue; Simulation game; Virtual environment
An empirical investigation of end-users' switching toward cloud computing: A two factor theory perspective BIBAKFull-Text 160-170
  Sang Cheol Park; Sung Yul Ryoo
With the diffusion of cloud services, they are becoming an alternative to traditional information technology (IT). Despite the importance of cloud services, relatively few studies have been devoted to an empirical examination of the switching behavior from traditional IT to cloud services at the individual level. Therefore, this study attempts to explore the switching factors (i.e. switching enablers and switching inhibitors) and to empirically examine the relationships between those and users' intention to switch to cloud services, based on the two-factor theoretic perspective. This study uses a longitudinal design to get survey data from undergraduate students at two universities in Korea in the context of IT switching to Google Apps settings. According to our findings, this study found that users' switching intention to cloud services was not only positively influenced by expected switching benefits whose antecedents are omnipresence of cloud services and collaboration support, but also negatively influenced by expected switching costs whose antecedents are satisfaction with incumbent IT and breath use of inclement IT. The impacts of switching benefits and costs on switching intention were also positively moderated by end users' personal innovativeness.
Keywords: Cloud computing; Two-factor theory; Switching intention
Effect of interactivity on learner perceptions in Web-based instruction BIBAKFull-Text 171-184
  Jui-ni Sun; Yu-chen Hsu
The capacities of the Internet provide a flexible platform for learning that has overcome the limitations of time and space. To compensate for the lack of face-to-face communication in online education, interactivity design has become an important factor affecting online learning. This study examines how different levels of interactivity in Web-based instruction (WBI) influence learners' perceptions of using WBI systems with a comprehensive interaction design. Three WBI systems were developed with low, medium, and high levels of interactivity, and the effect of interactivity on learners' perceptions was investigated in a real class. The findings suggest a relationship between the interactivity level and learners' attitudes, learning, and satisfaction, but not perceived interactivity. The results indicated that the learners required a certain amount of mental effort to access the system initially; however, repeated exposure to the WBI systems increased their ability to operate the systems, which in turn increased the similarity of the interactivity perceptions of the three groups. Although the learners felt no differences in the interactivity toward the end of the 6-week class owing to familiarity with the system, the benefits of higher interactivity remained. This indicates that learners' interactivity perceptions may change as their experience increases, but different interactivity designs do indeed influence their performance and attitudes in learning.
Keywords: Interactivity; Web-based instruction; Learner perception
Why are children attracted to the Internet? The role of need satisfaction perceived online and perceived in daily real life BIBAKFull-Text 185-192
  Cai-Xia Shen; Ru-De Liu; Dan Wang
From the perspective of self-determination theory, this study investigated the motivations for children's Internet use by examining how basic psychological need satisfaction, perceived online and perceived in daily real life, affects children's Internet use outcomes. A total of 637 elementary school students from China took participated in this study. The results from structural equation modeling showed that need satisfaction perceived online predicted higher levels of Internet use and more positive affect experienced online, whereas need satisfaction perceived in daily real life predicted less time spent online, less negative affect, and more positive affect. Both inherent properties of the experiences provided by the Internet and children's social backgrounds contribute to Internet use outcomes. This study supports self-determination theory in explaining children's Internet use motivations. Implications for efforts to encourage appropriate Internet use and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Internet use; Self-determination theory; Motivation
An examination of the celebrity endorsements and online customer reviews influence female consumers' shopping behavior BIBAKFull-Text 193-201
  Pei-Shan Wei; Hsi-Peng Lu
The goal of this study is to compare the influence of celebrity endorsements to online customer reviews on female shopping behavior. Based on AIDMA and AISAS models, we design an experiment to investigate consumer responses to search good and experience good respectively. The results revealed that search good (shoes) endorsed by a celebrity in an advertisement evoked significantly more attention, desire, and action from the consumer than did an online customer review. We also found that online customer reviews emerged higher than the celebrity endorsement on the scale of participants' memory, search and share attitudes toward the experience good (toner). Implications for marketers as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Celebrity endorsement; Online customer reviews; AIDMA model; AISAS model; Search goods; Experience goods
A cognitive-behavioral model of problematic online gaming in adolescents aged 12-22 years BIBAKFull-Text 202-209
  Maria C. Haagsma; Scott E. Caplan; Oscar Peters; Marcel E. Pieterse
The aim of this study was to apply the cognitive behavioral model of problematic Internet use to the context of online game use to obtain a better understanding of problematic use of online games and its negative consequences. In total, 597 online game playing adolescents aged 12-22 years participated in this study. Results showed that the cognitive behavioral model of problematic Internet use can also be used in the context of online game use. More specifically, preference for online social interaction, mood regulation and deficient self-regulation appeared to play an important role in predicting negative outcomes from problematic online game use. Together, these cognitions and behaviors explained 79% of the variance of negative outcomes scores. These findings can be used to develop strategies that aim at reducing problematic online game behavior and its negative consequences.
Keywords: Problematic online gaming; Pathological gaming; Game addiction; Preference for online social interaction; Mood regulation; Deficient self-regulation
Personality traits and knowledge sharing in online communities BIBAKFull-Text 210-216
  Tanja Jadin; Timo Gnambs; Bernad Batinic
Adopting diffusion theory and the concept of social value orientation, the effects of personality traits on knowledge sharing in a virtual open content community are investigated. In addition to the main effects of personality, it was hypothesized that intrinsic motivations would moderate the effects on knowledge sharing. A sample of N = 256 active users of Wikipedia provided measures of personality, motivation, and knowledge sharing. Latent regression analyses support the notion that authorship of Wikipedia is associated with higher levels of trendsetting and a prosocial value orientation. Moreover, moderation analyses demonstrate that the effect of the latter is moderated by individual differences in motivations to write. Differences with regard to opinion leadership could not be confirmed.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing; Online community; Personality; Values; Motivation; Wikipedia
What stimulates teachers to integrate ICT in their pedagogical practices? The use of digital learning materials in education BIBAKFull-Text 217-225
  Karel Kreijns; Frederik Van Acker; Marjan Vermeulen; Hans van Buuren
The question 'What stimulates teachers to integrate Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in their pedagogical practices?' was addressed in the context of teachers' usage of digital learning materials (DLMs). We adopted Fishbein's Integrative Model of Behavior Prediction (IMBP), to investigate the various relationships between distal and proximal variables and intention. Mediation analysis revealed that the proximal variables attitude, subjective norm, and self-efficacy towards DLMs were significant predictors of teachers' intention to use DLMs. The contribution of subjective norm, however, was modest. Attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy mediated the effects of the following three distal variables on intention: previous use of DLMs, perceived knowledge and skills to use DLMs, and colleagues' usage of DLMs. Persuasive communication and skills based training seem, therefore, appropriate interventions to promote a positive attitude towards DLMs and improve self-efficacy in using DLMs.
Keywords: Integrative model of behavior prediction; Theory of planned behavior; Digital learning materials; Teachers
Gratifications for using CMC technologies: A comparison among SNS, IM, and e-mail BIBAKFull-Text 226-234
  Yi-Cheng Ku; Tsai-Hsin Chu; Chen-Hsiang Tseng
Why and how people choose to use a particular computer-mediated communication (CMC) technology is a major concern. This study seeks to address the issues by applying the uses and gratifications theory, and attempts to explore the general and specific gratifications sought from the use of three CMC technologies. Three separate empirical surveys were conducted to investigate the gratifications sought from social networking sites, instant messaging, and e-mail. Then factor analysis was undertaken to extract the gratifications sought from each CMC technology. The extracted gratifications sought were then compared among the three technologies for concluding the general and specific gratifications. Four general gratifications were extracted among the three CMC technologies, including relationship maintenance, information seeking, amusement, and style. Two gratifications were specific: the sociability gratification sought from using instant messaging and social networking sites; and the gratification of kill time sought from using instant messaging. Moreover, the important levels of gratifications sought from the three CMC technologies were found to be different. Our findings provide evidence to explain why not all traditional CMC technologies are replaced by innovative and advanced ones. The results of this study may be applied to CMC technology design and provide implications for future research.
Keywords: CMC technology; Uses and gratifications theory; Usage motives; E-mail; Instant messaging; Social networking sites
Consumer attitudes towards Internet gambling: Perceptions of responsible gambling policies, consumer protection, and regulation of online gambling sites BIBAKFull-Text 235-245
  Sally Gainsbury; Jonathan Parke; Niko Suhonen
There is an insufficient understanding of consumer attitudes towards Internet gambling, which contributes to difficulties in developing policies to encourage the use of regulated online gambling sites. This research aimed to generate knowledge about consumer attitudes towards online gambling, specifically concerning the issues of player protection, regulation, and responsible gambling. An online survey was completed by 10,838 online casino and poker players from 96 countries. Responsible gambling features were generally viewed positively, particularly by casino game players, those who chased losses, and younger adults. Over one-third of participants reported having experienced a dispute with an online gambling operator. Respondents reported high levels of mistrust and concerns regarding online gambling and confusion regarding the appropriate regulation of Internet gambling. Consumer attitudes play a significant role in driving behavior and must be considered if regulators and operators are to effectively encourage online gamblers to use regulated gambling sites that include consumer protection and harm minimization measures. The results suggest that responsible gambling features, such as the ability to set spending limits, should be implemented on Internet gambling sites to increase consumer trust and favorable attitudes towards online gambling operators, and reduce disputes associated with excessive gambling.
Keywords: Online gambling; Harm minimization; Player protection; Policy; Online poker; Internet casino
The influence of self-discrepancy between the virtual and real selves in virtual communities BIBAKFull-Text 246-256
  Ayoung Suh
Virtual communities enable one to pretend to be a different person or to possess a different self-identity at little or no cost. Despite the ubiquity of such communities, there is limited theoretical and empirical research regarding the effect of taking on a different self-identity associated with one's psychological and behavioral functioning in those communities. To address this issue, drawing on the self-concept rooted in sociopsychology, this study employs the self-discrepancy index, which assesses the degree of differences between one's virtual and real selves; the study goes onto develop a theoretical framework that links self-discrepancy, psychological states (i.e., autonomy, recovery, and catharsis), and behavior (i.e., contribution quality and quantity). The results of an analysis involving 299 survey participants show that self-discrepancy has a significant influence on autonomy and recovery and that this, in turn, influences levels of contribution quality and quantity. It is of note that the results of this study indicate that catharsis is inversely related to contribution quality. Furthermore, subgroup analysis reveals that the effects of self-discrepancy on contribution vary depending on whether the virtual community is utilitarian or hedonic.
Keywords: Contribution; Perceived privacy rights; Self-discrepancy; Virtual community; Virtual self
Player-Avatar Identification in video gaming: Concept and measurement BIBAKFull-Text 257-263
  Dong Dong Li; Albert Kien Liau; Angeline Khoo
This paper aims to develop an instrument to measure Player-Avatar Identification (PAI) in video game playing. Survey studies were conducted with over 1000 students in Singapore primary and secondary schools. The results of the studies demonstrated that PAI can be conceptualized and reliably measured in terms of four-factors - feelings during play, absorption during play, positive attitudes toward the game avatar and importance of the avatar to one's self identity. The four-factor model showed acceptable model data fit and satisfactory reliability and validity. The construct validity was supported by the relationship between PAI and identity style. The result suggested that students with diffused identity style reported significant higher scores on absorption and importance to identity. The usefulness of the concept and the scale was discussed in relation to behavioral and developmental implications.
Keywords: Identification; Identity; Video game; Player avatar relationship; Measurement
Persuasive messages on information system acceptance: A theoretical extension of elaboration likelihood model and social influence theory BIBAKFull-Text 264-275
  Chia-Ying Li
Firms invest millions of dollars in the introduction of new information systems for long-term benefit. If employees are not willing to accept a new information system, such investments may be wasted. Employee acceptance of a new information system is in part determined by external influences. However, previous research has neglected the paths of persuasive strategies and external social influences on information system acceptance. Linkages between persuasive strategies and external social influences are also scarce. By integrating social influence theory and an elaboration likelihood model, this study explores the influence of persuasive messages (source credibility and argument quality) on social influence, affective response and cognitive response. This study also investigates the interrelationships among affective response, cognitive response and behavior intention. Furthermore, the moderating roles of social influences on the impact of affective response and cognitive response on behavior intention are identified.
Keywords: Source credibility; Argument quality; Informational social influence; Normative social influence; Cognitive response; Affective response
Deception in avatar-mediated virtual environment BIBAKFull-Text 276-284
  Rosalie Hooi; Hichang Cho
This study explored the effects of avatars on deception - how perceived avatar likeness to self can affect the truthfulness and accuracy of interactions online. More specifically, this study examined the extent to which perceived avatar similarity influences self-awareness and users' degree of attraction to them, and how these psychological states affect deception in the context of Second Life. The results, based on web-based survey data of 159 Second Life users, revealed that avatar similarity in attitude and behavior to the owner heightened self-awareness, which, in turn, reduced deception. Perceived avatar similarity in terms of appearance was found to have a direct negative impact on deception so that those who perceived their avatars to look similar to themselves were less likely to engage in deceptive behavior. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Deception; Self-awareness; Avatars; Second Life; Virtual world
Investigating the relations between motivation, tool use, participation, and performance in an e-learning course using web-videoconferencing BIBAKFull-Text 285-292
  Bas Giesbers; Bart Rienties; Dirk Tempelaar; Wim Gijselaers
Web-videoconference systems offer several tools (like chat, audio, and webcam) that vary in the amount and type of information learners can share with each other and the teacher. It has been proposed that tools fostering more direct social interaction and feedback amongst learners and teachers would foster higher levels of engagement. If so, one would expect that the richer the tools used, the higher the levels of learner engagement. However, the actual use of tools and contributions to interactions in the learning situation may relate to students' motivation. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between available tools used, student motivation, participation, and performance on a final exam in an online course in economics (N = 110). In line with our assumptions, we found some support for the expected association between autonomous motivation and participation in web-videoconferences as well as between autonomous motivation and the grade on the final exam. Students' tool use and participation were significantly correlated with each other and with exam scores, but participation appeared to be a stronger predictor of the final exam score than tool use. This study adds to the knowledge base needed to develop guidelines on how synchronous communication in e-learning can be used.
Keywords: E-learning; Synchronous communication; Web-videoconference; Technology acceptance; Self-determination theory; Academic motivation
"What's coming next?' Epistemic curiosity and lurking behavior in online communities BIBAKFull-Text 293-303
  Andreas Schneider; Georg von Krogh; Peter Jäger
Prior research has repeatedly found that lurkers, the passive members of online communities, dominate such communities in terms of membership. Yet lurking in online communities reflects a phenomenon largely neglected by contemporary information systems theory and research. This study starts by reviewing existing literature on lurking behavior in online communities and identifies an unexplored opportunity related to the nature and origins of lurkers' behavior, the individual propensity to de-lurk, and the dynamic interplay between lurking and de-lurking behavior. A theoretical process-based framework linking epistemic curiosity to lurking and de-lurking behavior in online communities is presented. This framework links prior academic work on epistemic curiosity as personality trait and emotional-motivational state to lurkers' contribution behavior in online communities. The article concludes by proposing that the psychology of curiosity in general holds great promise for research on online communities in information systems.
Keywords: Epistemic curiosity; Online communities; Lurking; De-lurking; Motivation; Contribution behavior


Corrigendum to "I Became an Attractive Person in the Virtual World: Users' Identification with Virtual Communities and Avatars" [Comput. Hum. Behav. 28 (2012) 1663-1669] BIBKFull-Text 304
  Changsoo Kim; Sang-Gun Lee; Minchoel Kang
Keywords: Erratum; Correction

CHB 2013-03 Volume 29 Issue 2

Advanced human-computer interaction

Advanced human-computer interaction BIBFull-Text 305-306
  Miltiadis D. Lytras; Francisco Garcia-Peñalvo; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos
Effect of knowledge sharing visibility on incentive-based relationship in Electronic Knowledge Management Systems: An empirical investigation BIBAKFull-Text 307-313
  Xi Zhang; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos; Zhongyun Zhou
Previous studies have confirmed the knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) may ensure the incentive-sharing relationship within traditional organizations. However, considering high loafing tendency in IT-based and distributed environments, this effect should be re-examined. This study examines how KSV impacts on incentive-based relationship in IT-based knowledge management systems. The data were collected from real KM systems in an innovative service company. The results show that, in distributed environment, KSV was still a critical moderators in the prediction of employee's knowledge sharing behaviors. In the electronic KMS environment, the positive relationship between incentive and KS is stronger when employees' perceived KSV is higher. This research contributes theoretically to KS literature in examing the KSV as the three-way moderators on incentive-based relationship in IT-based environment, from real organizational samples.
Keywords: Electronic Knowledge Management System; Case study; Incentive-based; Knowledge sharing visibility
Barriers and drivers for non-shoppers in B2C e-commerce: A latent class exploratory analysis BIBAKFull-Text 314-322
  Santiago Iglesias-Pradas; Félix Pascual-Miguel; Ángel Hernández-García; Julián Chaparro-Peláez
The barriers and drivers of e-shopping, as well as segmentation and behavior of e-shoppers, have been long studied in the last two decades, but the behavior of non-shoppers in business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce is still an open field for research which has seldom been dealt with. Our exploratory study has as its main objective the classification of non-shoppers in B2C e-commerce based on the barriers which keep deterring them from purchasing on the Internet and the drivers which might lead them to engage in e-shopping. In order to achieve this goal, data was gathered from 1499 Spanish respondents from a nationwide household panel survey. The responses were analyzed using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach and the results show four different types of non-shoppers based on the barriers for online shopping, while six different groups were identified based on the drivers to start shopping on the Internet. Implications for research and practice from the findings of the study are discussed in the final section.
Keywords: B2C; e-Commerce; Drivers; Barriers; Non-shoppers; Consumer behavior
Making on-line logistics training sustainable through e-learning BIBAKFull-Text 323-328
  Yen-Chun Jim Wu; Shihping Kevin Huang
The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using an online logistics certification learning environment as a training tool to equip future logisticians with required logistics skills. This study incorporates an online logistics certification website that was constructed for college students to familiarize themselves with the certification. In addition, this study also performed comparison tests on students before and after their interaction with the web-based learning environment system to ascertain the system's effectiveness. Our findings suggest that such a system might motivate students to familiarize themselves with logistics-related certification information and can enhance students' professional capabilities. In addition, the web-based learning environment might possibly motivate students to join logistics related industries in the future.
Keywords: e-Learning; Self-learning; Training; Logistics; Capability; Motivation
Exploring social entrepreneurship education from a Web-based pedagogical perspective BIBAKFull-Text 329-334
  Yen-Chun Jim Wu; Tsuang Kuo; Ju-Peng Shen
As Internet has evolved itself as a powerful media for communication, and with the proliferation of Internet contents and survey methodologies, Internet-based researches such as Web-based surveys are common today. The World-Wide Web presents researchers with a powerful tool for the collection of data and the Web-based survey provided us with an efficient and valid method to code the data compared with costs associated with conventional surveying methods. Whereas many research studies use quantitative methodology for Web-based survey; this study employed a Web-based content analysis method to the theme how social entrepreneurship was taught in business school. On the basis of the Beyond Grey Pinstripes (BGP) Global 100 List: 2009 -- 2010 of business schools, with an emphasis on environmental, social, and ethical complexities, we analyzed the contents of social entrepreneurship education, teaching methods, professional specialties of the teachers, and grading of the curricula. The results show that the courses offered by most of these business schools had the required social entrepreneurship characteristics. The arrangement of their programs and their teaching methods, which followed the principle of learning by doing, not only enabled the students to balance theory and practice, but also supported the students in creating social enterprises.
Keywords: Social entrepreneurship education; Web-based content analysis
Emotional mapping of the archaeologist game BIBAKFull-Text 335-344
  Giuliana Guazzaroni
Mobile and ubiquitous learning has been linked to new information and communication technologies embedded in everyday life objects. A variety of invisible embedded tools have been developed and are connected to the Internet. The boundaries between learning, gaming, simulating or role-playing are not clearly defined. In this context a visit to a museum or to another place of interest (e.g. Archaeological parks, historical towns, urban trekking, etc.) using a smartphone, or a tablet, may offer a unique educational experience as will be described in the didactic experiments of EMMAP (Emotional Mapping of Museum Augmented Places) at the Archaeological Museum "Giuseppe Moretti' of San Severino Marche (Italy). EMMAP is a format aimed to develop innovative pedagogies, using handheld technology combined with QR codes, broadcasting and augmented reality (AR). These tools are useful in creating a ubiquitous learning environment and involving participants emotionally in a real landscape. In an authentic context, emotions play a relevant role in engaging students in a rich learning experience.
Keywords: Mobile learning; Ubiquitous learning; Museum learning; Augmented reality; QR-Code; Heritage
A social gamification framework for a K-6 learning platform BIBAKFull-Text 345-353
  Jorge Simões; Rebeca Díaz Redondo; Ana Fernández Vilas
As video games, particularly, social games are growing in popularity and number of users, there has been an increasing interest in its potential as innovative teaching tools. Gamification is a new concept intending to use elements from video games in non-game applications. Education is an area with high potential for application of this concept since it seeks to promote people's motivation and engagement. The research in progress will try to find how to apply social gamification in education, testing and validating the results of that application. To fulfil these objectives, this paper presents the guidelines and main features of a social gamification framework to be applied in an existent K-6 social learning environment.
Keywords: Game-Based Learning; Gamification; e-Learning; Social networks; Social games
Motivational aspects of different learning contexts: "My mom won't let me play this game..." BIBAKFull-Text 354-363
  Ivana Kovacevic; Miroslav Minovic; Milos Milovanovic; Patricia Ordoñez de Pablos; Dušan Starcevic
Learning motivation should describe mechanisms that direct toward the learning goals, initiate learning activity and hold one's learning ability on a level that enables person to attain new information and more complex knowledge. Educational games are emerging as a new form of learning that should improve student's desire for knowledge. Idea that educational games can be used as an effective teaching tool is what inspires our work in this field. In our study we attempted to explore the connection between motivational effects and application of educational game design as a learning tool. Additionally, we took into consideration effects of this approach on improving final exam results. Our results indicate that designing computer programs can raise enough curiosity and can be seen as a relevant learning tool for students.
Keywords: Motivation; Learning; Educational games
Observations of achievement and motivation in using cloud computing driven CAD: Comparison of college students with high school and vocational high school backgrounds BIBAKFull-Text 364-369
  Min Jou; Jingying Wang
Cloud computing technology has matured as it has been integrated with every kind of digitalization processes. It offers numerous advantages for data and software sharing, and thus making the management of complex IT systems much simpler. For education in engineering, cloud computing even provides students with versatile and ubiquitous access to software commonly used in the field without having to step into an actual computer lab. Our study analyzed learning attitudes and academic performances induced by the utilization of resources driven by cloud computing technologies. Comparisons were made between college students with high school and vocational high school backgrounds. One hundred and thirty-two students who took the computer-aided designing (CAD) course participated in the study. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the fundamental framework. Open-ended sets of questionnaires were designed to measure academic performance and causal attributions; the results indicated no significant differences in the cognitive domain between the two groups of students, though it is not so in both the psychomotor and the affective domains. College students with vocational high school background appeared to possess higher learning motivation in CAD applications.
Keywords: Cloud computing; Computer-aided design; Academic performance; Motivation; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
Experimental evaluation of the impact of b-learning methodologies on engineering students in Spain BIBAKFull-Text 370-377
  Ana-B. González; Ma-José Rodríguez; Susana Olmos; Miriam Borham; F. García
The aim of this article is to highlight the importance of an active learning methodology in engineering degrees in Spain. We present the outcomes of an experimental study carried out during the academic years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 with engineering students at the University of Salamanca (Spain). In the present research, as we have done in previous ones, we have selected a subject which is common to the four degrees under consideration: Computer Science. This study explores in greater depth the validity of experimental designs coming from educational research and the impact of innovative teaching methodologies. The hypothesis that impulses this research is formulated to ascertain that the learning level and the satisfaction of students will be higher after the implementation of new teaching methodologies (based on constructive learning, collaborative work, and blended learning resources), than in more traditional teaching contexts. The obtained results partially confirm this hypothesis. The ultimate purpose of this work is that of providing evidence that contributes to the improvement of education and teaching methods for a better performance of students in engineering.
Keywords: Active learning methodology; Formative processes in engineering; Learning assessment; Competence assessment; Blended-learning; Experimental design in education
The impact of Social Multimedia Systems on cyberlearners BIBAKFull-Text 378-385
  Leyla Zhuhadar; Rong Yang; Miltiadis D. Lytras
The phenomenon of social learning analytics presents a synergy between variety of disciplines, such as business intelligence, educational data mining, cyberlearning, and cyber infrastructure. The main contribution of this research is to combine two types of social learning analytics, social learning network analysis and social learning content analysis in studying the impact of the Social Multimedia Systems (SMSs) on cyberlearners. The research study provided in this paper is based on the survey data collected in spring 2011 at Western Kentucky University. The evidence obtained from the analysis shows that SMS impacts (a) the digital communication between faculty and students; (b) students' success and grades; (c) the amount of materials covered and learned; (d) the effectiveness of studying; (e) the depth of learning; (f) the ability to focus on the most important learning objectives; (g) the degree of collaboration among students; and (h) the students' motivation of studying.
Keywords: Learning analytics; Social learning; Ubiquity; Interactivity; Motivation; Students' success
Contextual web searches in Facebook using learning materials and discussion messages BIBAKFull-Text 386-394
  João Carlos Prates; Eduardo Fritzen; Sean W. M. Siqueira; Maria Helena L. B. Braz; Leila C. V. de Andrade
The web is nowadays one of the main information sources, and information search is an important area in which many advances have been registered. One approach to improve web search results is to consider contextual information. Usually, information about context has been provided through user logs on previous searches or the monitoring of clicks on first results, but different approaches can be used in specific environments. In a web based learning environment, existing documents and exchanged messages could provide contextual information. So, the main goal of this work is to provide a contextual web search engine based on shared documents and messages posted in a social network used for collaborative learning. Contextual search is provided through query expansion using learning documents (material provided by the teacher) and discussion messages (posts, links and comments that result from the participants' interactions). A prototype was implemented and used in a learning scenario to acquire the context in a learning community. The proposed approach makes the context acquisition faster and more dynamic as it considers an automatic approach over text processing of documents and discussions. In addition, the results of the query engine with and without the contextual information were compared and the proposed approach using contextual information showed improvements in the precision of the results.
Keywords: Web search; Information retrieval; Learning; Context; Query expansion; Facebook
Structuring the discourse on social networks for learning: Case studies on blogs and microblogs BIBAKFull-Text 395-400
  Aline M. Marques; Rafael Krejci; Sean W. M. Siqueira; Mariano Pimentel; Maria Helena L. B. Braz
Nowadays social networks have a prominent function in human communication. In addition, their use in the context of formal learning can contribute to increase student's interactions. These interactions can be better supported with the right structure for the messages. This paper presents an investigation on the structure of messages on blogs and microblogs, two different categories of social networks. Usually, blogs are author-based (also called content-based or push-based) social networks while microblogs are reader-based (also called contact-based or pull-based) social networks. This categorization of social networks is explained and some characteristics of messages' structuring on such social networks are described. Structuring messages is investigated in both categories of social networks in case studies on a collaborative learning context. The results show the importance of using both categories of social networks in learning activities and also provide interesting results on message structuring.
Keywords: Online social networks; Blog; Microblog; Collaborative learning; Communication; Message structuring
Person-centered technology enhanced learning: Dimensions of added value BIBAKFull-Text 401-409
  Renate Motschnig-Pitrik; Bernhard Standl
Extensive research has shown that person-centered learning aiming at students' development on the levels of intellect, skills, and attitudes is effective in face-to-face education. More recently, advances in web-technology let us ask: Is humanistic, person-centered learning also effective along the application of modern technology? In this contribution we reflect 10 years of research at the University of Vienna, Austria. Essentially, we found that, given learners perceive the teacher's or facilitator's person-centered attitudes and courses employ a thoughtful blend of face-to-face and online elements, courses tend to be perceived by students as carrying value far beyond just cognitive gains: for example, students indicate that -- more than with traditional instruction -- they are motivated to engage in active, self-initiated learning. In particular, they improve their team skills, interpersonal relationships, and become better listeners. They learn significantly from the multiple perspectives they perceive.
Keywords: Person-centered approach; Person-centered technology enhanced learning; Whole person learning; Web based learning system; Blended learning
E-learning and face to face mixed methodology: Evaluating effectiveness of e-learning and perceived satisfaction for a microeconomic course using the Moodle platform BIBAKFull-Text 410-415
  Isabel Novo-Corti; Laura Varela-Candamio; María Ramil-Díaz
The use of Information and Communication Technologies in higher education has proved to be very effective in different educational environments. A less explored area is their application for evaluation on-line, since it is a different process, with specific components. This work describes a methodology that combines the assessment with multiple choice tests through the virtual environment Moodle and the evaluation by using traditional classroom exams. The proposed mixed methodology ELFF (E-Learning and Face to Face) was implemented during the academic year 2010 -- 2011 in the subject Microeconomics: Markets and Competition in the European Union of the double degree in Law and in Business Administration and Management, to assess complementary aspects of the knowledge acquired. The obtained results show that it clearly promotes the participation of students, increases their motivation and improves their competence and so, their performance in terms of qualifications.
Keywords: E-learning; Microeconomics; Virtual environments; Moodle; Self-perception; Motivation
Conversational learning integration in technology enhanced classrooms BIBAKFull-Text 416-423
  Yacine Atif
Today's college students have grown up with technology. These digital natives typically gravitate toward group activities in technology embedded social contexts. However, despite this multidimensional evolution, little has changed in conventional classrooms where they build their education experience. We investigate learning models in a classroom environment which still remains the main driver of education today. We describe a conversational learning model based on group activities which involve multi-party conversations. We implement this model in a technology-enhanced studio-classroom to "visualize' conversations which otherwise would remain abstract to learners. Teachers are empowered with instructional patterns to guide their changing role in this novel classroom environment. Based on standard assessment indicators, we conduct an experimental analysis which results show interesting tradeoffs of learning performance that favor the proposed conversational learning approach compared to those obtained from conventional instruction.
Keywords: Conversational learning; Future classroom; Learning design; Assessment; Learning technology; Collaborative learning
Informatics meets foreign languages COOL ideas for a cross-curricular cooperation BIBAKFull-Text 424-432
  Barbara Sabitzer
Informatics or computer science (the terms informatics and computer science are used as synonyms in this paper) in Austrian secondary schools is often considered "difficult' and "not interesting' because of mainly mathematical and economical contents. But informatics is much more; it is used in almost every part of the working life and can also cooperate with every subject at school. It offers a wide range of possibilities for COOL (COoperative Open Learning), an Austrian teaching model based on the Dalton Plan that provides also cooperation between different subject matters. Besides the COOL concept this paper describes some ideas for cooperation between informatics and foreign languages at secondary schools and at University level besides just ICT (Information and Communication Technology) or computer-assisted language learning. The presented tasks are part of the project "COOL Informatics' (according to COoperative Open Learning) that aims at developing COOL teaching material based on neurodidactical (Neurodidactics is a relatively young research field that combines the findings of brain research, pedagogy, cognitive psychology and other related fields.) principles for informatics and cross-curricular cooperation from primary school up to University. On the basis of the developed material the following main research questions of the project shall be examined in the course of the next school year: (1) Can COoperative Open Learning methods help to enhance learning? (2) Can learning be enhanced by considering neurodidactical principles in the design of teaching material and in the classroom? As the first test phase of the developed material is still in progress the evaluation is not available at the moment. But the first informal feedback of a vocational school and a programming course at the University shows that it is worth fostering COoperative Open Learning and cross-curricular cooperation.
Keywords: Computer science; Foreign languages; Informatics; Interdisciplinary and cross-curricular learning; Collaborative learning; Cooperative open learning
Investigation of effects of virtual reality environments on learning performance of technical skills BIBAKFull-Text 433-438
  Min Jou; Jingying Wang
Practical training is what brings imagination and creativity to fruition, which relies significantly on the relevant technical skills needed. Thus, the current study has placed its emphasis on strengthening the learning of technical skills with emerging innovations in technology, while studying the effects of employing such technologies at the same time. As for the students who participated in the study, technical skills had been cultivated in the five dimensions of knowledge, comprehension, simulation, application, and creativity, in accordance to the set teaching objectives and the taxonomy for students learning outcome, while the virtual reality learning environment (VRLE) has also been developed to meet different goals as the various technical skills were being examined. In terms of the nature of technology, operation of machines, selection of process parameters, and process planning in technical skills, VRLE has also designed the six modules of "learning resource', "digital content', "collaborative learning', "formative evaluation', "simulation of manufacturing process', and "practical exercise' in particular for providing students with assistance in the development on their technical skills on a specific, gradual basis. After assessing the technical skills that have been developed for the time period of one semester, the students have reported finding VRLE to be a significantly effective method when considering the three dimensions of "operation of machines', "selection of process parameter', and "process planning', though not so much so when it came to the dimension of "nature of technology'. Among the six modules, "simulation of manufacturing process' and "practical exercise' were the two that were most preferred by students for the three dimensions considered.
Keywords: Imagination and creativity; Virtual reality learning environments; Learning effectiveness; Technical skills
Ubiquitous tutoring in laboratories based on wireless sensor networks BIBAKFull-Text 439-444
  Min Jou; Jingying Wang
Industrial education places a high premium on experiences in practical hands-on training, though it is commonly recognized for the deprivation in its opportunities of student performance analysis due to lack of recorded data as such. In the present study, the technology of wireless sensor networks has been implemented in the tutoring in courses offered in laboratory skills, where the students' experimental skills and learning inclinations have been examined. Two sets of questionnaires in the respective aspects have been developed to be administered in order to have pretest -- posttest scores obtained. As illustrated in the results derived from the study, a learning environment where wireless sensor networks provide a significant degree of support during laboratory sessions, student performance had significantly improved, and this has been proven evidently for the students in the low-achievement group when being compared to the results delivered by the students in the high-achievement group.
Keywords: Tutoring in laboratory; Wireless sensor networks; Laboratory inquiry skills
Facilitating educators' knowledge sharing with dedicated Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 445-455
  Jeffrey Earp; Michela Ott; Francesca Pozzi
The process of knowledge sharing can be seen as the lifeblood for the establishment of a true Knowledge Society. Such a society must be grounded on an iterative process whereby existing knowledge is constantly shared, consolidated and -- crucially -- enriched with new knowledge. And knowledge sharing is the means by which that enrichment can take place. Without doubt, these processes play a vital role in the context of education, which ultimately has a strong bearing on the formation of the Knowledge Society. In this paper, knowledge sharing among educators is discussed within the context of long-term research work that the authors have carried out in the field. The paper reports on the design and development of a series of Information Systems conceived for the sharing of practices among educational practitioners. It discusses the thinking behind these different but related systems and examines how this is borne out in the implementation of key system features.
Keywords: Information Systems; Knowledge sharing; Information sharing; Educators; Teachers
Competence gaps in software personnel: A multi-organizational study BIBAKFull-Text 456-461
  Ricardo Colomo-Palacios; Cristina Casado-Lumbreras; Pedro Soto-Acosta; Francisco J. García-Peñalvo; Edmundo Tovar-Caro
Today, the innovation and quality of the software industry's products and services depend to a great extent on the knowledge, ability and talent applied by software engineers. At the same time, human aspects are recognized as one of the main problems associated with software development projects. More specifically, inefficiencies usually come from inadequate verification of software engineers' competences. Another issue is the lack of an established career for software engineers, which adds difficulties to evaluate competences. With these challenges in mind, this paper presents a study conducted in the software industry to test competence gaps among software practitioners, comparing the 360-degree feedback results and self-evaluations with that of standard competence levels. The results of this research may be very valuable to organizations immersed in software development projects.
Keywords: Competence gaps; Software workers; Career ladder; Software engineering
Upward influence tactics through technology-mediated communication tools BIBAKFull-Text 462-472
  Sebastián Steizel; Eva Rimbau-Gilabert
The globalization of work within organizations has generated a greater need for all types of workers to exert interpersonal influence through technology-mediated communication tools. This paper sheds light on the interpersonal relations process in virtual environments from the specific perspective of the choice of upward influence (UI) tactics. We suggest that virtual work settings may impact the UI tactic selected, as well as the communication medium used to enact it. In particular, we study whether the types of UI strategies found in physical environments are relevant in virtual work contexts. This research also analyzes the UI process in virtual work settings, as well as the role of communication media in that process. Results based on the qualitative analysis of the content of 14 interviews suggest that there is an influence tactic specific to virtual work relations. That tactic might be called intermediation and consists of finding an intermediary who is well connected to the target and can help define the best approach for the agent. In addition, workers often split their influence attempts into a two-step strategy in order to achieve better results, taking advantage of the capabilities of the media available for that purpose.
Keywords: Influence tactics; Upward influence; Technology-mediated communication; Virtual work settings; Virtual communication
Assessing and governing IT-staff behavior by performance-based simulation BIBAKFull-Text 473-485
  Vladimir Stantchev; Konstantin Petruch; Gerrit Tamm
When optimizing IT operations organizations typically aim to optimize resource usage. In general, there are two kinds of IT resources -- IT infrastructures and IT staff. An optimized utilization of these resources requires both quantitative and qualitative analysis. While IT infrastructures can offer raw data for such analyses, data about IT staff often requires additional preparation and augmentation. One source for IT staff-related data can be provided by incident management and ticketing systems. While performance data from such systems is often stored in logfiles it is rarely evaluated extensively. In this article we propose the usage of such data sources for IT staff behavior evaluation and also present the relevant augmentation techniques. We claim that our approach is able to provide more in-depth insights as compared to typical data visualization and dashboard techniques. Our modeling methodology is based on the approach of system dynamics.
   We also provide formal models and simulation results where we demonstrate the feasibility of the approach using real-life logfiles from an international telecommunication provider.
Keywords: Governance; IT-Staff; Simulation; Human aspects; Human behavior; System dynamics
Human-computer interaction in evolutionary visual software analytics BIBAKFull-Text 486-495
  Antonio González-Torres; Francisco J. García-Peñalvo; Roberto Therón
Software evolution is made up of changes carried out during software maintenance. Such accumulation of changes produces substantial modifications in software projects and therefore vast amounts of relevant facts that are useful for the understanding and comprehension of the software project for making additional changes. In this scenario, evolutionary visual software analytics is aimed to support software maintenance, with the active participation of users, through the understanding and comprehension of software evolution by means of visual analytics and human computer interaction. It is a complex process that takes into account the mining of evolutionary data, the subsequent analysis of the mining process results for producing evolution facts, the use of visualizations supported by interaction techniques and the active participation of users. Hence, this paper explains the evolutionary visual software analytics process, describes a framework proposal and validates such proposal through the definition and implementation of an architecture.
Keywords: Evolutionary visual software analytics; Visual software analytics; Visual analytics; Human-computer interaction
D2SNet: Dynamics of diffusion and dynamic human behaviour in social networks BIBAKFull-Text 496-509
  Erick Stattner; Martine Collard; Nicolas Vidot
In this paper, we present an original and formal framework, the D2SNet model designed to combine both the social network evolution and the diffusion dynamics among individuals. We have conducted experiments on three social networks that show identical characteristics as real social networks. A formal definition of the model is provided and we describe its implementation in a simulation tool. We represent human behaviors and information dissemination strategies by standard and synthetic scheme. In a first step, we study the impact of network growing strategies only and we highlight important parameters such as the evolution speed and mainly the kind of strategies that favour or not the spread. Then we study a more complete evolution strategy that involves link creation and deletion. We provide a deep analysis on the impact of each parameter such as evolution speed, creation and deletion probabilities and dynamic human behaviors on the diffusion amplitude and coverage. Our study gives a novel and useful insight in the diffusion process in a dynamic context.
Keywords: Social network; Dynamics; Diffusion; Modelisation; Simulation
A method for automatic generation of fuzzy membership functions for mobile device's characteristics based on Google Trends BIBAKFull-Text 510-517
  Aitor Almeida; Pablo Orduña; Eduardo Castillejo; Diego López-de-Ipiña; Marcos Sacristán
While creating a framework for adaptive mobile interfaces for m-learning applications we found that in order to ease the use of our framework we needed to present the mobile device characteristics to non-expert users in a easy to understand manner. Using fuzzy sets to represent the characteristics of mobile devices, non-expert developers such as teachers or instructional designers can actively participate in the development or adaptation of the educational tools. To be able to automatically generate the fuzzy membership functions of the sets we needed the data of the mobile device market, regrettably this information is not publicly available. To tackle this problem we have developed a method to estimate the market share of each mobile device based on the popularity metrics recovered from Google Trends and then we use that estimated value as the input to generate the fuzzy set of each characteristic. The proposed method allows us to not only model the state of the market in different periods of time, but also to localize the results to adapt them to the mobile market of specific countries. In this paper we will describe the proposed algorithm and we will discuss the obtained results.
Keywords: Fuzzy; Mobile devices; Characterization; Membership functions; Google Trends

CHB 2013-05 Volume 29 Issue 3


Evaluation of the reliability and validity of GraphClick as a data extraction program BIBAKFull-Text 1023-1027
  Megan A. Boyle; Andrew L. Samaha; Andrew M. Rodewald; Audrey N. Hoffmann
Data extraction programs are used to obtain approximations of raw data from published graphs. Quantitative syntheses of single-subject data require that researchers have access to valid and reliable data extraction programs. We analyzed the reliability and validity of a data extraction program, GraphClick. Three independent coders extracted data from 191 graphs from the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA) and 15 graphs of hypothetical data. Results showed that GraphClick is both reliable and valid with nearly perfect correlations for all analyses. Suggestions are included for researchers and authors to improve the accuracy of data extraction techniques.
Keywords: Reliability; Validity; Data extraction; Software testing
Cross-cultural analysis in online community research: A literature review BIBAKFull-Text 1028-1038
  Silvia Elena Gallagher; Timothy Savage
Cross-cultural online community research can support theoretical generalizability, increase methodological robustness and give insights into user online behavior. The objective of this paper is to review the existing literature on comparative cross-cultural online community research in order to investigate the current state of the literature, extract conceptual patterns and identify methodological and emergent issues. This will inform the development of the field, map out research delimiters, and set out guidelines for future research. The findings from the literature review demonstrated five key areas of methodological difficulty in cross-cultural online community comparative analysis; sampling form, country selection, number of cultures compared, participant type and interpretation of data. Key themes that emerged from the literature included the use of the nation state as a unit of culture, a lack of definition of the concept of online community, and the impact of current theory on cross-cultural online community analyses. Recommendations in the areas of methodology, definition and theory are provided. These findings should be of interest to both specific online community researchers, and those in other multidisciplinary fields where online communities are being used as a research environment.
Keywords: Online communities; Cross-cultural research; Literature review

Regular Articles

Teacher adoption of technology BIBAKFull-Text 519-524
  Roberto Aldunate; Miguel Nussbaum
Technology adoption is usually modeled as a process with dynamic transitions between costs and benefits. Nevertheless, school teachers do not generally make effective use of technology in their teaching. This article describes a study designed to exhibit the interplay between two variables: the type of technology, in terms of its complexity of use, and the type of teacher, in terms of attitude towards innovation. The results from this study include: (a) elaboration of a characteristic teacher technology adoption process, based on an existing learning curve for new technology proposed for software development; and (b) presentation of exit points during the technology adoption process. This paper concludes that teachers who are early technology adopters and commit a significant portion of their time to incorporating educational technology into their teaching are more likely to adopt new technology, regardless of its complexity. However, teachers who are not early technology adopters and commit a small portion of their time to integrating educational technology are less likely to adopt new technology and are prone to abandoning the adoption at identified points in the process.
Keywords: Teacher technology adoption; Technology abandonment; Technology use in education
The acceptance of Tablet-PCs in classroom instruction: The teachers' perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 525-534
  Dirk Ifenthaler; Volker Schweinbenz
Limited research has been conducted on the integration of Tablet-PCs in classroom instruction. This paper reports a qualitative study which investigates the acceptance of Tablet-PCs, seen as technological innovation, amongst teachers. The research approach intends to complement research on the acceptance of technology through a more detailed qualitative examination. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 teachers during a pilot project introducing Tablet-PCs to classroom instruction at three different schools. The findings indicate diversity in the attitude of teachers towards the technology, but also with regards to the performance expectancy and the facilitating conditions.
Keywords: Tablet-PC; Technology acceptance; Classroom instruction; Teacher; K-12; School
Do video games exert stronger effects on aggression than film? The role of media interactivity and identification on the association of violent content and aggressive outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 535-543
  Jih-Hsuan Lin
This study investigated whether media interactivity would influence the short-term effects of violent content on audience aggression. The general aggression model, social cognitive theory, and character identification offered the theoretical framework. A random sample of 102 male college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: video game playing, recorded game-play watching, or movie watching. The results indicated that video game players (mediated enactive experience) experienced greater increases in aggressive affect, aggressive cognition, and physiological arousal than participants who watched recorded game play or comparable movie scenes (mediated observational experience). The study indicated that media interactivity in video game exacerbated the violent effect on short-term, aggressive responses. Character identification did not mediate the effect of media interactivity on aggression. Future studies should incorporate more comprehensive measures of character identification to investigate inconsistent findings regarding media interactivity and identification.
Keywords: Media interactivity; Video games; Violence and aggression; Character identification; General aggression model; Social cognitive theory
The effect of nonverbal cues on relationship formation BIBAKFull-Text 544-551
  Igor Kotlyar; Dan Ariely
An unprecedented number of relationships begin online, propelling online dating into a billion-dollar industry. However, while the online dating industry has created an effective mechanism for matching and accessing profiles, it has largely neglected the quality of communication between individuals. We investigate whether the lack of nonverbal cues (inherent in the text-based communication tools commonly used by dating sites) hinders communication and relationship formation. In this study, members of a dating website interacted through one of four randomly assigned versions of a text chat, where each version featured an increasing number of nonverbal communication cues. A survey was then administered regarding users' perceptions of each other, the level and quality of information disclosure, and their interest in developing a relationship with the other person. Results suggest that restoring nonverbal cues through the use of avatars can help improve online interaction and relationship formation. Chat versions that featured more nonverbal cues were associated with more favorable perceptions, greater exchange of information, and a stronger desire to pursue a relationship. While both genders found nonverbal communication conducive to developing a relationship, men and women reacted differently to certain types of nonverbal communication.
Keywords: Communication; Non-verbal cues; Impression formation; Avatar; Relationship; Gender
Conditioned suppression in a virtual environment BIBAKFull-Text 552-558
  W. James Greville; Philip M. Newton; Bryan Roche; Simon Dymond
Virtual environments (VEs) provide an inexpensive way of conducting ecologically valid psychological research. The present study used a VE to demonstrate conditioned suppression, a behavioral model of anxiety, in a first-person perspective video game. During operant training, participants learned to shoot crates to find gold bars and thus score points in the game. Next, during Pavlovian conditioning, a colored light (i.e., conditioned stimulus: CS+) was followed by a white noise unconditioned stimulus (US) while a different colored light (CS-) was not paired with the US. Probe trials in a final testing phase were then used to assess suppression. We found significant suppression of accurate responding (shots hitting the designated targets) during the presence of the CS+ relative to the CS-, both in terms of total hits and hits as a proportion of total shots. Importantly, this effect emerged despite the overall level of operant responding being undiminished during the CS+. Our findings are consistent with related studies examining human behavior in real environments, and demonstrate the potential of VEs in combination with a modestly aversive CS to allow a detailed behavioral profile of anxiety to emerge.
Keywords: Conditioned suppression; Conditioning; Virtual environment; First person perspective video game; Anxiety
Facebook-based stress management resources for first-year medical students: A multi-method evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 559-562
  Daniel R. George; Cheryl Dellasega; Megan M. Whitehead; Alan Bordon
Student anxiety and doubt about academic performance in the early years of medical school have been well documented. Stress management programs can be helpful but are challenged by shortages of time, personnel, and resources. Therefore, popular online social networks such as Facebook may offer an innovative strategy for addressing student stress and supporting coping. This pilot study explored whether first-year medical students could benefit from a stress management intervention based exclusively on Facebook. During orientation week at Penn State College of Medicine, participants were randomly assigned to a Facebook stress management group that addressed problematic issues during the first semester. The intervention took place during the first eleven weeks of medical school. A multi-method evaluation of the intervention was completed using descriptive statistics for demographics and frequencies and qualitative procedures for focus group data. The accessibility and ease of use of a Facebook-based stress management program proved valuable for medical students, particularly early in the semester when engagement was greatest. These preliminary results suggest that medical schools might consider adding an online social networking component to existing stress management programming. This online strategy may also be of benefit to other health professionals and students from other health disciplines.
Keywords: Medical education; Social media; Stress management; Social network; Communication; Technology
Text me when it becomes dangerous: Exploring the determinants of college students' adoption of mobile-based text alerts short message service BIBAKFull-Text 563-569
  Doohwang Lee; Jee Young Chung; Hyuksoo Kim
Guided by Davis' (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM) and Brehm's (1989) reactance theory, this study sought to explore the determinants of college students' adoption of mobile-based text alert short message service (SMS). The findings of the study supported the primary argument of the model that individuals' adoption of text alert SMS for emergency preparedness and response should be largely determined by social psychological factors, such as attitude toward, subjective norm associated with, and perceived intrusiveness of the SMS. In addition, the findings demonstrated that subjective norm of and attitude toward the service prompted individuals' actual adoption whereas intrusiveness of the service served as a distinctive barrier to the actual adoption behavior. Finally, the findings also showed that the probability of adopting the text alert SMS was not directly increased by perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of the service, but was indirectly affected by the two antecedents through ones' attitude toward the use of the SMS. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Mobile phone; Short message service; Emergency preparedness; Technology acceptance
The effects of product photographs and reputation systems on consumer behavior and product cost on eBay BIBAKFull-Text 570-576
  Brandon Van Der Heide; Benjamin K. Johnson; Mao H. Vang
For years, computer-mediated communication (CMC) research has explored and theorized about the effects of technology on the process of interpersonal impression formation. However, as the Internet has evolved to allow users to accomplish more and more day-to-day tasks (e. g., the buying and selling of goods and services) little research and theory development has explored how non-interpersonal impressions form on the internet. This work seeks to extend theoretical perspectives on online signaling (the warranting effect; Walther & Parks, 2002) to predict consumer behavior on the popular online auction website, eBay.com. A content analysis of 217 completed eBay auctions revealed that auctions that featured higher seller reputation scores and actual product photographs (vs. stock photographs) generated more bidding interest and resulted in higher final sales prices. These findings as well as future theoretical development in this area are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Consumer behavior; Online commerce; Warranting theory
A note of caution regarding anthropomorphism in HCI agents BIBAKFull-Text 577-579
  Kimberly E. Culley; Poornima Madhavan
Universal usability is an important component of HCI, particularly as companies promote their products in increasingly global markets to users with diverse cultural backgrounds. Successful anthropomorphic agents must have appropriate computer etiquette and nonverbal communication patterns. Because there are differences in etiquette, tone, formality, and colloquialisms across different user populations, it is unlikely that a generic anthropomorphic agent would be universally appealing. Additionally, because anthropomorphic characters are depicted as capable of human reasoning and possessing human motivations, users may ascribe undue trust in these agents. Trust is a complex construct that exerts an important role in a user's interactions with an interface or system. Feelings and perceptions about an anthropomorphic agent may impact the construction of a mental model about a system, which may lead to inappropriate calibrations of automation trust that is based on an emotional connection with the anthropomorphic agent rather than on actual system performance.
Keywords: HCI; Universal usability; Anthropomorphism; Affect as information; Trust; Agent
Bullying and cyberbullying: Convergent and divergent predictor variables BIBAKFull-Text 580-587
  José A. Casas; Rosario Del Rey; Rosario Ortega-Ruiz
There is certain controversy on whether cyber-bullying is a category of bullying as it appears in a very different scenario away from the schools. The objective of this research has been to know if the variables that predict the involvement of youngsters in traditional bullying are also predictor of the appearance of cyber-bullying. Accordingly, we have looked for the similarities and the differences existing in the involvement on these phenomena. The sample is composed by secondary school pupils (n = 893, 45.9% girls; age x¯ = 13.80 , SD = 1.47). The results show that there are multiple relations between the predictor variables of school bullying and the specific variables of virtual environments that predict cyber-bullying. It has been obtained a new model that explains both phenomena which could be a strong evidence to base future interventions to prevent and reduce these problems.
Keywords: Cyber-bullying; Bullying; School climate; Empathy; Internet addiction; Privacy
ERP correlates of masked affective priming with emoticons BIBAKFull-Text 588-595
  Montserrat Comesaña; Ana Paula Soares; Manuel Perea; Ana P. Piñeiro; Isabel Fraga; Ana Pinheiro
Emoticons seem to enrich computer-mediated communication by improving enjoyment, perceived richness and usefulness of information (Huang, Yen, & Zhang, 2008). Despite their extensive use over the last decades, the way emoticons affect subsequent emotional/cognitive processing is not fully understood. Here we conducted a masked priming experiment that explored the time course of the masked affective priming effect while recording event-related potentials. Type of prime (emoticon vs. word) and prime valence (positive vs. negative) were manipulated to assess their influence in the processing of positive/negative target words. Results showed a masked affective priming effect in early (N2) and late temporal windows (LPC). This effect was observed in early components for negative target words and in later components for positive target words. Furthermore, it was restricted to those targets preceded by emoticon primes. Thus, the processing of emoticons seems to be privileged when compared with the words to which they refer.
Keywords: Emoticons; Affective words; Masked affective priming; ERPs
A cross-cultural analysis of the effect of language on perceived risk online BIBAKFull-Text 596-603
  Juan Miguel Alcántara-Pilar; Salvador del Barrio-García; Lucia Porcu
This paper investigates whether perceived risk online is affected by the language in which a user browses a given website. In order to achieve this objective and test the proposed hypotheses, a 2 x 2 between-subjects experimental design was chosen, using two independent variables with two levels each, namely: culture (Spanish vs. British) and processing language (Spanish vs. English). The final sample comprised 491 individuals (264 Spanish and 227 British). Half the sample browsed in their mother tongue, and the other half in a second language. The results showed that Spanish users perceive less risk when browsing in English than in Spanish, while for the British there was no difference, in terms of perceived risk, between browsing in Spanish or English. Another interesting finding is the moderating effect of message involvement on the processing of information from the website, and thus its effect on the user's perception of risk.
Keywords: Perceived risk online; Hofstede; Language; Online information-processing; Internet
Face-to-face or Facebook: Can social connectedness be derived online? BIBAKFull-Text 604-609
  Rachel Grieve; Michaelle Indian; Kate Witteveen; G. Anne Tolan; Jessica Marrington
Previous research has identified the importance of social connectedness in facilitating a number of positive outcomes, however, investigation of connectedness in online contexts is relatively novel. This research aimed to investigate for the first time social connectedness derived from the use of Facebook. Study 1 investigated whether offline social connectedness and Facebook connectedness were separate constructs. Participants were Facebook users (N = 344) who completed measures of offline social connectedness and Facebook social connectedness. Factor analysis (Maximum Likelihood analysis with Oblimin rotation) revealed Facebook connectedness to be distinct from offline social connectedness. Study 2 examined the relationship between Facebook social connectedness and anxiety, depression, and subjective well-being in a second sample of Facebook users (N = 274) in a cross-sectional design. Results suggest that Facebook use may provide the opportunity to develop and maintain social connectedness in the online environment, and that Facebook connectedness is associated with lower depression and anxiety and greater satisfaction with life. Limitations and future directions are considered. It is concluded that Facebook may act as a separate social medium in which to develop and maintain relationships, providing an alternative social outlet associated with a range of positive psychological outcomes.
Keywords: Facebook; Social connectedness; Facebook connectedness; Social Networking Sites; Online relationships
Advancing racism with Facebook: Frequency and purpose of Facebook use and the acceptance of prejudiced and egalitarian messages BIBAKFull-Text 610-615
  Shannon M. Rauch; Kimberley Schanz
The present study examined the relationship between frequency of Facebook use and attitude toward negative racial messages that are presented via Facebook. White participants completed a measure of Facebook use and then read one of three persuasive messages regarding race: an egalitarian message, a negative message with a superiority focus, or a negative message with a victim focus. Participants indicated their attitude toward the message and their Facebook-related behavioral intentions. Results showed that frequency of Facebook use related positively to message acceptance, particularly messages with overt racist content. Facebook users who were motivated by information seeking needs discriminated the most between messages, accepting an egalitarian message and rejecting messages with racist content.
Keywords: Persuasion; Racial attitudes; Racism; Facebook
Monitoring students' goal setting and metacognitive knowledge in technology-enhanced learning with metacognitive prompts BIBAKFull-Text 616-625
  Eylem Yildiz-Feyzioglu; Ercan Akpinar; Nilgün Tatar
The purpose of this study is to analyse individual students' goal setting and metacognitive knowledge using the learning platform developed for the "Electricity in Our Lives' unit. A descriptive case study was applied in this work. The participants were three fourteen-year-old students from a seventh grade classroom. The data were gathered from the students' self-explanations as recorded in the learning platform database. The content analysis showed that the instruction with the learning platform helped the students overcome the difficulties they felt regarding the concept of electricity and enabled them to set goals with an intrinsic orientation. However, while the students were engaged in the same learning platform activities, they made different reflections on their metacognitive knowledge. Remarkable progress was observed in all but one students' metacognitive knowledge. It was suggested that the students should have educational experiences via learning platform for longer periods and in a wider range of activities in order for them to monitor their goal setting and metacognitive knowledge effectively.
Keywords: Case study; Metacognitive prompts; Science education
Comparing actual and self-reported measures of Facebook use BIBAKFull-Text 626-631
  Reynol Junco
Numerous studies exist examining how college students use Facebook and how this affects aspects of their college experience; however, all of these studies have relied on self-report measures of Facebook use. Research in other areas of human behavior has shown that self-report measures are substantially inaccurate when compared to actual behaviors. This study provides the first test of the criterion validity of measures of Facebook frequency by comparing self-reported time spent on the site and number of logins against actual usage as measured by computer monitoring software. A sample of 45 college students installed software that monitored their computer usage for 1 month. There was a strong positive correlation between self-reported and actual time spent on Facebook; however, there was a significant discrepancy between the two. Students spent an average of 26 min (SD = 30) per day on Facebook, significantly lower than the average of 145 (SD = 111) minutes per day obtained through self-report. There was a moderate relationship between number of logins and actual time spent on Facebook. Although there are some limitations of monitoring computer usage, researchers are encouraged to attempt to relate their self-report measures to actual behaviors in order to improve external validity.
Keywords: Facebook; Criterion validity; Measurement; College students; Research
Computerized working memory training: Can it lead to gains in cognitive skills in students? BIBAKFull-Text 632-638
  Tracy Packiam Alloway; Vanessa Bibile; Gemma Lau
Given that working memory is an important cognitive skill that is linked to academic success, there is increasing attention given to exploring ways to support working memory problems in struggling students. One promising approach is computerized training, and the aim of the present study focused on whether computerized working memory training could result in both near and far transfer training effects; and whether such effects would be maintained over time. Students were allocated into one of three groups: Nonactive Control, Active Control, where they trained once a week (WMT-Low frequency); Training group, where they trained four times a week (WMT-High frequency). All three groups were tested on measures of working memory, verbal and nonverbal ability, and academic attainment before training; and re-tested on the same measures after training, as well as 8 months later. The data indicate gains in both verbal and visuo-spatial working memory tasks for the high-frequency Training group. Improvements were also evidenced in tests of verbal and nonverbal ability tests, as well as spelling, in the high-frequency Training group. There were some maintenance effects when students were tested 8 months later. Possible reasons for why the computerized working memory training led to some far transfer effects in the high-frequency Training group are included in the discussion.
Keywords: Computerized training; Working memory; IQ; Academic attainment
Online multimedia learning with mobile devices and desktop computers: An experimental test of Clark's methods-not-media hypothesis BIBAKFull-Text 639-647
  Eunmo Sung; Richard E. Mayer
Students received an online multimedia lesson on how a solar cell works that consisted of 11 narrated slides with a script of 800 words. Concerning instructional media, students received the lesson on a desktop computer (i.e., iMac) in a lab or on a mobile device (i.e., iPad) in a courtyard. Concerning instructional method, students received a continuous lesson with no headings (standard method) or a segmented lesson in which the learner clicked on a button to go onto the next slide with each slide having a heading corresponding to the key idea in the script for the slide (enhanced method). Across both media, the enhanced group outperformed the standard group on a transfer test (d = .67), yielding a method effect on learning outcomes for both desktop and mobile media. Across both methods, the mobile group produced stronger ratings than the desktop group on self-reported willingness to continue learning (d = .60), yielding a media effect on motivational ratings for both standard and enhanced methods. Effective instructional methods can improve learning outcomes across different media, whereas using hand-held instructional media may increase students' willingness to continue to engage in learning.
Keywords: Mobile computing; Multimedia learning; Online learning; Computer-based instruction; Segmenting effect; Instructional media
Using virtual reality and mood-induction procedures to test products with consumers of ceramic tiles BIBAKFull-Text 648-653
  Berenice Serrano; Cristina Botella; Rosa M. Baños; Mariano Alcañiz
This work describes a Virtual Reality Environment (VRE), through which users are able to view and test ceramic tile products. Users' virtual interfacing with the products generated emotional experiences that allowed them to feel "engaged' with the products. Users could choose between different kinds of products and test them out in order to know how they would look in a real-world context. In the VRE several mood-induction Procedures for inducing relaxation were included. The VRE was tested with respect to its ability to induce relaxation and sense of presence in 26 participants. It was also analyzed the level of satisfaction. Measures included the Visual Analogue Scale, the Self-Assessment Manikin, the Presence Self-Assessment Manikin, and a Satisfaction Scale. The results showed that the VRE was effective among participants in inducing relaxation and high sense of presence. In addition, participants' satisfaction with the experience in the VRE was high. The VRE thus could be a useful tool for showing and testing products and for evoking a positive emotional association while users are interacting.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Product testing; Mood-induction procedures; Relaxation; Sense of presence; Consumers
Using non-verbal cues to (automatically) assess children's performance difficulties with arithmetic problems BIBAKFull-Text 654-664
  Marije van Amelsvoort; Bart Joosten; Emiel Krahmer; Eric Postma
Intelligent tutoring systems often make use of students' answers to adapt instruction or feedback on a task. In this paper, we explore the alternative possibility of adapting a system based on the perceived affective and cognitive state of a student. A system can potentially better adapt to the needs of each individual student by using non-verbal behavior. We used a new experimental paradigm inspired by 'brain training' software to collect primary school children's answers to easy and difficult arithmetic problems and made audiovisual recordings of their answers. Adult observers rated these films on perceived difficulty level. Results showed that adults were able to correctly interpret children's perceived level of difficulty, especially if they saw their face (compared to hearing their voice). They paid attention to features such as 'looking away', and 'frowning'. Then we checked whether we could also automatically predict if the posed problem was either easy or difficult based on the first second of their response. This 'thin-slice analysis' could correctly predict the difficulty level in 71% of all cases. When trained on sufficiently many recordings, Adaptive Tutoring Systems should be able to detect children's state and adapt the difficulty level of their learning materials accordingly.
Keywords: Facial expressions; Arithmetic problems; Performance difficulty; Affective tutoring systems
To buy or not to buy experience goods online: Perspective of innovation adoption barriers BIBAKFull-Text 665-672
  Jiunn-Woei Lian; David C. Yen
The purpose of this study attempts to understand why consumers rarely shop online. Innovation resistance theory is employed in this study. Results of the survey utilizing a questionnaire among the members of study case indicated that value and tradition are major barriers toward use intention. Significant differences in usage barrier and image barrier exist between different non-adopted groups. On average, rejecters group have the highest barriers, followed by opponents, and postponers. Finally, there exist significant differences in usage, value, tradition, and image barriers between adopters and non-adopters toward buying experience goods online. These findings provide a better understanding of consumer's attitude toward buying experience goods online.
Keywords: Online shopping; Experience goods; Innovation resistance theory
Obstacles to social networking website use among older adults BIBAKFull-Text 673-680
  Michael T. Braun
Social networking websites (SNSs) have become popular among younger adults, but internet-using older adults have not adopted this communication medium nearly as quickly (Lenhart, 2009; Madden, 2010). This study seeks to understand what factors encourage or discourage older adults from using SNS, like Facebook, to help understand what may be done to ensure both generations have communication media over which they enjoy and feel comfortable communicating. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM; Davis, 1989; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989) as a framework, 124 internet-using older adults aged 60 -- 90, completed attitudinal measures of perceived usefulness of SNS, perceived ease of use of websites, social pressures to use SNS, and trust in SNS, as well as behavioral measures of current internet use, SNS use, and intention to use SNS in the future. Regression analyses revealed significant predictors of SNS include perceived usefulness, trust in SNS, and frequency of internet use. Unexpectedly, factors of ease of use and social pressures were not significant predictors. Implications for the TAM and for individuals with an interest in getting older adults to use SNS are discussed.
Keywords: Social networking websites; Facebook; Older adults; Intergenerational communication; Technology Acceptance Model
An exploration of a quasi-stable online network: A longitudinal perspective BIBAKFull-Text 681-686
  Laura C. Farrell; Julie Fudge
This study uses social capital theory and social network analysis to explore how relations in an online academic communication network impact the overall structure of that network. Social network analysis is a particularly advantageous methodological tool for linking changes in microlevel choices to macrolevel structural alterations. Results indicate the online communication network's structure exists independent of changes in communication ties. Specifically degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and clique formation indicated communication ties are initiated and discontinued over a 7-month timeframe. However, the dynamic nature of the microlevel communication choices does not mirror the quasi-stable structure of the online network. Results provide avenues for future research.
Keywords: Social capital theory; Social network analysis; Longitudinal; Interpersonal communication; Media
Loneliness, anxiousness, and substance use as predictors of Facebook use BIBAKFull-Text 687-693
  Russell B. Clayton; Randall E. Osborne; Brian K. Miller; Crystal D. Oberle
This study investigates the relationships between loneliness, anxiousness, alcohol, and marijuana use in the prediction of freshman college students' connections with others on the social network site Facebook as well as their emotional connectedness to Facebook. A survey of 229 respondents was conducted at a mid-sized public university to examine these relationships. Respondents were currently living in university dormitories and had an active Facebook account. The study examined the aforementioned predictor variables in relation to Facebook connections strategies and emotional connectedness to Facebook. Results showed that anxiousness, alcohol use, and marijuana use predicted emotional attachment to Facebook. Additionally, loneliness and anxiousness, but not alcohol or marijuana use, predicted individuals' connections with others using Facebook. The current study adds to the growing body of literature investigating predictors of why individuals become emotionally attached to Facebook and the precursors to connecting with others on Facebook.
Keywords: Loneliness; Anxiousness; Alcohol; Marijuana; Connections; Facebook
Internet exploration behaviours and recovery from unsuccessful actions differ between learners with high and low levels of attention BIBAKFull-Text 694-705
  Malinda Desjarlais
Sustained attention (i.e., focusing attention on an activity for a prolonged amount of time) has important implications for learning and memory. However, little is known regarding the behavioural factors that contribute to sustained attention during Internet learning. The primary purpose of the current study was to explore differences in navigational choices and recovery from unsuccessful actions of learners with high and low levels of sustained attention. Undergraduate students searched the Internet for information corresponding to an assigned low domain knowledge topic for 20 min while their eye-gaze was recorded. High- and low-attending learners differed in the selection of links, level of linearity used to navigate the Internet, Web reading strategies, and frequency of deploying unsuccessful actions. These results indicate that sustained attention may be impacted by the monitoring of one's progress towards the learning goal, and have implications for scaffolding provided by teachers and adaptive hypermedia systems.
Keywords: Internet; Information search; Navigation; Exploration behaviours; Attention; Eye-gaze
A game design framework for avoiding phishing attacks BIBAKFull-Text 706-714
  Nalin Asanka Gamagedara Arachchilage; Steve Love
Game based education is becoming more and more popular. This is because game based education provides an opportunity for learning in a natural environment. Phishing is an online identity theft, which attempts to steal sensitive information such as username, password, and online banking details from its victims. To prevent this, phishing awareness needs to be considered. This research aims to develop a game design framework, which enhances user avoidance behaviour through motivation to protect users from phishing attacks. In order to do this, a theoretical model derived from Technology Thread Avoidance Theory (TTAT) was developed and used in the game design framework (Liang & Xue, 2010). A survey study was undertaken with 150 regular computer users to elicit feedback through a questionnaire. The study findings revealed that perceived threat, safeguard effectiveness, safeguard cost, self-efficacy, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility elements should be addressed in the game design framework for computer users to avoid phishing attacks. Furthermore, we argue that this game design framework can be used not only for preventing phishing attacks but also for preventing other malicious IT attacks such as viruses, malware, botnets and spyware.
Keywords: Game design; Game based learning; Phishing threat; Security awareness; Usable security; Human-computer interaction and design
Are computers good or bad for business? How mediated customer -- computer interaction alters emotions, impressions, and patronage toward organizations BIBAKFull-Text 715-725
  Daniel B. Shank
Are computers good or bad for business? Although computers are social actors research finds that people react to computers and humans with similar tendencies, little research directly compares human-computer interaction to human-human interaction. I ask how mediated transactions with a company's human or computer representatives alter customers' reactions toward that company. I conduct an experiment where subjects in the role of customers received products (low or high quality) from a representative (human or computer). I measure the customer's emotions, impressions, and patronage toward both the representative and the organization. The data indicate few differences in reactions toward the representative and the organization, however, customers perceive the organization as more responsible and in control when they have employed human, not computer, representatives. A hypothesized statistical interaction effect (a moderation effect) on several emotions indicates that computer representatives decrease the strength of the relationship between receiving low or high quality products and customer's emotions. Although many customer reactions indicate no human/computer differences, I discuss how the statistical moderation effect of computer identity on several emotions may relate to computers are social actors and other research.
Keywords: Computers are social actors; Organizations; Human-computer interaction; Customers; Computer mediation; Emotion
Integration into mathematics classrooms of an adaptive and intelligent individualized e-learning environment: Implementation and evaluation of UZWEBMAT BIBAKFull-Text 726-738
  Özcan Özyurt; Hacer Özyurt; Adnan Baki; Bülent Güven
The purpose of this study is to design an adaptive and intelligent individualized e-learning environment based on learning style and expert system named UZWEBMAT and to evaluate its effects on students' learning of the unit of probability. In the study, initially, learning objects were prepared in three different ways in relation to Visual -- Auditory -- Kinesthetic (VAK) learning style for each subject of the probability unit. These were appropriate for secondary school mathematics curricula. Then, they were transferred into the digital environment. Each student may follow a different course, and the solution supports s/he will get may also differ highlighting the individual learning. The sample of the study consists of 81 10th grade students from two high schools in Trabzon, Turkey. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from students to answer research questions. Quantitative data were given as frequency distribution and percentages. Qualitative data were analyzed using qualitative data analysis methods. Results of the study indicated that opinions regarding UZWEBMAT are rather positive. Aiming at individual learning, UZWEBMAT provides the most appropriate environment for students. In addition, UZWEBMAT can be used as well to reinforce traditional classroom education.
Keywords: Adaptive educational hypermedia; Individualized e-learning; Intelligent tutoring systems; Improving classroom teaching; Secondary education
Role of gender, self-efficacy, anxiety and testing formats in learning spreadsheets BIBAKFull-Text 739-746
  Anil Singh; Vikram Bhadauria; Anurag Jain; Anil Gurung
In this paper we investigate the role of spreadsheet self-efficacy, spreadsheet anxiety, and gender in explaining performance in using spreadsheets. Additionally, we compare two learning assessment formats: multiple choice tests and constructed response tests, as applied to spreadsheets. The empirical investigation using data from 217 students indicates the following: (1) spreadsheet self-efficacy was inversely related to spreadsheet anxiety. (2) Female students reported higher levels of spreadsheet anxiety. (3) There was significant difference between the variances of multiple choice test scores and constructed response test scores and (4) Female students performed better than male students in multiple choice test format and were at par with male students in constructed response test format.
Keywords: Gender; Spreadsheet anxiety; Spreadsheet self efficacy; Assessment
Experience beyond knowledge: Pragmatic e-learning systems design with learning experience BIBAKFull-Text 747-758
  Norliza Katuk; Jieun Kim; Hokyoung Ryu
With the growing demand in e-learning system, traditional e-learning systems have dramatically evolved to provide more adaptive ways of learning, in terms of learning objectives, courses, individual learning processes, and so on. This paper reports on differences in learning experience from the learner's perspectives when using an adaptive e-learning system, where the learner's knowledge or skill level is used to configure the learning path. Central to this study is the evaluation of a dynamic content sequencing system (DCSS), with empirical outcomes being interpreted using Csikszentmihalyi's flow theory (i.e., Flow, Boredom, and Anxiety). A total of 80 participants carried out a one-way between-subject study controlled by the type of e-learning system (i.e., the DCSS vs. the non-DCSS). The results indicated that the lower or medium achievers gained certain benefits from the DCSS, whilst the high achievers in learning performance might suffer from boredom when using the DCSS. These contrasting findings can be suggested as a pragmatic design guideline for developing more engaging computer-based learning systems for unsupervised learning situations.
Keywords: Learning experience; Expert learners; Novice learner; Flow; Content sequencing; Optimal flow channel
Does the uncanny valley exist? An empirical test of the relationship between eeriness and the human likeness of digitally created faces BIBAKFull-Text 759-771
  Tyler J. Burleigh; Jordan R. Schoenherr; Guy L. Lacroix
The uncanny valley theory (UVT) (Mori, 1970) proposes that when stimuli are defined by a near-perfect resemblance to humans they cause people to experience greater negative affect relative to when they have perfect human likeness (HL) or little to no HL. Empirical research to support this non-linear relationship between negative affect and HL has been inconclusive, however, and a satisfactory causal explanation has not yet emerged to explain existing findings. In two studies, we examined the relationship between HL and eeriness using digital human faces. First, we examined the relationship between HL and eeriness while controlling for extraneous variation in stimulus appearance. We created two HL continua by manipulating the facial proportions and polygon count of several digital human models. Second, we proposed and tested two causal hypotheses regarding the uncanny valley phenomenon that we refer to as category conflict and feature atypicality. We created two additional HL continua by manipulating the skin coloration and category membership of models. Across these continua we introduced an atypical feature. Our results suggest that HL is linearly related to emotional response, except under conditions where HL varies by category membership, suggesting that previous empirical findings might be explained as a category conflict.
Keywords: Human likeness; Eeriness; Uncanny valley; Facial perception; Categorization; Social cognition
Why aren't organizations adopting virtual worlds? BIBAKFull-Text 772-790
  Tom E. Yoon; Joey F. George
The purpose of this study was to understand why organizational adoption of virtual worlds much has been much slower than expected, by empirically identifying factors that influence organizational intent to adopt virtual worlds. To do so, we developed a model of factors that influence organizational adoption of virtual worlds, based on the Technology -- Organization -- Environment framework. The model was tested using survey data from organizations, as well as secondary data. Interestingly, mimetic pressures and normative pressures exhibit the strongest effects on organizational intent to adopt virtual worlds. Contrary to expectations, none of the technical factors were to be found significant. These findings provide insights into why the organizational adoption rate of virtual worlds is much slower than expected. First, organizations are intended to adopt virtual worlds if other organizations are adopting virtual worlds. However, organizations are not adopting virtual worlds. Second, because respective competitors that have adopted virtual worlds are not benefiting or succeeding, organizations are not induced to adopt. Last, technological factors, such as relative advantage and compatibility, do not currently have a significant impact on an organization's intent to adopt virtual worlds.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; Organizational adoption; Technology -- Organization -- Environment (TOE) Framework; Institutional theory
Can avatar and self-referencing really increase the effects of online 2-D and 3-D advertising? BIBAKFull-Text 791-802
  Ching-Jui Keng; Chia-Chien Liu
Previous studies have sought insights into how websites can effectively draw sustained attention from internet users. Do different types of information presentations on webpages have different influences on users' perceptions of the information? More precisely, can combinations of an ever greater number of advertising elements on individual websites increase consumers' purchase intentions? The aim of this study is to explore changes in web advertising's verbal and visual stimulation of surfers' cognitive process, and to provide valuable information for the successful matching of advertising elements to one another. We examine optimal website design according to the personality-trait theory and resource-matching theory. Study 1 addresses the effects that combinations of various types of online advertising can have on web design factor, and to this end, we use a 2 (visual complexity: 3D advertising with an avatar, 2D advertising) x 2 (verbal complexity: with or without self-referencing that is an advertising practice to express product claims in words) factorial design. Study 2 treats personality traits (i.e., need-for-cognition and sensation seeking) as moderating variables to build the optimal portfolio regarding the "online-advertising effects' hypothesis. Our results suggest that subjects prefer medium-complex advertising comprising "3D advertising elements with an avatar' or "2D advertising elements with self-referencing': high-sensation seekers and low-need-for-cognition viewers prefer the former, whereas low-sensation seekers and high-need-for-cognition viewers prefer the latter.
Keywords: 2D advertising; 3D advertising; Avatar; Self-referencing; Need for Cognition; Sensation seeking
Factors associated with distressing electronic harassment and cyberbullying BIBAKFull-Text 803-811
  John Fenaughty; Niki Harré
Electronic harassment and cyberbullying can take various forms and involve a range of perpetrators. This study utilised survey results from 1673 New Zealand students aged 12 -- 19 years to explore electronic harassment on the internet and mobile phones and the distress associated with it. Overall, a third of participants reported electronic harassment in the prior year, with half (53.7%) rating it as distressing. Specific hypotheses and findings were that: mobile phone harassment would be more common and distressing than internet harassment, this was supported with 7% more participants reporting mobile phone harassment and 5.5% more reporting distress from it compared to internet harassment; females would report more harassment than males, this was supported for mobile phone harassment as females' odds of harassment was approximately twice that of males (however the hypothesis did not hold for internet harassment); females would report more distress from harassment, this was supported for both internet and mobile phone harassment, with females' odds of distress approximately twice as high as males; that some forms and perpetrators would be associated with more distress than others, again this was supported with the most distressing form of mobile phone harassment being direct verbal aggression and for harassment on the internet being rumour spreading. The study also found a preponderance of harassment from school peers. As predicted there were multiple interactions between the harassment forms and perpetrators and gender. These results highlight important differences in how harassment is delivered and experienced across the mobile phone and internet modalities. The findings point to the need to explicitly consider mobile phone harassment, as well as better ways to tailor interventions to address distressing harassment. Schools are well placed to address electronic harassment alongside other bullying interventions.
Keywords: Harassment; Cyberbullying; Bullying; Relational bullying; Internet safety; Sexting
The effects of sanctions and stigmas on cyberloafing BIBAKFull-Text 812-820
  Joseph C. Ugrin; J. Michael Pearson
Cyberloafing has become a pervasive problem for many organizations and some researchers have suggested that a deterrence approach utilizing acceptable use policies for Internet-based applications coupled with mechanisms designed to monitor employee Internet usage and detect unauthorized usage can be an effective way to reduce it. However, the results of studies that have examined the effects of acceptable use policies and detection mechanisms on reducing cyberloafing are mixed. This study attempts to reconcile those inconsistencies by using an experiment to show that the deterrence model affects various types of cyberloafing differently. The results reveal that individually, threats termination and detection mechanisms are effective deterrents against activities like viewing pornography, managing personal finances, and personal shopping, but must be coupled together and actively enforced to dissuade activities like personal emailing and social networking.
Keywords: Cyberloafing; Sanctions; Detection; Enforcement; Abusiveness; Deviance
Privacy, trust and control: Which relationships with online self-disclosure? BIBAKFull-Text 821-826
  Stefano Taddei; Bastianina Contena
A number of studies have examined the relationship between privacy concerns, perceived control over information, trust and online self-disclosure, highlighting different points of view to understand this connection. This paper intends to compare these different models of explanation for self-disclosure behaviors in online social networks. Three different hypotheses are verified, using mediation and moderation analyses. The results allow underling the effect of the interaction between privacy concerns and trust on online self-disclosure, along with the absence of a direct influence of privacy concerns on disclosure itself. The results suggest practical implications for online social network providers, most of all with regard to privacy policies in online environments.
Keywords: Online self-disclosure; Trust; Privacy concern; Online social network
A mixed method approach to examining Facebook use and its relationship to self-esteem BIBAKFull-Text 827-832
  Sarah Tazghini; Karen L. Siedlecki
The current study examined the relationship between self-esteem and Facebook use in sample of college-age participants (N = 201). Online methods were used to collect data. Consistent with the social compensation hypothesis, results indicate that self-esteem level was related to engaging in different on-line behaviors. For example, lower self-esteem was associated with feelings of connectedness to Facebook, more frequently untagging oneself in photos, and accepting friend requests from individuals that one does not know well. Qualitative analyses indicated that individuals with higher self-esteem were more likely to report that a positive aspect of Facebook was the ability to share pictures, thoughts, and ideas, and to report that other posts could become annoying or bothersome.
Keywords: Self-esteem; Social networking sites; Mixed methods
Measure for Measure: A two study multi-trait multi-method investigation of construct validity in IS research BIBAKFull-Text 833-844
  Ana Ortiz de Guinea; Ryad Titah; Pierre-Majorique Léger
Given the importance and criticality of instrument validation in IS research, the main objective of this study is to provide a systematic assessment of IS construct validity via multi-trait multi-method (MTMM) matrix. To do so, the paper uses structurally different methods -- neurophysiological and self-reported instruments -- to measure three important and commonly used IS constructs: engagement, arousal and cognitive load in two different experimental settings. The experiments involved seventeen (17) and twenty-four (24) participants respectively and consisted in using different IS to execute a set of both instrumental and hedonic tasks. The results generally support MTMM matrix expectations and shed light on the complexity of detecting the nature of mono-method bias. Specifically, the results show that primitive perceptual IS constructs such as arousal seem to be less affected by mono-method bias, whereas more complex perceptual constructs such as engagement or cognitive load have higher within method correlations. There are two complementary explanations for the within method correlations: (a) a combination between complexity of trait and method and (b) method effects that are congeneric.
Keywords: Neuro IS; Multi-trait multi-method; Mono method bias; Construct validity; Instrument validation; Electroencephalography
Motivating agents in software tutorials BIBAKFull-Text 845-857
  H. van der Meij
Pedagogical agents can provide important support for the user in human-computer interaction systems. This paper examines whether a supplementary, motivating agent in a print tutorial can enhance student motivation and learning in software training. The agent served the role of motivator, attending the students to issues of task relevance and self-efficacy. The agent was presented in the tutorial by means of images and written messages. An experiment compared the agent condition with a no-agent (control) condition. Participants were 49 students (mean age 11.3 years) from the upper grades of elementary school. Data on motivation and learning were gathered before, during and after training. The findings revealed that students in the agent condition did significantly better on skills measures during and after training (i.e., performance indicators, posttest, and retention test). In addition, marginally significant differences favoring these students were found for flow experience during training and for motivational gains on task relevance and self-efficacy after training. The design strategies of the motivating agent are considered relevant for the creation of Animated Pedagogical Agents.
Keywords: Animated Pedagogical Agents; Tutorial; Software training; Motivation
Goal setting outcomes: Examining the role of goal interaction in influencing the experience and learning outcomes of video game play for earthquake preparedness BIBAKFull-Text 858-869
  Zeynep Tanes; Hyunyi Cho
Video game goals are important features of video games. Player's interaction with goals can not only shape the gaming experience by evoking cognitive and affective reactions in players, but also lead to learning outcomes. However, there are few empirical studies on the effects of interacting with game goals, and no previous research has manipulated goal setting. In two experimental studies, participants were randomly assigned to one of the following five conditions: self-set goal repetitive play, assigned goal repetitive play, no-set goal repetitive play, no-set goal single play, and no play. Results show that playing earthquake preparedness video games generates significant learning outcomes; playing repeatedly with self-set goals yields greater learning compared to playing once with no-set goals or not playing; and cognitive reactions mediates the relation between goal interaction and learning. Implications of the results for the design and evaluation of future video games for learning are explored.
Keywords: Video games; Goal setting; Gaming experience; Learning; Earthquake risk communication
The influence of node sequence and extraneous load induced by graphical overviews on hypertext learning BIBAKFull-Text 870-880
  Eniko Bezdan; Liesbeth Kester; Paul A. Kirschner
The effects of four hypertext learning environments with a hierarchical graphical overview were studied on the coherence of the node sequence, extraneous load and comprehension. Navigation patterns were influenced by the type of overview provided (i.e., dynamic, static) and whether navigation was restricted (i.e., restricted, non-restricted). It was hypothesised that redundant use of the overview for inducing a high-coherence reading sequence would result in high extraneous load and low comprehension. Coherence was higher in the dynamic than in the static conditions. Coherence was also higher in the restricted than in the non-restricted conditions. Mental effort as a measure of extraneous load was higher at the end than at the beginning of the learning phase, especially in the dynamic restricted and the static non-restricted conditions, although there was no significant interaction. Comprehension was lowest in the dynamic restricted condition and highest in the dynamic non-restricted and static restricted conditions. Low comprehension in the dynamic restricted condition indicates that overviews can become redundant for reading sequence coherence, negatively impacting comprehension. The evidence suggests that severe restriction of navigation paths should be avoided and that continuous use of overviews such as in dynamic overviews may be detrimental to learning.
Keywords: Hypertext; Graphical overview; Coherence; Node sequence; Extraneous load
A process model of cyberbullying in adolescence BIBAKFull-Text 881-887
  Lambros Lazuras; Vassilis Barkoukis; Despoina Ourda; Haralambos Tsorbatzoudis
Cyberbullying is an emerging form of aggression that utilizes information and communication technologies (ICTs). While cyberbullying incidents attract considerable attention, research on the causes and psychosocial predictors of cyberbullying is still limited. The present study used an integrated theoretical model incorporating empathy, moral disengagement, and social cognitions related to cyberbullying. Structured questionnaires were administered to 355 randomly selected adolescents (M = 14.7, SD = 1.20). Linear regression analysis showed that social norms, prototype similarity and situational self-efficacy directly predicted cyberbullying expectations. Multiple mediation modelling indicated that normative influences mediated the effects of moral disengagement and affective empathy on cyberbullying expectations. These findings provide valuable information regarding the effect of both distal and proximal risk factors for cyberbullying in adolescence, highlight the relationship between normative processes and moral self-regulation, and set the basis for related educational and preventive interventions.
Keywords: Bullying; Aggression; ICT use
Media multitasking performance: Role of message relevance and formatting cues in online environments BIBAKFull-Text 888-895
  Jatin Srivastava
In this study, strategies involving use of message relevance and formatting cues were tested with the objective of enhancing media multitasking performance. Three memory measures, free recall, aided/cued recall, and recognition were used as dependent variables for the study.
   The results indicated that multitasking was associated with reduced memory performance for all the dependent measures. Similarly, the performance for high relevance messages was significantly higher than the performance for low relevance messages across all memory measures. Additional analyses revealed that people made more errors during recognition tasks during multitasking. Similarly, more people made errors in free recall tasks during multitasking.
   Overall, findings suggested that multitasking might have more negative influence on message processing in some contexts than others.
Keywords: Media multitasking; Online message processing; Relevance; Cue density; Limited capacity; Multitasking performance
Gender differences in mediated communication: Women connect more than do men BIBAKFull-Text 896-900
  Amanda M. Kimbrough; Rosanna E. Guadagno; Nicole L. Muscanell; Janeann Dill
Past research in gender differences in the overall Internet use has been contradictory. Some asserted men used it more than women, while others asserted there were no gender difference. Both camps concluded that men and women differed in their motivation and utilization of time spent online. The purpose of the present research was to take a contemporary look at these gender differences. Using an online survey, we asked participants about their experiences with multiple forms of mediated communication: social networking sites, e-mail, video calls, instant messaging, texting, and phone calls. Our results indicated that women, compared to men, are generally more frequent mediated communication users. Compared to men, women prefer and more frequently use text messaging, social media, and online video calls. These results suggest that the nature of mediated social interaction is changing.
Keywords: Gender differences; Social role theory; Technology; Internet; Mediated communication
The effect of behavioral tracking practices on consumers' shopping evaluations and repurchase intention toward trusted online retailers BIBAFull-Text 901-909
  Tun-Min (Catherine) Jai; Leslie Davis Burns; Nancy J. King
The study applies the Stimulus -- Organism -- Response (SOR) model and Social Contract Theory to investigate the effect of behavioral practices scenarios (stimulus) on consumers' evaluations of their online shopping experiences (internal organism) and repurchase intention toward online retailers (external response). The findings suggest there is a disconnect between online shoppers and their trusted online retailers regarding the information collected from online shoppers since, currently, sharing of information collected from customers within affiliates or even with third-party companies such as networking advertising associations for secondary uses (e.g. targeted advertising) is a fairly common practice in the marketing field. Left unresolved, this disconnect may undermine consumers' repurchase intention toward the retailers and potentially injure the social contract between retailers and their customers. These findings are significant for the online retailing industry, consumers and public policy makers.
Cultural differences in social networking site use: A comparative study of China and the United States BIBAKFull-Text 910-921
  Linda A. Jackson; Jin-Liang Wang
This research compared social networking site (SNS) use in a collectivistic culture, China, and an individualistic culture, the United States (US). Over 400 college student participants from a Southwestern University in Chongqing, China, and 490 college participants from a Midwestern University in the US completed a survey about their use of SNSs -- time spent, importance and motives for use. They then rated themselves on a variety of personal characteristics, namely the Big Five Personality factors, Loneliness, Shyness and Life Satisfaction. Results revealed cultural differences in SNS use. US participants spent more time in SNS, considered them to be more important and had more friends in SNSs than did Chinese participants. Self-ratings of personal characteristics also differed in the two cultures as did the personal characteristics that predicted SNS use. In general, personal characteristics were less effective in predicting SNS use in China than in the US. Findings suggest that in collectivistic cultures the importance of the family, friends and one's groups may be partly responsible for Chinese participants' lesser use of SNSs, whereas in individualistic cultures the importance of self and having more but less close and enduring friendships may be partly responsible for US participants' greater use of SNSs. Personal characteristics predicted SNS use in both cultures but were stronger predictors in an individualistic culture than in a collectivistic, consistent with the emphasis on self in the former and on family, friends and one's groups in the latter. Future research is needed to identify whether cultural values always take precedence over personal characteristics and motives in determining behavior in the virtual world.
Keywords: Culture; Social networking site use
Collaboration factors, teamwork satisfaction, and student attitudes toward online collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 922-929
  Heng-Yu Ku; Hung Wei Tseng; Chatchada Akarasriworn
This study examined online courses with collaborative learning components from 197 graduate students across three consecutive academic years. A student attitude survey containing 20 items and a student teamwork satisfaction scale containing 10 items on a 5-point Likert-type scale with three open-ended questions regarding their online collaborating experiences were collected during the final week of each semester. Results revealed that the three extracted online collaboration factors (Team Dynamics, Team Acquaintance, and Instructor Support) from the student attitude survey had moderate to high degrees of correlation with teamwork satisfaction. Results also revealed that the three collaboration factors accounted for 53% of the variance in online teamwork satisfaction. In addition, results from both surveys and open-ended questions revealed students favored working collaboratively in an online environment.
Keywords: Distance education; Online collaborative learning; Team Dynamics; Teamwork satisfaction; Teaching/learning strategies
The embodiment of sexualized virtual selves: The Proteus effect and experiences of self-objectification via avatars BIBAKFull-Text 930-938
  Jesse Fox; Jeremy N. Bailenson; Liz Tricase
Research has indicated that many video games and virtual worlds are populated by unrealistic, hypersexualized representations of women, but the effects of embodying these representations remains understudied. The Proteus effect proposed by Yee and Bailenson (2007) suggests that embodiment may lead to shifts in self-perception both online and offline based on the avatar's features or behaviors. A 2 x 2 experiment, the first of its kind, examined how self-perception and attitudes changed after women (N = 86) entered a fully immersive virtual environment and embodied sexualized or nonsexualized avatars which featured either the participant's face or the face of an unknown other. Findings supported the Proteus effect. Participants who wore sexualized avatars internalized the avatar's appearance and self-objectified, reporting more body-related thoughts than those wearing nonsexualized avatars. Participants who saw their own faces, particularly on sexualized avatars, expressed more rape myth acceptance than those in other conditions. Implications for both online and offline consequences of using sexualized avatars are discussed.
Keywords: Avatars; Video games; Virtual environments; Proteus effect; Sex role stereotypes; Objectification
Defining sociability and social presence in Social TV BIBAKFull-Text 939-947
  Dong-Hee Shin
Social TV, a new interactive television service, has been rapidly developing. With the conceptual model of sociability, this study empirically investigates the effects of perceived sociability on the motivations and attitudes toward Social TV. A model is created to validate the relationship of perceived sociality to social presence, usability, and intention. Empirical findings show the key influence of sociability on users' acceptance and intent to continue using Social TV. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of building a theory of sociability and providing practical insights into developing a meaningful sociable TV interface.
Keywords: Social TV; Sociability; Social presence; User interface; User experience
Facebook and texting made me do it: Media-induced task-switching while studying BIBAKFull-Text 948-958
  Larry D. Rosen; L. Mark Carrier; Nancy A. Cheever
Electronic communication is emotionally gratifying, but how do such technological distractions impact academic learning? The current study observed 263 middle school, high school and university students studying for 15 min in their homes. Observers noted technologies present and computer windows open in the learning environment prior to studying plus a minute-by-minute assessment of on-task behavior, off-task technology use and open computer windows during studying. A questionnaire assessed study strategies, task-switching preference, technology attitudes, media usage, monthly texting and phone calling, social networking use and grade point average (GPA). Participants averaged less than six minutes on task prior to switching most often due to technological distractions including social media, texting and preference for task-switching. Having a positive attitude toward technology did not affect being on-task during studying. However, those who preferred to task-switch had more distracting technologies available and were more likely to be off-task than others. Also, those who accessed Facebook had lower GPAs than those who avoided it. Finally, students with relatively high use of study strategies were more likely to stay on-task than other students. The educational implications include allowing students short "technology breaks' to reduce distractions and teaching students metacognitive strategies regarding when interruptions negatively impact learning.
Keywords: Task-switching; Multitasking; Facebook; Studying; Learning; Technology
Internet addiction in students: Prevalence and risk factors BIBAKFull-Text 959-966
  Daria J. Kuss; Mark D. Griffiths; Jens F. Binder
The last decade has witnessed a large increase in research on the newly emerging mental health problem of Internet addiction. Rather than looking at Internet addiction per se, this study focused on particular activities on the Internet that might be potentially addictive and linked them to personality traits that might predispose individuals to Internet addiction. The aims of this study were (i) to assess the prevalence of clinically significant levels of Internet addiction, and to (ii) discern the interplay between personality traits and specific Internet uses in increasing the risk for Internet addiction. This cross-sectional online survey used data from 2257 students of an English university. Results indicated that 3.2% of the students were classified as being addicted to the Internet. The included personality traits and uses of online activities explained 21.5% of the variance in Internet addiction. A combination of online shopping and neuroticism decreased the risk for Internet addiction, whereas a combination of online gaming and openness to experience increased it. In addition to this, frequent usage of online shopping and social online activities, high neuroticism and low agreeableness significantly increased the chances of being addicted to the Internet. Findings and their implications are discussed.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Personality; Online activity; Risk; Prevalence; Students
The effects of virtuality level on task-related collaborative behaviors: The mediating role of team trust BIBAKFull-Text 967-974
  Vicente Peñarroja; Virginia Orengo; Ana Zornoza; Ana Hernández
This study aims to analyze the mediating role of team trust in the relationship between virtuality level and task-related collaborative behaviors. Three types of task-related collaborative behaviors were studied, namely team coordination, team cooperation, and team information exchange. Drawing upon theory and research on virtual teams and trust, we hypothesized that team trust partially mediated the effects of virtuality level on team coordination, team cooperation, and team information exchange. A laboratory experiment was carried out with 65 four-person teams randomly assigned to three communication media with different virtuality levels (face-to-face, video conference and computer-mediated communication). The results showed that team trust partially mediated the relationship between virtuality level and team coordination, and fully mediated this relationship with team cooperation and team information exchange.
Keywords: Virtuality level; Team trust; Task-related collaborative behavior
Motivation of computer based learning across adulthood BIBAKFull-Text 975-983
  Eline A. E. Leen; Frieder R. Lang
This research investigates learning motivation of young and old adults. In detail, we explore motives of young and old adults to participate in two ICT-course settings: e-learning and face-to-face courses. In a first study young (n = 53, M = 26.0 years) and old (n = 55, M = 69.8 years) participants of e-learning courses completed an online questionnaire on learning motivation and personality. In a second study young (n = 46, M = 26.7 years) and old (n = 57, M = 69.5 years) participants of face-to-face ICT courses completed the same learning motivation questionnaire and questions about personality, subjective age and life satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four factors of learning motivation: belonging, instrumentality, personal growth, and competition. As expected, older adults expressed stronger motives of belonging and personal growth, and thus expressed a stronger interest in self-determined and intrinsic learning. Young adults, in contrast, strongly endorsed competitive-related motives of learning. Instrumentality was influenced by the interaction of age and subjective age; older participants showed higher instrumentality when the difference between chronological age and subjective age is big. Findings of this study shed new light on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory.
Keywords: Learning motivation; Older adult learners; E-learning; Personality; Subjective age
Students' expectation, confirmation, and continuance intention to use electronic textbooks BIBAKFull-Text 984-990
  Robert W. Stone; Lori Baker-Eveleth
Technology applied to education has produced numerous changes. One of these changes is the availability of electronic textbooks. However, the adoption of electronic textbooks has been slower than anticipated. This research examines adoption of electronic textbooks through studying electronic textbook users' continuance intentions. Data for the model were collected using a survey of university students. The questionnaire was web-based and distributed using a student listserv. The sample consisted of 469 usable responses received from students who had previously used an electronic textbook. The theoretical model was analyzed using structural equations modeling and maximum likelihood estimation applied to the sample. A confirmatory factor analysis was also performed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the measures for the constructs in the theoretical model. The psychometric properties of the measures were good. The fit of the measured theoretical model to the data was also good and all the paths in the measurement and structural models were statistically significant. The structural model shows that confirmation influences perceived usefulness of electronic textbooks and satisfaction with electronic textbooks. Satisfaction and perceived usefulness of electronic textbooks influence electronic textbook continuance intention. Implications and conclusions based on these findings were also provided.
Keywords: Electronic textbooks; Expectation confirmation model
The contribution of email volume, email management strategies and propensity to worry in predicting email stress among academics BIBAKFull-Text 991-996
  Ailsa C. M. Jerejian; Carly Reid; Clare S. Rees
The present study explored the contribution of email volume, email management and worry in predicting email stress among a sample of Australian academics. The sample comprised 114 academic staff from Curtin University in Perth, Australia. An online survey was conducted to gather data on the target variables. A moderated hierarchical regression indicated that the combined model accounted for a significant 11.90% of the variance in email stress (p = .008, f2 = .135). Worry individually accounted for a significant proportion of the variance (p = .010, f2 = .06, 95% CI [.028, .202]). Email volume also significantly predicted email stress (p = .00, f2 = .057, 95% CI [.011, .079]). Email management did not moderate the email volume and stress relationship. The findings suggest that email stress is impacting upon academic teaching staff and that research on mitigating this stress needs to be undertaken.
Keywords: Stress; Email management; Worry; Academic workload
Generational differences in content generation in social media: The roles of the gratifications sought and of narcissism BIBAKFull-Text 997-1006
  Louis Leung
This study examines the roles of the gratifications sought and of narcissism in content generation in social media and explores the generational differences in motivations and in narcissistic personalities when predicting the usage of Facebook, blogs, and forums. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 596 social media users through a telephone survey in 2010. Factor analysis results showed that content generation using social media was satisfying five socio-psychological needs: showing affection, venting negative feelings, gaining recognition, getting entertainment, and fulfilling cognitive needs. In particular, people who used social media to meet their social needs and their need for affection tended to use Facebook and blogs. In contrast, when users wanted to air out discontent, they often turned to forums. Results also showed that exhibitionists seemed to use social media to show affection, express their negative feelings, and achieve recognition. The study found no generational differences in using Facebook and blogs as a means to satisfy social needs or the need for affection. However, differences in patterns of social media usage were found among Baby Boomers with different narcissistic personalities. The paper includes a discussion of the study's limitations and suggestions for future research.
Keywords: Baby Boomers; Gen Xers; Narcissism; Net Generation; Social media; Uses and gratifications
Comparison of web-based versus paper-and-pencil administration of a humor survey BIBAKFull-Text 1007-1011
  Chia-Chi Wang; Kun-Shia Liu; Chih-Ling Cheng; Ying-Yao Cheng
This study compared the measurement invariance of paper-and-pencil (PP) and web-based (WB) administration formats through a humor survey. Participants were 401 undergraduate students divided into four groups (A, B, C, and D), and each group completed one of the four testing conditions (group A: PP â ' PP, group B: PP â ' WB, group C: WB â ' PP, and group D: WB â ' WB). The WB and PP versions of the revised Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (Wang, Cheng, Liu, & Ho, 2011), which measure humor production, attitudes toward humor, and humor coping, were administered to the participants. The results indicated that both of the PP and WB survey formats were practically invariant. No significant differences across administration situations were found for humor production or humor coping. Interestingly, the mean score of the WB format was significantly higher than that of PP format on attitudes toward humor. The findings suggest that researchers should carefully examine the measurement invariance and the effect of characteristics of the construct on measurement results when using a WB-format instrument.
Keywords: Web-based; Paper-and-pencil; Revised Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale
Why do not satisfied consumers show reuse behavior? The context of online games BIBAKFull-Text 1012-1022
  Fang-Mei Tseng; Chiu-Yen Wang
Empirical studies have consistently identified consumer satisfaction as a key antecedent to reuse behavior. Business has focused on consumer satisfaction as a way to improve consumer loyalty. However, it remains unknown why there are so many satisfied consumers who do not show reuse behavior. Therefore, the present study examined the potential factors moderating the association between consumer satisfaction and reuse behavior. A literature review and focus groups were used to explore moderating variables, and hierarchical regression analysis was used to test their influence. Results from a study of 490 online gamers in Taiwan showed that the relationship between consumer satisfaction and reuse behavior is contingent upon the moderating effects of customer involvement and perceived specific/upgrading activities. In particular, the relationship between consumer satisfaction and reuse behavior is more sensitive when customer involvement is lower.
Keywords: Reuse behavior; Online games; Involvement; Consumer behavior
User adoption of social networking sites: Eliciting uses and gratifications through a means -- end approach BIBAKFull-Text 1039-1053
  Peiyu Pai; David C. Arnott
This research examines users' motives for adopting and using social networking sites (SNSs), with the aim of providing a better understanding of the fundamental reasons behind SNS adoption behavior. To uncover the relationship between the attributes of SNSs and users' perceptions of their consequences and values, this study integrates a means -- end approach with uses and gratifications theory and thereby extends the technique to a communication media selection context. Laddering interviews identify users' perceptions of five attributes, 10 consequences, and four values associated with SNS adoption (i.e., Facebook). The results show that belonging, hedonism, self-esteem, and reciprocity are the four main values users attain through SNS adoption. Furthermore, the chains associated with SNS adoption can be represented in a hierarchical value map. This study should help practitioners design online communication platforms that more closely fit their users' needs and provide users with safer, more friendly, and thus more attractive environments.
Keywords: Laddering interviews; Means -- end chains; Social networking sites; Uses and gratifications theory
Lost in space? Cognitive fit and cognitive load in 3D virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 1054-1064
  Sarah van der Land; Alexander P. Schouten; Frans Feldberg; Bart van den Hooff; Marleen Huysman
In this paper, we explore how visual representations of information in 3D virtual environments (3DVEs) supports both individual and shared understanding, and consequently contribute to group decision making in tasks with a strong visual component. We integrate insights from cognitive fit theory and cognitive load theory in order to formulate hypotheses about how 3DVEs can contribute to individual understanding, shared understanding, and group decision making. We discuss the results of an experiment in which 192 participants, in 3-person teams, were asked to select an apartment. As proposed by cognitive fit theory, our results indicate that 3DVEs are indeed more effective in supporting individual understanding than 2D information presentations. Next, in line with cognitive load theory, the static presentation of 3D information turns out to be more effective in supporting shared understanding and group decision making than an immersive 3DVE. Our results suggest that although the 3DVE capabilities of realism, immersion and interactivity contribute to individual understanding, these capabilities combined with the interaction and negotiation processes required for reaching a shared understanding (and group decision), increases cognitive load and makes group processes inefficient. The implications of this paper for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: 3D virtual environment; Cognitive fit; Cognitive load; Individual understanding; Shared understanding; Group decision making
The effects of a lack of social recognition on online communication behavior BIBAKFull-Text 1065-1077
  Roland Helm; Michael Möller; Oliver Mauroner; Daniel Conrad
Online services and applications extend the influencing opportunities of traditional word-of mouth (WOM). Unlike traditional word-of-mouth, the online environment allows for special features such as anonymity in user-generated content. Furthermore, the personality of online users affects their motivation when creating this content. The aim of this paper is to link specific online activities, i.e., the posting of product ratings and participation in discussions in online forums, with certain personality traits within an empirical study. The findings, based on an online survey with more than 16,900 completed questionnaires, indicate that opinion leaders in the online environment cannot be compared with traditional opinion leaders in terms of their articulation and personality structure. In regard to online activities with a high influencing potential, the results of moderated regression analyses show that persons with an introverted personality are more active as online opinion leaders due to the lack of social recognition they experience. The results have implications for how marketers should present incentive structures to address and integrate potential online opinion leaders, and how scholars should understand the role of opinion leaders in the online environment.
Keywords: User generated content; Opinion leader; Personality strength; Social recognition; Online communication
Knowledge construction in an outsider community: Extending the communities of practice concept BIBAKFull-Text 1078-1090
  Joachim Kimmerle; Ansgar Thiel; Kim-Kristin Gerbing; Martina Bientzle; Iassen Halatchliyski; Ulrike Cress
We present an empirical analysis of a web forum in which followers of a health-related community exchange information and opinions in order to pass on and develop relevant knowledge. We analyzed how knowledge construction takes place in such a community that represents an outsider position which is not accepted by majority society. For this purpose we applied the Community of Practice (CoP) concept as a guideline for our analysis and found that many well-known activities of CoPs were true of the Urkost community. The social network analysis findings also supported interpreting this community as a CoP. But we found as well that this community had a variety of structural characteristics that the CoP literature deals with insufficiently. We identified the structure of goals, roles, and communication as relevant features that are typical of this outsider CoP. For example, the attitude of the core members towards people of a 'different faith' was characterized by strong hostility and rejection. These features provided an effective basis for the development and maintenance of a shared identity in the community. Our findings are discussed against the background of the necessity for further development of the CoP concept.
Keywords: Community of practice; Knowledge construction; Web forum
Am I acceptable to you? Effect of a robot's verbal language forms on people's social distance from robots BIBAKFull-Text 1091-1101
  Yunkyung Kim; Sonya S. Kwak; Myung-suk Kim
This study is to examine the effect of robots' language forms on people's acceptance of robots. We applied a concept of social distance to measure people's acceptance of robots. In an experiment, calling participants by name vs. not calling by name as well as the robot's speech styles (familiar vs. honorific), were used to impose a verticality and horizontality of social relationships between participants and robots. After the conversation with a robot, participants rated the robot's interpersonal traits and their comfortable approach distance to the robot, and their response to the robot during the experiment were analyzed. As a result, participants whom the robot called by their name perceived the robot as friendlier. They introduced themselves more actively, and were more intently focused on what the robot said. They asked the robot questions more frequently. Participants called by their names consequently approached the robot more closely than participants who were not called. An interaction effect was found between speech styles and whether names were used in regard to the perceived friendliness of robots, negative response to robots, and comfortable approach distance to robots. We discuss verbal interaction design for increasing people's acceptance of robots.
Keywords: Social distance; Human-robot interaction; Robots' verbal language; User acceptance
The reciprocal effects of social network site use and the disposition for self-disclosure: A longitudinal study BIBAKFull-Text 1102-1112
  Sabine Trepte; Leonard Reinecke
Since the advent of social network sites (SNSs), scholars have critically discussed the psychological and societal implication of online self-disclosure. Does Facebook change our willingness to disclose personal information? The present study proposes that the use of SNSs and the psychological disposition for self-disclosure interact reciprocally: Individuals with a stronger disposition show a higher tendency to use SNSs (selection effect). At the same time, frequent SNS use increases the wish to self-disclose online, because self-disclosing behaviors are reinforced through social capital within the SNS environment (socialization effect). In a longitudinal panel study, 488 users of SNSs were surveyed twice in a 6 months interval. Data were analyzed using structure equation modeling. The proposed reciprocal effects of SNS activities and self-disclosure were supported by the data: The disposition for online self-disclosure had a positive longitudinal effect on SNS use which in turn positively influenced the disposition for online self-disclosure. Both effects were moderated by the amount of social capital users received as a consequence of their SNS use.
Keywords: Self-disclosure; Social capital; Social media; Social network site
Correlating the effects of flow and telepresence in virtual worlds: Enhancing our understanding of user behavior in game-based learning BIBAKFull-Text 1113-1121
  Anthony Faiola; Christine Newlon; Mark Pfaff; Olga Smyslova
Recent research on online learning suggests that virtual worlds are becoming an important environment to observe the experience of flow. From these simulated spaces, researchers may gather a deeper understanding of cognition in the context of game-based learning. Csikszentmihalyi (1997) describes flow as a feeling of increased psychological immersion and energized focus, with outcomes that evoke disregard for external pressures and the loss of time consciousness, issuing in a sense of pleasure. Past studies suggest that flow is encountered in an array of activities and places, including those in virtual worlds. The authors' posit that flow in virtual worlds, such as Second Life (SL), can be positively associated with degrees of the cognitive phenomenon of immersion and telepresence. Flow may also contribute to a better attitude and behavior during virtual game-based learning. This study tested three hypotheses related to flow and telepresence, using SL. Findings suggest that both flow and telepresence are experienced in SL and that there is a significant correlation between them. These findings shed light on the complex interrelationships and interactions that lead to flow experience in virtual gameplay and learning, while engendering hope that learners, who experience flow, may acquire an improved attitude of learning online.
Keywords: Flow; Telepresence; Human-computer interaction; Virtual worlds; Gaming; Online learning
The changing nature of user attitudes toward virtual world technology: A longitudinal study BIBAKFull-Text 1122-1132
  Andy Luse; Brian Mennecke; Janea Triplett
Virtual world technologies have been utilized in gaming for a number of years but only recently have they been applied as a serious tool for business. Many business applications have been identified, including the use of virtual worlds for team collaboration, training, and education, but a question remains about whether users will accept the premise that virtual worlds represent useful environments for engaging in business functions. We address this question by examining user reactions to virtual worlds. The first study looks at attitudes of users of the virtual world Second Life during three time periods (i.e., before exposure to the environment, after an information session and discussion of Second Life, and after use of the environment). Two variables, user acceptance of virtual world technologies and user self-efficacy, were examined as the primary dependent measures. Results show that while self-efficacy increases over time, user acceptance decreases in a highly correlated pattern. A second study investigates the underlying causes of the observed pattern of user acceptance using a content analysis of written reflections of user experiences. Both studies paint a detailed picture of user intentions and some of the reasons these intentions developed after use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of these results for business managers and researchers.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; Technology acceptance; Longitudinal; Self-efficacy; Content analysis
Development of a quantitative model of the impact of customers' personality and perceptions on Internet banking use BIBAKFull-Text 1133-1141
  Hyun Shik Yoon; Linsey M. Barker Steege
Despite the rapid increase of Internet users and cited benefits of using Internet banking, the number of Internet banking users has not risen as strongly as expected. In order to understand this problem, it is critical to understand how customers' personalities and perceptions influence Internet banking use. In this study, a quantitative model of Internet banking use was developed, which incorporates four dimensions, namely, (1) openness toward advanced technology as an individual personality dimension, (2) website usability, including perceived usefulness and ease of use, (3) perceived security concern, and (4) green concern for conserving nature resources as the social influence dimension. The study investigates the moderating effect between these dimensions on Internet banking use. A survey instrument was used to gather data to estimate the proposed research model. The results show that openness, website usability, and perceived security concern significantly influence customers' Internet banking use. In terms of moderating effects, all dimensions play an important role as a moderator on the relation between other dimensions and Internet banking use. Overall, the model helps to increase our understanding of how these dimensions interact to influence Internet banking use, which can help in the design of Internet banking and other e-channel systems.
Keywords: Internet banking; Perceived usefulness; Perceived ease of use; Security; Openness; Green concern
Attachment style, social skills, and Facebook use amongst adults BIBAKFull-Text 1142-1149
  Julian A. Oldmeadow; Sally Quinn; Rachel Kowert
Research suggests that online communication may benefit those high in social anxiety. The current study examined Facebook use from the perspective of adult attachment theory, exploring relationships between attachment anxiety and avoidance and Facebook use. Social skills have been found to be related to attachment style and internet use thus we also examined the role of these skills. A diverse sample of adult participants (N = 617; 50.1% female) completed a self report questionnaire measuring attachment dimensions, social skills, and Facebook use and experience. In line with predictions grounded in attachment theory, we found that individuals with high attachment anxiety used Facebook more frequently, were more likely to use it when feeling negative emotions and were more concerned about how others perceived them on Facebook. High attachment avoidance was related to less Facebook use, less openness and less positive attitudes towards Facebook. These relationships remained when social skills were controlled. These results suggest that Facebook may serve attachment functions and provide a basis for understanding how online communication may be related to attachment styles.
Keywords: Attachment; Social skills; Social network; Online; Facebook
The effects of static and adaptive performance feedback in game-based training BIBAKFull-Text 1150-1158
  Stephen R. Serge; Heather A. Priest; Paula J. Durlach; Cheryl I. Johnson
Training in virtual environments (VEs) has the potential to establish mental models and task mastery while providing a safe environment in which to practice. Performance feedback is known to contribute to this learning; however, the most effective ways to provide feedback in VEs have not been established. The present study examined the effects of differing feedback content, focusing on adaptive feedback. Participants learned search procedures during multiple missions in a VE. A control group received only a performance score after each mission. Two groups additionally received either detailed or general feedback after each mission, while two other groups received feedback that adapted based on their performance (either detailed-to-general, or general-to-detailed). Groups that received detailed feedback from the start of training had faster performance improvement than all other groups; however, all feedback groups showed improved performance and by the fourth mission performed at levels above the control group. Results suggest that detailed feedback early in the training cycle is the most beneficial for the fastest learning of new task skills in VEs.
Keywords: Adaptive feedback; Game-based training; Instruction; Virtual environments
Social media as a catalyst for online deliberation? Exploring the affordances of Facebook and YouTube for political expression BIBAKFull-Text 1159-1168
  Daniel Halpern; Jennifer Gibbs
This manuscript aims to assess the potential of social media as a channel to foster democratic deliberation. It does this by examining whether the types of discussions that citizens maintain in two of the most used social media channels managed by the White House -- Facebook and YouTube -- meet the necessary conditions for deliberative democracy. For this purpose 7230 messages were analyzed and assessed in terms of indicators developed to evaluate online discourse derived from the work of Habermas. By contrasting social media channels that differ in the affordances of identifiability and networked information access (two traditional predictors of online deliberation), we seek to contribute a deeper understanding of social media and its impact on deliberation. Drawing on the social identification/deindividuation (SIDE) model of computer mediated communication and network theories, we predict that political discussions in Facebook will present a more egalitarian distribution of comments between discussants and higher level of politeness in their messages. Consistent with our theoretical framework, results confirm that Facebook expands the flow of information to other networks and enables more symmetrical conversations among users, whereas politeness is lower in the more anonymous and deindividuated YouTube.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Facebook; Online deliberation; SIDE theory; Social media; YouTube
The impact of avatar realism and anonymity on effective communication via mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 1169-1181
  Sin-Hwa Kang; James H. Watt
This research investigates the impact on social communication quality of using anonymous avatars during small-screen mobile audio/visual communications. Elements of behavioral and visual realism of avatars are defined, as is an elaborated three-component measure of communication quality called Social Copresence. Experimental results with 196 participants participating in a social interaction using a simulated mobile device with varied levels of avatar visual and behavioral realism showed higher levels of avatar Kinetic Conformity and Fidelity produced increased perceived Social Richness of Medium, while higher avatar Anthropomorphism produced higher levels of Psychological Copresence and Interactant Satisfaction with Communication. Increased levels of avatar Anonymity produced decreases in Social Copresence, but these were smaller when avatars possessed higher levels of visual and behavioral realism.
Keywords: Avatars; Co-presence; Effectiveness; Human Computer Interaction; Mobile phones; Privacy
An exploration of social networking site use, multitasking, and academic performance among United States and European university students BIBAKFull-Text 1182-1192
  Aryn C. Karpinski; Paul A. Kirschner; Ipek Ozer; Jennifer A. Mellott; Pius Ochwo
Studies have shown that multitasking with technology, specifically using Social Networking Sites (SNSs), decreases both efficiency and productivity in an academic setting. This study investigates multitasking's impact on the relationship between SNS use and Grade Point Average (GPA) in United States (US; n = 451) and European (n = 406) university students using quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Moderated Multiple Regression analysis results showed that the negative relationship between SNS use and GPA was moderated by multitasking only in the US sample. This may be due to European students being less prone to "disruptive' multitasking. The results provide valuable cautionary information about the impact of multitasking and using SNSs in a learning environment on university students' GPAs.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Academic performance; Multitasking
The role of Internet-specific epistemic beliefs in laypersons' source evaluations and decisions during Web search on a medical issue BIBAKFull-Text 1193-1203
  Yvonne Kammerer; Ivar Bråten; Peter Gerjets; Helge I. Strømsø
This study investigated the predictive value of epistemic beliefs about knowledge and knowing on the Web for source evaluations and post-search decisions when university students (n = 79) searched the Web to make an informed decision about a conflicting and unfamiliar medical issue. Epistemic beliefs were assessed with the Internet-Specific Epistemological Questionnaire (ISEQ) and processing of source information was measured through eye tracking, log files, and verbal protocols. Furthermore, Web users' post-search decisions and their basis for those decisions were assessed. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that beliefs in the Web as a reliable resource of accurate knowledge and detailed facts were related to decreased verbal reflection on the credibility and type of sources and decreased attention to the URLs of the search results, as well as a greater certainty in the post-search decision. In addition, doubts about the need to check knowledge claims on the Web against other sources, reason, and prior knowledge were related to a more one-sided representation of the conflicting issue. In conclusion, the findings suggested that Internet-specific certainty, source, and structure beliefs primarily play a role in source evaluation, while Internet-specific beliefs about the justification for knowing primarily play a role in constructing a complete representation of document contents.
Keywords: Epistemic beliefs; Web search; Source evaluation; Cued retrospective verbal protocols; Eye tracking
Effects of gesture-based avatar-mediated communication on brainstorming and negotiation tasks among younger users BIBAKFull-Text 1204-1211
  Chee Siang Ang; Ania Bobrowicz; Panote Siriaraya; Joshua Trickey; Kate Winspear
This paper reports on a study which investigated the effects of gesture-based avatar-mediated communication on younger users (12 -- 13 years old), in comparison to video-mediated communication. Specifically, we looked at how these technologies were used by school pupils to brainstorm and negotiate ideas in a bullying context. 64 school pupils were divided into two conditions (Skype and AvatarKinect) and were instructed to carry out two tasks (a brainstorming and a negotiation task). Objective task performance, perceived satisfaction and perceived partner's characteristics were compared. We found no difference in term of perceived satisfaction. AvatarKinect users reported more positive changes in perceptions toward their partner. The results on task performance were ambivalent; Skype users seemed to generate more ideas, whilst AvatarKinect produced better quality ideas. In summary, gesture-based avatar technology appears to be a useful modality to help resolve bullying in schools.
Keywords: Avatar-mediated communication; Video-mediated communication; Gesture-based; Younger users
Validation and psychometric properties of a short version of Young's Internet Addiction Test BIBAKFull-Text 1212-1223
  Mirko Pawlikowski; Christine Altstötter-Gleich; Matthias Brand
A key element of research on Internet addiction is a valid and reliable assessment of problems individuals experience in their daily life due to an excessive or pathological use of the Internet. One of the most frequently used questionnaires is Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). However, the factorial structure of the IAT is still discussed controversially. In four studies with different samples we (a) addressed the factorial structure of the IAT with exploratory factor analysis and reduced the items to those with sufficient factor loadings and good item characteristics, (b) checked the factorial structure using confirmatory factor analysis, and (c) analyzed convergent, divergent and incremental validities. We revealed a short version of the IAT, which consists of 12 items and a two-factorial solution with good reliability (study 1). The two factors were named "loss of control/time management' and "craving/social problems'. This two-factorial solution was confirmed by the confirmatory factor analysis (study 2) and we have found good indices for convergent, divergent and incremental validity (studies 3 and 4). In conclusion, the short version of the IAT has good psychometric properties and represents the Internet addiction's key elements based on the proposed diagnostic criteria.
Keywords: Pathological Internet use; Internet Addiction Test; Behavioral addiction
Different forms of online and face-to-face victimization among schoolchildren with pure and co-occurring dimensions of reactive and proactive aggression BIBAKFull-Text 1224-1233
  Agnes Ka-yee Law; Annis Lai-chu Fung
This pioneer study filled up research gaps on differentiation and associations between various forms of online (general victimization, sexual victimization, individual racial discrimination, and vicarious racial discrimination) and face-to-face peer victimization (physical victimization, verbal victimization, social manipulation, and attacks on property) among schoolchildren with pure and co-occurring dimensions of reactive and proactive aggression and ordinary ones. Significant differences consistently found across four-domain online victimization between three groups of schoolchildren with pure and co-occurring dimensions of reactive and proactive aggression and ordinary schoolchildren; and the lowest mean scores were constantly found in pure reactive aggression group comparing with pure proactive and co-occurring forms of aggression. Although similar significant differences were found in four-factor multi-dimensional peer-victimization between three groups of schoolchildren with pure and co-occurring dimensions of reactive and proactive aggression and ordinary schoolchildren, the scores in pure reactive group were very comparable with pure proactive and co-occurring forms of aggression groups. Only pure reactive aggressor group of schoolchildren has no correlation between online and face-to-face peer victimization. The explanation may be based on Social Information Processing model that reactive aggressors are affected by hostile attributional bias, provocations mainly may happen in face-to-face interpersonal ambiguous situation rather than in the online world.
Keywords: Online; Peer; Victimization; Proactive; Reactive; Aggression
Exploring convenience in mobile commerce: Moderating effects of gender BIBAKFull-Text 1234-1242
  Shintaro Okazaki; Felipe Mendez
To date, little research has examined gender difference in how convenience is perceived in mobile commerce (m-commerce). The current work presents and tests a theoretical model partially based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and posits a sequential relationship among four primary dimensions: (1) intrinsic attributes of mobile device -- portability and interface design; (2) ease of use; (3) extrinsic attributes of mobile device -- simultaneity, speed, and searchability; and (4) perceived convenience of m-commerce. We posit that physical attributes of mobile device (portability and interface design) are antecedents of ease of use, which in turn determines three extrinsic attributes (simultaneity, speed, and searchability). The final dependent variable is perceived convenience. Based on prior research on TAM and gender theories, the study proposes 16 hypotheses, of which our data support 12. Our results indicate that the link between interface design and ease of use holds a key to motivate females' use of m-commerce. In closing, implications are discussed while important limitations are recognized along with future research suggestions.
Keywords: Ease of use; Convenience; Gender; Mobile device; Perceived usefulness; Ubiquitous
Is Facebook creating "iDisorders'? The link between clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders and technology use, attitudes and anxiety BIBAKFull-Text 1243-1254
  L. D. Rosen; K. Whaling; S. Rab; L. M. Carrier; N. A. Cheever
This study systematically tested whether the use of specific technologies or media (including certain types of Facebook use), technology-related anxieties, and technology-related attitudes (including multitasking preference) would predict clinical symptoms of six personality disorders (schizoid, narcissistic, antisocial, compulsive, paranoid and histrionic) and three mood disorders (major depression, dysthymia and bipolar-mania). In addition, the study examined the unique contributions of technology uses after factoring out demographics, anxiety and attitudes. Teens, young adults and adults (N = 1143) completed an anonymous, online questionnaire that assessed these variables. Each disorder had a unique set of predictors with 17 of the 22 significant predictors being Facebook general use, impression management and friendship. More Facebook friends predicted more clinical symptoms of bipolar-mania, narcissism and histrionic personality disorder but fewer symptoms of dysthymia and schizoid personality disorder. Technology-related attitudes and anxieties significantly predicted clinical symptoms of the disorders. After factoring out attitudes and anxiety, Facebook and selected technology uses predicted clinical symptoms with Facebook use, impression management and friendship being the best predictors. The results showed both positive and negative aspects of technology including social media as well as apparently detrimental effects of a preference for multitasking.
Keywords: Psychiatric disorders; Facebook; Multitasking; Technology; Anxiety
Intercultural differences in responses to health messages on social media from spokespeople with varying levels of ethnic identity BIBAKFull-Text 1255-1259
  Patric R. Spence; Kenneth A. Lachlan; Stephen A. Spates; Xialing Lin
In this study respondents were exposed to a social media page with either an African American avatar communicating high ethnic identity or low ethnic identity, encouraging them to read a story on the dangers of heart disease. Respondents were then asked to rate perceived response efficacy and behavioral intentions. Caucasians and African Americans did not differ on response efficacy across conditions; however African Americans in the high ethnic identity group indicated a change in behavioral intentions whereas other respondents did not. The results are discussed in relation to healthcare information targeting, future healthcare campaigns and emergent technologies.
Keywords: Ethnic identity; Behavioral intentions; Response efficacy; Healthcare information seeking; Social media
Online chronemics convey social information BIBAKFull-Text 1260-1269
  Yoram M. Kalman; Lauren E. Scissors; Alastair J. Gill; Darren Gergle
Chronemic research explores the involvement of time-related messages in communication, and has shown that time is an important component of the message in both traditional and online communication. Social information processing (SIP) theory posits that online communicators exchange social information through chronemic cues. This study points to a gap in SIP theory research, and proceeds to close the gap by demonstrating that changes in socially important attributes are reflected in measurable chronemic changes. A two-person social dilemma online game is used to demonstrate that changes in a simple chronemic variable, interpost pause, reflect differences in the players' personality (level of extraversion), as well as differences in trust within the dyad. These findings support SIP theory by showing how online chronemics provide cues to important personal and situational information.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Chronemics; Social information processing

CHB 2013-07 Volume 29 Issue 4


Instructional strategies framework for military training systems BIBAKFull-Text 1490-1498
  Jennifer J. Vogel-Walcutt; Logan Fiorella; Naomi Malone
In an effort to improve training efficiency, the military has focused much attention on the development of replicable and generalizable training systems. As a result, a substantial number of companies and contractors have spent significant time and money developing a wide-array of simulators, virtual reality programs, and the like. However, many are designed without considering the effectiveness and efficiency of embedded instructional strategies. In response, the current review argues for the creation of improved training systems through the incorporation of a repository of research-based instructional strategies that can be employed across the entire training cycle. Using a grounded theory method, this review consolidates the vast literature on instructional strategies from the fields of education and the cognitive sciences into a coherent framework that can be used to enhance the design of military training systems. In particular, this review is intended to provide a concise, organized, and practical framework for the selection and implementation of research-based instructional strategies relevant to military training goals.
Keywords: Instructional strategies; Training systems; Grounded theory; Cognitive load; Multimedia learning; Instructional design

Regular Articles

The educational impact of metacognitive group coordination in computer-supported collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 1271-1281
  Kyungbin Kwon; Ran-Young Hong; James M. Laffey
Group coordination is a crucial component for successful collaborative learning, but is hard to achieve in an online learning environment. A web-based group coordination tool was developed based on metacognitive scaffolding principles for the study. The tool was implemented in an online course for a group project and its effects were investigated. A total of 59 students formed into 20 groups participated in and completed a project while being guided with the tool. Based on response rate to metacognitive prompts of the tool, groups were categorized as Active Metacognitive Team (AMT, n = 30) or Passive Metacognitive Team (PMT, n = 29). AMT showed higher positive interdependence than PMT at the end of the project. AMT perceived reciprocal help among group members while PMT did not. AMT also evaluated its group process higher than PMT did. These results show that groups who more actively used the coordination support tool established positive interdependence, engaged in positive interactions, and had enhanced group productivity.
Keywords: Computer supported collaborative learning; Group awareness; Positive interdependence; Metacognition; Group performance
The relationship between socializing on the Spanish online networking site Tuenti and teenagers' subjective wellbeing: The roles of self-esteem and loneliness BIBAKFull-Text 1282-1289
  Vanessa Apaolaza; Patrick Hartmann; Esteban Medina; Jose M. Barrutia; Carmen Echebarria
This study addresses the influences of Spanish teenagers' usage intensity of the Spanish online social networking site Tuenti on their psychological wellbeing. Tuenti is the social networking site that is most preferred and used by Spanish adolescents. Hypothesized relationships are analyzed by structural equation analysis in a sample of 344 Spanish adolescents aged 12 -- 17 with an online Tuenti profile. Teenagers' usage intensity of Tuenti was positively related to the degree of socializing on the social networking site. Furthermore, socializing on Tuenti had a significantly positive influence on teenagers' perception of wellbeing. This relationship was not direct, however, but mediated by the intervening variables of self-esteem and loneliness. Results confirmed that Tuenti has become a suitable platform for the development, consolidation and growth of Spanish teenagers' social relations. Contrary to some previous research pointing to a detrimental effect of SNS use on mental health and psychological wellbeing, the findings of this study are in line with those of a number of authors who suggest that SNS use may on the whole be positive for users, including most teenagers.
Keywords: Social networking site; Adolescents; Loneliness; Self-esteem; Subjective wellbeing; Socializing
Examining the impact of consumer feedback on internet product evaluation: Comparing base-rate and case history information BIBAKFull-Text 1290-1294
  Stephen C. Nettelhorst; Laura A. Brannon; W. Trey Hill
Two important pieces of information for consumers evaluating products online are consumer ratings (i.e. base-rates) and consumer reviews (i.e. case histories). While literature in cognitive psychology shows a tendency to weigh case history information more heavily than base-rate information, other consumer oriented studies show the opposite. This study examined the relative impact of each type of information by treating consumer ratings and reviews as orthogonal factors and then manipulating the valence of each type of information. Participants evaluated a novel health beverage by viewing consumer ratings and/or reading their reviews about the product. Results indicated that the valence of the base-rate information significantly affected participants' evaluation of the product only when case history information was not presented. When case history information was presented, the valence of such information significantly affected participants' evaluation of the product regardless of the valence of any base-rate information. These results demonstrate that base-rate neglect may bias individuals' evaluations of products since base-rate information tends to be more representative of a population than case history information. Thus determining ways of making base-rate information more impactful in consumer settings is an important goal.
Keywords: Persuasive computing; e-Commerce; Social cognition
Compared to a small, supervised lab experiment, a large, unsupervised web-based experiment on a previously unknown effect has benefits that outweigh its potential costs BIBAKFull-Text 1295-1301
  Robert S. Ryan; Mara Wilde; Samantha Crist
Research on internet-based studies has generally supported their benefits. However, that research sometimes did not directly compare internet-based to traditional delivery, often used non-experimental methods and small samples, and has not used an entirely unknown effect for the comparison to completely rule out demand characteristics. Our lab experiment (N = 180), in which participants were supervised by an experimenter, demonstrated previously unexamined effects. Both the frighteningness and disgustingness of insects made people want to kill them, and females wanted to kill the insects more than males did. There were also some interesting patterns of interaction with gender, but they were not statistically significant. However, an unsupervised, but larger, web-based experiment (N = 1301) produced the same significant main effects as the lab study, and the same patterns of interaction that had occurred at a non-significant level in the lab study occurred at a statistically significant level in the web-based study. These results add support to the finding that although web-based studies may incur risks by being unsupervised, such as some participants not being genuinely motivated to follow the instructions correctly, the risks are compensated for by the much larger sample size afforded by the web-based approach.
Keywords: Internet-based research; Experimental research
Successful aging through digital games: Socioemotional differences between older adult gamers and Non-gamers BIBAKFull-Text 1302-1306
  Jason C. Allaire; Anne Collins McLaughlin; Amanda Trujillo; Laura A. Whitlock; Landon LaPorte; Maribeth Gandy
The purpose of this investigation was to examine differences in psychological functioning (e.g., well-being, affect, depression, and social functioning) between older adults who play digital games compared to those older adults that do not play digital games. Analysis was conducted on a sample of 140 independently living older adults with an average age of 77.47 years (SD = 7.31). Participants were divided into three groups (Regular, Occasional Gamers, and Non-gamers) -- 60% of the sample was either a Regular or Occasional Gamer. Differences among the groups were found for well-being, negative affect, social functioning, and depression with Regular and Occasional Gamers performing better, on average, than Non-gaming older adults. Findings suggest that playing may serve as a positive activity associated with successful aging.
Keywords: Aging; Digital games; Well-being; Depression
Telecare services for aging people: Assessment of critical factors influencing the adoption intention BIBAKFull-Text 1307-1317
  Sanna Sintonen; Mika Immonen
The dimensions of telecare services are analyzed and contrasted to theories of behavioral intentions. Factors influencing the adoption of innovations are derived from target group specific factors and telecare features. We present results from an empirical study which interlinks users' characteristics, technology and the intention to adopt technology based services. We examine customers above 55 years of age in terms of their physical, psychological and cognitive limitations. The central objective is to assess how these differences influence the potential usage of telecare services. A mail survey was conducted in a medium-sized city to collect data. The target population was slightly over 9000 persons of which a randomized sample (N = 1000) was gathered. A total of 506 usable responses were obtained for analysis. The results indicate that the adoption behavior of individuals differs amongst potential telecare users. Indeed, the behavioral patterns do not remain constant over time. Therefore, understanding the context of use has particular importance in the design phase of telecare services.
Keywords: Telecare; Aging consumers; Electronic services; Adoption intention
Video game training to improve selective visual attention in older adults BIBAKFull-Text 1318-1324
  Patrícia Belchior; Michael Marsiske; Shannon M. Sisco; Anna Yam; Daphne Bavelier; Karlene Ball; William C. Mann
The current study investigated the effect of video game training on older adult's useful field of view performance (the UFOV® test). Fifty-eight older adult participants were randomized to receive practice with the target action game (Medal of Honor), a placebo control arcade game (Tetris), a clinically validated UFOV training program, or into a no contact control group. Examining pretest -- posttest change in selective visual attention, the UFOV improved significantly more than the game groups; all three intervention groups improved significantly more than no-contact controls. There was a lack of difference between the two game conditions, differing from findings with younger adults. Discussion considers whether games posing less challenge might still be effective interventions for elders, and whether optimal training dosages should be higher.
Keywords: Aging; Visual attention; Training; Videogames; Older adults
Using a combined AHP and PLS path modelling on blog site evaluation in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 1325-1333
  Yi-Hui Chiang
Blogs have turned into a key part of the world's online culture these years. Many world-famous websites are providing blog services in an attempt to make their own blog service at least comparable to others at minimum. The main purpose of the paper is to answer the questions, "What determinants matter when bloggers choose staying a particular blog site?' Are there the determinants existing any relationship among them? This study proposes a combined Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs) path analysis to advance our understanding of the processes involved in blog site evaluation from the perspectives of student-bloggers in Taiwan, during 2009/09â^¼2010/03. The results provide insight for those who are concerned with this topic.
Keywords: Blog site; Partial Least Squares (PLS); Path analysis; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
Page flipping vs. clicking: The impact of naturally mapped interaction technique on user learning and attitudes BIBAKFull-Text 1334-1341
  Jeeyun Oh; Harold R. Robinson; Ji Young Lee
Newer interaction techniques enable users to explore interfaces in a more natural and intuitive way. However, we do not yet have a scientific understanding of their contribution to user experience and theoretical mechanisms underlying the impact. This study examines how a naturally mapped interface, page-flipping interface, can influence user learning and attitudes. An online experiment with two conditions (page flipping vs. clicking) tests the impact of this naturally mapped interaction technique on user learning and attitudes. The result shows that the page-flipping feature creates more positive evaluations of the website in terms of usability and engagement, as well as greater behavioral intention towards the website by evoking greater perception of natural mapping and greater feeling of presence. In terms of learning outcomes, however, participants who flip through the online magazine show less recall and recognition memory, unless they perceive page flipping as more natural and intuitive to interact with. Participants perceive the same content as more credible when they flip through the content, but only if they appreciate the coolness of the medium. Theoretical and practical implications will be discussed.
Keywords: Interaction technique; Natural mapping; Presence; User experience; User learning; Web interface design; Page-flipping feature
Malaysian Facebookers: Motives and addictive behaviours unraveled BIBAKFull-Text 1342-1349
  Vimala Balakrishnan; Azra Shamim
Malaysians were reported to have the most number of Facebook friends, spend more time on Facebook and might be addicted to Facebook as well. This paper explored Facebook usage pattern, motivations and psychological/behavioural factors affecting the users. A focus group study was first conducted to explore motives to use Facebook and symptoms related to excessive Facebook usage. The themes emerging from this were then used in addition to Uses and Gratifications theory and Brown's Addiction framework to further explore Facebook usage pattern, motivations and behavioural issues among a large group of students. Results show that Malaysian students use Facebook actively, similar to other studies done worldwide. Factor analyses yielded five motives to use Facebook: Social Networking, Psychological Benefits, Entertainment, Self Presentation and Skill Enhancement. As for the behavioural symptoms, Salience, Loss of Control, Withdrawal and Relapse and Reinstatement emerged as the four main symptoms. These results show that in general Malaysian students use Facebook for similar motives as reported in literature. However, it is interesting to note that they also exhibited behavioural symptoms, such as Salience, Loss of Control, Withdrawal and Relapse and Reinstatement due to excessive Facebook usage.
Keywords: Facebook; Addiction; Motives; Uses and gratification; Brown's addiction framework
The power of eWOM: A re-examination of online student evaluations of their professors BIBAKFull-Text 1350-1357
  Cong Li; Xiuli Wang
Over the past few years, a number of studies have examined the impact of the Rate My Professors (RMP) website (RateMyProfessors.com) on higher education. The focal area of examination is whether students' evaluations of their professors on RMP are valid. The current study attempts to push the RMP discussions to a deeper level through two studies. Study 1 illustrates that students rely on the valence of review information on RMP to make their course selection decisions without considering its validity. Study 2 shows that students' decision-making process tends to be biased as a result of review information available. The results of both studies suggest it is necessary for institutions to test new teaching evaluation models online.
Keywords: RateMyProfessors.com; RMP; Electronic word-of-mouth; eWOM; Online student evaluations; Ease-of-retrieval effect
Website design in an international context: The role of gender in masculine versus feminine oriented countries BIBAKFull-Text 1358-1367
  Dianne Cyr; Milena Head
Previous research confirms there are differences between men and women concerning website design preferences. A few researchers have further suggested website preferences based on gender (i.e. whether one is a man or a woman) differ in countries that are typically considered higher in masculinity versus higher in femininity. As such, this supposes fewer differences exist between men and women in more feminine societies, while more significant differences occur in more masculine societies. To test this assumption, we survey a total of 955 participants located in six countries. More particularly, we examine design constructs of Information Content, Navigation Design, Visual Design modeled to Website Trust and Website Satisfaction. We are interested to determine if gender differences are strong in higher masculinity countries and weak in lower masculinity countries. We also investigate if gender moderates the various relationships in our model. As predicted, in higher masculinity countries there are more differences between men and women, and gender is more likely to moderate the relationships in the model. This research has implications for the complexity of website design preferences, and extends earlier work on website design in a multiple country sample where masculinity -- femininity differs. Theoretical contributions and design issues are elaborated.
Keywords: Website design; Website trust; Website satisfaction; Gender; Culture
Computer-assisted learning in young poor readers: The effect of grapho-syllabic training on the development of word reading and reading comprehension BIBAKFull-Text 1368-1376
  Jean Ecalle; Nina Kleinsz; Annie Magnan
Two experiments examine the effects of two computer-based interventions, one with grapho-syllabic training (GST) and another with grapho-phonemic training (GPT) on the development of word recognition and reading comprehension in French children during Grade 1 and Grade 2. In Exp 1, poor readers (N = 27) in second grade were selected and divided into three equal groups, one GST group, one GPT group and a control group. After the session training (10 h), the children from the grapho-syllabic training group outperformed their counterparts in word reading. In Exp 2, poor readers in first grade (N = 18) were divided in two groups, a GST group and a GPT group. Six sessions were conducted in order to examine the possible long-term effect of training (10 h) during 16 months. The results revealed an effect of grapho-syllabic training on silent word recognition, word reading aloud and reading comprehension. A computer-assisted learning (CAL) system based on the syllable, which is considered to be the phonological and orthographic unit that is used by French young readers, could be a promising tool to help poor readers decode words and consequently boost their word recognition and reading comprehension capabilities.
Keywords: Learning to read; Decoding; Word recognition; Reading comprehension; Computer-assisted learning
Teacher interventions in a synchronous, co-located CSCL setting: Analyzing focus, means, and temporality BIBAKFull-Text 1377-1386
  Anouschka van Leeuwen; Jeroen Janssen; Gijsbert Erkens; Mieke Brekelmans
Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments facilitate collaboration between students. There is a growing interest in studying the role of the teacher during CSCL. This study aims to contribute to the conceptualization of teacher interventions during CSCL. A teacher and his class worked in a CSCL environment for 8 lessons. Focus and means of teacher interventions were analyzed across these 8 time points. The results show that the teacher's behavior varied greatly between lessons and also between groups, which contradicts research that has aggregated teacher behavior to types or teaching styles. Findings consistent across time points include the predominance of the teacher's focus on students' cognitive rather than social activities, and a higher number of interventions in groups where student activity was higher. Suggestions are made for future research, which include studying the effectiveness of supporting tools for teachers.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Teacher interventions; Secondary education; Multi-dimensional analysis; Temporality
The influence of source cues and topic familiarity on credibility evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 1387-1392
  Teun Lucassen; Jan Maarten Schraagen
An important cue in the evaluation of the credibility of online information is the source from which the information comes. Earlier, it has been hypothesized that the source of information is less important when one is familiar with the topic at hand. However, no conclusive results were found to confirm this hypothesis. In this study, we re-examine the relationship between the source of information and topic familiarity. In an experiment with Wikipedia articles with and without the standard Wikipedia layout, we showed that, contrary to our expectations, familiar users have less trust in the information when they know it comes from Wikipedia than when they do not know its source. For unfamiliar users, no differences were found. Moreover, source cues only influenced trust when the credibility of the information itself was ambiguous. These results are interpreted in the 3S-model of information trust (Lucassen & Schraagen, 2011).
Keywords: Trust; Credibility; Source; Familiarity; Internet; Wikipedia
Computer usage and access in low-income urban communities BIBAKFull-Text 1393-1401
  J. C. Araque; R. P. Maiden; N. Bravo; I. Estrada; R. Evans; K. Hubchik; K. Kirby; M. Reddy
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of home computer access on low-income families participating in the Computer for Families program. The study focused on participants (1) general computer usage, access and knowledge; (2) employment; (3) education; and (4) their children's-computer access, usage and academic performance. The study methodology consisted of a quasi-experimental design using qualitative and quantitative approaches, including focus groups, pretests and post-tests, and self-reported surveys with experimental and control groups. Statistically significant findings suggest that participants in the Computers for Families program were more likely than non-participants to have access to the Internet from home, use a computer for more than 1 h per day, complete online job applications, and submit job applications and resumes electronically. Social and behavioral implications regarding computer access and usage in low-income urban communities are discussed.
Keywords: Digital divide; Low-income urban community; Employment; Education; Access to computers
Voices that cannot be heard: Can shyness explain how we communicate on Facebook versus face-to-face? BIBAKFull-Text 1402-1407
  Pavica Sheldon
Social networking sites have gained popularity among all populations, especially young adults. Personality traits were found to be predictive of how individuals use social media. Therefore, this study sought to examine the association between shyness and self-disclosure to a Facebook friend as well as self-disclosure to a face-to-face friend. Two studies were conducted. The first study tested how shyness and social loneliness are related to self-disclosure to a Facebook friend to whom an individual talks most often. The second, follow-up study tested how shyness is related to self-disclosure to a Facebook friend to whom a person speaks to only though Facebook, and also to a face-to-face friend to whom the participants talk only face-to-face and never through Facebook. Participants were college students from a large research university in the United States. Study 1 found a negative association between shyness and self-disclosure to a Facebook friend. Study 2 found a negative association between shyness and self-disclosure to a face-to-face friend. The theoretical implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Facebook; Shyness; Loneliness; Young adults; Self-disclosure; Social media
Social interaction in online support groups: Preference for online social interaction over offline social interaction BIBAKFull-Text 1408-1414
  Jae Eun Chung
The purpose of the current study was to identify potential factors leading to preference for social interaction in online support groups (OSGs) over offline interaction. By identifying such factors, the current study advances understanding of the way patients use the Internet as a supportive resource and integrate support from offline and online relationships. An online survey was conducted with current users of health-related OSGs (N = 158). Findings show that those who were dissatisfied with the support they received from their current offline contacts were more likely to prefer social interaction in OSGs. Such a preference was prominent among those who built deeper social relationships in OSGs. Results suggest that some people develop a preference for social interaction in OSGs over offline interaction and use computer-mediated relationships as a possible alternative to offline support networks. Healthcare professionals and users as well as designers of OSGs must acknowledge the limits of online support and caution against the possibility of developing excessive reliance on online support resources.
Keywords: Online support group; Supportive communication; E-health; Computer-mediated communication; Preference for online social interaction; Internet
Escaping in digital games: The relationship between playing motives and addictive tendencies in males BIBAKFull-Text 1415-1420
  Julia Kneer; Sabine Glock
Problematic playing behaviour in terms of addiction is well known to be associated with specific traits (e.g., self-esteem) and weak social settings (e.g., negative relationships). What remains unclear is the impact of playing motives on addictive tendencies. We investigated how playing motives were related to problematic playing behaviour. Using ratings indicating explicit motives and response latencies indicating the activation of implicit motives, we investigated Yee's (2006) three main playing motives: social interaction, achievement, and immersion. All three implicit motives were found to be highly activated among problematic players while only explicit immersion was judged as less important by non-problematic and excessive players. In addition, implicit immersion together with explicit immersion and playing hours were found to be strong predictors for problematic playing behaviour. We discuss motives, especially immersion, as possible risk factors for addictive tendencies when motives become internalised and therefore automatically activated by thoughts about digital games.
Keywords: Problematic playing behaviour; Explicit playing motives; Implicit playing motives; Implicit and explicit measurements
Beyond search and communication: Development and validation of the Internet Self-efficacy Scale (ISS) BIBAKFull-Text 1421-1429
  Yunhwan Kim; Michael Glassman
Internet self-efficacy is a pivotal construct for understanding a wide range of online activities. Human activity has been developing in new directions along with the evolution of the Internet over the last few decades. A self-efficacy measure which might appropriately reflect these changes is still lacking in the literature. To address this research gap, the current study developed the Internet Self-efficacy Scale (ISS) and tested its validity and reliability. A sample of 349 undergraduate students completed an assessment battery including the ISS. A 17-item five-factor model was extracted from an EFA. Using a CFA, the 17-item five-factor model obtained from the EFA was cross-validated and the results revealed acceptable model fits where Ï 2(df = 107) = 198.987, NFI = .918, CFI = .960, and RMESA = .067 (95% C.I.; 052, .081). Also, the ISS showed good convergent validity, evidenced by the significant relationships with Internet outcome expectancy and Internet anxiety.
Keywords: Internet; Self-efficacy; Information
Negative online word-of-mouth: Behavioral indicator or emotional release? BIBAKFull-Text 1430-1440
  Tibert Verhagen; Anniek Nauta; Frans Feldberg
The influence of negative online word-of-mouth on the behavior of those receiving it has been addressed extensively in the academic literature. Remarkably, the question whether negative online word-of-mouth should also be seen as a behavioral indicator of its sender remains unaddressed. Answering this question is relevant as it provides companies with insight into the need to engage in interaction with those who negatively express themselves online or whether these expressions should be seen as temporary emotional releases without any intended conduct. To fill the existing research gap, this research paper proposes and empirically tests a sender-oriented model, investigating the influence of emotions, negative online word-of-mouth on repatronage and switching intentions. As disclosing negative feedback online may also reflect the sender's motivation to inform the consumer community or to provide constructive feedback to the company responsible for the dissatisfying consumption, community usefulness and company usefulness are included as behavioral moderators. The results of an empirical survey conducted amongst real senders of negative information confirm that negative online word-of-mouth is directly driven by positive and negative emotions and is strongly predictive for the sender's intended conduct. The motivation to help other consumers was demonstrated to function as behavioral moderator. The paper concludes with theoretical and managerial implications, and suggests avenues for further research.
Keywords: Negative online word-of-mouth; Positive and negative affect; Community usefulness; Company usefulness; Repatronage; Switching; Post-consumption
Self-interruptions in discretionary multitasking BIBAKFull-Text 1441-1449
  Rachel F. Adler; Raquel Benbunan-Fich
Human multitasking is often the result of self-initiated interruptions in the performance of an ongoing task. These self-interruptions occur in the absence of external triggers such as electronic alerts or email notifications. Compared to externally induced interruptions, self-interruptions have not received enough research attention. To address this gap, this paper develops a typology of self-interruptions based on the integration of Flow Theory and Self-regulation Theory. In this new typology, the two major categories stem from positive and negative feelings of task progress and prospects of goal attainment. The proposed classification is validated in an experimental multitasking environment with pre-defined tasks. Empirical findings indicate that negative feelings trigger more self-interruptions than positive feelings. In general, more self-interruptions result in lower accuracy in all tasks. The results suggest that negative internal triggers of self-interruptions unleash a downward spiral that may degrade performance.
Keywords: Multitasking; Interruptions; Self-interruptions; Performance; Flow
Effects of simultaneously observing and making gestures while studying grammar animations on cognitive load and learning BIBAKFull-Text 1450-1455
  Lysanne S. Post; Tamara van Gog; Fred Paas; Rolf A. Zwaan
This study examined whether simultaneously observing and making gestures while studying animations would lighten cognitive load and facilitate the acquisition of grammatical rules. In contrast to our hypothesis, results showed that children in the gesturing condition performed worse on the posttest than children in the non-gesturing, control condition. A more detailed analysis of the data revealed an expertise reversal effect, indicating that this negative effect on posttest performance materialized for children with lower levels of general language skills, but not for children with higher levels of general language skills. The finding that for children with lower language ability, cognitive load did not decrease as they saw more animations provided additional support for this expertise reversal effect. These findings suggest that the combination of observing and making gestures may have imposed extraneous cognitive load on the lower ability children, which they could not accommodate together with the relatively high intrinsic load imposed by the learning task.
Keywords: Animations; Instructional design; Embodied cognition; Cognitive load theory
Choosing Buddy Icons that look like me or represent my personality: Using Buddy Icons for social presence BIBAKFull-Text 1456-1464
  Kristine L. Nowak
People choose aspects of the self to present that they believe will lead others to have positive impressions of them. The diffusion of telecommunication technologies has led to some of this self-presentation being done using Instant Messaging and other social media applications and devices. When people use Instant Messaging, they select graphical representations to represent them called Buddy Icons. This project asks users to describe the Buddy Icons they are currently using and what they intend to self-present in selecting them to test the extent to which self presentation theory can explain the choices people are making. Overall, participants reported that they felt their Buddy Icons accurately reflected physical characteristics, psychological aspects of the self, or both, which is consistent with previous research that people are relatively honest in their self-presentation online. Those who selected more human like (anthropomorphic) Buddy Icons reported them as more representative of the physical, as opposed to the psychological, self. Finally, users who felt their Buddy Icon accurately represented them reported a stronger sense of identification and felt their Buddy Icon could increase social presence. Implications of these results for online self presentation and impression management are discussed.
Keywords: Self presentation; Avatars; Realism; Social presence; Anthropomorphism
Mediated disclosure on Twitter: The roles of gender and identity in boundary impermeability, valence, disclosure, and stage BIBAKFull-Text 1465-1474
  S. Courtney Walton; Ronald E. Rice
Social media such as microblogs (Twitterâ ¢) allow more people to disclose more personal and private information more frequently to more others than ever before. But what is the nature of, and what factors influence, those disclosures? Applying concepts from research and theory on self-disclosure research and microblogging, this study analyses 3751 tweets, with nearly half including disclosures, over a three-day period. At the user level, user-controlled boundary impermeability varied by user gender, feed identity (parenting, social media professional), and their interaction. At the tweet level, tweet valence, presence of disclosure, and front- or back-stage disclosure were variously influenced by user gender, Twitter feed identity, interactions between them, and boundary impermeability. Social construction of gender roles and social identities, as well as individual tendencies, and possibly communication contexts, are reflected in the valence, presence, and stage of disclosures in microblog content.
Keywords: Self-disclosure; Mediated disclosure; Communication privacy management; Twitter; Front/back-stage; Followers/followed
The dual nature of prior computer experience: More is not necessarily better for technology acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 1475-1482
  Sonali Varma; Janet H. Marler
It is often presumed that individuals with greater computer experience will easily adopt new or updated replacements of existing information technology. To examine this assumption, this study reviews prior computer experience research, identifies two key dimensions of computer experience i.e. computer use and computer proficiency and evaluates their effects individually. Analysis of survey data from 737 respondents using structural equation modeling indicates that each dimension had differential effects on behavioral intentions to use a newly introduced internet-based technology with computer use having curvilinear effects on adoption intentions. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Objective computer experience; Computer proficiency; Computer use; Technology acceptance model; Computer experience
Women on display: The effect of portraying the self online on women's self-objectification BIBAKFull-Text 1483-1489
  Dian A. de Vries; Jochen Peter
Objectification research has largely ignored the potential impact of Internet activities, such as online self-portrayal, on women's self-objectification and whether this may interact with traditional sexually objectifying stimuli. In response to these research gaps, the present study had two goals: first, to investigate if portraying the self to others online leads to self-objectification in women; second, to test whether priming with sexually objectifying content from traditional media moderates the effect of online self-portrayal on self-objectification. We conducted an online experiment with a two (priming stimuli: objectifying vs. neutral) by two (audience: online audience vs. no audience) between subjects design among 221 women aged 18 -- 25. All participants created an online profile, which consisted of choosing an avatar and writing a self-description. As expected, participants in the online audience condition self-objectified more strongly than did participants in the no audience condition. However, this effect only held among those who had been primed with sexually objectifying stimuli. Our results suggest that women's online self-portrayal, if combined with sexually objectifying stimuli, may lead to self-objectification.
Keywords: Self-objectification; Online self-portrayal; Objectification; Social network sites
The role of attachment style in building social capital from a social networking site: The interplay of anxiety and avoidance BIBAKFull-Text 1499-1509
  Doo Young Lee
Drawing on attachment theory, the present study examines the attachment styles of individuals relative to two ways of building social capital -- bonding social capital and bridging social capital. In trying to relate attachment theory to the use of SNS, the present study argues that bonding social capital is reflected in the use of SNS for forming attachment bonds from trust-based strong ties, while bridging social capital is reflected in the use of SNS for causal affiliations among more socially distant people. The conceptual model was validated through an online survey completed by 368 Facebook users. Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated several results. First, avoidance attachment was significant and negatively predictive of both bonding social and bridging social capital. Second, both bonding social capital and bridging social capital reported by respondents appeared to be greatest under conditions of low anxiety attachment coupled with low avoidance attachment. Third, levels of Facebook usage were significant and independently predictive of bridging social capital.
Keywords: Attachment theory; Attachment style; Social capital; Social networking site (SNS)
Online advertising on popular children's websites: Structural features and privacy issues BIBAKFull-Text 1510-1518
  Xiaomei Cai; Xiaoquan Zhao
This study examined advertisements placed on popular children's websites. A total of 117 commercial children's websites, 933 unique ads and 813 advertising websites were included in the sample. Results show that a majority of children's websites carried advertisements, a third of which were Google ads. Less than half (47%) of the children's websites and about a quarter (24%) of the advertising websites complied with COPPA when they collected personal information from children. Implications for children's online safety are discussed.
Keywords: Children's websites; Advertising; Privacy; Content analysis
The relationship between individual characteristics and experienced presence BIBAKFull-Text 1519-1530
  Yun Ling; Harold T. Nefs; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Chao Qu; Ingrid Heynderickx
People experience different levels of presence (e.g. Krijn et al., 2004; Walshe, Lewis, Kim, O'Sullivan, & Wiederhold, 2003), and different levels of cybersickness (Sharples, Cobb, Moody, & Wilson, 2008) even though they are immersed in the same virtual environment setting. In the current study, we raised the question how differences in individual characteristics might relate to differences in sensed presence for a virtual environment related to public speaking. The individual characteristics included in the experiment were related to visual abilities, personality traits, cognitive styles, and demographic factors. We recruited 88 participants, who were first immersed in a non-stereoscopic neutral environment, and then in a public speaking world: once with stereoscopic rendering and once without stereoscopic rendering, in a counter-balanced order. The results showed that immersive tendency and monocular visual ability were significantly correlated with presence and these correlations were consistent among the three virtual environments. Immersive tendencies and its subscale "involvement' were also found to be significantly correlated with cybersickness in all three worlds. Screening people on these variables may help to recognize the users who are more likely to benefit from virtual reality applications and may help to reduce the number of dropouts during virtual reality exposure therapy.
Keywords: Individual characteristics; Presence; Cybersickness; Public speaking world; Neutral world; Stereoscopy
Exploring romantic relationships on social networking sites using the self-expansion model BIBAKFull-Text 1531-1537
  Christopher J. Carpenter; Erin L. Spottswood
Several hypotheses were derived from the self-expansion model (Aron & Aron, 1986) concerning romantic relationships and social networking sites (SNSs). A sample of 276 participants responded to questions about their relationship history and SNS uses and a subset of those (N = 149) responded to additional questions about a current romantic partner. Results suggest that past self-expansion leaves a residue shown by more interests. This finding was moderated by overall Facebook use. Particular Facebook behaviors such as tagging one's partner in status updates, appearing together in photographs, and listing similar interests on profiles are indicative of self-expansion processes typically found in romantic relationships.
Keywords: Social-networking sites; Self-expansion model; Romantic relationships
Applying the integrative model of behavioral prediction and attitude functions in the context of social media use while viewing mediated sports BIBAKFull-Text 1538-1545
  Xiao Wang
Based on the integrative model of behavioral prediction and attitude functions, the present investigation examines the motivations and factors that predict one's intentions to use social media while viewing mediated sports. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that the utilitarian functions, the social identity function, the self-esteem maintenance function, and self-efficacy positively predicted attitudes toward social media use while viewing mediated sports. Controlling for other possible behaviors, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy predicted intentions to use social media. Results demonstrated that the integrative model, coupled with attitude functions, can explain a large amount of variance in one's attitudes and media choice tendency.
Keywords: Integrative model of behavioral prediction; Attitude functions; Social media use; Mediated sports
Antecedents and consequences of trust in a social media brand: A cross-cultural study of Twitter BIBAKFull-Text 1546-1555
  Iryna Pentina; Lixuan Zhang; Oksana Basmanova
This study extends brand relationship theory to the context of the microblogging platform Twitter. The authors investigate the impact of Twitter trust on users' intentions to continue using the platform and to "follow' brands that are hosted on Twitter (the trust transfer phenomenon). They also explore the role of perceived self-Twitter personality match in strengthening trust towards the Twitter brand. A cross-cultural American -- Ukrainian sample allows to identify potential culture-based differences in brand personality and brand trust concepts. The results show that the positive effect of trust in Twitter on its users' patronage intentions is robust across two cultures with diverse history and ideology. An important novel finding is the influence of trust in Twitter on patronage intentions towards the businesses hosted on Twitter. However, this relationship reaches statistical significance only in the Ukrainian sample, signaling potential differences in the trust transfer processes in different cultures. The study confirms the role of similarity in personality traits between Twitter users and the Twitter brand in engendering trust in Twitter. The salience of different personality traits in the "personality match -- Twitter trust' link for different cultures suggests important implications for global marketers.
Keywords: Twitter; Social media brand; Brand trust; Self-brand personality match; Trust transfer
Self-monitoring, honesty, and cue use on Facebook: The relationship with user extraversion and conscientiousness BIBAKFull-Text 1556-1564
  Jeffrey A. Hall; Natalie Pennington
The present study explored the relationship between Facebook (FB) users' self-monitoring and self-reported FB honesty and the content of users' profiles. It was anticipated that high self-monitors would construct a more extraverted profile and honest FB users would construct a more conscientious profile. A content analysis of 53 cues on participants' FB profiles (N = 100) was conducted. Supporting evidence was shown in a lens model analysis of FB user profiles and strangers' (N = 35) impressions of users' personality. User self-monitoring was uniquely associated with three FB cues: posting a profile picture at a younger age, posting more frequently, and using more shorthand in status updates. These three cues informed strangers' estimations of user extraversion, but were unrelated to estimations of users' conscientiousness. Honesty on FB was uniquely associated with three cues that informed strangers' estimations of user conscientiousness: expressing positive affect and talking more about family in status updates, and having FB friends who expressed support in response to status updates. This study demonstrated that FB use and profile page construction were associated with FB users' personality, and the construction of profiles affected strangers' perceptions of FB users.
Keywords: Facebook; Honesty; Lens model; Online impression formation; Personality; Self-monitoring
When online meets offline: A field investigation of modality switching BIBAKFull-Text 1565-1571
  Bree McEwan; David Zanolla
In order to explore the differing theoretical predictions of the cues-filtered-out perspective, SIDE model, and hyperpersonal model for online-to-offline relationships outside of the laboratory, a longitudinal survey study was conducted. Participants from a large online message board community who met up with an online acquaintance face-to-face completed surveys regarding their relationship with that individual before and after meeting their acquaintance face to face. Results indicated that the amount of communication with the online acquaintance was related to greater relation development whereas connection to the group was only related to greater individual closeness not satisfaction or predicted outcome value. In general the face-to-face meeting resulted in improved closeness, satisfaction, and predicted outcome value. An exploration for curvilinear effects as predicted by the hyperpersonal model revealed that predicted outcome value at time 1 had a curvilinear effect on closeness at time 2.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Modality switching; Social identity deindividuation effects; Hyperpersonal model
Mindlessness and gaining compliance in Computer-Human Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 1572-1579
  Yuhua (Jake) Liang; Seungcheol Austin Lee; Jeong-woo Jang
The computers are social actors (CASA) effect refers to the application of social rules when individuals interact with computers. Although the most plausible mechanism for CASA involves mindlessness, according to Langer, Blank, and Chanowitz's (1978) original theorization, mindlessness stems from a motivational deficit during a compliance gaining interaction. Mindlessness occurs when individuals view their behavior as relatively unimportant or inconsequential. However, researchers often employ a cognitive deficit approach and examine the CASA effect as a perceptual rather than behavioral outcome. Moreover, previous findings suggest that computer agents may activate the norm of reciprocity to induce human compliance (Fogg & Nass, 1997). To test the mechanism of mindlessness and address possible methodological artifacts from past work on Computer -- Human reciprocity, an experiment employing a 3 (request type: direct, placebic, or sufficient) x 3 (request size: large, medium, or small) design tested alternative hypotheses based on the cognitive and motivational explanations. The data are consistent the motivational hypothesis. In contrast to previous findings from Fogg and Nass, neither obligation, liking, nor mood correlated with compliance. The findings offer several directions for future work.
Keywords: Computers are social actors; Computer -- human interaction; Compliance gaining; Motivation; Message processing; Mindlessness
An empirical study of narrative imagery in implicit and explicit contexts BIBAKFull-Text 1580-1589
  Yan Wu
This study investigates if imagery is an inherent construct to narrative by playing a role in storytelling and comprehension. Visualization activities consist of ones that depend on pictures or physical objects and those do not depend on extraneous visual artifacts. The understandings of both types of visualization will contribute to their application and integration. In light of rapid development of technology and drastic increase of multimedia representations in social communication, applying storytelling approach to system design is increasingly relevant to many researchers who are eager to bring visual thinking to the classroom, alternative to applying physical visual artifacts. In this study, we looked into the cognitive process evoked in the comprehension of narrative and its similarity to imagery as an individual cognition. We transformed a course into conversational narrative and participants were randomly assigned into three sections, two were in narrative text and one was in expository text. Sections 1 and 2 were in narrative text, but only participants from section 1 were prompt for image creation before writing essays. Section 3 was in expository text and participants were also prompt for image creation before writing essays. The independent samples t-test was used to compare the mean scores of three groups on creativity score and word total across the sections. Our study found that narrative was able to activate the imagery world of the participants without giving them further instructions explicitly suggesting so. The implicit imagery context created by reading narratives had a stronger impact on creativity than that of explicit imagery creation context that did not involve of narrative comprehension. The study suggests that narrative innately provides some sort of control to its user cognitively and can be integrated with other types of media in design.
Keywords: Visual thinking; Narrative; Imagery; Pedagogy; Media
Is spoken text always better? Investigating the modality and redundancy effect with longer text presentation BIBAKFull-Text 1590-1601
  Anne Schüler; Katharina Scheiter; Peter Gerjets
The reported study investigated the influence of longer text presentation on the modality and the redundancy effect. In particular, the auditory-recency-effect explanation, which predicts that both effects should disappear when longer texts are presented, was tested against the text-processing explanation, which predicts that both effects should even reverse if text-processing strategies can be applied.
   In Experiment 1, a 2 x 2 between-subject design with animation presentation (yes vs. no) and text modality (written vs. spoken) was used (N = 81). In line with the auditory-recency-effect explanation text modality did not influence learning outcomes. Moreover, animations facilitated transfer performance due to reduced cognitive effort.
   In Experiment 2, a 2 x 3 between-subject design with pacing (system-paced vs. learner-paced) and text modality (written vs. spoken vs. written and spoken) was used (N = 122). Again, text modality did not influence learning outcomes regardless of whether the learning environment was learner- or system-paced, supporting the auditory-recency-effect explanation. The analysis of log-files, however, indicated that learners within the learner-paced condition with written text replayed the single text segments more often; moreover, replaying segments was positively correlated with learning outcomes. Thus, processing written text more intensively was associated with better learning outcomes, which supports the text-processing explanation.
Keywords: Modality effect; Redundancy effect; Multimedia learning; Learner-pacing; Text-processing strategies
Personality and social characteristics of Facebook non-users and frequent users BIBAKFull-Text 1602-1607
  Nikolina Ljepava; R. Robert Orr; Sean Locke; Craig Ross
Facebook is currently the largest social networking website with an estimated one billion of monthly active users in 2012. While most of the prior research has explored characteristics of Facebook users, less is known about the characteristics of individuals who do not use Facebook. The current study examined personality and social factors that might influence the decision to use Facebook and explored differences between Facebook non-users and frequent users. Online questionnaires examining levels of trust and self-disclosure, number of intimate friendships, peer usage of Facebook and scores on overt and covert narcissism were used for the purpose of the study. The results showed that non-users and frequent users differed on several social and personality characteristics. Facebook non-users had lower tendency to self-disclose, fewer peers participating in the social network and higher covert narcissistic traits. Frequent Facebook users scored higher on overt narcissism and reported more intimate friendships than non-users, indicating that close friendships might actually extend to social networks and contribute to a feeling of closeness and intimacy between friends in both an online and offline context.
Keywords: Facebook; Personality; Internet use; Computer Mediated Communication (CMC)
Virtual research assistants: Replacing human interviewers by automated avatars in virtual worlds BIBAKFull-Text 1608-1616
  Béatrice S. Hasler; Peleg Tuchman; Doron Friedman
We conducted an experiment to evaluate the use of embodied survey bots (i.e., software-controlled avatars) as a novel method for automated data collection in 3D virtual worlds. A bot and a human-controlled avatar carried out a survey interview within the virtual world, Second Life, asking participants about their religion. In addition to interviewer agency (bot vs. human), we tested participants' virtual age, that is, the time passed since the person behind the avatar joined Second Life, as a predictor for response rate and quality. The human interviewer achieved a higher response rate than the bot. Participants with younger avatars were more willing to disclose information about their real life than those with older avatars. Surprisingly, the human interviewer received more negative responses than the bot. Affective reactions of older avatars were also more negative than those of younger avatars. The findings provide support for the utility of bots as virtual research assistants but raise ethical questions that need to be considered carefully.
Keywords: Social virtual worlds; Automated data collection; Survey interviewing; Bots; Avatars; Media equation
Perception of psychopathy and the Uncanny Valley in virtual characters BIBAKFull-Text 1617-1625
  Angela Tinwell; Deborah Abdel Nabi; John P. Charlton
Virtual characters with a realistic, human-like appearance are increasingly being used in video games and animation. However, increased realism does not necessarily imply increased acceptance and factors such as aberrant facial expression may evoke the Uncanny Valley phenomenon. In humans, personality traits such as anger, callousness, coldness, dominance, being unconcerned, and untrustworthiness are associated with psychopathy; a visual facial marker of this condition being a lack of visible response in the eye region to emotive situations. As such, the present study investigated if inadequate upper facial animation in human-like virtual characters evoked the uncanny due to a perception of psychopathic traits within a character. The results revealed that virtual characters that showed a lack of a startle response to a scream sound were regarded as most uncanny and perceptions of personality traits associated with psychopathy were a strong predictor of reported uncanniness but, that other negative personality traits not associated with psychopathy were not. The study presents possible psychological drivers of uncanniness to inform designers why a lack of detail in a character's upper face when portraying a startle response may evoke perception of specific negative personality traits in a character, to help control the uncanny in character design.
Keywords: Uncanny Valley; Facial expression; Psychopathy; Emotion; Characters; Realism; Video games
Trusting expert- versus user-generated ratings online: The role of information volume, valence, and consumer characteristics BIBAKFull-Text 1626-1634
  Andrew J. Flanagin; Miriam J. Metzger
The warranting principle, signaling theory, and theories of informational social influence suggest conditions when either user-generated information, or information originating from traditional experts, might be privileged online. A random sample of 1207 U.S.-based adults with Internet access completed an experiment that manipulated the source, volume, and valence of online movie ratings in order to test predictions derived from these perspectives. Results indicated that ratings volume is positively associated with trust of, reliance on, and confidence in user-generated content, as well as the congruence between one's own and others' opinions; that ratings source and volume interact to impact credibility perceptions, reliance on user-generated information, and opinion congruence, such that people tend to favor experts when there is low information volume, but favor user-generated information under conditions of high information volume; and that people's opinions and behavioral intentions converge with the online ratings information to which they are exposed. In addition, these effects apply more strongly to people more conversant with user-generated content. Results indicate important theoretical extensions by demonstrating that social information online may be filtered through signals indicating its veracity, which may not apply equally to all social media users.
Keywords: User-generated content; Online ratings; Social media; Online social influence; Trust; Credibility
A sense of self: The role of presence in virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 1635-1640
  Michael P. McCreery; P. G. Schrader; S. Kathleen Krach; Randy Boone
Several factors contribute to an individual's experiences in computer-based environments. Previous research shows one such factor, the degree to which users feel connected to a virtual environment, influences the actions of individuals within the environment (Banos et al., 2008; Welch, 1999). Additional factors, such as people's personality and the personality of their avatar, influence behaviors in virtual environments (McCreery, Krach, Schrader, & Boone, 2012). The current study focused on the role of presence as it affects behavior within the virtual environment. Presence has been defined as the psychological state where virtual experiences feel authentic. However, the degree to which presence acts as a mediating variable in virtual environments is not well understood. The current study employed a combination of survey instruments and direct observation to explore the relationships among personality of self and avatar, presence, and behaviors within a virtual environment. Findings indicated that participant scores in the domain of agreeableness were a significant predictor of agreeable behavior in the virtual environment. However, with the exception of negative effects (e.g., dizziness), presence does not appear to influence behavior. Overall implications for these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Presence; Virtual self; Personality; Observed behaviors; Virtual environments; Avatar; Massively multiplayer online games
Does Twitter motivate involvement in politics? Tweeting, opinion leadership, and political engagement BIBAKFull-Text 1641-1648
  Chang Sup Park
This paper, in order to deepen our understanding of the role of opinion leadership on Twitter, the world's largest microblogging service, has investigated the interrelationships between opinion leadership, Twitter use motivations, and political engagement. It finds that Twitter opinion leaders have higher motivations of information seeking, mobilization, and public expression than nonleaders. It has also been found that mobilization and public-expression motivations mediate the association between perceived opinion leadership and Twitter use frequency. Most importantly, this study finds that Twitter opinion leadership makes a significant contribution to individuals' involvement in political processes, while Twitter use itself or media use motivation does not necessarily help individuals' political engagement.
Keywords: Twitter; Opinion leadership; Uses and gratifications; Political discussion; Political participation
Understanding social network site users' privacy tool use BIBAKFull-Text 1649-1656
  Eden Litt
Every day hundreds of millions of people log into social network sites and deposit terabytes of data as they share status updates, photographs, and more. This article explores how background factors, motivations, and social network site experiences relate to people's use of social network site technology to protect their privacy. The findings indicate that during technology-mediated communication on social network sites, not only do traditional privacy factors relate to the technological boundaries people enact, but people's experiences with the mediating technology itself do, too. The results also identify privacy inequalities, in which certain groups are more likely to take advantage of the technology to protect their privacy -- suggesting that some individuals' information and reputations may be more at risk than others'.
Keywords: Social network sites; Privacy; Reputation; Self-presentation; Privacy management; Digital inequality
Media multitasking between two conversational tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1657-1663
  Prabu David; Linda Xu; Jatin Srivastava; Jung-Hyun Kim
Communication multitasking was examined in three conditions: IM conversation with one partner, two IM conversations at the same time, and IM and phone conversation at the same time. Participants in the multitasking conditions reported higher task demand and a small loss in task performance was evident. Single-task partners assigned to a task the required discussion and deliberation preferred to interact with the multitasking participant via phone, rather than IM. But interactions via phone with one partner led to poorer assessment by a second partner who was shortchanged during the interaction. Multitasking participants who were focused on helping both partners seemed blind to these perceived differences by their single-task partners. The results suggest a strategic model of multitasking, with IM being the preferred choice for tasks that require fewer, shorter exchanges and voice being the preferred choice for tasks that required more discussion and deliberation.
Keywords: Media multitasking; Instant messenger; Voice communication; Task performance; Computer mediated communication; Limited capacity
From the bar to the bed via mobile phone: A first test of the role of problematic alcohol use, sexting, and impulsivity-related traits in sexual hookups BIBAKFull-Text 1664-1670
  Allyson L. Dir; Melissa A. Cyders; Ayca Coskunpinar
Computer-mediated sexting behaviors, problematic alcohol use, and sexual hookups are prevalent among college populations. While relationships between sexting and alcohol, and sexting and sex have been established, the potential role of sexting as a mediator between alcohol use and hookups is unknown. The study provides the first test of a causal, temporal model in which (1) sexting mediates the relationship between problematic alcohol use and sexual hookups; and (2) impulsivity-related traits and alcohol-related expectancies predict problematic alcohol use and sexting. Results In a college sample, (N = 611; M(SD)age = 21.4 (4.18); 77.3% female), a causal path model using structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) Problematic alcohol use (b = .05, p < .001) and sexting (b = .14, p < .05) were related to sexual hookups; (2) sensation seeking and negative urgency were related to problematic alcohol use (b = .96, p < .001, b = .60, p < .05) and sexting (b = .11, p < .05, b = .12, p < .001); and (3) problematic alcohol use was indirectly related to hookups through sexting (b = .01, p < .01). Conclusion Findings provide initial support for sexting as a partial mediator between problematic alcohol use and sexual hookups, and for the role of impulsivity-related traits and alcohol expectancies as distal predictors in this process. Findings highlight sexting as one example of the intersection between computer-mediated and human interaction.
Keywords: Sexting; Sexual hookups; Impulsivity; Alcohol use; AP Model
The uncanny valley does not interfere with level 1 visual perspective taking BIBAKFull-Text 1671-1685
  Karl F. MacDorman; Preethi Srinivas; Himalaya Patel
When a computer-animated human character looks eerily realistic, viewers report a loss of empathy; they have difficulty taking the character's perspective. To explain this perspective-taking impairment, known as the uncanny valley, a novel theory is proposed: The more human or less eerie a character looks, the more it interferes with level 1 visual perspective taking when the character's perspective differs from that of the human observer (e.g., because the character competitively activates shared circuits in the observer's brain). The proposed theory is evaluated in three experiments involving a dot-counting task in which participants either assumed or ignored the perspective of characters varying in their human photorealism and eeriness. Although response times and error rates were lower when the number of dots faced by the observer and character were the same (congruent condition) than when they were different (incongruent condition), no consistent pattern emerged between the human photorealism or eeriness of the characters and participants' response times and error rates. Thus, the proposed theory is unsupported for level 1 visual perspective taking. As the effects of the uncanny valley on empathy have not previously been investigated systematically, these results provide evidence to eliminate one possible explanation.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Character animation; Cognitive empathy; Mirror neuron system; Theory of mind
The impeding role of initial unrealistic goal-setting on videogame-based training performance: Identifying underpinning processes and a solution BIBAKFull-Text 1686-1694
  Robert C. Brusso; Karin A. Orvis
Videogames are increasingly being used as instructional tools within education, workforce, and military contexts. Yet, additional research is needed to better understand what (and how) videogame-based training design attributes impact trainee performance in this type of training context. Goals/goal-setting and performance feedback represent two such important game design attributes. Goal-setting theory suggests that moderately difficult goals produce modest goal-performance discrepancies, which result in enhanced performance. Yet, goal-performance discrepancies are not universally beneficial. This study investigates the performance consequences of trainees setting an unrealistically difficult goal early in videogame-based training, and the mechanisms underlying this relationship. Data from 387 trainees completing a videogame-based training program demonstrated that an initial unrealistic goal, and subsequently a large goal-performance discrepancy, negatively impacts subsequent training performance. Self-regulation was examined as a mediator of this relationship; yet, was not supported, as goal-performance discrepancy failed to predict self-regulation. However, goal-performance discrepancy and videogame self-efficacy were found to interact in predicting trainees' self-regulation, suggesting more complex underlying mechanisms. This study also demonstrated that providing trainees with simple goal-setting advisement can facilitate realistic goal-setting. These findings highlight the important role of realistic goal-setting in enhancing videogame-based training effectiveness.
Keywords: Videogame-based training; Goal-performance discrepancy; Self-regulation; Goal-setting; Training performance
Nurturing health-related online support groups: Exploring the experiences of patient moderators BIBAKFull-Text 1695-1701
  Neil S. Coulson; Rachel L. Shaw
The aim of this study was to examine the views of moderators across a diverse and geographically broad range of online support groups about their moderator experiences and to explore both the personal benefits as well as challenges involved. Thirty-three patient moderators completed an online questionnaire which included a series of open-ended questions. Thematic analysis identified three themes: emergence, empowerment, nurturing. Several moderators declared their own diagnosis and for some, being able to share personal insights motivated them to establish the group and in turn offered validation. They felt empowered by helping others and learned more about the condition through accessing the "communal brain'. Some felt the group aided patients' access to health services and their ability to communicate with health professionals while others worried about them becoming over-dependent. Moderators described needing to nurture their group to ensure it offered a safe space for members. Clear rules of engagement, trust, organisation skills, compassion and kindness were considered essential. Patient moderated online support groups can be successfully developed and facilitated and can be empowering for both the group member and moderator alike.
Keywords: Empowerment; Moderators; Online support groups; Support; Thematic analysis
The effects of competition and competitiveness upon intrinsic motivation in exergames BIBAKFull-Text 1702-1708
  Hayeon Song; Jihyun Kim; Kelly E. Tenzek; Kwan Min Lee
This study examined the role of competition in exercise video games to promote intrinsic motivation for exercise. The experiment was a 2 (Competitive exercise context: Competition vs. No competition) x 2 (Individual competitiveness: High vs. Low) between-subjects design. The results showed significant interaction effects of the independent variables on intrinsic motivation, mood, and evaluation of the exergame. That is, the competitive context provided positive exergame experiences to competitive individuals, whereas it had detrimental effects for less competitive participants. Implications and future directions are discussed.
Keywords: Exergames; Competition; Intrinsic motivation; Video games
Social media use among adults with autism spectrum disorders BIBAKFull-Text 1709-1714
  Micah O. Mazurek
Adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at risk for significant social and emotional difficulties, yet show strengths and interests in screen-based technology. Previous studies have found that screen-based social media use can enhance social functioning for adults in the general population, yet studies have not yet examined social media use among adults with ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns and social -- emotional correlates of social media use in a sample of 108 adults with ASD. Participants completed self-report measures of social media use, friendship quality and quantity, and loneliness. The results indicated that the majority of participants (79.6%) used social networking sites (SNS), and that the most commonly cited reason for using SNS was social connection. Adults with ASD who used SNS were more likely to have close friends, and those who used SNS for social engagement reported closer friendship relationships. However, greater offline friendship quality and quantity, not social media use, were associated with decreased loneliness in the current sample. This was the first study to explore patterns of social media use among adults with ASD, andthe findings suggest a need for further longitudinal research to examine the relations among these variables over time.
Keywords: Social media; Social networking; Friendship; Loneliness; Autism spectrum disorder; Adults
Learning to use new technologies by older adults: Perceived difficulties, experimentation behaviour and usability BIBAKFull-Text 1715-1724
  Yvonne Barnard; Mike D. Bradley; Frances Hodgson; Ashley D. Lloyd
This paper examines the factors and theoretical frameworks for the adoption of technology for older adults, and proposes two models of technology acceptance and rejection, one from an ease of learning perspective, and one from a system and user perspective. Both models are supported from reports on two case studies of older adults using handheld touchscreen tablet devices; one in which the participants are supported during tasks primarily related to walking and navigation, and one in which participants are unsupported in communication related tasks. The first study shows the powerful role that facilitating conditions have for learning how to use digital technologies for this user group, whether supporting through step by step guidance, providing a friendly space to use trial and error methods, and/or provision of a manual. The second study shows the pitfalls of a lack of facilitating conditions during initial use, and highlights potential for appropriate design in helping to avoid some user errors during this phase.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; Older adults; Touchscreen tablet; Usability
A dispositional approach to hostility toward sports commentators in online arenas BIBAKFull-Text 1725-1732
  Po-Lin Pan
A limited amount of studies examined the effects of sports commentary on online readers' attitudes toward online sports commentators. Approaching disposition effects hypothesis in online arenas, this study examined the effects of the positive/negative sports commentaries and the win/loss of readers' favorite team on their hostility toward online sports commentators. A two (the win of the favorite team versus the loss of the favorite team) by two (the positive commentaries versus the negative commentaries) within-subjects repeated measures experiment with emotional responses as a covariate was designed to measure readers' hostility toward online sports commentators. Results showed that disposition effects activated by the win/loss and the positive/negative commentaries significantly led readers to a higher level of hostility toward online sports commentators. Moreover, main effects for the positive/negative commentaries were stronger than main effects for the win/loss of the favorite team. Although readers' emotional responses could not directly moderate the effects of the positive/negative commentaries on the win/loss of the favorite team, online readers with a more positive level of emotional responses to sports commentaries reported a lower level of hostility toward online sports commentators.
Keywords: Online arenas; Sports commentators; Disposition effects; Emotional responses; Hostility
Modeling individual trust development in computer mediated collaboration: A comparison of approaches BIBAKFull-Text 1733-1741
  Xusen Cheng; Linda Macaulay; Alex Zarifis
This research models and investigates individual trust development over time in computer mediated collaboration. Risk, benefit, utility value, effort, power and interest are six factors that influence individual trust development. This paper introduces two new approaches, the scale balance model and the trust spider diagram, to help model and investigate individual trust development over time. A 2 year longitudinal case study is used to investigate individual trust development based on a yearlong student project. 16 student groups participated in the computer mediated collaboration. Survey data were collected at three points throughout the project year and the results are analyzed using the two approaches. Interviews were also conducted at the end of the project. In this research, interesting findings, such as some dynamic features, are revealed by using the methods. Each approach to analyzing individual trust development has its strengths and weaknesses, and using the two together has the benefit of mitigating some weaknesses and combining the strengths. Analyzing trust development over time contributes to enhance computer mediated collaboration in both theoretical research and practical application.
Keywords: Individual trust; Collaboration; Trust measurement; Trust development
From smartphones to iPad: Power users' disposition toward mobile media devices BIBAKFull-Text 1742-1748
  Bu Zhong
The spread of mobile media devices (MMDs), such as smartphones and tablet computers, has been markedly rapid around the world in recent years. The diffusion of mobile media technology has turned some early adopters into "power users,' using MMD more innovatively, efficiently and thoroughly than others. Going beyond the research of innovative users and heavy users, this study proposes the concept of power users by investigating the interactions between the power use of MMD and personality attributes, online activities as well as traditional media use. The findings showed that personality attributes were strong predictors for power use, which was also partially predicated by media multitasking and traditional media use. Research in this stream should assist in understanding the diffusion of mobile media technology and its impact on human interaction.
Keywords: Power user; Mobile media device; Mobile technology; Smartphone; iPad; Multitasking
Assessing the reliability of the M5-120 on Amazon's mechanical Turk BIBAKFull-Text 1749-1754
  Christopher J. Holden; Trevor Dennie; Adam D. Hicks
Amazon's online service, Mechanical Turk (MTurk) has become a popular option for data collection among social scientists. Early work (Buhrmester, Kwang, & Gosling, 2011) indicated that data collection through MTurk was faster and less expensive than traditional collection methods (undergraduate human subject pool), as well as being reliable when administered at different dates. Building on their work, we sought to extend this investigation of reliability to a larger measure. For the current research we chose a 120-item measure of personality. After collecting data through MTurk, it was determined that our MTurk sample had strong test -- retest reliability, indicating that they did not significantly change between administration dates.
Keywords: Mechanical Turk; MTurk; Personality; Online research; M5-120; Replication
Contradictory deceptive behavior in online dating BIBAKFull-Text 1755-1762
  Shao-Kang Lo; Ai-Yun Hsieh; Yu-Ping Chiu
Deceptive behavior is common in online dating because personal profiles can be easily manipulated. This study conducts two experiments to examine contradictory deceptive behavior in online dating. The results of Experiment 1 showed that users have lower perceptions of authenticity evaluations of daters' self-provided photographs with strong physical attractiveness than for those with low physical attractiveness, and the authenticity perceptions of daters' self-provided photographs have a positive relationship with the authenticity evaluation of online daters' text-based self-presentations. Although users are suspicious of the authenticity of beautiful or handsome daters' photographs, the results of Experiment 2 showed that people still employ higher levels of deception in self-presentations toward daters with highly attractive photographs to increase their possibilities of securing a date with those daters. The results also show that women employ higher levels of deception in self-presentation than men in online dating environments.
Keywords: Online dating; Deception; Physical attractiveness; Self-presentation
Factors influencing smartphone use and dependency in South Korea BIBAKFull-Text 1763-1770
  Namkee Park; Yong-Chan Kim; Hae Young Shon; Hongjin Shim
This study examined the factors affecting the South Korean people's use of smartphones within the framework of the technology acceptance model (TAM). Using an in-person survey (N = 852), the study confirmed the propositions of the TAM. The study also included individuals' psychological antecedents, such as motivations for social inclusion and instrumental use of smartphones, innovativeness, behavioral activation system (BAS), and locus of control. While the motivations and innovativeness verified previous studies' findings, BAS and locus of control demonstrated their unique contributions to explaining smartphone use. Smartphone dependency was also affected by the antecedents in the use of smartphones.
Keywords: Smartphones; Technology acceptance model; Uses and gratifications; Media dependency; South Korea
Young adults' use of communication technology within their romantic relationships and associations with attachment style BIBAKFull-Text 1771-1778
  Jennifer N. Morey; Amy L. Gentzler; Brian Creasy; Ann M. Oberhauser; David Westerman
In an online survey with two cohorts (2009 and 2011) of undergraduates in dating relationships, we examined how attachment was related to communication technology use within romantic relationships. Participants reported on their attachment style and frequency of in-person communication as well as phone, text messaging, social network site (SNS), and electronic mail usage with partners. Texting and SNS communication were more frequent in 2011 than 2009. Attachment avoidance was related to less frequent phone use and texting, and greater email usage. Electronic communication channels (phone and texting) were related to positive relationship qualities, however, once accounting for attachment, only moderated effects were found. Interactions indicated texting was linked to more positive relationships for highly avoidant (but not less avoidant) participants. Additionally, email use was linked to more conflict for highly avoidant (but not less avoidant) participants. Finally, greater use of a SNS was positively associated with intimacy/support for those higher (but not lower) on attachment anxiety. This study illustrates how attachment can help to explain why the use of specific technology-based communication channels within romantic relationships may mean different things to different people, and that certain channels may be especially relevant in meeting insecurely attached individuals' needs.
Keywords: Attachment; Communication technology; Computer-mediated communication; Romantic relationships; Individual differences; College students
Using technology in higher education: The influence of gender roles on technology self-efficacy BIBAKFull-Text 1779-1786
  Ann Hergatt Huffman; Jason Whetten; William H. Huffman
The present study examines the relationship between technology self-efficacy among university students and gender roles. Previous research has based differences in technology self-efficacy on biological sex and found significant differences. University students were asked to complete a survey dealing with gender roles and technology self-efficacy. The current study shows that gender roles, specifically masculinity, is the source of this difference in technology self-efficacy, and not biological sex alone. Further, masculinity predicts technology self-efficacy above and beyond what can be explained by other contributing factors such as previous computer hassles and perceived structural technology support.
Keywords: Technology self-efficacy; Gender roles; Gender differences
Genetic learning of virtual team member preferences BIBAKFull-Text 1787-1798
  Parag C. Pendharkar
Virtual team members do not have complete understanding of other team members' preferences, which makes team coordination somewhat difficult and time consuming. Traditional approaches for team coordination require a lot of inter-agent electronic communication and often result in wasted effort. Methods that reduce inter-agent communication and conflicts are likely to increase productivity of virtual teams. In this research, we propose an evolutionary genetic algorithm (GA) based intelligent agent that learns a team member preferences from past actions, and develops a team-coordination schedule by minimizing schedule conflicts between different members serving on a virtual team. Using a discrete event simulation methodology, we test the proposed intelligent agent on different virtual teams of sizes two, four, six and eight members. The results of our experiments indicate that the GA-based intelligent agent learns individual team member preferences and generates a team-coordination schedule at a lower inter-agent communication cost.
Keywords: Virtual teams; Inter-agent communication; Genetic algorithms
Caregiving role in human-robot interaction: A study of the mediating effects of perceived benefit and social presence BIBAKFull-Text 1799-1806
  Ki Joon Kim; Eunil Park; S. Shyam Sundar
This study investigates whether assigning a caregiving role to a robot or to its human interactant has psychological effects on the quality of human-robot interaction (HRI). College students interacted with a social robot in a between-subjects experiment (N = 60) with two manipulated conditions: one where the robot played the role of an ophthalmologist (with participants serving as patients) and one where participants played the role of the ophthalmologist (with the robot serving as the patient). Results suggest that being a recipient of caregiving acts leads users to form more positive perceptions of the robot than being an ostensible caregiver to the robot. Results also indicate that perceived benefit of being in a relationship with the robot mediates the effects of the caregiving role on relationship satisfaction with -- and trust towards -- the robot while feelings of social presence mediate the effects on humanlike-ness and intelligence of the robot. These findings demonstrate the applicability of the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) paradigm to the context of HRI.
Keywords: Caregiving role; Social robots; Computers Are Social Actors (CASA); Social exchange theory; Perceived benefit; Social presence
Animated agents in K-12 engineering outreach: Preferred agent characteristics across age levels BIBAKFull-Text 1807-1815
  Amy M. Johnson; Matthew D. DiDonato; Martin Reisslein
Animated agents have been found to positively impact student learning and/or perceptions within computer-based learning environments. However, there is little research on the agent characteristics preferred by K-12 students. The main purpose of this study was to examine student preferences for individual pedagogical agents and their preferences for various agent characteristics. Student preferences for the following agent characteristics were assessed using survey methodology: agent gender, age, realism, clothing, personality, speech pace, and tutoring approach. A total of N = 565 students from elementary through high school watched a computer-based multimedia overview of engineering. Four engineering disciplines were introduced by four animated agents: a young female, young male, old female, and old male agent. Immediately after viewing the computer-based overview, students completed surveys assessing preferences for the four agents and for individual agent characteristics. Results indicated that all students preferred agents and specific external agent characteristics that are close to their own external characteristics and favored internal agent characteristics that they felt would promote understanding of the domain. These findings suggest that animated agents used in computer-based K-12 engineering outreach should be close to the student's external characteristics.
Keywords: Age levels; Agent characteristics; Animated agent; K-12 outreach
A longitudinal examination of computer self-efficacy change trajectories during training BIBAKFull-Text 1816-1824
  Hemant V. Kher; James P. Downey; Ellen Monk
Computer self-efficacy (CSE) is known to enhance individual competence and performance in learning and using technology as well as improve technology attitudes and beliefs. Using longitudinal studies, CSE increases over time during organizational technology training. While these studies have been instrumental in our understanding of how self-efficacy operates in organizations, some critical questions remain unanswered. In particular these studies cannot answer how long it takes for one's CSE to increase during training, nor can it describe the shape of the change trajectory (linear? some other shape?). The answers to these questions will provide organizations a much clearer perspective on training expectations, understanding when benefits from training through enhanced CSE might be expected, and when to start and ramp up/down training efforts. This study examines these issues by collecting repeated waves of data from 230 respondents in a technology lab training setting and using a relatively new structural equation modeling technique, latent growth modeling. Findings suggest that it takes about 2 months of training for individuals to display significant increases in CSE, and that the growth trajectory for CSE in non-linear. In the proposed model, anxiety is a significant predictor of CSE change, while CSE change significantly predicted software-specific self-efficacies.
Keywords: General computer self-efficacy; Software specific computer self-efficacy; Anxiety; Longitudinal methods; Latent growth modeling
Personality and cognitive style as predictors of preference for working in virtual teams BIBAKFull-Text 1825-1832
  Andy Luse; James C. McElroy; Anthony M. Townsend; Samuel DeMarie
This study tests the effects of personality and cognitive style on preference of individuals for working in virtual teams. The results support the use of both personality and cognitive style as predictor variables with each uniquely contributing to two facets of virtual team preference, namely preference for virtual teams over working alone and preference for virtual teams over traditional groups. Results are discussed regarding the impact of cognitive style and personality for corporate implementation of virtual teams.
Keywords: Virtual teams; Personality; Cognitive style; Big Five; MBTI
Searching for the two sigma advantage: Evaluating algebra intelligent tutors BIBAKFull-Text 1833-1840
  Kent E. Sabo; Robert K. Atkinson; Angela L. Barrus; Stacey S. Joseph; Ray S. Perez
This study evaluated 2 off-the-shelf, computer-based, mathematics intelligent-tutoring systems that provide instruction in algebra during a remedial mathematics summer program. The majority of the enrolled high school students failed to pass algebra in the previous semester. Students were randomly assigned in approximately equal proportions to work with the Carnegie Learning Algebra Cognitive Tutor or the ALEKS Algebra Course. Using the tutoring system exclusively, the students completed a 4-h-a-day, 14-day summer school high school algebra class for credit. The results revealed that both tutoring systems produced statistically and practically meaningful learning gains on measures of arithmetic and algebra knowledge.
Keywords: Intelligent tutoring systems; Evaluation of CAL systems; Applications in subject areas; Evaluation methodologies; Secondary education
Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out BIBAKFull-Text 1841-1848
  Andrew K. Przybylski; Kou Murayama; Cody R. DeHaan; Valerie Gladwell
Social media utilities have made it easier than ever to know about the range of online or offline social activities one could be engaging. On the upside, these social resources provide a multitude of opportunities for interaction; on the downside, they often broadcast more options than can be pursued, given practical restrictions and limited time. This dual nature of social media has driven popular interest in the concept of Fear of Missing Out -- popularly referred to as FoMO. Defined as a pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent, FoMO is characterized by the desire to stay continually connected with what others are doing. The present research presents three studies conducted to advance an empirically based understanding of the fear of missing out phenomenon. The first study collected a diverse international sample of participants in order to create a robust individual differences measure of FoMO, the Fear of Missing Out scale (FoMOs); this study is the first to operationalize the construct. Study 2 recruited a nationally representative cohort to investigate how demographic, motivational and well-being factors relate to FoMO. Study 3 examined the behavioral and emotional correlates of fear of missing out in a sample of young adults. Implications of the FoMOs measure and for the future study of FoMO are discussed.
Keywords: Fear of missing out; FoMO; Human motivation; Individual differences; Social networking; Scale development
Online shopping delivery delay: Finding a psychological recovery strategy by online consumer experiences BIBAKFull-Text 1849-1861
  Tze-Hsien Liao; Ching-Jui Keng
We propose a new type of psychological recovery strategy (i.e., online consumer experiences, OCEs) for online shopping delivery delay. We developed 4 types of OCEs based on the interactivity concept (low machine interactivity with low person interactivity, MIL -- PIL; high machine interactivity with low person interactivity, MIH -- PIL; low machine interactivity with high person interactivity, MIL -- PIH, and high machine interactivity with high person interactivity, MIH -- PIH). We conducted 2 studies, and 1078 online shoppers participated in this study. The results indicate that when consumers meet a delivery delay, proving them with OCEs could increase satisfaction and reduce complaint intention. Cognitive dissonance (CD) from inconsistency between OCEs and direct experience also moderates OCEs effects on satisfaction, repurchase intention, and complaint intention. Finally, desire for control (DC) and consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (CSII) moderate the OCEs effects on satisfaction, repurchase intention, and complaint intention: consumers with low DC and low CSII prefer MIL -- PIL; consumers with high DC and low CSII prefer MIH -- PIL, consumers with low DC and high CSII prefer MIL -- PIH, and consumers with high DC and high CSII prefer MIH -- PIH.
Keywords: Online shopping delivery delay; Psychological recovery strategies; Online consumer experiences; Machine interactivity; Person interactivity
The dark side of the boon? Credibility, selective exposure and the proliferation of online sources of political information BIBAKFull-Text 1862-1871
  Thomas J. Johnson; Barbara K. Kaye
While the media industry may consider credibility its most valuable asset, scholars suggest there is a potential "dark side' to credibility: Perceptions of credibility of a source lead to selective exposure and selective avoidance, and both lead to increased fragmentation and polarization of social and political views. The link between credibility and selective exposure and avoidance has not received much academic attention, therefore this study employed a survey of politically interested Internet users during the 2008 presidential campaign to test the influence of credibility and reliance on selective exposure and avoidance after controlling for demographic and political factors. This study found little evidence of a dark side to credibility. Respondents who judge blogs as credible search for information that supports their point of view, as well as challenges their opinions.
Keywords: Selective exposure; Credibility; Online credibility; Polarization
(A)Social reputation: Exploring the relationship between online video game involvement and social competence BIBAKFull-Text 1872-1878
  Rachel Kowert; Julian A. Oldmeadow
Affordable and accessible Internet has changed the way video games are played, allowing individuals to connect worldwide in shared gaming spaces. On the surface participation within these environments may seem socially beneficial, as these highly social, playful spaces allow players to connect, interact with, and learn from others. However, there is a growing concern that increased participation within online gaming environments comes with a wide variety of social consequences, contributing to numerous losses in 'offline' sociability. While considerable research has examined these claims, consistent relationships between social competence and online video game involvement have yet to be established. The current work (N = 515) aimed to examine the extent to which online video game involvement may support, or undermine, the development and maintenance of traditional social skills. The results indicate that there are unique relationships between social skills and video game involvement within online gaming populations. However, among online video game players, these links were not as negative or broad as hypothesized. The results of this assessment dispute the anecdotal attribution of a global level of social ineptitude amongst online video game players and provide insight into the potential effects of online video game play on skill development and maintenance.
Keywords: Online gaming; Social competence; Social skill; Video game involvement
Problematic internet use among older adolescents: A conceptual framework BIBAKFull-Text 1879-1887
  Megan A. Moreno; Lauren A. Jelenchick; Dimitri A. Christakis
Problematic internet use (PIU) is of growing significance to adolescent health, but lacks a strong conceptual framework to guide ongoing work. We used Concept Mapping methodology to construct a theoretical framework describing PIU. This validated approach includes five steps: preparation, generation (brainstorming), structuring (sort and rank), representation (statistical analysis) and interpretation (focus groups). Analysis included hierarchical cluster analysis over the overall square similarity matrix to determine a cluster map. A total of 193 college students participated in one or more phases of the study. Students were from 13 universities across 10 states, had an average age of 19.4 years (SD = 1.8), were 67% female and 77% Caucasian. A total of 20 health professionals participated. The seven clusters depicted on the PIU Concept Map include: psychosocial risk factors, physical impairment, emotional impairment, social/functional impairment, risky internet use, impulsive internet use and internet use dependence. The stress value for the fit of the multidimensional solution to the structuring data was 0.28, indicating adequate fit. The concept map may be used towards development of a future comprehensive model of PIU as well as scale development efforts.
Keywords: Adolescent; College student; Internet use; Concept mapping; Qualitative; Problematic internet use; Internet addiction

CHB 2013-09 Volume 29 Issue 5


Introduction to the Special Issue BIBFull-Text A1-A2
  Ashleigh K. Shelton
Exploring the impact of ethnic identity through other-generated cues on perceptions of spokesperson credibility BIBAKFull-Text A3-A11
  Patric R. Spence; Kenneth A. Lachlan; Stephen A. Spates; Ashleigh K. Shelton; Xialing Lin; Christina J. Gentile
Although previous studies indicate that perceived similarity can influence perceptions of source credibility, less is known about the impact of ethnic identity on these perceptions in social media environments. A quasi-experiment was designed to manipulate the strength of ethnic identity of an African American spokesperson promoting a health news story. The results indicate a substantive condition by participant ethnicity interaction, in which African Americans assign greater credibility to high ethnic identity spokespeople, while Caucasian respondents found low ethnic identity spokespersons more credible. The results are discussed in terms of the understanding of credibility perceptions across diverse audiences, and the implications for health communication professionals working with historically underrepresented populations.
Keywords: Social media; Race; Ethnic identity; Source credibility
How much Klout do you have ... A test of system generated cues on source credibility BIBAKFull-Text A12-A16
  Chad Edwards; Patric R. Spence; Christina J. Gentile; America Edwards; Autumn Edwards
Social media provides a great deal of information about the users; whether it is personal likes or dislikes, social connections and networks, or general emotional states in ways not previously available to others. As a result, judgments and perceptions of a person's credibility can be made from examining posts, tweets, or other indicators on social media (Westerman, Spence, & Van Der Heide, 2012). Because social media users create their own content, the question of how others make judgments about credibility is important (Haas & Wearden, 2003). However, until recently, a single indicator of a person's influence on social media networks did not exist. Klout.com developed an popular indicator of this influence that creates a single score based on the idea that "everyone has influence -- the ability to drive action'. The purpose of the study is to determine whether and to what degree a Klout score can influence perceptions of credibility. Results demonstrated that the mock Twitter page with a high Klout score was perceived as higher in dimensions of credibility than the identical mock Twitter page with a moderate or low Klout score.
Keywords: Credibility; System generated cues; Klout; Social media
Can I sit here? A review of the literature supporting the use of single-user virtual environments to help adolescents with autism learn appropriate social communication skills BIBAKFull-Text A17-A24
  Julie E. N. Irish
People with autism frequently have difficulty in behaving in a socially acceptable manner, for example, they may stand too close to other people in a social situation or do not observe accepted social niceties. This can lead to peer rejection and a sense of isolation. Research has been carried out to investigate whether single-user virtual environments (SVEs) could provide a suitable intervention to help those with autism learn how to communicate with others in a socially acceptable manner. This paper reviews the research studies to date and considers whether SVEs could provide a viable intervention to teach social communication skills to autistic people.
Keywords: Autism; ASD; Virtual environments; SVE; Social communication skills
Let's talk about sexting, baby: Computer-mediated sexual behaviors among young adults BIBAKFull-Text A25-A30
  Michelle Drouin; Kimberly N. Vogel; Alisen Surbey; Julie R. Stills
Although much media attention has been directed towards sexting (transmission of sexual material via phone or internet), little empirical work exists on the topic. Moreover, the few studies that do exist have been inconsistent in their definition of sexting and measures of sexting behavior, which makes comparisons between these studies difficult. In this study, we provide a granular, descriptive analysis of sexting behavior within a cohort of young adults, focusing on the content of sex messages, the medium used to transmit these messages, and the relationship context in which these transmissions occur. We found that sexting was fairly common across all types of romantic relationships (committed, casual sex, and cheating), text messaging was the primary medium used to send sex pictures and videos, and the prevalence, motivations, and risks associated with sexting varied by relationship context. Considering the complexity and diversity of sexting practices within this cohort, we suggest that those studying sexting and implementing initiatives with young adults use more detailed (rather than general) definitions and questions of sexting behavior, and that they delineate between these different types of content, transmission media, and relationship contexts.
Keywords: Sexting; Text messaging; Social media; Young adults; Undergraduates; Sexual behaviors
Virtually homosexual: Technoromanticism, demarginalisation and identity formation among homosexual males BIBAKFull-Text A31-A39
  Maxwell Crowson; Anne Goulding
'Coming out' is a key stage in the identity formation process for the homosexual male when the individual discloses his homosexual status to himself and others. Although previous research has indicated that homosexual men often use the Internet and computer-mediated communication (CMC) during the identity formation process to discover and develop their sexual and self-identities, studies to date have focused on their use of text-based CMC with scant attention paid to experiences within virtual worlds. This study explored whether homosexual males use virtual worlds in the sexual identity formation process and, specifically, the applicability of technoromanticism within this context. Qualitative retrospective biographical interviews were undertaken with 12 self-selected individuals who had engaged with virtual worlds before or during their sexual identity development. The CASE model (Community, Anonymity, Sexual experimentation, and Escape) was developed to characterise the key themes emerging from the data and illustrate the enactment of technoromanticism by homosexual males within virtual worlds. It is concluded that technoromanticism in virtual worlds can only have a profound impact on individuals if the individual's personal development online is transferred offline as there is a potential to become toxically immersed and thus stall or halt the identity development process altogether.
Keywords: Homosexual males; Virtual worlds; Technoromanticism; Coming out; Identity formation; CMC
Transition, stress and computer-mediated social support BIBAKFull-Text A40-A53
  Jude P. Mikal; Ronald E. Rice; Audrey Abeyta; Jenica DeVilbiss
This review of literature from multiple disciplines argues that the Internet is useful both in communicating support, and in the rapid reestablishment of socially supportive peer networks, when an individual's support needs change following a transition. We extend prior typologies of transition by identifying common features and outcomes of transition. We subsequently describe how transition involves a loss of social support networks and social capital, leading to increased stress and decreased wellbeing. Finally, we examine the features of computer mediated social support, and how those align with support needs following a transition. This paper provides a theoretical underpinning and a common language for the study of transition and its associated stress. The paper also suggests that computer-mediated social support may in some instances be superior to available face-to-face support options for managing the transitional factors affecting stress.
Keywords: Transition; Stress; Social support; Social capital; Computer mediated communication; Internet mediated social support
Internet banging: New trends in social media, gang violence, masculinity and hip hop BIBAKFull-Text A54-A59
  Desmond Upton Patton; Robert D. Eschmann; Dirk A. Butler
Gang members carry guns and twitter accounts. Media outlets nationally have reported on a new phenomenon of gang affiliates using social media sites such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to trade insults or make violence threats that lead homicide or victimization. We term this interaction internet banging. Police departments in metropolitan areas have increased resources in their gang violence units to combat this issue. Interestingly, there is little to no literature on this issue. We argue internet banging is a cultural phenomenon that has evolved from increased participation with social media and represents an adaptive structuration, or new and unintended use of existing online social media. We examine internet banging within the context of gang violence, paying close attention to the mechanisms and processes that may explain how and why internet banging has evolved. We examine the role of hip-hop in the development of internet banging and highlight the changing roles of both hip hop and computer mediated communication as social representations of life in violent communities. We explore the presentation of urban masculinity and its influence on social media behavior. Lastly, we conduct a textual analysis of music and video content that demonstrates violent responses to virtual interactions.
Keywords: Social media; Gang violence; African American males; Hip hop
The role of social media in higher education classes (real and virtual) -- A literature review BIBAKFull-Text A60-A68
  Paul A. Tess
The ubiquity of social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) is no more apparent than at the university. Social media are increasingly visible in higher education settings as instructors look to technology to mediate and enhance their instruction as well as promote active learning for students. Many scholars argue for the purposeful integration of social media as an educational tool. Empirical evidence, however, has lagged in supporting the claim. Most of the existing research on the utility and effectiveness of social media in the higher education class is limited to self-reported data (e.g., surveys, questionnaires) and content analyses. This paper summarizes the scholarly writings as well as reviews the findings of empirical investigations. Some limitations are discussed, and future areas of research are proposed.
Keywords: Social media; Higher education; Facebook; Twitter; Blogs; Educational technology
Social media and the introductory statistics course BIBAKFull-Text A69-A81
  Michelle Everson; Ellen Gundlach; Jacqueline Miller
The popularity of social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube begs the question of how such sites might be used for educational purposes within classroom settings. This paper presents a review of some of the educational uses of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube within college classrooms. Because of the lack of published reports on the use of social media within statistics classrooms, the authors share their own examples of how social media can be used within the introductory statistics classroom, and they outline recommendations and considerations for other instructors who might want to explore the use of social media in their own courses.
Keywords: Social media; Teaching; Technology; Facebook; Twitter; YouTube

Regular Articles

Effects of computer-based educational achievement test on test performance and test takers' motivation BIBAKFull-Text 1889-1895
  Yan Piaw Chua; Zuraidah Mohd Don
There has been an increasing interest in recent years in developing and using computer-based tests in educational assessment. To replace paper-based tests with computer-based ones, the standards for developing computerized-assessment (International Test Commission., 2004) requires equivalent test scores to be established for the new computer-based test and the conventional paper-based test. However, in most test mode comparability studies, the actual test items used have been identical, and yet significant differences have been found in test scores in paper-based and computer-based modes. This has been reported for several subjects, including science, languages and mathematics. The validity of using computer-based tests in educational assessment must therefore be questioned. This study involves a biology test and a biology motivation questionnaire using a Solomon four-group experimental design to examine the validity of the computer-based test and its effects on test performance and the motivation of test-takers. The findings provide supportive evidence for the validity of computer-based test in educational assessment.
Keywords: Computer-based testing; Biology; Testing effect; Performance; Test-takers' motivation
Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying -- An analysis of Swedish adolescent data BIBAKFull-Text 1896-1903
  Linda Beckman; Curt Hagquist; Lisa Hellström
In the wake of the rapid development of modern IT technology, cyberspace bullying has emerged among adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine gender differences among adolescents involved in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Cross-sectional data from 2989 Swedish students aged 13 -- 15 were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show discrepant gender patterns of involvement in traditional bullying and cyberbullying. First, although there were only minimal gender differences among traditional victims, girls are more likely than boys to be cybervictims when occasional cyberbullying is used as a cut-off point. Second, whereas boys are more likely to be traditional bullies, girls are as likely as boys to be cyberbullies. In conclusion, compared to traditional bullying, girls are generally more involved in cyberbullying relative to boys. We discuss these results in the light of adolescents' usage of computerized devices.
Keywords: Adolescents; Bullying; Cyberbullying; Gender; School
The effects of individual innovativeness on users' adoption of Internet content filtering software and attitudes toward children's Internet use BIBAKFull-Text 1904-1916
  Chang-Hyun Jin
The introduction of Internet content filtering software (ICFS) has led to intense debate among civil liberties groups. This paper explores the relationship between membership in five previously established adopter categories and users' adoption of ICFS. The study also investigates how membership in the five adopter categories (innovators, early adopters, early majority adopters, late majority adopters, and laggards) affects user perceptions of and satisfaction with the software as well as parental attitudes towards their children's Internet use.
   Using data from a panel of consumers (n = 784) who have used ICFS, the results reveal that consumers across the five adopter groups reported varying perceptions of and user satisfaction with ICFS and exhibited varying levels of interest in and control of their children's Internet use. In particular, innovators and early adopters reported more favorable perceptions of and greater user satisfaction with ICFS than other adopters did. The study's findings provide potentially significant implications that can be used to develop guidelines and a framework for assessing ICFS user behavior. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Internet content filtering software; Diffusion theory; Five adopter groups; Satisfaction; User behavior
Improving data accuracy: Selecting the best data checking technique BIBAKFull-Text 1917-1922
  Kimberly A. Barchard; Yevgeniya Verenikina
Data entry errors can have catastrophic effects on the results of a statistical analysis. Therefore, researchers often spend considerable effort checking their data. This paper compared the effectiveness of three data checking methods -- double entry, read aloud, and visual checking -- using the types of data and data entry personnel that are typically used in psychological research. To compare these techniques, we created 20 data sheets and entered them into the computer. Next, we deliberately introduced errors into this data set. Participants' job was to locate and correct these errors.
   A total of 340 undergraduates participated in this study. Of these, 80 had previous data entry experience and 260 did not. Double entry was far superior to read aloud and visual checking, both among people with previous data entry experience and among people without previous experience. Among people with no previous experience, read aloud and visual checking had more than 20 times as many errors as double entry. In addition, double entry was preferred over visual checking. Thus, although double entry takes slightly longer, it is clearly worth the extra effort.
Keywords: Data checking; Double entry; Read aloud; Visual checking
Employee creativity formation: The roles of knowledge seeking, knowledge contributing and flow experience in Web 2.0 virtual communities BIBAKFull-Text 1923-1932
  Yalan Yan; Robert M. Davison; Chunyan Mo
Knowledge seeking and knowledge contributing are two distinct types of behaviors, both of which must occur for the presumed benefits of knowledge sharing to be realized. Self-perception theory posits that individuals come to 'know' their own internal beliefs by inferring them partially from observations of their own overt behavior. Building on self-perception theory and adhering to the principle that knowledge sharing facilitates knowledge creation, we develop a research model to explore the consequences of both knowledge seeking and knowledge contributing behavior given the consideration that flow plays a lubricating role in the formation of creativity. Data collected from 232 users of Web 2.0 virtual communities were used to test the model. We found that both knowledge seeking and knowledge contributing can lead to a state of flow and can further result in creativity at work. These findings and their implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Knowledge seeking; Knowledge contributing; Flow; Creativity; Web 2.0 virtual communities
Do problematic and non-problematic video game players differ in extraversion, trait empathy, social capital and prosocial tendencies? BIBAKFull-Text 1933-1940
  Emily Collins; Jonathan Freeman
The increasing popularity of online and multiplayer games has meant that for many, social interaction and cooperation are vital components of the gaming experience. Previous research has suggested that not only has this made gaming more attractive to socially oriented people but also that it may be socially beneficial in terms of social capital and prosocial behaviors. However, for problematic video game players (those showing signs of compulsive or detrimental video game use), this may not be the case, and a number of theories hold deficiencies in socializing in real life as central to the development of this issue. In the present study, an online questionnaire completed by 416 participants assessed problematic video game use, extraversion, trait empathy, online and offline social capital and prosocial tendencies. Contrary to hypotheses, non-problematic, problematic and non-gamers did not differ in empathy, extraversion or prosocial tendencies. Problematic video game play was, however, associated with significantly higher online social capital and lower offline social capital whereas non-problematic players demonstrated only higher online capital than non-players. This highlights the importance of social support but suggests personality is not an influential factor.
Keywords: Social capital; Extraversion; Empathy; Prosocial tendencies; Video games; Problematic video game use
Flow and Telepresence contributing to Internet Abuse: Differences according to Gender and Age BIBAKFull-Text 1941-1948
  Vasilis Stavropoulos; Kyriaki Alexandraki; Frosso Motti-Stefanidi
Flow describes immersive tendencies to Internet activities, and Telepresence defines the level one is absorbed in his virtual environment. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to test whether and how Flow and Telepresence may contribute to Internet Abuse and (b) to examine group differences in Internet Abuse, Flow and Telepresence according to gender and age among adolescents. The sample consisted of 1609 adolescents, with a mean age of 16 years old. Internet Abuse was assessed with the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998), Flow with the Flow Questionnaire (Chen, Wigand, & Nilan, 1999) and Telepresence with the Presence II questionnaire (Witmer & Singer, 1998). Findings revealed that Flow and Telepresence were related with Internet Abuse with Telepresence positively moderating the effect of Flow. Considering group differences, males were at higher risk of Internet Abuse and were more likely to experience Flow and Telepresence, while older adolescents scored higher only in Telepresence.
Keywords: Internet Abuse; Flow; Telepresence; Adolescence
Understanding internet recruitment via signaling theory and the elaboration likelihood model BIBAKFull-Text 1949-1959
  Christina K. Gregory; Adam W. Meade; Lori Foster Thompson
A detailed model specifying the linkages between Internet recruitment websites and organizational attraction was examined. Participants (N = 581) viewed Fortune 500 company websites and responded to questions about the content and design of these websites and their resulting attitudes, fit perceptions, and organizational attraction. Results showed that recruitment website content and design influence attitudes toward the recruitment websites, organizational attitudes, and subsequently organizational attraction. The moderating effects of person-organization (P-O) and person-job (P-J) fit were examined. Two sets of hypotheses based on signaling theory (Spence, 1973, 1974) and the elaboration likelihood model (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981) were largely supported. Consistent with signaling theory, the amount of job and organizational information on a recruitment website interacted with website usability, such that when less job information was presented, website usability played a greater role in predicting favorable attitudes towards the organization. Consistent with the elaboration likelihood model, when P-J fit was high, website aesthetics were less important in predicting attitudes towards the organization.
Keywords: Internet recruitment; Online recruitment; Web recruitment; Employee recruitment
The use of key-press, voice and mouse devices in response time researches: A comparison in low conflict tasks BIBAKFull-Text 1960-1970
  Giorgio P. De-Marchis
It is implicitly assumed that data obtained from different modalities in response time research are comparable. However, this assumption has not been tested and verified, and scholars do not really know whether their choice has any effect on data, and consequently, whether they have lost experimental control. This research compares three modes (key-press, voice and mouse) in three of the most commonly used low conflict tasks (simple reaction, lexical decision and semantic categorization) to confirm the above assumption. To gain more precision, linguistic and semantic gradients have been tested. Results show that there are no functional differences in the simple reaction task. In the lexical decision task a frequency effect for all modes has been found. Specific S -- R mapping rules do not need to be reversed when using a button-press or a mouse mode, but they have effects on the voice mode. In the semantic categorization task, a gradient and a frequency effect have been found in all modes. However, word frequency can affect the data. It is recommended to reverse S -- R mapping rules in the voice mode in order to avoid differences with the manual modes. In conclusion, differences in low conflict tasks exist and must be taken into consideration when comparing studies in which different devices have been used.
Keywords: Response modality; Response mode; Computer peripheral devices; Vocal and manual response; Reaction time; Measurement
A study of Facebook Groups members' knowledge sharing BIBAKFull-Text 1971-1979
  Shih-Ming Pi; Chen-Huei Chou; Hsiu-Li Liao
There have been many studies focusing on individuals' knowledge sharing behavior in the organizational setting. With the rapid prevalence of social networking sites, many people began to express their thoughts or share their knowledge via Facebook website. Facebook is an open environment which does not provide any immediate monetary benefits to its users. Its Groups members' knowledge sharing behavior could be different from the ones in organizations. We proposed a research model to examine factors which promote the Facebook Groups users' willingness to share knowledge. The factors in the study include extrinsic motivation, social and psychological forces, and social networking sharing culture. We used PLS to test our proposed hypotheses based on 271 responses collected through an online survey. Our results indicated that reputation would affect knowledge sharing attitude of Groups members and sense of self-worth would directly and indirectly (through subjective norm) affect the attitude. In addition, social networking sharing culture (fairness, identification, and openness) is the most significant factor, not only directly affecting knowledge sharing intention, but also indirectly influencing the sharing intention through subjective norm and knowledge sharing attitude.
Keywords: Facebook Groups; Knowledge sharing; Extrinsic motivation; Social and psychological forces; Social networking sharing culture
Development of a scale for fantasy state in digital games BIBAKFull-Text 1980-1986
  Beomkyu Choi; Jie Huang; Annie Jeffrey; Youngkyun Baek
Digital games appear to motivate players intrinsically. Of various game features, fantasy in particularly plays a crucial role in enhancing motivation and is a key factor in immersion in gameplay. As with its inherent value, fantasy also plays a vital role in distinguishing digital games itself from other media. Despite its significance, fantasy has received little attention, and this concept is still ambiguous to define with any certainty. This study thus aims to create a framework to explore a dimension of fantasy and to develop a scale to measure a state of fantasy in digital games. As a result, four factors were extracted, which were 'identification', 'imagination', 'analogy', and 'satisfaction', to account for fantasy state in digital gameplay. Based on these factors, a fantasy scale in digital games (FSDGs) included 16 items was developed.
Keywords: Digital game; Fantasy; Intrinsic motivation; Exploratory factor analysis; Confirmatory factor analysis
Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors BIBAKFull-Text 1987-1996
  Daria J. Kuss; Antonius J. van Rooij; Gillian W. Shorter; Mark D. Griffiths; D. van de Mheen
As new media are becoming daily fare, Internet addiction appears as a potential problem in adolescents. From the reported negative consequences, it appears that Internet addiction can have a variety of detrimental outcomes for young people that may require professional intervention. Researchers have now identified a number of activities and personality traits associated with Internet addiction. This study aimed to synthesise previous findings by (i) assessing the prevalence of potential Internet addiction in a large sample of adolescents, and (ii) investigating the interactions between personality traits and the usage of particular Internet applications as risk factors for Internet addiction. A total of 3105 adolescents in the Netherlands filled out a self-report questionnaire including the Compulsive Internet Use Scale and the Quick Big Five Scale. Results indicate that 3.7% of the sample were classified as potentially being addicted to the Internet. The use of online gaming and social applications (online social networking sites and Twitter) increased the risk for Internet addiction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness appeared as protective factors in high frequency online gamers. The findings support the inclusion of 'Internet addiction' in the DSM-V. Vulnerability and resilience appear as significant aspects that require consideration in further studies.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Adolescents; Prevalence; Personality; Risk; Internet applications
Does deviant pornography use follow a Guttman-like progression? BIBAKFull-Text 1997-2003
  Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar; Marcus K. Rogers
This study investigated whether deviant pornography use followed a Guttman-like progression in that a person transitions from being a nondeviant to deviant pornography user. In order to observe this progression, 630 respondents from Survey Sampling International's (SSI) panel Internet sample completed an online survey assessing adult-only, bestiality, and child pornography consumption. Respondents' "age of onset' for adult pornography use was measured to determine if desensitization occurred in that individuals who engaged in adult pornography at a younger age were more likely to transition into deviant pornography use. Two hundred and 54 respondents reported the use of nondeviant adult pornography, 54 reported using animal pornography, and 33 reported using child pornography. The child pornography users were more likely to consume both adult and animal pornography, rather than just solely consuming child pornography. Results suggested deviant pornography use followed a Guttman-like progression in that individuals with a younger "age of onset' for adult pornography use were more likely to engage in deviant pornography (bestiality or child) compared to those with a later "age of onset'. Limitations and future research suggestions are discussed.
Keywords: Pornography; Guttman-like progression; Age of onset; Child pornography; Bestiality; Internet crime
Mirror or Megaphone?: How relationships between narcissism and social networking site use differ on Facebook and Twitter BIBAKFull-Text 2004-2012
  Elliot T. Panek; Yioryos Nardis; Sara Konrath
As research on the connection between narcissism and social networking site (SNS) use grows, definitions of SNS and measurements of their use continue to vary, leading to conflicting results. To improve understanding of the relationship between narcissism and SNS use, as well as the implications of differences in definition and measurement, we examine two ways of measuring Facebook and Twitter use by testing the hypothesis that SNS use is positively associated with narcissism. We also explore the relation between these types of SNS use and different components of narcissism within college students and general adult samples. Our findings suggest that for college students, posting on Twitter is associated with the Superiority component of narcissistic personality while Facebook posting is associated with the Exhibitionism component. Conversely, adults high in Superiority post on Facebook more rather than Twitter. For adults, Facebook and Twitter are both used more by those focused on their own appearances but not as a means of showing off, as is the case with college students. Given these differences, it is essential for future studies of SNS use and personality traits to distinguish between different types of SNS, different populations, and different types of use.
Keywords: Narcissism; Social networking sites; Facebook; Twitter
Students' tool-use within a web enhanced course: Explanatory mechanisms of students' tool-use pattern BIBAKFull-Text 2013-2021
  Griet Lust; Jan Elen; Geraldine Clarebout
The popularity of content management systems (CMSs) in today's higher education is driven by the assumption that providing a rich toolset and leaving the use of this toolset under learner control will stimulate self-regulated and deeper learning. Current evidence on students' tool-use within CMS supported courses however tackles this assumption and indicates that CMSs may empower students' learning only under particular learner-related conditions. The current study addresses this concern and investigates how students' tool-use within a CMS supported course can be explained in terms of (a) students' conceptions on the tool functionalities, (b) self-efficacy beliefs for self-regulated learning and (c) goal orientation. Data were collected within a first year undergraduate course 'Learning and Instruction'. Students' (n = 182) tool-use within the course was logged throughout the course episode and the influencing variables were measured through questionnaires. K-means cluster analyses revealed four clusters that reflected differences in students' tool-choice and tool-use throughout the course. Multinominal regression analyses revealed that these tool-use differences could be explained in terms of students' goal orientation. The study provides thus perspectives in order to capture students' academic motivation through unobtrusive, behavioral, measures. Furthermore, questions are raised regarding the parallel between students' tool-use pattern and study strategy use.
Keywords: Content management systems; Instructional design; Tool-use; Goal orientation; Self-efficacy; Instructional conceptions
The personalization effect in multimedia learning: The influence of dialect BIBAKFull-Text 2022-2028
  Günter Daniel Rey; Nadine Steib
The personalization effect states that through addressing a learner personally or formulating multimedia instruction in a personal way the learning outcome is improved. This effect can be explained either with higher social presence, with stronger self-reference or with more familiarity of personal messages. Based on these explanations, using a regional dialect instead of standard language should also improve the learning outcome. Two hundred and ten Austrian pupils at a lower secondary school viewed a narrated animation concerning computer networks. The students were randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (formal or personalized) x 2 (standard German or Austrian dialect) between-subjects factorial design. Results confirmed the personalization effect for retention and transfer performance, showing a stronger effect for transfer. This result is discussed as well as the partly significant findings for the factor speech and the significant interaction effect between personalization and speech on learners' interest.
Keywords: Multimedia learning; Personalization effect; Dialect; Social cues; Interest
Anti-smoking educational game using avatars as visualized possible selves BIBAKFull-Text 2029-2036
  Hayeon Song; Jihyun Kim; Remi J. Kwon; Younbo Jung
Few social smokers envision themselves being affected by the negative consequences of smoking despite well-known facts that smoking causes serious illnesses and death. However, as smoking habits quickly develop, social smokers cannot be free from the negative consequences of smoking. In this study, we pose the following question: "Would showing social smokers' possible future as a consequence of smoking help them alter their current smoking behaviors?' Thus, using the theoretical concept of possible selves, an anti-smoking educational game was created in which players could see changes to the appearance of their future selves as a consequence of smoking. We used a 2 (Future face: Showing vs. Not showing) x 2 (Self avatar: Self-avatar vs. Other-avatar) between-subjects design for the experiment. Results indicated that participants who viewed the future face, compared to who did not, reported more negative attitudes toward social smoking and greater intention to quit smoking. The main effect of the self avatar was insignificant; however, seeing the future face in the self-avatar condition led to an increase in perceived risks compared to other-avatar condition. The implications of using avatars as visualized possible selves in health promotion are discussed.
Keywords: Educational game; Serious game; Smoking; Possible selves; Susceptibility
The payment dilemma in movie and music downloads: An explanation through cognitive dissonance theory BIBAKFull-Text 2037-2046
  Ignacio Redondo; Jean-Philippe Charron
This study examines which individual characteristics help explain the differences among the groups of downloaders defined according to three common payment patterns: Downloaders who never pay, downloaders who always pay, and the eclectic downloaders who only pay at times. One distinctive characteristic for each group is theoretically hypothesized within the cognitive dissonance framework and empirically confirmed for both movie and music downloading: A more negative attitude towards newness distinguishes downloaders who never pay, a shorter Internet use history distinguishes downloaders who always pay, and participation in a greater breadth of online activities distinguishes eclectic downloaders. By contrast, neither demographics nor factors related to movie (music) interests help explain the differences among the groups of movie (music) downloaders. Both the theoretical framework and the empirical evidence might be used to improve the effectiveness of anti-piracy campaigns by adapting their messages to the specific characteristics and expected reactions of each group of downloaders.
Keywords: Digital piracy; Cognitive dissonance; Entertainment industry
How hypertext fosters children's knowledge acquisition: The roles of text structure and graphical overview BIBAFull-Text 2047-2057
  Sabine Salome Klois; Eliane Segers; Ludo Verhoeven
Children in primary and secondary school are asked to go on the Internet for school purposes while research on hypertext has scarcely investigated how children process and learn from hypertext. We therefore examined how hypertext influences children's knowledge acquisition from expository text. A group of 71 Dutch children (13 years old) from one secondary school for pre-university education participated in the study. In a within-subjects design with four conditions, we compared: regular linear text, regular text with overview, hypertext, and hypertext with overview. Children's (a) navigation (i.e., reading time and navigation pattern) and (b) learning (i.e., multiple choice knowledge questions and mind maps) was measured. Although reading times did not differ, the children navigated less linearly in both hypertext conditions than in the regular text with overview condition. The four types of text led to the same deep understanding as measured on the text base level. Analyses of the mind maps, however, showed the children to construct richer situation models after reading hypertext or hypertext with an overview relative to regular linear text and regular text with overview. We therefore conclude that hypertext fosters a deeper level of information processing when appropriately designed relative to regular linear text.
To boldly go where no group has gone before: An analysis of online group identity and validation of a measure BIBAKFull-Text 2058-2071
  Matt C. Howard; Stephanie M. Magee
Online groups have become more popular in recent decades, in both research and practice. Many authors have proposed important outcomes of group membership, and some have even investigated some preliminary dynamics of these online groups. Unfortunately, no validated measure of online group identity exists, causing these researchers to employ measures with poor psychometric properties or concerning construct validity. For these reasons, the current article undergoes a multiple study process to validate a measure of online group identity. In doing so, several aspects of online group identity are discovered, largely based on propositions previously posed for offline groups. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals from a general sample identify with online groups, and the measure has an identifiable factor structure. Using a naturally occurring online group, Study 2 shows the measure's concurrent, convergent, and divergent validity, while simultaneously revealing many novel relationships of online group identity. Lastly, Study 3 investigates the effect of The United States President, Barack Obama, creating an account on the website studied in Study 2 and interacting with group members. The results of Study 3 reveal that online group identity did not change after this historic event, although members had notable emotional responses. In all, the current study illustrates the validity of an online group identity measure, and discovers many important relationships previously unknown in regards to online group identity. It is believed that the investigated measure of online group identity will become an important tool in future research, especially when further probing the relationships analyzed in the current study. Further implications and suggestions for future studies are discussed.
Keywords: Group identity; Online groups; Scale development; Internet use
Facebooking for health: An examination into the solicitation and effects of health-related social support on social networking sites BIBAKFull-Text 2072-2080
  Hyun Jung Oh; Carolyn Lauckner; Jan Boehmer; Ryan Fewins-Bliss; Kang Li
The current study investigates people's use of social networking sites for health purposes and its impact on their perception of social support and their health self-efficacy. A structural model was fitted to test hypothesized relationships between having a health concern, seeking online health information, seeking health-related social support on Facebook, perceived social support from Facebook friends, and health-related self-efficacy. The study also looks at the relative significance of social support dimensions including: emotional, informational, tangible, and esteem dimensions. An analysis of 291 respondents revealed a positive relationship between having health concerns and seeking health-related social support. Seeking support was significantly associated with all four social support dimensions. Among the four support dimensions, emotional support was the only significant predictor of health self-efficacy. Also, emotional support was the dimension that was most prevalent in Facebook contexts. Health information seeking was also positively associated with health self-efficacy but was not significantly related to having a health concern.
Keywords: Health-related social support; Facebook; Online information seeking; Health self-efficacy
Who will cross the border? -- The transition of political discussion into the newly emerged venues BIBAKFull-Text 2081-2089
  Soo Young Bae; Nojin Kwak; Scott W. Campbell
This study explores the political implications of new communication technologies with a focus on their role as political discussion venues. Assuming that new technologies could expand the sphere for political discourse, we investigate the transition of citizens' face-to-face political discussion into the computer-mediated online context. With analyses of a representative sample of US adults, this study explicates the link between the traditional and newly emerged discussion venues online. Our results reveal that significant differences in the transition pattern arise from variances in citizens' political interest and age. In addition, in an attempt to reconcile the two seemingly conflicting hypotheses, we examine the role of political interest and age in the transition process within one integrated theoretical framework. Our findings highlight the conditions under which the democratic potential of the new venues becomes magnified, and draws attention to the importance of examining the dynamics underlying the transition of discussion venues.
Keywords: New media; Political discussion; Internet; Quantitative-survey
Coding behavior of authentication code on the internet BIBAKFull-Text 2090-2099
  Shu-Chiung Lin; David C. Yen; Patrick S. Chen; Wei-Kuo Lin
With the rapid growth of Internet services, virtual world has witnessed an increasingly large number of online users who have a variety of needs such as accessing various websites to gather information, easing business transactions, and sharing updates. As a result, information security has become a major concern among online users, and the verification of access codes is now the main practice used to keep information systems safe. However, some issues arise as the result of coding and managing behavior, and this research seeks to address these issues. After following the Focus Group method and interviewing 13 college students, this research finds that forgetting the access code is one of the biggest challenges to most online users simply because of the longer duration and the time when the users have a need to access the websites again, their memory will eclipse. In addition, online users usually develop self-constructed rules to cope with elusive code. These rules include: creating some sets of code that may not be meaningful to outsiders; taking different degrees of complex measures to register authentication codes, dependent upon the importance of the websites to the online users; writing the authentication codes on a scratchpad and sticking it on the computer screen; and keeping the codes in a notebook or computer file. The above practices nevertheless run the risk of being usurped by hackers, and it is found that hacking frequently takes place among closest friends, as they are quite familiar with the coding behavior of the victims. While assisting coding management does not help in this regard, as it is generally too expensive, online users troubled by the forgetting of access codes often end up with re-applying for a new set of authentication codes after unsuccessfully trying to login. All these self-constructed rules, nevertheless, constitute threat to information security. The research, in conclusion, calls for an education campaign to promote healthy coding behavior and effective coding management. The obtained findings provide valuable references for both academicians and practitioners to understand the online users' coding behaviors and to effectively manage them accordingly to improve the resulting information security.
Keywords: Authentication code; Coding behavior; Password; Account; Focus group
Computer-supported collaborative learning with digital video cases in teacher education: The impact of teaching experience on knowledge convergence BIBAKFull-Text 2100-2108
  Jan M. Zottmann; Karsten Stegmann; Jan-Willem Strijbos; Freydis Vogel; Christof Wecker; Frank Fischer
Case-based learning is ascribed high potential with respect to the education of pre-service teachers as well as the further education of experienced in-service teachers, as it can provide opportunities for the application of professional knowledge to authentic classroom situations. In addition to the application and acquisition of knowledge, the aspect of knowledge convergence (i.e., increasing similarity of collaborative learners with respect to their knowledge) should be taken into account when homogeneous benefits are desired for all participants of a case-based training. A field study with 29 pre-service teachers and 24 in-service teachers from adult education was conducted to examine effects of different levels of teaching experience on knowledge application, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge convergence in a computer-supported collaborative case-based learning environment. An innovative approach to measuring knowledge convergence was introduced, using the positions of annotations (i.e., flags placed on the timeline of the case video) made by learners during their case analyses as an indicator of their shared focus of attention. This measure was found to positively correlate with the application and acquisition of professional knowledge. Teaching experience affected both processes and outcomes of case-based learning, suggesting different means of instructional support for pre-service and in-service teachers.
Keywords: Case-based learning; Teacher education; Knowledge convergence; Collaborative learning; Measurement
Modeling the stimulators of the behavioral intention to use mobile entertainment: Does gender really matter? BIBAKFull-Text 2109-2121
  Lai-Ying Leong; Keng-Boon Ooi; Alain Yee-Loong Chong; Binshan Lin
This research aims to empirically examine the stimulators that influence consumers' behavioral intention to use (IU) mobile entertainment (ME) in Malaysia. The proposed stimulators are perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), social influence (SI), perceived self-efficacy (PSE) and perceived enjoyment (PE). PU and PEOU were derived from TAM, SI was taken from the TRA, TPB and DOI model, PE was obtained from the extended-TAM model and PSE was taken from Bandura's theory. This is among the first study that uses a model consisting of integrated constructs from TAM, extended-TAM, TRA, TPB, DOI and Bandura's theory in predicting acceptance of ME. Empirical data were analyzed by employing Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. Gender moderating effect was examined via multiple group analysis (MGA). The findings revealed that PU, PEOU, SI and PE are positively associated with consumer IU of ME. Surprisingly, there were no significant moderating effects of gender. The control variables (i.e. age, marital status, education level, number of mobile phone and experience) were found to have no confounding effects on the ME adoption. The findings have contributed theoretical and managerial implications to ME providers, mobile phone manufacturers, the music, movie and gaming industry players.
Keywords: Mobile entertainment; TAM; Gender moderating effect; Multiple group analysis; Structural Equation Modeling

CHB 2013-11 Volume 29 Issue 6


Trust in automation and automation designers: Implications for HCI and HMI BIBFull-Text 2208-2210
  Kimberly E. Culley; Poornima Madhavan
Developing tools to predict human behavior in response to large-scale catastrophic events BIBFull-Text 2756-2757
  Matthieu J. Guitton


Computer anxiety: Comparison of research from the 1990s and 2000s BIBAKFull-Text 2337-2381
  Anne L. Powell
As computers became ubiquitous in businesses, homes, and schools, there was increasing concern about computer anxiety and its effect on individuals. The first academic articles on computer anxiety were published in the early 1980s. Since that time, hundreds of papers have been published on the topic. Yet, up to this time, no one has done a comprehensive review of computer anxiety. In this article, 276 articles on computer anxiety are reviewed. From a synthesis of the articles and variables studied to date, a framework is developed that outlines the primary topics studied in computer anxiety literature. Nine antecedents, five correlates, and two outcomes of computer anxiety are identified as the most studied variables in the literature. In addition, a statistical comparison is done to compare the distribution of computer anxiety topics and results published in the 1990s to those published in the 2000s. Suggestions for future research in computer anxiety are proposed.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Literature review; Antecedents; Correlates; Outcomes
Cyberbullying myths and realities BIBAKFull-Text 2703-2711
  Russell A. Sabella; Justin W. Patchin; Sameer Hinduja
Bullying has long been a concern of youth advocates (e.g., educators, counselors, researchers, policy makers). Recently, cyberbullying (bullying perpetrated through online technology) has dominated the headlines as a major current-day adolescent challenge. This article reviews available empirical research to examine the accuracy of commonly-perpetuated claims about cyberbullying. The analysis revealed several myths about the nature and extent of cyberbullying that are being fueled by media headlines and unsubstantiated public declarations. These myths include that (a) everyone knows what cyberbullying is; (b) cyberbullying is occurring at epidemic levels; (c) cyberbullying causes suicide; (d) cyberbullying occurs more often now than traditional bullying; (e) like traditional bullying, cyberbullying is a rite of passage; (f) cyberbullies are outcasts or just mean kids; and (g) to stop cyberbullying, just turn off your computer or cell phone. These assertions are clarified using data that are currently available so that adults who work with youth will have an accurate understanding of cyberbullying to better assist them in effective prevention and response. Implications for prevention efforts in education in light of these revelations are also discussed and include effective school policies, educating students and stakeholders, the role of peer helper programs, and responsive services (e.g., counseling).
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Internet; School; School counseling; Online; Youth development

Regular Articles

Perceived bridging and bonding social capital on Twitter: Differentiating between followers and followees BIBAKFull-Text 2134-2142
  Matthias Hofer; Viviane Aubert
The present study investigates the influence of Twitter use and the number of followers and followees on perceived bridging and bonding online social capital. Data from a convenience sample of Twitter users (N = 264) indicate that bonding social capital is associated with the number of followers whereas bridging social capital is influenced by the number of followees. Thus, the directed friendship model on Twitter affects different forms of social capital differently. In addition, the study found a negative curvilinear effect of the number of followees on bridging and the number of followers on bonding online social capital. This indicates that the number of followees/followers has positive effects on online bridging/bonding social capital, but only to a certain point. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results in light of theoretical considerations and of implications for future research on the effects of Twitter on social capital.
Keywords: Twitter; Bonding online social capital; Bridging online social capital; Followers; Followees
Informing aggression -- prevention efforts by comparing perpetrators of brief vs. extended cyber aggression BIBAKFull-Text 2143-2149
  Kenneth France; Azim Danesh; Stephanie Jirard
As debate continues over the definition of cyberbullying, an important endeavor is identifying aggression -- prevention efforts likely to impact reasons for cyberbullying and the broader phenomenon of cyber aggression. No empirical research has examined whether there are useful prevention-related distinctions between perpetrators of cyberbullying vs. perpetrators of brief cyber aggression. Using an online survey, this study explored perpetrators' beliefs, emotions, and behaviors related to 72 brief vs. 128 extended episodes of cyber aggression. The most pronounced difference was that more extended-episode perpetrators reported having been hurt by something that happened in cyberspace. One pronounced similarity was that if there had been a news story about the perpetrator doing it, 79% or more of both groups said they would not have felt proud; whereas 63% or more said they would have felt ashamed. Among both groups, 76% or more did not agree with the assertion that there should be no offline consequence for online behavior. The findings support prevention efforts intended to do the following: encourage respect and empathy, facilitate adaptive communication and decision-making skills, promote socially appropriate ways of coping with anger and conflict, and increase knowledge and application of relevant rules and laws.
Keywords: Prevention; Aggression; Cyberbullying; Cyber aggression; Online aggression; Internet aggression
Gaming addiction, definition and measurement: A large-scale empirical study BIBAKFull-Text 2150-2155
  Marloes L. C. Spekman; Elly A. Konijn; Peter H. M. P. Roelofsma; Mark D. Griffiths
Although the general public appears to have embraced the term 'videogame addiction', the scientific debate as to whether 'gaming addiction' can actually be considered an addiction similar to substance addictions of DSM-IV is still unsettled. To date, research on gaming addiction has focused on problematic behavior from the gaming activity itself and there has been little empirical research related to pathological personality patterns that usually are associated with substance addictions. Therefore, the current study examined how game exposure and 'problematic gaming behavior' are related to personality patterns associated with addiction by means of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). A large-scale survey study was performed among 1004 adolescent boys (age-range 11 -- 18, M = 14.18, SD = 1.36) measuring problematic gaming behavior, physical game-related symptoms, gaming behavior and three MMPI-2 subscales measuring personality patterns usually associated with substance addiction (MAC-R, APS, AAS). Results showed that problematic gaming and physical symptoms were positively related to all MMPI-2 subscales, while game exposure was not related to the indirect measures of addictive personality patterns (i.e., MAC-R, APS). Thus, problematic gaming should be clearly distinguished from high game exposure. High game exposure merely indicates enthusiasm for some although it may be psychopathological for others.
Keywords: Game exposure; Video gaming addiction; Pathological gaming; Adolescents; MMPI-2; Substance abuse
Searching the Web for conflicting topics: Page and user factors BIBAKFull-Text 2161-2171
  Ladislao Salmerón; Yvonne Kammerer; Pilar García-Carrión
Web users tend to search only the pages displayed at the top of the search engine results page (the 'top link' heuristic). Although it might be reasonable to use this heuristic to navigate simple and unambiguous facts, it might be risky when searching for conflicting socio-scientific topics, such as potential measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In the present study, we explored the extent to which students consider other Web page characteristics, such as topic relevance and trustworthiness, when searching and bookmarking pages concerning a conflicting topic. We also examined the extent to which prior background knowledge moderates students' behavior. The results revealed that while the study participants actually used a 'top link' heuristic to navigate the results, they engaged in more systematic processes to bookmark pages for further study. Furthermore, the students' background knowledge was related to the assessment of Web page trustworthiness. We discuss these results from the perspective of a dual-processing model.
Keywords: Web search; Google-trust heuristic; Top-link heuristic; Background knowledge
Should hand actions be observed when learning hand motor skills from instructional animations? BIBAKFull-Text 2172-2178
  Nadine Marcus; Bejay Cleary; Anna Wong; Paul Ayres
This study investigated whether the effectiveness of learning a hand-motor task through an instructional animation required observation of the hands or not. Cognitive load theory was used to predict that both animated conditions (with and without hands) would be equally effective, and that both animations would be superior to an equivalent static graphics presentation. 36 adults were randomly assigned to three groups (With-hands animation, No-hands animation, Statics graphics) and were required to learn how to tie two knots. Test results confirmed that both animations led to superior learning compared to the static presentation. However, the With-hands animation strategy had a further advantage in that it had higher instructional efficiency than the No-hands animation.
Keywords: Instructional animations; Human movement; Cognitive load theory; Animation effects; E-learning
The gorilla in the room: The impacts of video-game play on visual attention BIBAKFull-Text 2183-2187
  David B. Vallett; Richard L. Lamb; Leonard A. Annetta
Early studies of visual attention noted a phenomenon termed 'inattention blindness' -- the inability of participants to see clear stimuli enter the visual field when attending to something else in that field -- and sought to expand the understanding of the phenomenon (Neisser & Becklen, 1975; Simons & Chabris, 1999; Stoffregen, Baldwin, & Flynn, 1993). Other research has focused on the changes to the human brain and cognitive functions as a result of video game play, both in positive and negative contexts (Howard-Jones, Ott, van Leeuwen, and De Smedt (2010)). This quasi-experimental study sought to corroborate some of the findings that tie together these seemingly disparate lines of research, adapting the methodology of the most cited inattention blindness experiment (Simons & Chabris, 1999).
Keywords: Cognition; Learner roles; Video games
Factors influencing information distortion in online deliberations: The effects of informational characteristics and regulatory focus BIBAKFull-Text 2188-2196
  Sunghun Chung; Ingoo Han
The current study utilized regulatory focus theory to explain how online deliberations are processed differently depending on a participant's information processing style and the characteristics of a discussion topic. An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship between informational characteristics (hedonic vs. utilitarian) and attitude change toward information, as well as the moderating effect of regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention). Results from 207 students indicated that promotion-focused participants were more likely to change their attitude toward information than prevention-focused participants during online deliberations. Furthermore, when presented with hedonic information, attitude changes toward information were stronger for promotion-focused participants as compared to prevention-focused participants. However, when presented with utilitarian information, attitude changes were stronger for prevention-focused participants. The present findings enable researchers and practitioners to understand the interactive influence of informational characteristics and regulatory foci of participants during online deliberations, as well as influence participants' biased information processing.
Keywords: Online deliberation; Regulatory focus; Information distortion; Online commentary
The relationships between Turkish adolescents' Internet addiction, their perceived social support and family activities BIBAKFull-Text 2197-2207
  Selim Gunuc; Ayten Dogan
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between adolescents' Internet addiction, their perceived social support and the activities carried out with the mother, father and family. The study designed with the survey model involved 166 adolescents who applied to Merkez Efendi Public Hospital Moris Å inasi Children's Clinic, Child Development Polyclinic between February 2012 and June 2012 for problems specific to the period of adolescence. The age range of the participants was between 12 and 18 with the average age of 15.5. The findings of the study revealed a medium level of negative relationship (r = -.37) between perceived social support and Internet addiction. The adolescents spending time with their mothers had a higher level of perceived social support and a lower level of Internet addiction. Also, t-test was applied to see whether the adolescents' perceived social support and Internet addiction differed with respect to the activities they carried out with the mother, father and family. It was found out that a number of activities (watching TV, eating meals, chatting, shopping and spending time outside) the adolescents carried out with their mother increased their level of perceived social support although the levels of Internet addiction did not differ with respect to the types of activities carried out only with the mother, only with the father and with the family.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Perceived social support; Spending time with mother; Adolescent and parents; Family activities
Investigating the effects of student learning of English using COL approach based on situational theories BIBAKFull-Text 2211-2217
  Hsing-chin Lee
This study first analyzed past research on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) approaches, and specifics of English learning to introduce research on situated cognition theories for teaching the subject. A Collaborative Online Learning (COL) approach that incorporated CALL features and situational theories was designed. Pre- and post-tests on student learning of English classes using a designed COL approach were carried out online. Results showed that the COL approach had different effects on student reading, communication and learning motivation. Students with intermediate scores exhibited the highest degrees of improvement, followed by students with low scores. To make the results more descriptive, the author implemented focus group interviews and analyzed the course contents.
Keywords: CALL; COL; Situational cognition theories
An examination of web disclosure and organizational transparency BIBAKFull-Text 2218-2224
  Roderick L. Lee; Rhoda C. Joseph
Web disclosure is a significant technological innovation aimed at improving organizational transparency. Organizations that voluntarily disclose high quality financial and performance information on their public websites are viewed as being more open, trustworthy, and accountable by the general public. Despite the positive benefit of enhanced public trust, many organizations have not implemented the recommended web disclosure principles and best practices. Informed by the theoretical underpinnings of organizational ecology theory, this study develops a theoretical model in order to examine the problem of differential implementation of web disclosure in nonprofit settings. Empirical evidence reveals that the majority of nonprofit websites lack high quality financial and performance information which reflects an opaque digital informative strategy. Our results further suggest that organizational inertia -- particularly resistance to change in organizational form -- may play an important role in the decision to voluntarily adopt and implement innovative web disclosure practices. The findings have implications for research and information systems design.
Keywords: Web disclosure; Transparency; Accountability; Organizational Ecology
Factors associated with early adolescents' anticipated emotional and behavioral responses to ambiguous teases on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 2225-2229
  Mark A. Barnett; Marcella B. Nichols; Tammy L. Sonnentag; Taylor W. Wadian
A total of 69 sixth- through eighth-grade students rated their experiences with antisocial and prosocial teases as well as their general attitudes toward teases. Subsequently, the participants read hard copies of four ambiguous teases, one at a time, posted on a simulation of "their' Facebook wall by four different, hypothetical acquaintances. After reading each tease, the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed their emotional and behavioral response to the tease. Consistent with Weiner's (1980, 1995) cognitive (attribution) -- emotion -- action model of motivated behavior, path analyses revealed that the participants' negative experiences with teases and negative attitudes toward teases were predictive of a negative emotional response to the ambiguous teases on Facebook which, in turn, was predictive of various negative behavioral responses to the ambiguous teasers. Therefore, consistent with the prior finding of a hostile attribution bias in some children's reactions to ambiguous face-to-face teases (Barnett, Barlett, Livengood, Murphy, & Brewton, 2010), the early adolescents in the present study with relatively negative experiences with and attitudes toward teases appear to display a hostile attribution bias whereby teases on Facebook with an uncertain intent are viewed as if they were meant to be antagonistic and antisocial.
Keywords: Teasing; Hostile attribution bias; Peer relations; Facebook
"Everyone Has to Do It:' A joint action approach to managing social inattention BIBAKFull-Text 2230-2238
  Jeremy Birnholtz; Lindsay Reynolds; Madeline E. Smith; Jeff Hancock
In an always-connected world, managing social inattention -- that is, explaining the inability to interact at a particular time -- can be as important as coordinating mutual availability. Inattention, particularly if repeated, can have significant relational consequences as it may be considered rude and can lead to painful social outcomes. Prior research has examined the butler lie, one strategy commonly used to manage social inattention while preserving relationships. This paper builds on that via an interview study of 47 participants that qualitatively examines perceptions of butler lies from both the senders' and receivers' perspectives. Participants see butler lies as a common and useful inattention management strategy, but these messages can have a negative effect receivers do not perceive the senders' intentions to be positive. Factors affecting the perception of intent include relationship strength and history, the stakes of the situation, and past behavior. The paper argues that inattention management should be considered a joint coordination problem characterized by a willingness to accept the pragmatic relational meaning of messages, which may differ from their literal semantic meaning. This hints at a collaborative view of deception, in which some interlocutors are aware they are being deceived and willing to accept deception.
Keywords: Butler lies; Text messaging; Availability; Politeness; CMC; Joint action
Learning from abstract and contextualized representations: The effect of verbal guidance BIBAKFull-Text 2239-2247
  Amy M. Johnson; Kirsten R. Butcher; Gamze Ozogul; Martin Reisslein
An experiment examined the effects of providing explicit verbal guidance to learners in integrating information with abstract or contextualized representations during computer-based learning of engineering. Verbal guidance supported learners in identifying correspondences and making mental connections among multiple textual and diagrammatic representations. Results from a 2 (abstract (A) or contextualized (C) representation) x 2 (no guidance or guidance) design showed that without guidance, abstract representations led to better transfer than contextualized representations. Moreover, learners in the contextualized representation group benefitted from the guidance, while the abstract representation group did not benefit from guidance. These findings suggest that abstract representations promote the development of deep, transferrable knowledge and that verbal guidance denoting correspondences among representations can facilitate learning when less effective representational formats are utilized.
Keywords: Multiple external representations; Visual representations; Text -- diagram integration; Attention guidance; Problem-solving
Does my comment count? Perceptions of political participation in an online environment BIBAKFull-Text 2248-2256
  Lindsay H. Hoffman; Philip Edward Jones; Dannagal Goldthwaite Young
Since the infancy of the Internet, scholars have posited that the medium would mobilize and engage citizens, yet the reality has proven it to be more nuanced and complex. This project examines citizens' motivations to engage in politics online, assessing how people are driven by both a desire to influence government as well as to communicate political ideas to others. We explore the ways these two behaviors are perceived by citizens in online versus offline contexts. We also examine how such perceptions can predict certain behaviors, such as "friending' a candidate and messaging with friends about politics. We find that these behaviors are indeed perceived differently among citizens, and that perceptions predict the likelihood of participating in online political forums.
Keywords: Internet; Political communication; Social networking sites; Online political participation; Perceptions
Friend or not to friend: Coworker Facebook friend requests as an application of communication privacy management theory BIBAKFull-Text 2257-2264
  Bethany D. Frampton; Jeffrey T. Child
Given that Facebook.com is a social networking tool used by a diverse audience, this study employs Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory as a framework to investigate how working professionals respond to co-worker Facebook friend requests. Overall, 312 individuals with full-time jobs and Facebook accounts completed an online survey. Results confirmed that most working professionals accepted co-worker Facebook friend requests. However, request decisions varied in conjunction with organizational privacy orientation, current Facebook privacy management practices, and co-worker communication satisfaction. Results confirm that working professionals' Facebook linkage choices with other co-workers are best understood when embedded within a framework which provides a more complete understanding of the functioning of their privacy rules. Future research examining working professionals' social media privacy management practices when individual privacy norms contradict organizational privacy norms is discussed.
Keywords: Communication Privacy Management (CPM) Theory; Social media; Organizational privacy norms; Facebook privacy; Online disclosure; Coworker communication satisfaction
Practice makes perfect: The longitudinal effect of adolescents' instant messaging on their ability to initiate offline friendships BIBAKFull-Text 2265-2272
  Maria Koutamanis; Helen G. M. Vossen; Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg
The first aim of this study was to investigate whether instant messaging (IM) influences adolescents' ability to initiate offline friendships. The second aim was to study the validity of two underlying mechanisms that may account for this relationship: (a) the opportunities offered by IM to communicate with a variety of people, and (b) to disclose intimate information. A three-wave longitudinal study was conducted among 690 Dutch adolescents (10 -- 17 years old). Results show that adolescents' IM use increased their ability to initiate offline friendships over time. Furthermore, IM use indirectly increased adolescents' ability to initiate offline friendships through the diversity of their online communication partners. These findings suggest that adolescents can practice social skills online and learn to relate to a variety of people, which, over time, may increase their ability to initiate offline friendships.
Keywords: Online communication; Social competence; Friendship initiation; Diversity of communication partners; Self-disclosure
Young people's digital lives: The impact of interpersonal relationships and digital media use on adolescents' sense of identity BIBAKFull-Text 2281-2293
  Katie Davis
The current study investigates the joint effects of interpersonal relationships and digital media use on adolescents' sense of identity. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 2079 students (57% female) between the ages of 11 and 19 years (M = 15.4 years) attending one of seven secondary schools in Bermuda. Using structural equation modeling, the author found that mothers and friends play an important role in adolescents' lives, with both relationships contributing in positive ways to respondents' self-concept clarity. Further, the results showed that mother relationship quality affected adolescents' self-concept clarity both directly and indirectly, through the positive impact it had on friendship quality. Friends also played a mediating role in relation to aspects of adolescents' digital media use. Specifically, the negative association detected between online identity expression/exploration and self-concept clarity was mediated partially by low friendship quality. Going online to communicate with one's friends appeared to play a more positive role in adolescents' sense of identity. The results showed that online peer communication affected self-concept clarity indirectly through its positive impact on friendship quality.
Keywords: Adolescence; Identity; Digital media; Internet; Friends; Parents
Examining the structure of the Internet Addiction Test in adolescents: A bifactor approach BIBAKFull-Text 2294-2302
  Carolyn A. Watters; Kateryna V. Keefer; Patricia H. Kloosterman; Laura J. Summerfeldt; James D. A. Parker
Young's (1998a) Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is one of the most commonly used measures of problematic Internet use. Although the instrument is being increasingly applied in research with adolescents, its measurement structure has not been systematically evaluated with pre-adult respondents. Because the results of previous factor-analytic studies with adults have been highly inconsistent, the present study applied both the traditional (simple-structure) and novel (bifactor) modeling approaches to derive the most optimal measurement structure of the IAT for adolescents. The results of exploratory and confirmatory analyses in a large Canadian sample of high-school students (N = 1948) converged on a bifactor model with a dominant global IA factor and two distinct sub-dimensions, each associated with a unique gender and problem behaviour profile. The discussion focuses on the implications of this bifactor structure for scale scoring and substantive theory on the nature and sources of individual differences in Internet addiction.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Young Internet Addiction Test; Adolescents; Factor analysis; Bifactor model
Let's play together: Effects of video-game play on intergenerational perceptions among youth and elderly participants BIBAKFull-Text 2303-2311
  Puay-Hoe Chua; Younbo Jung; May O. Lwin; Yin-Leng Theng
In this paper, we report on a longitudinal study that investigates the effects of video-game play on intergenerational perceptions amongst youths and the elderly after participating in a program involving regular interaction sessions over two months. Each pair of participants, consisting of one youth and one elderly, was randomly assigned to either the video-game condition (n = 38, 19 from each age group) or the non-video-game condition (n = 36, 18 each). Attraction, intergroup anxiety, attitudes, and game enjoyment were measured through pre-test and post-test surveys to investigate changes in perceptions. Results showed that participants in the video-game condition reported more positive changes in intergroup anxiety and attitudes, compared to participants in the non-video-game condition. Mediation analyses showed that specific attraction towards their interaction partner mediated the effects of video-game play on attitudes and intergroup anxiety towards the general members of the other age group. In addition, the results showed that game enjoyment played an important role in developing positive intergenerational perceptions only for the elderly, but not for the youth participants in the video-game condition. We discuss implications with respect to options to enhance intergenerational perceptions and communication for youth and elderly cohorts in today's hyper-ageing society.
Keywords: Older adults; Intergenerational perceptions; Video games; Leisure activity; Intergroup contact theory
What makes a video go viral? An analysis of emotional contagion and Internet memes BIBAKFull-Text 2312-2319
  Rosanna E. Guadagno; Daniel M. Rempala; Shannon Murphy; Bradley M. Okdie
What qualities lead some Internet videos to reach millions of viewers while others languish in obscurity? This question has been largely unexamined empirically. We addressed this issue by examining the role of emotional response and video source on the likelihood of spreading an Internet video by validating the emotional response to an Internet video and investigating the underlying mechanisms. Results indicated that individuals reporting strong affective responses to a video reported greater intent to spread the video. In terms of the role of the source, anger-producing videos were more likely to be forwarded but only when the source of the video was an out-group member. These results have implications for emotional contagion, social influence, and online behavior.
Keywords: Emotional contagion; Internet; Groups; Memes; Contagion; Social influence
Characteristics of college cyberbullies BIBAKFull-Text 2320-2327
  Allison M. Schenk; William J. Fremouw; Colleen M. Keelan
Cyberbullying is a newer variation of bullying that utilizes technology to harass. This study investigated the psychological symptomology, suicidal behaviors, aggressive tendencies, and illegal behaviors of college cyberbullies. Sixty cyberbullies and 19 cyberbully/victims (participants who cyberbullied and were victims of cyberbullying) scored higher in psychological symptoms of depression, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoia, phobic anxiety, and psychoticism than participants who were uninvolved with cyberbullying. The cyberbullies also endorsed more suicidal behaviors and scored higher in aggression. The cyberbully/victims engaged in more violent and drug crimes than cyberbullies and controls. These findings indicate perpetrators of cyberbullying have more psychological distress, aggressive tendencies, and engage in more illegal behaviors than those who do not cyberbully. This is the first study to show the distress cyberbullies are experiencing.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; College students; Cyberbully perpetrators; Cyberbully/victims
Inequalities in Facebook use BIBAKFull-Text 2328-2336
  Reynol Junco
While research has examined digital inequalities in general Internet use, little research has examined inequalities in social networking website use. This study extends previous research by examining how Facebook use is related to student background characteristics. Analyses were conducted to assess differences in time spent and activities performed on Facebook using a large sample (N = 2359) of college students. Results showed that women were more likely to use Facebook for communication, African Americans were less likely to use Facebook to check up on their friends, and students from lower socioeconomic levels were less likely to use Facebook for communication and sharing. Implications for education, communication, and student outcomes are presented.
Keywords: Facebook; Digital inequalities; Skills; Outcomes; Higher education; Canonical correlation
Who are problematic internet users? An investigation of the correlations between problematic internet use and shyness, loneliness, narcissism, aggression and self-perception BIBAKFull-Text 2382-2387
  Hatice Odaci; Çi&gbrev;dem Berber Çelik
This study investigated correlations between university students' problematic internet use behaviors and shyness, narcissism, loneliness, aggression and self-perception. The participants were 424 students attending seven different faculties of a public university in Turkey; 215 were female and 209 male. Student's ages ranged between 17 and 23, with a mean of 18.69. The Problematic Internet Use Scale, Shyness Scale, Narcissistic Personality Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale, Aggression Questionnaire, Social Comparison Scale and a Personal Data Form were used for data collection. Correlation analysis results showed positive associations between problematic internet use and shyness and aggression. No statistically significant correlation was determined between problematic internet use and narcissism, loneliness or self-perception. The results demonstrate that individuals who are problematic users are shier and more aggressive. Shyness and aggression emerged as significant antecedent variables of problematic internet use. Suggestions are made for further studies in the light of these findings.
Keywords: Problematic internet use; Shyness; Loneliness; Narcissism; Aggression; Self-perception
Exploring the effectiveness of commercial and custom-built games for cognitive training BIBAKFull-Text 2388-2393
  Shamus P. Smith; Marina Stibric; David Smithson
There is increasing interest in quantifying the effectiveness of computer games in non-entertainment domains. We have explored general intelligence improvements for participants using either a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) game, a custom do-it-yourself (DIY) training system for a working memory task or an online strategy game to a control group (without training). Forty university level participants were divided into four groups (COTS, DIY, Gaming, Control) and were evaluated three times (pre-intervention, post-intervention, 1-week follow-up) with three weeks of training. In general intelligence tests both cognitive training systems (COTS and DIY groups) failed to produce significant improvements in comparison to a control group or a gaming group. Also neither cognitive training system produced significant improvements over the intervention or follow-up periods.
Keywords: Cognitive training; Commercial software; N-back task; Fluid intelligence; Game reuse; User study
Modeling human coding of free response data BIBAKFull-Text 2394-2403
  Shahram Ghiasinejad; Richard M. Golden
Summarization, recall, think-aloud, and question -- answering protocol data are examples of free response verbal reports used for the purposes of revealing the structure and content of internal mental representations and processes within the field of discourse processes. Typically, two experienced coders independently semantically annotate a portion of collected protocol data and measures of agreement are used to determine the reliability of the coding. This methodology, however, does not provide an effective method for communicating in an unambiguous manner complex coding procedures to other researchers. To address this problem, an automated methodology called AUTOCODER for coding free response data is evaluated. The AUTOCODER system works by actively interacting with an experienced human coder who semantically annotates key words with "word-concepts' and sequences of word-concepts with "propositions'. After training AUTOCODER on a set of 70 segmented and semantically annotated free response verbal reports originally generated by second grade and fifth grade students, AUTOCODER exhibited a good proposition agreement rate of 91% and a kappa agreement score of 65% with respect to an experienced human coder on an additional set of 24 unsegmented free response verbal reports. Limitations and general implications of these findings are also discussed.
Keywords: Hidden Markov model; Propositional coding; Protocol data analysis; Computational model
New technology in personnel selection: How recruiter characteristics affect the adoption of new selection technology BIBAKFull-Text 2404-2415
  Janneke K. Oostrom; Dimitri van der Linden; Marise Ph. Born; Henk T. van der Molen
The aim of the present field study is to expand the understanding of how characteristics of recruiters relate to their adoption of new selection technology. In two studies, among 198 recruiters, we used the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), together with two measures of personality (i.e., openness to experience and neuroticism), two information technology specific individual differences (i.e., personal innovativeness in information technology and computer self-efficacy), and reactions to and actual usage of new technology. Both studies showed that all recruiter characteristics (except openness to experience) relate to perceptions of usefulness and ease of use, and that these perceptions relate to intentions to use new selection technologies. Study 2 showed that recruiter characteristics predict perceptions of usefulness and ease of use over and above established predictors of the TAM. Perceptions of usefulness and ease of use were better predictors of intentions to use new technology than perceptions of face validity, predictive validity, and fairness. Thus, when it comes to the adoption of new selection technology, recruiter characteristics, and perceptions of usefulness and ease of use play an important role.
Keywords: Recruiter reactions; New technology; Technology Acceptance Model; Personality; Personal innovativeness in information technology; Computer self-efficacy
Self-traits and motivations as antecedents of digital media flow and addiction: The Internet, mobile phones, and video games BIBAKFull-Text 2416-2424
  Hyoungkoo Khang; Jung Kyu Kim; Yeojin Kim
In the context of a new paradigm of the media environment, this study aimed to explore levels of media consumption, self-traits and individual motivations as antecedents of media flow and addiction. Focusing specifically on the use of three prominent digital media forms -- the Internet, video games, and mobile phones -- this study identified four psychological factors -- self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-control and dispositional media use motives -- and examined the influence of each on media users' experiences of flow and levels of addiction for each of the mediums considered. The results indicated that self-control most significantly affected both users' flow and addiction in relation to their use of the Internet, video games, and mobile phones. In addition, two dimensions of dispositional media use motives, namely pastime and self-presence, exhibited significant associations with flow and addiction for users' consumption of two or all three media types. As expected, the amount of time spent using media was significantly related to the flow and addiction associated with all digital media usage.
Keywords: Self-traits; Motivations; Digital media; Flow; Addiction
Life in the Bubble: Examining the forwarding of political videos BIBAKFull-Text 2425-2430
  Bradley M. Okdie; Daniel M. Rempala; Kilian J. Garvey
We examined whether participants' political beliefs significantly predicted likelihood of forwarding political videos and the characteristics of the targets of these forwards. Participants viewed one of four political advertisements that varied in terms of the candidate's political party (Democrat or Republican) and the emotion that the advertisement evoked (Positive or Negative). Democrats were more likely to forward advertisements when they experienced positive emotional arousal, and the targets of the forwards were not especially similar to Democrat participants in terms of political orientation or personality. Conversely, Republicans were more likely to forward advertisements when they experienced negative emotional arousal, and the targets of the forwards were highly similar to the Republican participants in terms of political orientation and personality. This is consistent with previous research (e.g., Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, & Sulloway, 2003) indicating that conservatism is associated with greater negative affect sensitivity and insularity in communication.
Keywords: Political orientation; Affiliation; Computer-Mediated-Communication; Affect
Check-in services and passenger behaviour: Self service technologies in airport systems BIBAKFull-Text 2431-2437
  José I. Castillo-Manzano; Lourdes López-Valpuesta
The need for airports to optimise space and the need for airlines to bring down their operating costs favours the use of self-service technologies in services provided to passengers and at check-in, specifically. Checking in online and at kiosks in the airport is gaining ground on the use of the airline check-in desk. The objective of this paper is to analyse the socio-demographic factors or flight characteristics that influence a passenger's choice of check-in from the various options available. For this a multinomial logit is used and applied to an extensive sample of almost 20,000 passengers, of whom 43% were foreigners, at five Spanish airports. The factors that determine the choice of check-in mode include the passenger's age and level of education, the reason for making the journey, waiting time and the type of airline. The universal use of the new technologies in airport management, and the broad cosmopolitan sample mean that the conclusions can be easily extrapolated to other airport systems.
Keywords: Self service technologies; Passenger behaviour; Airport management; Discrete choice model; Multinomial logit
What kind of #conversation is Twitter? Mining #psycholinguistic cues for emergency coordination BIBAKFull-Text 2438-2447
  Hemant Purohit; Andrew Hampton; Valerie L. Shalin; Amit P. Sheth; John Flach; Shreyansh Bhatt
The information overload created by social media messages in emergency situations challenges response organizations to find targeted content and users. We aim to select useful messages by detecting the presence of conversation as an indicator of coordinated citizen action. Using simple linguistic indicators drawn from conversation analysis in social science, we model the presence of coordination in the communication landscape of Twitter1 Popular Microblogging Service: http://www.twitter.com. 1 using a corpus of 1.5 million tweets for various disaster and non-disaster events spanning different periods, lengths of time, and varied social significance. Within replies, retweets and tweets that mention other Twitter users, we found that domain-independent, linguistic cues distinguish likely conversation from non-conversation in this online form of mediated communication. We demonstrate that these likely conversation subsets potentially contain more information than non-conversation subsets, whether or not the tweets are replies, retweets, or mention other Twitter users, as long as they reflect conversational properties. From a practical perspective, we have developed a model for trimming the candidate tweet corpus to identify a much smaller subset of data for submission to deeper, domain-dependent semantic analyses for the identification of actionable information nuggets for coordinated emergency response.
Keywords: Coordinated behavior; Conversation analysis; Information filtering; Disaster response; Twitter
Respite and the Internet: Accessing care for older adults in the 21st Century BIBAKFull-Text 2448-2452
  Kimberly Petrovic
Contrary to popular belief, fewer numbers of older adults today are living in extended care facilities (ECFs) and other institutional settings. Rather, adult children, adult grandchildren, and aged spouses prefer the home setting as the environment in which to provide care to older adult family members. Benefits exist with regard to the provision of care within the home setting; however, tremendous stress may be placed upon these informal caregiving systems as family members find themselves with little time for activities other than those related to the provision of care. Respite care is invaluable in alleviating and preventing the physical and psychological depletion associated with caregiving by granting family members the opportunity to relinquish temporarily the demands of providing care for someone on a continual basis. As a means of connecting family members to sources of respite care and related services, the Internet possesses significant potential. Without ever leaving the home environment and the older adult care recipient(s), family members can utilize the Internet to access information about respite care services.
Keywords: Caregiving; Caregiving for older adults; Respite; Respite care; Technology; The Internet
Is the social use of media for seeking connectedness or for avoiding social isolation? Mechanisms underlying media use and subjective well-being BIBAKFull-Text 2453-2462
  Dohyun Ahn; Dong-Hee Shin
This study provides a resolution for two contrasting hypotheses around media use, the augmentation and the displacement hypotheses. To do this, we conducted an online survey of 300 Korean adults examining the relationships among the social use of media, face-to-face communication, social isolation, connectedness, and subjective well-being. The results indicate that connectedness, not avoiding social isolation, mediates the effects of the social use of media on subjective well-being. On the other hand, both connectedness and avoiding social isolation mediate the effects of face-to-face communication on subjective well-being. These results suggest that the social use of media is limited to seeking connectedness to others, whereas face-to-face communication can facilitate avoiding social isolation as well as seeking connectedness, which can explain why the two contrasting hypothesis, the augmentation and the displacement hypotheses, can be right. In the domain of seeking connectedness, media can augment face-to-face communication. On the other hand, in the domain of avoiding social isolation, media may displace face-to-face communication.
Keywords: Media use; Face-to-face communication; Subjective well-being; Connectedness; Social isolation
How lonely people use and perceive Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 2463-2470
  Borae Jin
This study examined the relationship between loneliness and various aspects of Facebook use including use activity, self-disclosure, attitudes, and satisfaction. Data were collected through an online survey among adult Facebook users (N = 536). Results revealed that loneliness was associated with a fewer number of Facebook friends and a less overlapping between Facebook and offline friends. Loneliness was inversely related to communicating activities but not significantly to presenting activities. Also, lonely people tended to engage in positive self-disclosure less but negative self-disclosure more. Although lonely people viewed Facebook as more useful for self-disclosure and social connection, their satisfaction of Facebook use was lower than their counterparts.
Keywords: Loneliness; Social skills deficit; Facebook; The rich get richer; The poor get richer; Self-disclosure
Does individual or collaborative self-debriefing better enhance learning from games? BIBAKFull-Text 2471-2479
  Hans van der Meij; Henny Leemkuil; Juo-Lan Li
The primary aim of this study is to find out whether use of different self-debriefing modes affects learning from a game. In self-debriefing participants are led to reflect upon their game experiences by a set of debriefing questions. Two conditions were compared: Individual and Collaborative self-debriefing. The 45 participants first played the game of Lemonade Tycoon Deluxe, were tested for knowledge and self-debriefed in pairs or alone. Then they played the game once more and were tested again. Game scores increased significantly from the first to the second round of gameplay to an equal degree in both conditions. Knowledge scores of participants in individual self-debriefing increased significantly more than those of participants in the Collaborative condition. The study shows that game-based learning can be effectively scaffolded with self-debriefing. Future studies might investigate whether the type of self-debriefing differentially affects game motivation. In addition, attention to the role of feedback is called for.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Self-debriefing; Game-based learning
An investigation of the impact of abusive supervision on technology end-users BIBAKFull-Text 2480-2489
  Kenneth J. Harris; Kent Marett; Ranida B. Harris
Although they are likely to occur in many organizations, few research efforts have examined the impact of negative supervisor behaviors on technology end-users. In this study we investigate abusive supervision, and the effects it has on perceptions about the work and psychological, attitudinal, and behavioral intention outcomes. Our sample consisted of 225 technology end-users from a large variety of organizations. Results revealed that abusive supervision has a positive impact on perceived pressure to produce, time pressure, and work overload, and a negative impact on liking computer work, and ultimately these variables impact job strain, frustration, turnover intentions, and job satisfaction.
Keywords: Abusive supervision; Knowledge workers; Job strain; Turnover intentions; Frustration
Attitude moderation: A comparison of online chat and face-to-face conversation BIBAKFull-Text 2490-2493
  Maciek Lipinski-Harten; Romin W. Tafarodi
Face-to-face conversation and online chat were compared on their tendency to moderate attitudes through exposure to an opposing perspective. As predicted on the basis of the greater self-focus and reduced presence of the other in text-based chat, strangers who chatted online for 20 min about a divisive social issue on which they held opposing attitudes showed less movement toward their partner's position as a result than did those who spoke face-to-face for the same length of time. The potential limitation of text-based online communication for bridging attitude divides is discussed.
Keywords: Online; Chat; Conversation; Negotiation; Agreement; Attitudes
The importance of personality in students' perceptions of the online learning experience BIBAKFull-Text 2494-2500
  Heath Keller; Steven J. Karau
The current research examined the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and five specific types of online course impressions (engagement, value to career, overall evaluation, anxiety/frustration, and preference for online courses). Results revealed that conscientiousness was the most consistent predictor of an individual's impressions of online courses. Specifically, conscientiousness was significantly related with each of the five online course impressions studied. In addition, agreeableness and openness were both positively related with the perceived value of online courses to one's career. Work experience was positively associated with engagement, value to career, and overall evaluation, and negatively associated with anxiety/frustration. Undergraduates reported stronger preferences for online courses than did graduate students, and married students reported lower levels of anxiety/frustration with online courses. Results are interpreted with the intent of providing an enhanced understanding of the importance of personality in students' impressions of the online learning experience.
Keywords: Big Five; Personality; Online learning; Course impressions; Education
The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation BIBAKFull-Text 2501-2511
  L. D. Rosen; K. Whaling; L. M. Carrier; N. A. Cheever; J. Rokkum
Current approaches to measuring people's everyday usage of technology-based media and other computer-related activities have proved to be problematic as they use varied outcome measures, fail to measure behavior in a broad range of technology-related domains and do not take into account recently developed types of technology including smartphones. In the present study, a wide variety of items, covering a range of up-to-date technology and media usage behaviors. Sixty-six items concerning technology and media usage, along with 18 additional items assessing attitudes toward technology, were administered to two independent samples of individuals, comprising 942 participants. Factor analyses were used to create 11 usage subscales representing smartphone usage, general social media usage, Internet searching, e-mailing, media sharing, text messaging, video gaming, online friendships, Facebook friendships, phone calling, and watching television in addition to four attitude-based subscales: positive attitudes, negative attitudes, technological anxiety/dependence, and attitudes toward task-switching. All subscales showed strong reliabilities and relationships between the subscales and pre-existing measures of daily media usage and Internet addiction were as predicted. Given the reliability and validity results, the new Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale was suggested as a method of measuring media and technology involvement across a variety of types of research studies either as a single 60-item scale or any subset of the 15 subscales.
Keywords: Technology and media usage; Anxiety; Attitudes toward technology; Smartphone; Video gaming; Facebook
Exploring Koreans' smartphone usage: An integrated model of the technology acceptance model and uses and gratifications theory BIBAKFull-Text 2512-2518
  Jihyuk Joo; Yoonmo Sang
This study investigates factors that influence adoption and use of smartphones among Koreans and seeks to integrate two theoretical approaches: the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the uses and gratifications (U&G) approach. To that end, the study used data from a self-reported survey of 491 Korean adults who use Apple's iPhone. A structural equation model employed in the current study demonstrates that Koreans' smartphone use is affected more by motivations based on instrumental and goal-oriented use than by ritualized and less-goal oriented use. The findings suggest that to spread information system with innovative and active features, developers should pay attention to users' intrinsic motivations as well as to their extrinsic perceptions.
Keywords: Smartphone; Technology acceptance model; Uses and gratifications; Instrumental use; Ritualized use
Motion capture controls negate the violent video-game effect BIBAKFull-Text 2519-2523
  Eric P. Charles; Christopher M. Baker; Kelly Hartman; Bryan P. Easton; Christian Kreuzberger
Considerable research suggests that violent video game play increases players' aggression. However, few studies have investigated this effect in the now ubiquitous context of motion-capture technology. Study 1 used a 2 x 2 design, with a violent (Soul Calibur) and non-violent (Lego Indiana Jones) game, played under analog (Playstation 3) and motion-capture (Nintendo Wii) conditions. Violent video game play led to less aggression when participants used motion-capture controls. Study 2 eliminated potential confounds by using the only game on the Wii system that can be played identically with or without motion capture (Punch-Out!!). Again, participants who used motion-capture were less aggressive. Study 3 looked for effects of cooperative vs. competitive play during 2-player motion-capture gaming (Soul Calibur, Wii). Participants using motion-capture controls in competitive and cooperative scenarios did not differ from baseline. These results run counter to standard models relating violent video game play to aggressive behavior, highlighting the difficulty in anticipating the effects of newer, more immersive technology.
Keywords: Motion capture; Violent video games; Aggressive behavior; Violence; Competitiveness
Gender differences and the effects of perceived internet privacy on self-reports of sexual behavior and sociosexuality BIBAKFull-Text 2524-2529
  Melanie L. Beaussart; James C. Kaufman
The use of the Internet for conducting research has found that the level of anonymity intrinsic to web-based surveys is useful in deterring various participant biases. Though, concerns about Internet privacy could interfere with the effects of perceived anonymity and influence how a person responds. In this study, participants were asked to take an Internet survey and then were randomly assigned to conditions with varying degrees of implied privacy in which they answered questions about their desire for casual sex (sociosexuality) and their lifetime sexual partners. Only in the condition without any threat to the participant's anonymity was there no difference between men and women's reports of their sexual behavior. However, in every condition men reported having a significantly higher sociosexuality than women. Findings are consistent with both the biologic and gender-biased explanations in differences of self-report for sexual information. Implications for social constraints and Internet based research are discussed.
Keywords: Privacy; Internet; Sociosexuality; Sexuality; Gender; Gender differences
Attachment style and conflict resolution skills predicting technology use in relationship dissolution BIBAKFull-Text 2530-2534
  Robert S. Weisskirch; Raquel Delevi
Differences in attachment styles and conflict resolution skills may exist for those who choose to initiate or who receive relationship dissolution mediated by technology. 304 college students (F = 178, M = 126) completed an online questionnaire about their demographics, relationship status, attachment styles, and conflict resolution skills. Text messaging was the most common form of technology to initiate or receive a breakup. Greater attachment anxiety predicted being the recipient of a technology-mediated dissolution. Positive attitudes towards conflict resolution predicted having initiated a breakup via technology. There were no significant differences in attachment styles or conflict resolution skills for those using text messaging to receive or initiate conflict resolution.
Keywords: Relationship dissolution; Attachment styles; Conflict resolution; Technology
Course management system adoption and usage: A process theoretic perspective BIBAKFull-Text 2535-2545
  Amitava Dutta; Rahul Roy; Priya Seetharaman
Software platforms called Course Management Systems (CMS) have been widely deployed in recent times to enhance both the effectiveness and efficiency of course delivery. Research into how best to derive value from CMS is still in a nascent stage. Based on the well-established finding that actual usage is an important intermediate variable between IT and value, this paper develops a parsimonious bi-dimensional characterization of CMS use, consisting of scale and sophistication of use. It then presents a process theoretic framework that can be used to explain the pattern of evolution of CMS use. These two conceptual developments are applied to the usage patterns of 62 faculty members over a 5 year period at a major Indian business school. Usage was found to become more broad-based over time. Overall sophistication of use remained unchanged for infrequent users but increased among frequent users. This evolution in usage patterns is tied to specific actions and events along the way, allowing us to draw prescriptive lessons to enhance usage in CMS environments and potentially derive more value from this type of technology.
Keywords: Course management systems; IT use; IT value; Technology diffusion; Scale; Sophistication
Usability of concrete and virtual models in chemistry instruction BIBAKFull-Text 2546-2556
  Andrew T. Stull; Trevor Barrett; Mary Hegarty
Virtual models are increasingly common in the modern science classroom, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of virtual and concrete models. We developed a virtual modeling system and tested the benefit of haptic cue fidelity, controlling for many other perceptual differences between concrete and virtual models. In two studies we directly compared performance of students using this virtual model and using concrete models for tasks in the domain of organic chemistry. Students used either virtual or concrete models to match diagrams of molecules or compare the structures of molecules represented by models and diagrams. The results indicated similar levels of accuracy and similar ratings of usability for virtual and concrete models but no effect of haptic cue fidelity. Greater efficiency with virtual models was observed when students matched diagrams and models, and this efficiency transferred to later use of concrete models. The efficiency benefit is attributed to interactive constraints of the hand-held interface to the virtual model, which helped students identify task-relevant information in the model and limited them to performing the most task-relevant interactions with the models.
Keywords: Diagrammatic reasoning; Representational competence; Manipulatives; Molecular models; Organic chemistry; Virtual reality
A social-cognitive approach to online game cheating BIBAKFull-Text 2557-2567
  Yuehua Wu; Vivian Hsueh Hua Chen
Drawing upon social cognitive theory, the present study constructed a conceptual model to provide an in-depth understanding of the key psychosocial factors shaping the cheating behavior in online multiplayer games. An online survey approach and structural equation modeling were adopted to investigate the hypothesized relationships and to assess the fitness of the model. The findings of this study provided support for the research model and the social cognitive theory perspective on game cheating behavior. The cheating behavior was found to be influenced by both external and self-generated factors. Specifically, individual gamers' social environment (peer influence), their own attitude towards game cheating, and evaluation of cheating outcomes played an important role in shaping this problematic behavior in online games. Game cheating self-efficacy was interestingly found to be an insignificant factor for the game cheating behavior. The study fills a gap in the current literature on games and cheating, specifically on the social cognitive mechanisms of the cheating behavior in online multiplayer games.
Keywords: Online game; Cheating; Social-cognitive theory; Social environment; Personal factors; Self-efficacy
The validity of a game-based assessment of persistence BIBAKFull-Text 2568-2572
  Matthew Ventura; Valerie Shute
In this study, 154 students individually played a challenging physics video game for roughly 4 h. Based on time data for both solved and unsolved problems derived from log files, we created a game-based assessment of persistence that was validated against an existing measure of persistence. We found that the game-based assessment of persistence predicted learning of qualitative physics after controlling for gender, video game experience, pretest knowledge and enjoyment of the game. These findings support the implementation of a real-time formative assessment of persistence to be used to dynamically change gameplay.
Keywords: Game-based assessment; Persistence; Qualitative physics; Formative assessment
The influence of solitary and cooperative violent video game play on aggressive and prosocial behavior BIBAKFull-Text 2573-2578
  Jessica M. Jerabeck; Christopher J. Ferguson
Research examining the issue of video game violence influences on aggression continues to be debated within the scientific community. Thus far, no consensus has been reached regarding the influence of such games. This study adds to the prior literature by examining how violent video games may promote prosocial or aggressive behavior when played either cooperatively or alone. Results indicated that violent content in video games had no influence on prosocial behavior, aggressive behavior, or self-perceptions of empathy. Playing cooperatively was associated with less aggressive behavior, whether games were violent or not.
Keywords: Aggression; Competitiveness; Prosocial behavior; Video games; Violence
Exploring factors influencing multitasking interaction with multiple smart devices BIBAKFull-Text 2579-2588
  Yubo Zhang; Mao Mao; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Pilsung Choe; Lelkes Bela; Feixiang Wang
The intention of this study is to investigate multitasking interaction with multiple smart devices and to unveil factors that play important roles in multitasking scenarios. A survey was carried out and 240 respondents participated whose scores ultimately demonstrated the degree of influence of various items on multitasking interaction with multiple smart devices. Then an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and a seven-factor model named MINDCOS was derived, including Motivation, Input, Navigation and control, Display screen, Cognitive workload, Output, Spatial distribution. The model was utilized to describe the scenario of multitasking interaction with multiple smart devices and the top three factors which illustrated the total variance the most were used to analyze related applications. Then the relationship between the factors and perceived behavior intention of multitasking interaction was tested by regression analysis. This study also found whether users had multitasking experience had a significant impact on their perceived influence of two factors which are Navigation and control and Output.
Keywords: Multitasking; Smart devices; Survey; Factor analysis; Interaction
Personality factors as predictors of sexting BIBAKFull-Text 2589-2594
  Raquel Delevi; Robert S. Weisskirch
"Sexting' refers to sending and receiving sexually suggestive images, videos, or texts on cell phones. Nowadays, technology is embedded in communication between current and prospective romantic partners and understanding what may fuel sexting behavior warrants attention. 304 undergraduate participants (males = 126 and females = 178) completed an online questionnaire about their personality traits, sensation seeking, and problematic cell phone use and their engagement in sexting behaviors. Results suggest that men and those in romantic relationships are more likely to sext, particularly through text messaging. Those in relationships and women indicate requiring greater commitment in a relationship in order to engage in sexting. Extraversion predicted sexting with text messaging, and neuroticism and low agreeableness predicted sexting -- sending a sexually suggestive photo, a photo in underwear or lingerie, and a nude photo. Problematic cell phone use also predicted engagement in sexting with text messages. Certain aspects of sexting may appeal as a risky behavior for those individuals with personality traits towards high-risk activities.
Keywords: Sexting; Personality traits; Sensation seeking; Problematic cell phone use
Stumbling upon news on the Internet: Effects of incidental news exposure and relative entertainment use on political engagement BIBAKFull-Text 2607-2614
  Yonghwan Kim; Hsuan-Ting Chen; Homero Gil de Zúñiga
Contemporary concerns that the Internet might lead to political apathy are based on suggestions that people would use the Internet for entertainment purposes rather than news consumption. However, what if someone stumbles upon news when surfing the Internet? Would this incidental news exposure online be helpful in promoting citizens' political engagement? This study tests whether and how incidental news exposure (INE) and relative entertainment use (REU) on the Internet are associated with political participation. Drawing from US national data, results revealed a significant and positive relationship between INE and offline and online political participation while REU was negatively associated with offline and online political participation. More importantly, the role of INE in facilitating citizens' online political participation was stronger for those who consume less entertainment online, indicating that incidental news exposure may increase existing gaps in political participation between people who prefer news and people who prefer entertainment online.
Keywords: Internet; Digital media; Incidental news exposure; Relative entertainment use; Political engagement; Gaps in political participation
Cross-lagged relationships between problematic Internet use and lifestyle changes BIBAKFull-Text 2615-2621
  Chih-Hung Lin; Ssu-Kuang Chen; Shan-Mei Chang; Sunny S. J. Lin
Cross-lagged analysis of panel survey data collected from Taiwanese college students (initially 387 males and 370 females) was used to examine the temporal relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU) and lifestyle changes during the first year in college. We hypothesized that a reciprocal relationship might exist between PIU and lifestyle changes. Structural equation modeling was adopted to test several nested cross-lagged relationship models. The results showed that four measures of lifestyle changes and PIU were moderately to highly stable across one year. Moreover, PIU in freshman year predicted negative changes in lifestyle in the following year, including a reduction of physical and social activities, irregular diet and unhealthy sleep. Lifestyle changes in freshman year, in contrast, did not predict PIU in sophomore year; the hypothesized reciprocal relationship between PIU and lifestyle changes was not warranted. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Internet use; Problematic Internet use; Lifestyles; Cross-lagged analysis; Structural equation modeling
Information sharing on social media sites BIBAKFull-Text 2622-2631
  Babajide Osatuyi
This study reports on an exploratory survey conducted to investigate the use of social media technologies for sharing information. This paper explores the issue of credibility of the information shared in the context of computer-mediated communication. Four categories of information were explored: sensitive, sensational, political and casual information, across five popular social media technologies: social networking sites, micro-blogging sites, wikis, online forums, and online blogs. One hundred and fourteen active users of social media technologies participated in the study. The exploratory analysis conducted in this study revealed that information producers use different cues to indicate credibility of the information they share on different social media sites. Organizations can leverage findings from this study to improve targeted engagement with their customers. The operationalization of how information credibility is codified by information producers contributes to knowledge in social media research.
Keywords: Information sharing; Social media; Credibility; Computer-mediated communication; Exploratory
Social networking on smartphones: When mobile phones become addictive BIBAKFull-Text 2632-2639
  Mohammad Salehan; Arash Negahban
As the penetration of mobile phones in societies increases, there is a large growth in the use of mobile phones especially among the youth. This trend is followed by the fast growth in use of online social networking services (SNS). Extensive use of technology can lead to addiction. This study finds that the use of SNS mobile applications is a significant predictor of mobile addiction. The result also shows that the use of SNS mobile applications is affected by both SNS network size and SNS intensity of the user. This study has implications for academia as well as governmental and non-for-profit organizations regarding the effect of mobile phones on individual's and public health.
Keywords: Mobile addiction; Social networking services (SNS); Mobile applications; Social networking mobile applications
Why girls go pink: Game character identification and game-players' motivations BIBAKFull-Text 2640-2649
  Eva A. van Reijmersdal; Jeroen Jansz; Oscar Peters; Guda van Noort
Based on social role theory and uses and gratifications, this study provides insights into the popularity of so-called pink games. This study is the first to examine the roles of identification, playing time, and age in the experience of motivations while playing an online role-playing game. Drawing upon a survey among 2261 girls between10 and 17 of age, our results show that identification with characters in the game is an important process in explaining girls' gaming motivations. In addition, identification and motivations are intensified with playing time. Although age affects identification negatively, age is not related to the most important motive in playing pink games: social interaction. This study has important theoretical and practical implications for the popularity of pink games among girls.
Keywords: Game; Girl; Identification; Motivation; Uses and gratifications; Social role theory
A comparison study of user behavior on Facebook and Gmail BIBAKFull-Text 2650-2655
  Jianqiang Shen; Oliver Brdiczka; Yiye Ruan
Email is one of the most important communication media to date, and millions of Internet users around the world spend the bulk of their time writing and reading electronic messages. The growing popularity of Social Network Sites (SNS) as a communication medium motivated us to explore the relationship between user behavior on SNS and email. In this paper, we collected objective, privacy-preserved behavior data from participants that were both active Facebook and Gmail users. We show that a large proportion of social interactions still occur through email messages, while participants tend to be more emotional on Facebook. We found that producing more content on Facebook does not necessarily decrease or increase the production of emails. By utilizing the quantitative analysis of usage data instead of surveys, we show that user behavior is likely consistent across SNS and email in some aspects, for example, users with more Facebook friends seem to email to more people, Facebook and Gmail share similar trend of "happiness'.
Keywords: Behavioral modeling; Social network sites; Email; Comparison study
The tweets that killed a university: A case study investigating the use of traditional and social media in the closure of a state university BIBAKFull-Text 2656-2664
  Nicholas J. Kelling; Angela S. Kelling; John F. Lennon
The 12-month discussion surrounding a regional university campus quickly evolved from a suggestion of independence, to a plan, to the ultimate closure of the university. This unique series of events at the University of South Florida Polytechnic (USFP) allows for an investigation of how various forms of media were used during this significant event that impacted college student's education and immediate future. A campus wide survey was combined with social and online media monitoring to assess the topics, authors, and methods used during prominent discussions during and preceding the closure of USFP. Although social media played a crucial role, the most common format was Twitter and it was used almost exclusively by members of the media itself. Students instead relied on traditional sources to gather information. Additionally, students expressed their opinion utilizing classic methods, such as petitions, foregoing more modern Twitter or Facebook campaigns. It is incorrect to automatically assume younger demographic authorship or utilization of social media technology. Whereas social media use could expand even more over the next decade, identifying authorship remains critical as it is unclear how frequent social media is viewed as an official method of public discussion, especially when politics and higher education collide.
Keywords: Social media; Higher education; Students; Data mining; Politics
What causes users to switch from a local to a global social network site? The cultural, social, economic, and motivational factors of Facebook's globalization BIBAKFull-Text 2665-2673
  Junho Choi; Jaemin Jung; Sang-Woo Lee
This study investigates what causes local users to switch or not to switch from a domestic to a global social network site (SNS), Facebook. In the prediction model using cultural, social, economic factors, and motives for using SNS, we found in S. Korean users that, along with entertainment motives, the expected benefit of a new global SNS was a positive predictor of transition to Facebook. The western cultural values of a global SNS and the sunk costs of using a local SNS were negative predictors of the intention to use Facebook as the main platform of online social networking. Given that global SNSs force anti-localization policies related to privacy protocols and relationship styles, the results highlight the fact that cultural values are a critical factor for resisting globalization of SNSs.
Keywords: Social network site (SNS); Facebook; Globalization; Switching cost; Cultural value; Use and gratification
Harnessing social dynamics through persuasive technology to promote healthier lifestyle BIBAKFull-Text 2674-2681
  Ashraf Khalil; Salam Abdallah
In light of current calls by medical professionals to confront the global issue of obesity and related illnesses, we developed a mobile application called STEP UP that monitors physical activity and provides data that can be easily shared within a social network. We then conducted an exploratory, theoretical study based on the theory of reasoned action (TRA) followed by an experimental trial and user study. The purpose of the studies was to explore the effect of persuasive technology on physical activity behavior and to investigate its effectiveness in motivating users to use the technology to be more physically active. The application was found to have a positive effect on the participants and their level of physical activity. They enjoyed using the application and were motivated to walk more, especially when enabled to share their step counts with their friends. The social component of the application clearly enhanced users' walking experience, as the atmosphere of friendly competition motivated them to walk more. Based on user responses, we conclude that a further enhanced application that includes chat functionality may be even more successful in supporting increased physical activity and thus healthier lifestyle.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; Physical activity; Theory of reasoned action; Behavior change; Mobile; Health
Understanding adolescents' problematic Internet use from a social/cognitive and addiction research framework BIBAKFull-Text 2682-2689
  Jeong Jin Yu; Hyeonyee Kim; Ian Hay
As Internet usage has become more prevalent among youth, so too has problematic Internet use. Despite the critical role of emotion regulation in the development of adolescents' behaviors and the role of parenting interactions on their children's behaviors, little research has examined these links with reference to problematic and addictive Internet use for adolescents. The main goal of this study was to examine these links, based on a sample of 525 high school students (368 males; M = 15.33 years, SD = 0.47) from a predominantly middle and lower-middle socioeconomic community in Seoul, Korea. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that students' difficulties in emotion regulation was a mediating variable between students' perceptions of their parents' parenting behaviors and the students' Internet use. The findings substantiate the importance of conceptualizing addiction from a social/cognitive theoretical framework and the notion that adolescence is the onset period for many addictive behaviors and so more proactive attention needs to be given to reducing these early negative behaviors. Based on these results, interventions designed to enhance adolescents' emotion regulatory abilities have the likelihood to mitigate problematic and even addictive Internet use among youth.
Keywords: Parenting behavior; Adolescents; Emotion regulation; Addiction; Problematic Internet use
Adolescents' risky online behaviours: The influence of gender, religion, and parenting style BIBAKFull-Text 2690-2696
  Wilfred W. F. Lau; Allan H. K. Yuen
This study explored the influence of gender, religion, and parenting style on risky online behaviours in a sample of 825 Secondary 2 students in Hong Kong. Three risky online behaviours, namely, unauthorised acts (UNAC), internet stickiness (INST), and plagiarism (PLAG) were examined. It was found that males tended to be involved in more risky online behaviours than did females. Christians were no different from non-Christians in terms of risky online behaviours. Parenting style did not seem to be effective in reducing risky online behaviours. There was some evidence that gender moderated the relationship between risky online behaviours and parenting style. Taken together, gender, religion, and parenting style predicted risky online behaviours significantly. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Adolescents; Risky online behaviours; Gender; Religion; Parenting style
Online maintenance of life domains: Uses of social network sites during graduate education among the US and international students BIBAKFull-Text 2697-2702
  Mohammad Delwar Hossain; Aaron S. Veenstra
Students who pursue graduate degrees often do so under the burden of great geographic displacement. This study takes a uses and gratifications approach to examining the usage of Social Networking Sites (SNS) by both American and international graduate students studying at an American university. Specifically, it examines how SNS are used in relationship maintenance with friends and family, news consumption from one's home state or country, political expression, and social and political transition to one's new home. Our findings suggest that geographic and physical displacements do not always influence students in maintaining relationships via social media.
Keywords: Online maintenance; Life domain; Graduate education; Uses and gratifications; Social network sites
Real-time Internet news browsing: Information vs. experience-related gratifications and behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 2712-2721
  Lingzi Zhang; Weiyu Zhang
This study utilized lab observations with 49 subjects to observe what users encounter and how users behave in real-time Internet news browsing. We analyzed users' selection of news platform, exposure to different topics of news content, and usage of different presentation elements by coding the screen videos. In addition, survey data with the subjects allow us to explore the links between gratifications and Internet news browsing behaviors. Our analyses suggest that users exert their control through actively and selectively interacting with the news services at the platform, content and presentation level to fulfill their different gratifications. In specific, gratifications based on information utility and those based on usage experience show different relations with different kinds of news browsing behaviors. Both the theoretical and methodological contributions are discussed at the end of this paper.
Keywords: Information utility; Internet news; Real-time data; Screen videos; Usage experience; Uses and gratifications
Extent of private information disclosure on online social networks: An exploration of Facebook mobile phone users BIBAKFull-Text 2722-2729
  Victoria Kisekka; Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen; H. Raghav Rao
The present study adopts the Communication Privacy Management theory and investigates the factors that influence the extent of private information disclosure of Facebook mobile phone users. Using a sample size of 488 adult mobile phone users, the study further investigates the differential impact of age on the extent of private information disclosure. Results from the logistic regressions run reveal that use of smartphones to access social networking sites, use of multiple social networks, and being female decrease the likelihood of private information disclosure. In addition, usability problems increase the likelihood of information disclosure by older adults. The analyses show no association between perceived benefit and private information disclosure.
Keywords: Information disclosure; Older adults; Online social networks; Online privacy; Facebook; Mobile phone users
Meaningful posts and online learning in Blackboard across four cohorts of adult learners BIBAFull-Text 2730-2732
  Sarah Ransdell
In the present study, meaningful posts were tracked in Blackboard in a longitudinal study of a graduate statistics course in order to predict online learning. In previous research by the present author, digital immigrants from a baby-boomer cohort fare better than digital natives due to social reliance and meaningful posts. Meaningful posts include discussion comments that reflect meaning-based engagement with the course material. Students with optimal patterns and types of discussion participation do better than those students who just follow a point system of quantity-based engagement. Students were given three behavioral assessments and then monitored for meaningful posts and successful online behavior using the tracking features within Blackboard. Results were analyzed using a multiple regression and showed that a significant percentage of online learning is predicted by meaningful posts and homework performance while total online activity does not uniquely predict learning outcomes. Students with more meaningful posts show more engagement with the online materials and better learning than those with less meaningful posts.
Exploring middle-aged and older adults' sources of Internet self-efficacy: A case study BIBAKFull-Text 2733-2743
  Yi-Chun Lin; Jyh-Chong Liang; Ching-Ju Yang; Chin-Chung Tsai
The purpose of this study was to examine sources underlying middle aged and older adults' Internet self-efficacy. Interview data were collected from a total of 24 middle aged and older adults to categorize and synthesize their sources of Internet self-efficacy. It was found that there are five sources, (1) successful performance accomplishments or experience using the Internet to fulfill basic and living needs, (2) vicarious admirable modeling by children, friends, and neighbors, (3) verbal or social persuasion by influential friends and family, (4) fear, bad memory, slow reactions, or a joyful state, and (5) a proactive personality. In addition, it was found that in addition to performance accomplishments, psychological and physiological states are another primary source of Internet self-efficacy for middle-aged and older adults. Our findings advance the Internet self-efficacy literature as they extend what is known about the previous four sources, and indicate that proactive personality may be another important source that has been previously overlooked. The five sources are likely to be related to each other, emphasizing dynamic and reciprocal relationships between performance accomplishments and emotional and physiological states, emotional state and proactive personality, as well as social persuasion and performance accomplishments.
Keywords: Sources of Internet self-efficacy; Performance accomplishments; Vicarious modeling; Persuasion; Emotional state; Proactive personality
Analysis of the effectiveness of preventive and deterrent piracy control strategies: Agent-based modeling approach BIBAKFull-Text 2744-2755
  Bong-Keun Jeong; Moutaz Khouja
We use agent-based modeling approach to analyze the impact of various digital piracy control strategies on consumers, retailers, record labels, and artists. We model heterogeneous agent behavior, motives, and interactions to examine the consequences in terms of aggregate system behavior. Using a multi-agent programmable modeling environment (Netlogo), several experiments were conducted to test the simulation model and develop managerial insights. We show that an educational strategy is more effective when consumers are resistant to anti-piracy efforts and budgets for combating piracy are small. Furthermore, value-added service and low-price strategies should be used to encourage legitimate purchases since legal and educational strategies alone deter piracy but do not provide consumers' incentives to purchase legitimate products. Therefore, effectiveness of piracy control strategies can be improved by combining a legal or an educational strategy with a value-added or a low-price strategy. We also find that the profit-maximizing strategies are different for different players in the supply chain. While the record label prefers a low-cost strategy, it is optimal for the whole supply chain to use combined legal or educational strategy with a value-added strategy. Therefore, there is potential for all parties in the supply chain being better off if the record label and the retailer cooperate in combating piracy.
Keywords: Agent-based modeling; Piracy control; Supply chain coordination
Cyberbullying: Eliciting harm without consequence BIBAKFull-Text 2758-2765
  Jennifer L. Pettalia; Elizabeth Levin; Joël Dickinson
Students (N = 260; M age = 12.88 years) reported their involvement in cyberbullying as well as their perceptions of the likelihood of cyberbully behavior eliciting harm, being reported, and the initiator receiving consequences. Also, students' scores on the Basic Empathy Scale were examined. The majority (67%) of students reported participation in cyberbullying and girls were more likely than boys to self-report cybervictimization and cyberbully-victimization. Students rated the likelihood of cybervictims being hurt significantly higher than the likelihood of cyberbullies receiving consequences. Furthermore, self-reported cybervictims and cyberbully-victims scored higher than students not involved in cyberbullying on the cognitive empathy scale and cyberbully-victims scored higher than cyberbullies and not-involved students on the affective empathy scale. These results suggest that youth are knowingly engaging in harmful behavior on the internet that they believe is unlikely to receive consequences.
Keywords: Cyberbully; Bully; Harm; Consequence; Empathy
Some of these things are not like the others: Examining motivations and political predispositions among political Facebook activity BIBAKFull-Text 2766-2775
  Timothy Macafee
Political engagement via social media has evolved, and web sites including Facebook continue to be a place for individuals, especially young ones, to engage politically. Because politics on social media is diverse, it makes sense that the reasons for participating in it vary. In addition, because current events information and political news is accessible via social media, the role of attention to traditional news sources in this type of political engagement is debatable. The study takes up the opportunity to address these questions by examining young people's attention to television, print, and online news, their engagement with four Facebook political activities, and their psychological motivations for using the website politically just prior to the 2012 U.S. Presidential election. The results suggest that the primary motivations for using Facebook politically are not universal, and indeed vary by activity. They revolve around connecting with others socially, sharing information with others, and presenting oneself to others. In addition, attention to offline and online news largely do not matter. The study moves research forward by describing the variety of psychological predispositions some Facebook users bring to their political engagement with the web site, and how these predispositions vary across different Facebook political behavior.
Keywords: Facebook; Motivations; Political participation; Social media; News
Predicting different conceptualizations of system use: Acceptance in hedonic volitional context (Facebook) BIBAKFull-Text 2776-2787
  Muhammad Z. I. Lallmahomed; A Nor Zairah Ab.Rahim; Roliana Ibrahim; Azizah Abdul Rahman
This research examines the relationship between the predictors of use and the different conceptualizations of system use in a hedonic volitional setting (Facebook). Using the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model, an investigation into the three aspects of system use: the user, system and task were carried out. Results from a cross-sectional survey of 449 students show that behavioral intention has a significant influence on all aspects and dimensions of system use including cognitive absorption and deep structure use. Performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence are significantly related to system use. From the component model, performance expectancy is only significant with deep structure use. Hedonic performance expectancy is found to be significantly related to cognitive absorption. Results also demonstrate that predictors of usage have a significant relationship with the user aspect of system use. The variance explained in usage conceptualized as the user/task aspects is much higher than that of the system/task aspects or one-dimensional measures. Overall, conceptualizing system use using the user/task aspects offers greater explanatory power in Facebook use.
Keywords: System use; Usage measures; System use taxonomy; Facebook; Social networking sites (SNSs); UTAUT
Internal and external influences on social networking site usage in Thailand BIBAKFull-Text 2788-2795
  Vikanda Pornsakulvanich; Nuchada Dumrongsiri
The purpose of the study is to investigate internal and external factors influencing the use of social networking sites (SNSs) in Thailand. Overall (N = 451) participated in this study. Survey research was employed to examine the interrelationships and differences among a set of variables. The results showed that both internal and external factors affecting the use of SNSs and SNS motivation. External factors, particularly media and significant others were more influential than internal factors to predicting time spent on SNSs. People who were influenced by media and significant others would be more likely to spend more time using SNSs and Facebook. SNS motivation led to different SNS use. In particular, those who were motivated to use SNS for relaxation would spend more time using Facebook. In addition, the findings indicated that females would spend more time using YouTube, Twitter, and Hi5 than males. Moreover, females tended more to use SNSs to maintain their friendship than did males.
Keywords: Uses and gratifications; Theory of Reasoned Action; Social networking sites; Motivation; External influences; Thailand
Mozart or metallica, who makes you more attractive? A mediated moderation test of music, gender, personality, and attractiveness in cyberspace BIBAKFull-Text 2796-2804
  Qinghua Yang; Cong Li
Computer-mediated communication environments such as personal websites enable users to use multimedia to construct their self-identities. How these multimedia elements in the cyberspace such as audios influence interpersonal impressions is somewhat unclear in the literature. Based on Brunswik's lens model, this research aims to examine the impact of audio information on impression formation by testing: (a) how the background music of a personal website affects perceived attractiveness of the website owner and how gender moderates this effect, and (b) whether such an effect is mediated by perceived personality. A 2 x 2 full factorial experiment was conducted where participants (N = 122) were randomly assigned to view a cross-gender personal website with either classical or heavy metal background music. The experimental findings suggested a significant mediated moderation effect: gender moderated the relationship between music type and perceived attractiveness of the website owner such that male participants perceived the female website owner with classical background music as more attractive while female participants considered the male website owner with heavy metal background music to be more attractive, and this moderation was mediated by the website owner's perceived agreeableness.
Keywords: Personal website; Online identity; Music stereotype; Gender bias; Lens model; Personality
A review of the available content on Tor hidden services: The case against further development BIBAKFull-Text 2805-2815
  Clement Guitton
Deindividuation theory informs us that anonymity is likely to beget unethical or violent behavior. Since 2002, Tor has implemented hidden services that allow users to host platforms anonymously and these have behaved accordingly with deindividuation theory: the services are used mostly for unethical content. This article realizes the first systematic analysis of users behavior on Tor hidden services. After classifying 1171 services into 23 categories, and carrying out a content analysis of 2165 posts, the article concludes that unethical content is quantitatively and qualitatively more preponderant than ethical content. The advantages of anonymity to store and access this ethical content do not balance the negative impacts caused by the unethical content. Freedom of expression and the lack of censorship, if theoretically praiseworthy, are overshadowed by what users have done with it: using Tor hidden services in unethical ways. Unethical content is undesirable by its very nature of affecting people negatively, which should lead us to reconsider the development of the Tor hidden services. For users simply wishing to stay anonymous and to act ethically, the use of Tor and of web services located in countries with a morally balanced legal system are sufficient. The support for the further development of Tor hidden services should hence stop, which would not hinder the functioning of Tor as an anonymity provider to those needing it.
Keywords: Anonymity; Tor; Hidden services; Unethical content; Censorship
Testing alternative models of individuals' social media involvement and satisfaction BIBAKFull-Text 2816-2828
  Jeen-Su Lim; Abdulrahman Al-Aali; John H. Heinrichs; Kee-Sook Lim
This study extends the Technology Acceptance Model 3 (TAM 3) within the context of the rapidly evolving area of social media. Since social media requires the user's active participation and processing of information as well as the creation of user-generated content, this timely study introduces the two relevant constructs of social media involvement and social media satisfaction that are associated with TAM 3. This study then develops three alternative conceptual models and empirically validates each of them using datasets obtained from the United States and Saudi Arabia. The LISREL analysis results show that the Dual Mediation Impact model is the best-fit model for both datasets. Further, the results show that a user's social media involvement and social media satisfaction are dual mediators of the TAM 3 factors on social media usage intention. While the two country data show some differences in the strength of the relationships in the Dual Mediation Impact model, the identified model provides a common framework for global use. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Social media sites; User satisfaction; Social media usage intention; Involvement; TAM 3; Three alternative models

Short Communications

An empirical investigation of six levels of enterprise resource planning integration BIBAKFull-Text 2123-2133
  Delvin Grant; Yujong Hwang; Qiang Tu
The purpose of this research is to propose a six-level ERP integration model and to empirically investigate if each of the six levels exists. The six levels are system-specification, system -- user, islands-of-technology, organizational, socio-organizational, and global integration. Empirical data were collected by using a large-scale survey of ERP professionals. We conducted various validity and reliability tests to confirm the proposed theoretical framework. Using partial least squares (PLSs) analysis, the results of the investigation confirmed the existence of the six levels of ERP integration. The results of the investigation have implications for research and practice.
Keywords: Levels of integration; ERP; Enterprise systems; Islands-of-technology; Global integration
Separate but equal? A comparison of participants and data gathered via Amazon's MTurk, social media, and face-to-face behavioral testing BIBAKFull-Text 2156-2160
  Krista Casler; Lydia Bickel; Elizabeth Hackett
Recent and emerging technology permits psychologists today to recruit and test participants in more ways than ever before. But to what extent can behavioral scientists trust these varied methods to yield reasonably equivalent results? Here, we took a behavioral, face-to-face task and converted it to an online test. We compared the online responses of participants recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and via social media postings on Twitter, Facebook, and Reddit. We also recruited a standard sample of students on a college campus and tested them in person, not via computer interface. The demographics of the three samples differed, with MTurk participants being significantly more socio-economically and ethnically diverse, yet the test results across the three samples were almost indistinguishable. We conclude that for some behavioral tests, online recruitment and testing can be a valid -- and sometimes even superior -- partner to in-person data collection.
Keywords: MTurk; Social media; Methodology; Recruitment; Crowd-sourcing
When it comes to Facebook there may be more to bad memory than just multitasking BIBAKFull-Text 2179-2182
  Scott T. Frein; Samantha L. Jones; Jennifer E. Gerow
Previous research has shown that high levels of Facebook use are associated with lower grades in college students. Divided attention in the form of trying to use Facebook during class or while studying has been suggested as a possible explanation for this finding. In the current study, 44 participants were divided into high and low Facebook users and completed a memory test for 72 words. Participants were not allowed to use Facebook, or any other electronic device, during the study thereby eliminating divided attention between Facebook and the task at hand as a possible explanation for the results. High Facebook users (defined as spending more than one hour a day on Facebook) scored significantly lower on the free recall test than low Facebook users. Possible explanations for this finding are discussed.
Keywords: Facebook; Memory; Divided attention; Social networking; Social media
Depleted egos and affirmed selves: The two faces of customization BIBAKFull-Text 2273-2280
  Hyunjin Kang; S. Shyam Sundar
Customization is generally considered a desirable attribute of media technologies, but it also entails the active exercise of choice by the user. Research has shown that constantly making personal choices results in depletion of inner resources required for self-control -- a phenomenon known as "ego depletion.' Therefore, we hypothesize a negative effect of customization on self control. But, in doing so, we also consider the possibility that this effect could be mitigated by the affordance of self-expression via customization. So, although making numerous choices could lead to ego-depletion, identity expression could lead to self-affirmation, which is known to counter ego-depletion. The current study explores these two competing effects of customization on one's inner resources, by way of a three-condition, between-subjects experiment (N = 54), in which one group of participants was instructed to customize their iGoogle portal in a manner that would bolster their self-affirmation and another in a manner that would minimize it, with the third condition serving as a browsing-only control. The results indicate that self-affirmation may compensate for ego depletion, with theoretical implications for the psychology of customization technology and practical implications for design of customization options in media interfaces.
Keywords: Psychology of customization; Ego depletion; Identity; Self-affirmation
Peer-mediation of the adoption of efficient software interaction methods: A model based on priming BIBAKFull-Text 2595-2602
  Franklin P., II Tamborello; S. Camille Peres; Vickie D. Nguyen; Michael D. Fleetwood
Our peers are an important source from which we glean new information or are reminded of old information that influences our behavior (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961; Osman, 2008; Rieman, 1996). One important domain in which this phenomenon functions is the adoption of efficient means of accomplishing our work (Peres, Tamborello, Fleetwood, Chung, & Paige-Smith, 2004). Using a novel peer mediation paradigm, we performed an empirical study of efficient method adoption in a software usage task and observed a causal effect of peer behavior modeling. Our computational cognitive model explains the peer modeling effect in terms of priming the memory of the efficient method. We conclude that behavior changes do result from peer interactions that prime memories for the targeted behaviors.
Keywords: Behavior change; Efficiency; Method selection; Computational cognitive model; Priming; Memory
Sex differences in jealousy over Facebook activity BIBAKFull-Text 2603-2606
  Francis T. McAndrew; Sahil S. Shah
Forty heterosexual undergraduate students (24 females, 16 males) who were currently in a romantic relationship filled out a modified version of The Facebook Jealousy questionnaire (Muise, Christofides, & Desmarais, 2009). The questionnaire was filled out twice, once with the participant's own personal responses, and a second time with what each participant imagined that his/her romantic partner's responses would be like. The data indicated that females were more prone to Facebook-evoked feelings of jealousy and to jealousy-motivated behavior than males. Males accurately predicted these sex differences in response to the jealousy scale, but females seemed unaware that their male partners would be less jealous than themselves.
Keywords: Jealousy; Facebook; Social networking; Romantic relationships