HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Journals | About CHB | Journal Info | CHB Journal Volumes | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
CHB Tables of Contents: 29303132333435363738394041

Computers in Human Behavior 39

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-10 Volume 39

CHB 2014-10 Volume 39

The effect of sustained attention level and contextual cueing on implicit memory performance for e-learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 1-7
  Hale Ilgaz; Arif Altun; Petek Askar
Cognitive-based individual differences, among which are attention and attention design, play a crucial role in designing personalized e-learning environments. In this study, the effects of dynamic and static cue types presented to users in e-learning environments on implicit memory performance of individuals with different sustained attention levels are investigated. The statistical analyses suggest that the contextual cues prepared in different presentation types do not have a common significant effect on implicit memory performance of individuals with high or low sustained attention levels. Besides it is determined that the cues presented in two different forms, i.e. dynamic and static, has an effect on participants' implicit memory performance as long as sustained attention is ruled out. Better results obtained by static cueing compared to dynamic cueing, on the other hand, is important for learning environment design for individuals experiencing attention deficit.
Keywords: Sustained attention; Implicit memory; E-learning; Instructional design; Cognition
Comparing the role of ICT literacy and anxiety in the adoption of mobile learning BIBAKFull-Text 8-19
  Kathryn Mac Callum; Lynn Jeffrey; A Kinshuk
This paper explores the impact of ICT anxiety, ICT literacy, perceived ease of use and usefulness on the adoption of mobile learning. A modified version of the Technology Adoption Model was used to measure student and educator intention to adopt mobile learning. The research questions were tested using structural equation modelling. Two questionnaires were developed (one for students and one for educators) and used to measure ICT literacy and attitudes and perceptions towards mobile learning. Differences and similarities were found between students and educators on the relative importance of the influence of these factors on intention to adopt. A basic level of ICT literacy and an advanced level of mobile literacy had an impact on intention to adopt but an advanced level of ICT literacy was not found to have any effect.
Keywords: Adult learning; Computer-mediated communication; Country-specific developments; Teaching/learning strategies; Post-secondary education
Avatar-driven self-disclosure: The virtual me is the actual me BIBAKFull-Text 20-28
  Rosalie Hooi; Hichang Cho
Considering the importance of self-disclosure in building relationships and bonds, it is vital to investigate how self-disclosure is affected by avatars utilized in many online communities. In this study, we tested a research model that explores how perceived avatar-self similarity affects self-disclosure via different theoretical constructs such as self-awareness, self-presence, and identifiability. The research model was empirically tested with data from a web-based survey of 209 Second Life users. Results revealed that avatar similarity impacts self-disclosure but with varying effects, depending on how it is mediated by variables of identifiability, self-awareness and self-presence. Specifically, appearance similarity affects homophily, which heightens self-awareness. This results in increased feelings of self-presence, which positively affects self-disclosure. Homophily also has the effect of heightening perceptions of identifiability, which decreases self-disclosure. Implications and applications are discussed.
Keywords: Avatar; Self-disclosure; Self-awareness; Virtual environment
The role of users' motivations in generating social capital building and subjective well-being: The case of social network games BIBAKFull-Text 29-38
  Chang-Hyun Jin
Social network games (SNGs) -- which operate on a small scale and allow players to enjoy gaming with close friends -- have exploded in popularity on the online social media scene in a very short time. This study explores the motivations that drive players to SNGs. The study investigates whether social capital serves as a moderating factor between these motivations and subjective well-being. Based on survey data (n = 560), the results show that SNG players seek entertainment, fantasy, the challenge of competition, and escapism when playing SNGs. The study finds that although social capital does not moderate the relationships between three motivations to play SNGs -- entertainment, the challenge of competition, and escapism -- and subjective well-being, it does moderate the relationship between the fantasy motivation and subjective well-being. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Social network games; Motivations; Social capital; Subjective well-being
The effectiveness of a national security screening interview conducted by a computer-generated agent BIBAKFull-Text 39-50
  Dean A. Pollina; Allison Barretta
To determine the feasibility of automating the process of interviewing applicants for Federal security clearances, the authors examined behavioral and physiological responses of individuals (n = 120) to questions concerning their mental health, drug, alcohol, and criminal histories. The interviews were administered by a computer-generated (CG) agent. The results indicated that the number of relevant admissions during the CG interview exceeded the number of admissions made using a self-report questionnaire. In addition, significant blood volume and skin conductance amplitude differences were observed between individuals who made two or more relevant admissions and individuals who made less than two admissions. An interaction between perceived locus of interview control (either computer or human) and behavioral activation systems (BAS) on skin conductance (SC) responses was also observed.
Keywords: Computer-generated agents; Security screening interviews; Credibility assessment; Skin conductance; Behavioral approach; Behavioral inhibition
Knowledge sharing and social media: Altruism, perceived online attachment motivation, and perceived online relationship commitment BIBAKFull-Text 51-58
  Will W. K. Ma; Albert Chan
Social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, have become extremely popular. Facebook, for example, has more than a billion registered users and thousands of millions of units of information are shared every day, including short phrases, articles, photos, and audio and video clips. However, only a tiny proportion of these sharing units trigger any type of knowledge exchange that is ultimately beneficial to the users. This study draws on the theory of belonging and the intrinsic motivation of altruism to explore the factors contributing to knowledge sharing behavior. Using a survey of 299 high school students applying for university after the release of the public examination results, we find that perceived online attachment motivation (β² = 0.31, p < 0.001) and perceived online relationship commitment (β² = 0.49, p < 0.001) have positive, direct, and significant effects on online knowledge sharing (R² 0.568). Moreover, when introduced into the model, altruism has a direct and significant effect on online knowledge sharing (β² = 0.46, p < 0.001) and the total variance explained by the extended model increases to 64.9%. The implications of the findings are discussed.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing; Perceived online attachment motivation; Perceived online relationship commitment; Altruism; Social media
When your Second Life comes knocking: Effects of personality on changes to real life from virtual world experiences BIBAKFull-Text 59-70
  Poppy Lauretta McLeod; Yi-Ching Liu; Jill Elizabeth Axline
A survey study (N = 223) of participants in the social virtual world, Second Life, examined the relationship between Big Five personality factors, experiences in the virtual world and reports of changes to real life resulting from the virtual world experiences. Hypotheses about direct and indirect effects of personality on real life changes were tested with structural equation modeling. Results showed that the strength of users' relationship to the virtual environment, identification with and similarity to their avatars positively predicted reports of changes to real life, and that these three factors mediated effects of Agreeableness, Extraversion, Intellect, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability, on real life changes. Conscientiousness also had a direct negative relationship with real life changes. Implications are discussed for the potential of virtual social media features for activating facets of personality traits.
Keywords: Avatar; Big Five; Personality; Trait activation; Virtual world; Virtual environment
The uses and gratifications of using Facebook music listening applications BIBAKFull-Text 71-77
  Amanda E. Krause; Adrian C. North; Brody Heritage
Despite rapid adoption of social media as a means of music listening, little is known about users' motivations. This study applies the uses and gratifications approach to users' motivations for using music listening applications on Facebook. Participants completed an online survey, and 153 out of 576 respondents indicated that they used a Facebook music listening application. A principal axis factor analysis identified three different motivations for this usage, namely entertainment, communication, and habitual diversion gratifications. The entertainment and communication gratifications replicate those found in prior uses and gratifications research concerning other social networking features, illustrating the strong similarity between uses of music and social media. However, the habitual diversion gratification may serve to distinguish listening applications from other features. Identifying and explaining these factors is relevant to social media users, musicians and application designers, as they explain what motivates a means of music listening that is gaining prominence.
Keywords: Facebook; Social networking; Digital music; Applications; Uses and gratifications
Study of pathological Internet use, behavior and attitudes among students population at Technical Faculty Bor, University of Belgrade BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  Milica Niculovic; Dragana Zivkovic; Dragan Manasijevic; Nada Štrbac
"Pathological Internet use" (PIU) has been defined as Internet use which causes a specified number of symptoms, including mood-altering use of the Internet, failure to fulfill major role obligations, guilt, and craving. The current study deals with PIU in order to describe disturbed patterns of Internet use, behavior and attitudes among students population of the Technical Faculty in Bor, University of Belgrade. It surveyed students -- Internet users, a population which is considered to be a high risk for pathological Internet use. It was obtained that 6% of the total number of respondents reported no symptoms, 46.4% of respondents reported limited symptoms of addiction, while 47.6% of respondents reported pathological symptoms. Factor analysis was applied to identify main constructs of Internet behavior and attitudes scale used in the present study. Further, the differences in Internet behavior and attitudes between the genders were studied using Mann-Whitney U test, while Kruskal-Wallis H test was applied to study differences between three groups of students with different degree of pathological Internet use. Obtained results reveal that the strongest differences between pathological users and others students exist in respect to the relationship and personality issues.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Pathological Internet use; Internet behavior and attitudes scale
Making work fun: Investigating antecedents of perceived enjoyment in human computation games for information sharing BIBAKFull-Text 88-99
  Ei Pa Pa Pe-Than; Dion Hoe-Lian Goh; Chei Sian Lee
The advent of online games, crowdsourcing, and user-generated content has led to the emergence of a new paradigm called the Human Computation Games (HCGs) which utilize games as a motivator to encourage users' participation in human computation. HCGs are different from games for pure entertainment which emphasize play and fun, rather than output generation. Therefore, research has yet to fully explore the factors underlying players' perception of HCG enjoyment. In this paper, we study the influence of motivational needs satisfaction and perceived output quality on perceived HCG enjoyment using a survey (N = 205) of a location-based information sharing HCG called SPLASH, developed as part of our research. According to the results, perceived needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness influence perceived enjoyment of HCGs, suggesting that HCGs that fulfill these three needs are more likely to be enjoyable, thereby encouraging players to make useful computations. The results also show that participants who perceive higher levels output relevancy report a greater level of enjoyment, indicating that HCGs that assist players in generating relevant outputs are more likely to be perceived as enjoyable.
Keywords: Human computation games; Mobile information sharing; Perceived enjoyment; Motivational needs; Perceived output quality; Evaluation
How heterogeneous community engage newcomers? The effect of community diversity on newcomers' perception of inclusion: An empirical study in social media service BIBAKFull-Text 100-111
  Zhao Pan; Yaobin Lu; Sumeet Gupta
Online communities that provide social media services need to engage newcomers so as to not lose them to competitors. This study examines the role of community diversity (in terms of perceived visible dissimilarity, perceived informational dissimilarity and perceived value dissimilarity) in influencing perceived inclusion of newcomers in the online community and the influence of such perception on newcomers' engagement intention. The theoretical background on perceived inclusion is obtained from the optimal distinctiveness theory, which comprises of two dimensions, namely, social identification and perceived uniqueness. The results support the multiple roles of community diversity on a newcomer's perceived inclusion. The findings of this study contribute to a better understanding of the effect of community diversity on newcomers' engagement behavior, and provide recommendations on designing a personalized community diversity environment.
Keywords: Community diversity; Perceived inclusion; Social identification; Perceived uniqueness; Newcomers; Engagement
Is digital divide an issue for students with learning disabilities? BIBAKFull-Text 112-117
  Ting-Feng Wu; Ming-Chung Chen; Yao-Ming Yeh; Hwa-Pey Wang; Sophie Chien-Huey Chang
The purpose of this study was to examine if digital divide exists between elementary school aged children with learning disabilities (LD) and their nondisabled peers in Taiwan. A self-reported questionnaire regarding information and communication technology (ICT) access and ICT competency, Scale of Digital Participation of Elementary School Students, designed by the authors, was used to collect data. Totally, 117 students with LD and 117 peers without disabilities were recruited in this investigation and were conducted with the questionnaire. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the opportunities to access computers and the Internet at home and at school between children with and without LD. However, there was a significant difference found in ICT competencies between children with and without LD. Moreover, students without LD enhanced their computer competency gradually year by year, but students with LD eventually did not. The findings of this study supported the notion that mere provision of ICT access is not sufficient for children with LD to master ICT skills. A specific designed ICT instruction programs should be provided to children with LD. Finally, suggestions for future studies were also discussed.
Keywords: Digital divide; Students with learning disabilities; Information and communication technology (ICT); ICT access; ICT competency
Understanding the acceptance of teleconferencing systems among employees: An extension of the technology acceptance model BIBAKFull-Text 118-127
  Namkee Park; Mohja Rhoads; Jinghui Hou; Kwan Min Lee
Employing the framework of the technology acceptance model (TAM), the present study investigates the factors that affect employees' acceptance and use of teleconferencing systems for work-related meetings in business settings. Based on survey data of 155 working professionals, a path analysis confirmed the key propositions of TAM. Importantly, the results also showed that both individual factors such as anxiety and self-efficacy, and institutional factors such as institutional support and voluntariness were significantly related to perceived ease of use (PEOU), perceived usefulness (PU), and actual use of the systems. By examining teleconferencing that typically involves group communication within organizations, this study contributes to theoretical refinement of group-based technology use and adoption. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Teleconferencing systems; Technology acceptance model; Anxiety; Self-efficacy; Institutional support; Voluntariness
A comparison of difficulties in instructional design processes: Mobile vs. desktop BIBAKFull-Text 128-135
  Çetin Güler; Eylem Kiliç; Hayati Çavus
The aim of this study is to compare the difficulties that novice instructional designers experience during instructional design processes for mobile devices and desktop computers. The participants/instructional designers of this study include 68 sophomore students from a Computer Education and Instructional Technologies (CEIT) department. The participants developed learning content for mobile devices and desktop computers through the ADDIE model. A descriptive research method was used for the present study. An already developed scale in line with the ADDIE model was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were conducted to analyze the data. The results of this study indicated that the difficulties experienced in both processes tended to be similar in developing learning content. Difficulties in internal design and production and front-end analysis were significantly different in terms of the Internet connection in personal mobile devices. External design and development difficulties, rolling-out difficulties and total scores were significantly different with regard to levels of Internet experience.
Keywords: Instructional design difficulties; Mobile design; Multimedia design
The role of knowledge sharing self-efficacy in sharing Open Educational Resources BIBAKFull-Text 136-144
  Frederik Van Acker; Marjan Vermeulen; Karel Kreijns; Jan Lutgerink; Hans van Buuren
In the current paper we report on a study regarding teachers' sharing behavior regarding their Open Educational Resources (OER) in the Netherlands. Little is known about how many teachers actually share their learning materials and, therefore, an attempt was made to estimate the number of Dutch teachers and the types of OER they share. Second, we tried to find out whether knowledge sharing self-efficacy facilitated, and evaluation apprehension and trust inhibited teachers to share OER in two different contexts of sharing behavior; sharing with colleagues at their school (interpersonal sharing) and sharing with the public through Internet (Internet sharing). A survey among 1568 teachers from primary to higher education was undertaken to test the relative importance of knowledge sharing self-efficacy, evaluation apprehension and trust in determining Dutch teachers' intention to share. The results showed that a large proportion of the Dutch teachers shared their OER, but that this sharing was limited to learning materials with low complexity (e.g., texts or images). Moreover, sharing occurred twice as much interpersonally than via websites. Our hypothesis that evaluation apprehension is significantly related to sharing behavior as well as the intention to share was not confirmed. Self-efficacy to share knowledge did, however, explain some of the differences in sharing behavior and in the intention to share of Dutch teachers, although the variables under study accounted only for a small amount of variance. Our findings should thus be replicated in further studies and other variables should be considered that could effectively predict OER sharing behavior of teachers.
Keywords: OER; Evaluation apprehension; Knowledge sharing; Teachers; Self-efficacy
Browse to search, visualize to explore: Who needs an alternative information retrieving model? BIBAKFull-Text 145-153
  Dejan Pajic
This article presents the results of the evaluation of SCIViS -- a visualization-based scientific information retrieval (IR) system. SCIViS is based on the logic of concept maps and enables the visualization of relationships among descriptors and authors of scientific papers. It creates an interactive interface between the user's cognitive space and document information space. The system was evaluated by the group of 138 psychology students which have performed a variety of search tasks, using both the classic text-based and the visualization based IR systems. The SCIViS model has proved to be effective and intuitive. Participants were more efficient using the visual IR system, particularly when performing tasks requiring modifications of the initial query and finding alternative keywords. User responses indicated that system's speed and ease of use are the most important attributes of the overall assessment. They also revealed the impact of users' previous experience with IR systems on users' satisfaction and perception of usefulness. Previous experience may be regarded both as the rate of success in performing search tasks, as well as the familiarity with popular search engines. The later one seems to be an important factor in modeling users' information seeking behavior and their attitudes toward alternative IR models.
Keywords: Information retrieval; Information visualization; Visual search; Bibliographic databases; Usability; User satisfaction
Motivation profiles of online Poker players and the role of interface preferences: A laddering study among amateur and (semi-) professionals BIBAKFull-Text 154-164
  Bieke Zaman; Kristof Geurden; Rozane De Cock; Bob De Schutter; Vero Vanden Abeele
Online Poker has become an increasingly popular form of gambling. In this study, the qualitative method of laddering interviews based on means-end chain theory was used to offer new insights in online Poker players' psychological motives, and the way in which Poker website characteristics shape gambling preferences. A total of 18 Belgian young adults, experienced in Poker playing, were recruited via snowball sampling, of which 6 professionals (relying on online Poker as the sole source of income), 6 semi-professionals (playing for money, but not relying on it as a sole source of income) and 6 amateurs (not relying on Poker money for income). We focused on 2 Poker websites, PokerStars and Facebook Zynga Poker. Results revealed that an increase in the dependency on Poker profits shifted motives from learning towards monetary incentives. Yet, playing for real money could not be considered as a purely extrinsic motivation as it greatly determined the game play dynamics and experiences, and this both in the (semi-) professionals and amateur players. Finally, our study indicates that responsible gaming features should reconcile monetary worth with values of control, trust, entertainment and game play action.
Keywords: Online Poker; Qualitative; Motivations; Human-computer interaction; Media choice; Means-end chain theory
Publically different, privately the same: Gender differences and similarities in response to Facebook status updates BIBAKFull-Text 165-169
  Richard Joiner; Caroline Stewart; Chelsey Beaney; Amy Moon; Pam Maras; Jane Guiller; Helen Gregory; Jeff Gavin; John Cromby; Mark Brosnan
Social networking sites (SNS), and especially Facebook, have revolutionised patterns of language and communication. We conducted a study to examine gender differences in language use on Facebook, by surveying 600 undergraduate students (388 females and 207 males), and analysing males' and females' responses to two Facebook status updates. There were a number of gender differences in terms of public replies to Facebook status updates. Females were significantly more likely to 'Like' a Facebook status update than males, post a public reply to a Facebook status update than males and show higher levels of emotional support than males. In contrast there were hardly any gender differences in terms of sending private messages in response to Facebook status updates. There was no gender difference in terms of level of emotional support in private messages. Females were more likely to send a private message than males, but this difference was very small. The implications of these findings for explanations of gender differences in language are discussed.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Facebook; Gender; Language; Context
Why do pre-service teachers quit Facebook? An investigation on 'quitters forever' and 'quitters for a while' BIBAKFull-Text 170-176
  Muhterem Dindar; Yavuz Akbulut
Recent studies on online social networking have revealed many user characteristics while quitters have been addressed rarely. The current study investigated the reasons of quitting Facebook among 231 pre-service teachers. First, Facebook Quitting Questionnaire was created through a comprehensive literature review and expert opinions. The measure was validated through a principal components analysis, which explained 52.5% of the variance with 17 items and four components: External factors, self-concealing, mechanics and perceived usefulness. Then, temporary and permanent quitters were compared, which revealed that temporary quitters regarded FB as more useful in comparison to permanent quitters. Finally, follow-up interviews with 11 participants were conducted to probe in-depth. Interviews revealed similar factors underlying the quitting behavior. Confidence building among couples was a novel but significant predictor of quitting. On the other hand, participants felt obliged to have a Facebook account since either instructional Facebook use by the faculty or peer pressure urged them. Implications for further research were discussed accordingly.
Keywords: Online social networks; Quitting Facebook; Teacher training; Facebook Quitting Questionnaire; Factor analysis
A calligraphic based scheme to justify Arabic text improving readability and comprehension BIBAKFull-Text 177-186
  Aqil M. Azmi; Abeer Alsaiari
Studies have shown a correlation between reading comprehension and the visual appearance of the displayed text. One of the factors that affect the visual look of a text is its alignment. The purpose of this paper is to develop and implement a sophisticated algorithm to output a properly justified Arabic text. Most of the tools geared for e-document have not been tailored with Arabic in mind. And so, these either violate several calligraphic rules, or are a far cry from the aesthetics developed by the centuries old tradition of Arabic calligraphy. The scheme we developed is more realistic calligraphically and more pleasing aesthetically. It is a two-step process. Lines are populated with whole words, afterwards we use alternate form of the letters to compress or stretch the line as needed. In the second step we use kashida (elongation of the connecting line between the letters) to fill in the remaining gaps. There are strict rules which dictate which, when, and the minimum/maximum length of the kashida a word can have. We tested our justified Arabic text on university students. The experiment revealed the participants were able to read faster and had a better comprehension when presented with our justified text. The scheme we devised could be extended to other languages which share the basic Arabic script, e.g. Persian, and Urdu.
Keywords: Arabic typography; Font; Kashida; Text justification; Readability; Comprehension
Twitter as a social actor: How consumers evaluate brands differently on Twitter based on relationship norms BIBAKFull-Text 187-196
  Zongchao Li; Cong Li
The consumer-brand relationship literature indicates that consumers follow certain norms in their relationships with brands, and adherence or violation of those norms affects their brand evaluations. However, whether consumers use similar principles to guide their interactions with brands in computer-mediated communication (CMC) environments such as social networking sites remains unknown. To address this question, this study tests how consumers evaluate brands on Twitter depending on their own Twitter usage intensity. Based on social response theory, it is argued that a CMC context (as represented by Twitter) acts as an independent social actor and people follow offline interpersonal relationship rules in their interactions with brands on Twitter. Through a 2 (relationship type: exchange vs. communal) × 2 (Twitter usage intensity: light vs. heavy) experiment, it is found that light Twitter users follow exchange relationship norms and evaluate a brand with exchange relationship-oriented messages more favorably than communal relationship-oriented messages. Heavy users, however, do not show such differences.
Keywords: Social response theory; Consumer-brand relationship; Twitter; CMC
Text-based communication influences self-esteem more than face-to-face or cellphone communication BIBAKFull-Text 197-203
  Amy L. Gonzales
Meaningful social interactions are positively associated with improvements in self-esteem, but this phenomenon has largely been unexplored in digital media despite the prevalence of new, text-based communication (e.g. Facebook, texting, email, etc.). To address this gap in the literature the frequency and quality, or meaningfulness, of communication was measured in mediated and non-mediated channels across a random sample of 3649 social interactions using Experience Sampling Methods. Results revealed that most communication took place face-to-face (62%), with less text-based (about 22%) and cell phone voice (14%) communication. Meaningful face-to-face and text-based communication were associated with changes in self-esteem according to a marginally significant and significant finding, respectively. Text-based communication was more important for self-esteem than face-to-face or phone communication, which is consistent with research on the magnifying effect of text-based communication on interpersonal processes. According to the Internet enhanced self-disclosure hypothesis, the psychological benefits of text-based communication stems from enhanced self-disclosure, which is also supported in the data. Additional work is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the positive relationship between meaningful text-based interactions and self-esteem, but findings point to the important role of digital communication for psychological health.
Keywords: Text-based communication; Internet; Self-esteem; Hyperpersonal Model; Interpersonal self-disclosure hypothesis; Ecological momentary assessment
The impact of connecting with Professional Virtual Forum, team member and external person on R&D employee creativity BIBAKFull-Text 204-212
  Chaoying Tang
Accessing external knowledge is an important part of work for Research and Development (R&D) employees to get high creative performance. Currently, Professional Virtual Forum (PVF) in internet is becoming an important virtual knowledge source for R&D employees. However, up to now the impact of R&D employees' connect with PVF on their creativity still waits to be explored. Furthermore, the interactive effects of connect with PVF and person-to-person knowledge sources on creativity are not clear. This paper empirically studied the 163 R&D employees came from 16 companies in China, and the results turned out that the R&D employees' frequency of connect with PVF and intra-team, as well as with external person all significantly improved their creativity. Frequency of connect with PVF moderated the relationship between centrality of intra-team knowledge network and employee creativity, in such that when the frequency of connect with PVF was higher, the positive influence of centrality of intra-team knowledge network on employee creativity was also higher. Suggestions for future study on PVF and creativity are discussed.
Keywords: Professional Virtual Forum; Centrality of intra-team knowledge network; R&D employee creativity
Group development in virtual teams: An experimental reexamination BIBAKFull-Text 213-222
  Russell Haines
Virtual teams are thought to be experienced differently and to have poor outcomes because there is little or no face-to-face interaction and a tendency for virtual team members to use different communication techniques for forming relationships. However, the expanding use of virtual teams in organizations suggests that virtual teams in real world contexts are able to overcome these barriers and be experienced in much the same way as face-to-face teams. This paper reports the result of an experiment in which virtual teams participated in an exercise where they completed an information-sharing task ten times as a team. The results suggest that, contrary to one-shot, ad hoc virtual teams, longer-lived virtual teams follow a sequential group development process. Virtual team development appears to differ from face-to-face teams because the use of computer-mediated communication heightens pressure to conform when a virtual team is first formed, meaning trust is most strongly linked with feeling that the team was accomplishing the task appropriately. As the virtual teams developed, trust in peers was more strongly linked with goal commitment. Once the teams were working together effectively, accomplishing the task appropriately was the strongest link with trust in peers. I suggest that virtual team managers should cultivate virtual workspaces that are similar to those proven to work in face-to-face contexts: (1) teams should have clear, specific goals, (2) members should be encouraged or even required to communicate with each other, and (3) team members should feel that they might work with the other team members again.
Keywords: Virtual teams; Group development; Belonging; Commitment; Trust
Virtual humans but real anthropology BIBFull-Text 223
  Matthieu J. Guitton
Examination of allostasis and online laboratory simulations in a middle school science classroom BIBAKFull-Text 224-234
  Richard Lamb
The purpose of this study is to examine online learning simulations within a middle school science class and develop an understanding of the most and least successful profile combination of traits. The sample consisted of 350 middle school student taking 7th and 8th grade science in a classroom setting. Researchers examined outcomes on multiple administrations of a science content tests and affective measures. The authors examined test outcomes, affective outcomes, and profile combinations of traits using multilevel modeling, latent class analysis, and mean comparisons. Results indicated that the most successful combination of traits for using an online laboratory simulation in class is a student profile corresponding to a high allostatic load. Implications for this study also provide suggestions for understanding the mechanism of action for student success while using online laboratory simulations.
Keywords: Online laboratory simulations; Instructional technology; Middle school science; Allostatic load
Short- and long-term effects of embodied experiences in immersive virtual environments on environmental locus of control and behavior BIBAKFull-Text 235-245
  Sun Joo (Grace) Ahn; Jeremy N. Bailenson; Dooyeon Park
Immersive virtual environments (IVEs) allow individuals to see, hear, and feel digital stimuli as if they were in the physical world. Two studies tested the power of embodied experiences within IVEs by comparing the effects of cutting a virtual tree against reading a print description or watching a video depiction of the tree-cutting process to encourage paper conservation. Experiment 1 found that IVEs led participants to consume 20% less paper than participants who read a print description of tree cutting. Experiment 2 demonstrated that IVEs elicited greater self-reported internal environmental locus of control and self-reported environmental behaviors than print and video messages one week following the virtual experience. Moreover, internal environmental locus of control served as a mediator, driving environmental behaviors. We discuss the implications of using embodied experiences for behavior change.
Keywords: Immersive virtual environments; Embodied experiences; Environmental locus of control; Environmental behaviors; Behavior change; Conservation
Disclosures about important life events on Facebook: Relationships with stress and quality of life BIBAKFull-Text 246-253
  Jennifer L. Bevan; Ruth Gomez; Lisa Sparks
The current study examined the relationship between general perceived levels of stress, quality of life, social networking usage, and disclosing important life events on Facebook in order to better understand the complex relationship between online disclosure and individual well-being. An online survey was completed by adult Facebook users aged 18-70. Results indicate that the more time spent on and the more social network memberships, the higher stress and lower quality of life; Facebook-specific usage was unrelated to either well-being variable. Together, these findings suggest that the current increase in social media variety and usage may be detrimental to user well-being. Users who shared important, bad health news on Facebook had higher stress and lower quality of life than those who did not, with no significant differences for sharing good health news. The more that users did not share important news on Facebook for self-protection and friend unresponsiveness reasons, the greater their stress. The self-protection reason was also negatively related to quality of life. These inconsistent findings can likely be partially explained by the nature of the information that is shared. These findings are discussed in light of disclosure and relationship patterns on social networks.
Keywords: Facebook; Stress; Quality of life; Online disclosure; Health information
Social media self-efficacy and information evaluation online BIBAKFull-Text 254-262
  Kristin Page Hocevar; Andrew J. Flanagin; Miriam J. Metzger
This study introduces the concept of social media self-efficacy, or a person's perceived ability to reach desired outcomes in the social media environment, and examines the relationship between social media self-efficacy and how people evaluate information found online. Results of a survey of a representative sample of adult Internet users in the United States (N = 3568) indicate that users with higher social media self-efficacy find information shared via social media to be more trustworthy than do those lower in social media self-efficacy. These self-efficacious social media users also rely more both on the opinions of others and on social media specifically when evaluating or verifying the information they find online, suggesting that they may be more prone to seek out and be influenced by input from others. Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are explored.
Keywords: Social media; Self-efficacy; Information evaluation; Credibility; Internet
Revisiting the social enhancement hypothesis: Extroversion indirectly predicts number of Facebook friends operating through Facebook usage BIBAKFull-Text 263-269
  Gina Masullo Chen
An online survey of college-age Facebook users (N = 209) found that extroversion, narcissism, openness, and agreeableness predicted friending more people on Facebook. However, only extroversion continued to exert an effect when these and other personality variables were examined together in one regression model, while controlling for frequency of Facebook usage and gender. Also, a path analysis model showed that extroversion directly predicted number of Facebook friends and the number of months people were active on Facebook. In addition, extroversion indirectly influenced number of Facebook friends, operating through months active on Facebook and hours per week spent on Facebook in a parallel mediation effect. Findings offer support for the social enhancement hypothesis, which argues that extroverted people benefit the most from social media.
Keywords: Social media; Personality theory; Facebook; Friending; Extroversion; Social enhancement hypothesis
Present it like it is here: Creating local presence to improve online product experiences BIBAKFull-Text 270-280
  Tibert Verhagen; Charlotte Vonkeman; Frans Feldberg; Pløn Verhagen
Advanced online product presentation technologies such as virtual mirrors enable consumers to experience products like they are actually present with them in the real world. This study is one of the first to address the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Inspired by literature on media technology the concept of local presence is put forward and applied to the online consumer behavior domain. A key objective of this paper is to examine whether local presence adds to our understanding of how emerging product presentation formats influence online product experiences. To this end, a laboratory experiment (N = 366) was conducted with product presentation format as a three level (pictures, 360-spin rotation, and virtual mirror) independent variable, allowing for a comparison of the effectiveness of different presentation formats in creating perceptions of local presence. As a second objective, the influence of local presence on perceptions of product tangibility and product likability, two key facets of the online product experience, were assessed. The results, obtained with the use of analysis of variance and partial least squares modeling, show the superiority of the virtual mirror in creating local presence, and demonstrate that local presence is highly predictive of product tangibility and product likability. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
Keywords: Product presentation; Local presence; Online product experience; Product tangibility; Product likability; Virtual mirror
The winner takes it all: The effect of in-game success and need satisfaction on mood repair and enjoyment BIBAKFull-Text 281-286
  Diana Rieger; Tim Wulf; Julia Kneer; Lena Frischlich; Gary Bente
Recent research found that playing video games is able to serve mood management purposes as well as contribute to gratifications such as need satisfaction. Both aspects can foster the enjoyment as entertainment experience. The current study explores the question of how in-game success as a prerequisite for satisfying the need for competence and autonomy positively influences mood repair and game enjoyment. In a laboratory setting, participants were frustrated via a highly stressing math task and then played a video game (Mario Kart). Results show that in-game success drives mood repair as reflected in the experience of anger, happiness and activation. Moreover, fulfilling the intrinsic needs for competence and autonomy mediated the effects of in-game success and predicted enjoyment of the video game. Results are discussed in context of recent conceptualizations of media entertainment and the hierarchical order of emotional gratifications.
Keywords: Video games; Success; Mood repair; Self-determination theory
Relational transgressions on social networking sites: Individual, interpersonal, and contextual explanations for dyadic strain and communication rules change BIBAKFull-Text 287-295
  Robert S. Tokunaga
Social networking sites have demonstrated considerable utility to Internet users who wish to form or maintain interpersonal relationships online, but the qualities of these Internet platforms can also give rise to negative interactions between contacts. Perceptible relational problems, such as strain and changes to relational rules, originate from three commonly experienced transgressions on social networking sites: having a friend request declined or ignored, having a public message or identification tag deleted, and issues related to Top Friends applications. This investigation examines factors that contribute to the experience of relational problems following the three most common relational transgressions over social networking sites. The findings reveal that self-esteem, relational satisfaction, and publicness of the event, moderated by network esteem, affect the magnitude of the relational problems.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Relational transgressions; Strain; Communication rules
How social is Twitter use? Affiliative tendency and communication competence as predictors BIBAKFull-Text 296-305
  Eun-Ju Lee; Ye Weon Kim
An online survey (N = 461) investigated how individuals' interpersonal need and ability affect their motivations of Twitter use and how different motivations predict specific usage behavior. Based on the two competing views concerning the antecedents and consequences of online communication (social enhancement vs. social compensation), the joint effect of affiliative tendency and communication competence was hypothesized. For those high on affiliative tendency, communication competence positively predicted Twitter use for network expansion and negatively predicted more self-focused, intrapersonal Twitter use, but no such effect was found for less affiliative individuals. Those using Twitter for surveillance spent more time on Twitter and maintained a larger Twitter network, while those using Twitter for network expansion posted tweets and retweeted others' posts more frequently.
Keywords: Affiliative tendency; Communication competence; Social enhancement; Twitter
The relative contributions of implicit and explicit self-esteem to narcissistic use of Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 306-311
  Roma Subramanian; Kevin Wise; Doug Davis; Manu Bhandari; Erin Morris
This study aimed to explore the relationship between narcissism and Facebook use. Based on a conceptualization of narcissism as a discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem, we investigated the relative contributions of each element of self-esteem to different Facebook behaviors presumed to represent narcissism. We measured the explicit and implicit self-esteem of 81 participants using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Self-Esteem Implicit Association Test (IAT), respectively. Most participants then provided access to their Facebook accounts by friending a fictitious person. We coded a sample of these participants' online behaviors, and then analyzed how they related to the measures of self-esteem. Results suggest that implicit rather than explicit self-esteem drives Facebook behaviors associated with narcissism, with implicit self-esteem negatively correlated with number of Facebook friends. These results inform our understanding of the relationship between personality and online behavior.
Keywords: Narcissism; Explicit; Implicit; Self-esteem; Facebook
The Internet addiction components model and personality: Establishing construct validity via a nomological network BIBAKFull-Text 312-321
  Daria J. Kuss; Gillian W. Shorter; Antonius J. van Rooij; Dike van de Mheen; Mark D. Griffiths
There is growing concern over excessive and sometimes problematic Internet use. Drawing upon the framework of the components model of addiction (Griffiths, 2005), Internet addiction appears as behavioural addiction characterised by the following symptoms: salience, withdrawal, tolerance, mood modification, relapse and conflict. A number of factors have been associated with an increased risk for Internet addiction, including personality traits. The overall aim of this study was to establish the association between personality traits and the Internet addiction components model in order to develop a theoretical framework via a nomological network. Internet addiction and personality traits were assessed in two independent samples of 3105 adolescents in the Netherlands and 2257 university students in England. The results indicate that low agreeableness and high neuroticism/low emotional stability are associated with the Internet addiction components factor in both samples. However, low conscientiousness and low resourcefulness predicted it in the adolescent sample only. The implications include the usage of the Internet addiction components model as parsimonious tool for the initial screening of potential clients in mental health institutes, and identifying populations at risk through their personality traits which may prove advantageous for the initiation of targeted prevention efforts.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Addiction components model; Personality; Nomological network; Construct validity
Maximum Similarity Index (MSI): A metric to differentiate the performance of novices vs. multiple-experts in serious games BIBAKFull-Text 322-330
  Christian Sebastian Loh; Yanyan Sheng
In learning environments, appropriate objectives are needed to create the conditions for learning and consequently the performance to occur. It follows that appropriate metrics would also be necessary to properly measure what actually constitute performance in situ (within that environment), and to measure if learning has indeed occurred. Serious games environments can be problematic for performance measurement because publishers often posit the game would automatically facilitate learning by their design. Stakeholders, on the other hand, require empirical proofs to quantify performance improvement and calculate Returns of Investment.
   Serious games environment (an open-ended scenario) with 'more-than-one correct solutions' can be difficult for data analysis. In a previous study, we demonstrated the possible use of String Similarity Index to differentiate novices from experts based on how (dis-)similar their performances are within a 'single-solution' serious game environment. This study extends the previous study by differentiating a group of novices from the experts based on how (dis)similar their performances are within a 'multiple-solution' serious game environment. To facilitate the calculation of performance, we create a new metric for this purpose called, Maximum Similarity Index, to take into consideration the existence of multiple expert solutions. Our findings indicated that Maximum Similarity Index can be a useful metric for serious games analytics when such scenarios present themselves, both for the differentiation of novices from experts, and for the ranking of the player cohort. In a secondary analysis, we compared Maximum Similarity Index to other commonly available game metrics (such as time of completion) and found it to be more appropriate than other game metrics for the measurement of performance in serious games.
Keywords: Similarity index; Metrics and methodologies; Decision making; Human-computer interactions; Expert-novice performance
Genetic and environmental influences on problematic Internet use: A twin study BIBAKFull-Text 331-338
  Deniz Deryakulu; Ömer Faruk Ursavas
Despite many studies on the prevalence and correlates of problematic Internet use (PIU), we know little about its etiological components. Our main aim is to find out to what extent PIU is influenced by genetic and environmental factors using the classic twin design. A total of 237 Turkish twin-pairs aged 10-25 participated in the study. PIU was measured using the 'Problematic Internet Use Scale' (PIUS) developed by Ceyhan, Ceyhan and Gürcan. For male twin-pairs, the monozygotic (MZ) twin correlations were larger than the dizygotic (DZ) twin correlations, indicating that genetic factors influenced scores on the PIUS. However, for female twin-pairs, the MZ correlations were smaller than the DZ correlations for the PIUS, showing that genetic factors did not play a role in female twin-pairs. The influence of both genetic and environmental factors was explored with model-fitting analysis. Results showed that both for the "social comfort/benefit" and "negative consequences associated with the Internet use" sub-dimensions, the best-fitting models were the ADE models whereas both for the "excessive use" sub-dimension and "PIUS-Total", the best-fittings models were the ACE models. The key result of this study is that the genetic and non-shared environmental effects are equally influential on the overall PIU in male twin-pairs.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; Internet addiction; Twin study; Behavioral genetics; Genetic influence; Environmental influence
Reading tilted: Does the use of tablets impact performance? An oculometric study BIBAKFull-Text 339-345
  Jean-Luc Perrin; Damien Paillé; Thierry Baccino
Electronic devices such as tablets often imply new postural behavior in our everyday life and little is known about the influence of these postures on cognitive processes. In this study, postural aspects of reading on digital tablets are investigated to test whether reading speed or comprehension may be affected by different positions of the head or of the device. The first aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a lateral tilt of the head and/or a tablet on reading performance. We found that a small amount of tilt did not impact reading, subjects were able to adapt to this situation. For each eye tracking metric, there was a strong correlation between every condition of head and tablet tilt (for each one, r > 0.73). Tilting the head or some particular visual stimuli can also lead to a specific movement of the eyes called cycloversion. A second experiment was designed to ascertain the presence of such eye movements when reading on tablet. It emerged that reading on a tablet induced this movement, which could explain, to a certain extent, the adaptation we observed in the first experiment.
Keywords: Digital reading; Tablet; Head tilt; Tablet tilt; Eye movements; Cyclotorsion
The explicit and implicit outcome expectancies of Internet games and their relationships with Internet gaming behaviors among college students BIBAKFull-Text 346-355
  Shumeng Hou; Xiaoyi Fang
Although previous research has noted that outcome expectancies have played an important role in young people's risk-taking behaviors, few studies have focused on the characteristics of Internet gaming outcome expectancies and their relationships with college students' Internet gaming behaviors. This study combined self-report questionnaires and the go/no-go association task in examining the characteristics of the explicit and implicit Internet gaming outcome expectancies of 64 college students and their relationships with Internet gaming behaviors. The results indicated that Internet gaming-addicted college students explicitly reported more negative Internet gaming outcome expectancies than positive Internet outcome expectancies, while they unconsciously associated Internet games with positive and negative outcomes simultaneously in daily life. In contrast, the non-addicted group reported a neutral attribute toward Internet gaming outcome expectancies, while they implicitly associated Internet games more with negative outcomes than with positive outcomes in daily life. Moreover, explicit and implicit outcome expectancies did not exhibit significant correlations. Explicit outcome expectancies were correlated with present levels of addiction and indulgence, whereas implicit outcome expectancies were related to the length of time that an individual maintained Internet gaming behavior. Our findings have clinical implications. The findings can be applied to the diagnosing and intervention of Internet gaming addicts.
Keywords: Internet gaming addiction; College students; Go/no-go association task; Outcome expectancies
Can the use of cognitive and metacognitive self-regulated learning strategies be predicted by learners' levels of prior knowledge in hypermedia-learning environments? BIBAKFull-Text 356-367
  Michelle Taub; Roger Azevedo; François Bouchet; Babak Khosravifar
Research on self-regulated learning (SRL) in hypermedia-learning environments is a growing area of interest, and prior knowledge can influence how students interact with these systems. One hundred twelve (N = 112) undergraduate students' interactions with MetaTutor, a multi-agent, hypermedia-based learning environment, were investigated, including how prior knowledge affected their use of SRL strategies. We expected that students with high prior knowledge would engage in significantly more cognitive and metacognitive SRL strategies, engage in different sequences of SRL strategies, spend more time engaging in SRL processes, and visit more pages that were relevant to their sub-goals than students with low prior knowledge. Results showed significant differences in the total use of SRL strategies between prior knowledge groups, and more specifically, revealed significant differences in the use of each metacognitive strategy (e.g., judgment of learning), but not each cognitive strategy (e.g., taking notes) between prior knowledge groups. Results also revealed different sequences of use of SRL strategies between prior knowledge groups, and that students spent different amounts of time engaging in SRL processes; however, all students visited similar numbers of relevant pages. These results have important implications on designing multi-agent, hypermedia environments; we can design pedagogical agents that adapt to students' learning needs, based on their prior knowledge levels.
Keywords: Metacognition; Prior knowledge; Self-regulated learning; Hypermedia-learning environments
Rapid skill acquisition and online sexual grooming of children BIBAKFull-Text 368-375
  Ethel Quayle; Silvia Allegro; Linda Hutton; Michael Sheath; Lars Lööf
The limited research on online sexual grooming has largely focused on the stages of grooming, typologies of offenders, or comparisons with people who download abusive sexual images of children. Little attention has been paid to Internet affordances and the role these might play in the offending behavior, the development of expertise and the avoidance of detection. This exploratory, qualitative grounded theory study involved interviews with 14 men convicted of online grooming. The analysis indicated that the Internet was used to create a private space within which to engage in purposive, sexual behavior with young people. This engagement was for all an aid to fantasy, and for some was a precursor to an offline sexual assault. The opportunities afforded by Internet platforms not only allowed access to young people but facilitated the rapid acquisition of expertise.
Keywords: Grooming; Internet solicitation; Affordance; Expertise; Internet offenders
The interplay of intrinsic need satisfaction and Facebook specific motives in explaining addictive behavior on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 376-386
  Philipp K. Masur; Leonard Reinecke; Marc Ziegele; Oliver Quiring
The present paper aims at exploring the new phenomenon of social network site (SNS) addiction and at identifying predictors of problematic SNS use. For this purpose, a scale measuring addictive behavior specifically with regard to SNS use was developed. The effects of intrinsic need satisfaction in the offline context and of SNS-specific motives on SNS addiction were tested in an online-survey among 581 SNS users in Germany. It was hypothesized that motives mediate the influence of thwarted intrinsic need satisfaction on addictive behavior on SNSs. More precisely, we assumed that a lack of autonomy leads to a higher motivation to use SNSs for self-presentation and escapism, a lack of competence predicts the motive to use SNSs for acquiring information and self-presentation, and a lack of relatedness fosters users' motives to use SNSs for self-presentation and meeting new people. These motives, in turn, were predicted to be associated with higher levels of SNS addiction. All proposed mediation models were supported by the data. The results emphasize the importance of incorporating both offline need satisfaction and gratifications sought through the use of SNS to provide a comprehensive perspective on addictive behavior on SNSs.
Keywords: Social network sites; Addiction; Intrinsic need satisfaction; Uses and gratifications; Facebook
Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues BIBAKFull-Text 387-392
  Yalda T. Uhls; Minas Michikyan; Jordan Morris; Debra Garcia; Gary W. Small; Eleni Zgourou; Patricia M. Greenfield
A field experiment examined whether increasing opportunities for face-to-face interaction while eliminating the use of screen-based media and communication tools improved nonverbal emotion-cue recognition in preteens. Fifty-one preteens spent five days at an overnight nature camp where television, computers and mobile phones were not allowed; this group was compared with school-based matched controls (n = 54) that retained usual media practices. Both groups took pre- and post-tests that required participants to infer emotional states from photographs of facial expressions and videotaped scenes with verbal cues removed. Change scores for the two groups were compared using gender, ethnicity, media use, and age as covariates. After five days interacting face-to-face without the use of any screen-based media, preteens' recognition of nonverbal emotion cues improved significantly more than that of the control group for both facial expressions and videotaped scenes. Implications are that the short-term effects of increased opportunities for social interaction, combined with time away from screen-based media and digital communication tools, improves a preteen's understanding of nonverbal emotional cues.
Keywords: Social media; Nonverbal communication; Emotion; Adolescent; Social interaction; Development
The post-purchase communication strategies for supporting online impulse buying BIBAKFull-Text 393-403
  Chia-Chi Chang; Ai-Hua Tseng
As online impulse buying and the consequent cognitive dissonance can be a critical determinant of consumer e-satisfaction, effective post-purchase communication (arguments) to reduce post-purchase cognitive dissonance of impulsive buyers hence warrants further exploration. The current research focuses on the determinants of perceived persuasion of the post-purchase arguments and impulsive buyer e-satisfaction. The purpose of this study is to investigate the persuasion of post-purchase arguments on online impulsive buyer satisfaction. A 2 (number of arguments) × 2 (argument strength) experimental design was employed in order to examine whether the persuasion of arguments (e.g. the number and strength of arguments) would vary upon consumers' tendency to regret. The results indicated that an increased number of arguments provided after the purchase had a stronger positive effect on e-satisfaction when arguments were strong than when arguments were weak. Such an impact would be less pronounced for low tendency-to-regret consumers than for high tendency-to-regret consumers.
Keywords: Post-purchase arguments; Tendency-to-regret; Persuasion; Cognitive dissonance; Impulse buying
Social media and online health services: A health empowerment perspective to online health information BIBAKFull-Text 404-412
  Rita S. Mano
This study investigates how differences in the use of online health information and social media affect the use of online health services. We attempt to predict the extent to which the use of social media and online health information prompt individuals to use online health services. We draw upon a combination of sociology and communication studies and integrate relational maintenance assumptions regarding the quality of online social relationships to promote the importance of health empowerment factors -- socio-demographic characteristics, internet attitudes and health status models to predict the likelihood of using online health services. The study's sample consists of 1406 individuals using the Internet, including 633 individuals using the Internet and social media to look for health information. The study's results provide evidence that (a) online health information empowers most of the examined individuals to use online health services; (b) among all social media only those that offer consulting have a significant effect on the likelihood of using online health services. The implications of these findings support that a conceptual integration of CMC and social media use theories along with health empowerment assumptions, is a promising theoretical framework to test the effectiveness of social media use in prompting use of online health services. The practical applications for health management are highlighted as well. Finding practical and affordable ways to support the use of social media and encourage access to online health information and use of online health services could improve health literacy and self-management of health at the individual level and increase the efficiency in the provision of health services at the institutional level.
Keywords: Social media; Online health information; Health empowerment; Online health services
Who puts the best "face" forward on Facebook?: Positive self-presentation in online social networking and the role of self-consciousness, actual-to-total Friends ratio, and culture BIBAKFull-Text 413-423
  Roselyn J. Lee-Won; Minsun Shim; Yeon Kyoung Joo; Sung Gwan Park
The present research investigated how individual, interpersonal, and cultural variables influence positive self-presentation in online social networking. In particular, we examined the role of self-consciousness, actual-to-total Friends ratio, and culture in positive self-presentation on Facebook. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with college-age participants in the United States (n = 183) and South Korea (n = 137). Results showed that self-consciousness (public vs. private) and actual-to-total Friends ratio were not significantly associated with positive self-presentation on Facebook; however, culture showed a statistically significant association with positive self-presentation on Facebook, with the U.S. participants engaging in positive self-presentation on Facebook to a greater extent than the South Korean participants. More interestingly, culture significantly moderated the relationship between public self-consciousness and positive self-presentation as well as the relationship between actual-to-total Friends ratio and positive self-presentation. Specifically, positive self-presentation showed a significant positive association with public self-consciousness and a significant negative association with actual-to-total Friends ratio only among the South Korean participants and not among the U.S. participants. Theoretical and practical implications for understanding cross-cultural differences in self-presentation behaviors on social network sites were discussed.
Keywords: Online social networking; Social network sites (SNSs); Positive self-presentation; Self-consciousness; SNS Friends; Culture
Erratum to "A case study of Augmented Reality simulation system application in a chemistry course" [Comput. Hum. Behav. 37 (2014) 31-40] BIBFull-Text 424
  Su Cai; Xu Wang; Feng-Kuang Chiang