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CHB Tables of Contents: 26272829303132333435363738394041

Computers in Human Behavior 36

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-07 Volume 36

CHB 2014-07 Volume 36

A social scientific framework for social systems in online video games: Building a better looking for raid loot system in World of Warcraft BIBAKFull-Text 1-12
  Travis L. Ross; Lauren B. Collister
This paper examines social behavior in the online video game World of Warcraft. Specifically focusing on one element of social design: the behavior of players in the first release of Looking-for-Raid (LFR) loot system of World of Warcraft. It uses lens of economic game theory, combined with Williams (2010) mapping principle and a modern theoretical account of human decision-making, to explore how theory about individual interactions in well-defined contexts (games) can explain collective behavior. It provides some support for this theoretical approach with an examination of data collected as part of an ethnographic study, through focus groups, and a survey distributed to 333 World of Warcraft players. It concludes with a discussion of the results and some guidelines for predicting collective outcomes in certain types of online games using the introduced framework.
Keywords: Online video games; Collective behavior; Game theory; Mixed-motive game; Online communities; Social behavior
Cyberbullying in social networking sites: An adolescent victim's perspective BIBAKFull-Text 13-20
  Rebecca Dredge; John Gleeson; Xochitl de la Piedad Garcia
Online social networking sites (SNS) are a ubiquitous platform for communication. However, SNS can provide opportunities for abuse and harassment, typically referred to as cyberbullying. The current study examined adolescent victims' understanding of cyberbullying, the specific types of cyberbullying events experienced in SNS and the impact of these events. Twenty-five adolescents (15-24 years old) who responded to an invitation for participants with previous negative experiences in SNS took part in individual semi-structured interviews. Results showed that the basic criteria for the definition of cyberbullying published in previous research were either not referenced by participants, or they were more complex than initially anticipated. The most referenced criterion was the extent to which the experience had an impact on the victim, which is not a current definitional criterion. It was also found that 68% of victims reported experiencing a combined emotional, social and behavioural impact for each cyberbullying experience, and 12% reported no impact at all. These findings will contribute to the measurement of cyberbullying from the perspective of victims, and will also aid the development of intervention strategies based on the most common impact areas.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Impact; Social networking sites; Definition; Victim perspective
A longitudinal study of the association between Compulsive Internet use and wellbeing BIBAKFull-Text 21-28
  Linda D. Muusses; Catrin Finkenauer; Peter Kerkhof; Cherrie Joy Billedo
Objective: Compulsive Internet Use (CIU) has been linked to lower wellbeing, especially among adolescents. Yet, questions regarding the directionality of this association remain unanswered: CIU may influence wellbeing and vice versa. Theoretically, both directions are plausible, yet so far no studies have examined the directionality of these effects among adults. This article aims to shed light on the directionality of the relation between CIU and both positive and negative wellbeing, using a prospective, longitudinal sample of adults (n = 398).
   Methods: Over the course of four years, participants completed five assessments of their CIU and both positive and negative indicators of wellbeing. Participants were married couples who were recruited in the municipalities where they were married.
   Results: CIU predicted increases in depression, loneliness and stress over time, and a decrease in happiness. No effect of CIU on the change in self-esteem was found. Further, happiness predicted a decrease in CIU over time.
   Conclusions: The results suggest CIU lowers wellbeing. This is important given that lowered wellbeing may affect health. Happiness is suggested to be a buffer for developing CIU.
Keywords: Compulsive Internet use; Psychological wellbeing; Happiness; Depression; Loneliness
Theory of Reasoned Action application for Green Information Technology acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 29-40
  Deepti Mishra; Ibrahim Akman; Alok Mishra
The increase in the use of Information Technology (IT) in recent decades has contributed to additional power consumption as well as a potential overuse of scarce resources. Also, IT is quickly surpassing air transportation in terms of its carbon footprint. For these reasons, increased environmental awareness has increased interest in Green Information Technology (GIT) among IT practitioners. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate behavior for the adoption of GIT applying the conceptual model, referred to as the 'Theory of Reasoned Action' (TRA). For this purpose, a survey was conducted among IT professionals from major public and private sector establishments. Findings indicated that behavioral intention influences actual behavior positively. IT professionals with positive intentions towards GIT issues are actually practicing GIT in their work. Results also indicated that external factors such as person related beliefs, sector of respondents' establishment, and level of awareness have significant impact on attitude towards adoption of GIT.
Keywords: Green Information Technology; Theory of Reasoned Action; IT professionals; Behavior
The effects of text presentation format on reading comprehension and video game performance BIBAKFull-Text 41-47
  Alexandra B. Proaps; James P. Bliss
The military has used video games to help geographically distributed military teams develop specific skills in a safe, controlled environment. Military trainers have also used hand-held devices and rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of text and graphics for training and mission planning. This research continued previous work investigating the influence of RSVP of intelligence reports on task performance, reading comprehension, and affect. Seventy-eight participants moved through a video game to find a target avatar as quickly as possible based on intelligence reports. There were two presentation styles (RSVP or traditional) and two intelligence formats (content-relevant words or full sentences). Differences in task performance, reading comprehension, and affect occurred as a function of text presentation. Participants in the RSVP group found the medic more quickly when reading full sentences than when reading only content words. Individuals reading traditional text of content words scored higher on comprehension tests than when reading either RSVP format. Participants also found RSVP tasks to be more challenging and more engaging than traditional text formats. These results suggest researchers and trainers should continue to investigate RSVP to determine its applicability for training other skills.
Keywords: Video game-based training; Military; Mobile devices; Reading comprehension; Rapid serial visual presentation
Exploring influential social cognitive determinants of social media use BIBAKFull-Text 48-55
  Hyoungkoo Khang; Eun-Kyoung Han; Eyun-Jung Ki
This study explored relationships between social cognitive determinants and examined their associations with social media usage. Overall, the model exhibits a goodness-of-fit and secures generalizability. In examining the social cognitive determinants of social media usage, habit strength was found, with statistical significance, to be the sole and immediate antecedent of social media use. Discussion and implications are further offered.
Keywords: Social media; Social cognitive theory; Habit; Automaticity
Are learning styles useful indicators to discover how students use Scrum for the first time? BIBAKFull-Text 56-64
  Ezequiel Scott; Guillermo Rodríguez; Álvaro Soria; Marcelo Campo
Teaching agile practices is in the cutting-edge of Software Engineering education since agile methodologies are widely used in the industry. An effective strategy to teach agile practices is the use of a capstone project, in which students develop requirements following an agile methodology. To improve students' learning experience, professors have to keep track and analyze the information generated by the students during the capstone project development. The problem here arises from the large amount of information generated in the learning process, which hinders professors to meet each student's learning profile. Particularly, to know the students skills and preferences are key aspects on a learner-centered approach of education in order to personalize the teaching. In this work, we aim to discover the relationships between students' performance along a Scrum-based capstone project and their learning style according to the Felder-Silverman model, towards a first step to build the profiles. To address this issue, we mined association rules from the interaction of 33 Software Engineering students with Virtual Scrum, a tool that supports the development of the capstone project in the course. In the present work we describe promising results in experiments with a case-study.
Keywords: Software Engineering; Agile software development; Software Engineering education; Learning styles
Styles of moderation in online health and support communities: An experimental comparison of their acceptance and effectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 65-75
  U. Matzat; G. Rooks
Medical and social support communities depend very much on the active participation of their members. An active nurturing and moderation of online community activities is often necessary to overcome typical problems of community interaction, such as a lack of trust and active engagement. However, it is unclear what types of moderation and social control members do accept and which are effective. We study the acceptance and effectiveness of different moderation styles in two experimental scenario studies. Our results demonstrate that direct forms of control that provide members with incentives are not accepted and are regarded as ineffective, whereas more indirect forms that rely on relational interests and normative obligations are regarded to be more acceptable and effective. Furthermore, positive (rewarding) moderation styles are more effective than negative (punishing) styles. Members regard negative moderation styles as more effective for the avoidance of unacceptable (rule-breaking) behavior than for the stimulation of desirable (e.g., engaging) behavior. Acceptance and effectiveness of different moderation styles do not differ between active versus passive members.
Keywords: Online community; e-Health; Moderation; Social control; Relational signaling; Social media
Social categorization and right-wing authoritarianism in reporting potential terrorist threats in cyberspace BIBAKFull-Text 76-81
  Marek Palasinski; Jacek Granat; Kyoung Ok Seol; Lorraine Bowman-Grieve
Two studies, which took social categorization and right-wing authoritarianism into account two factors unexamined jointly in previous research, explored reporting of potential terrorist threats in cyberspace in a generally Muslim-intolerant 'Eastern European' setting. In Study 1, 92 white men observed a simulated online encounter between an anti-Muslim extremist and two of his apparent followers 'planning to do something big and violent.' The results show that participants took less time to respond to the terrorist threat if Muslims were referred to in terms of a broad European identity rather than a narrow national identity, but only when participants were primed with the broad identity. In Study 2, where a separate group of 100 white men observed the same encounter, the focus was put on the mono-cultural and multicultural primes of their national identity. The response time was shorter when participants were primed with the multicultural contents, but only when the Muslim outgroup was described in terms of national rather than European inclusion. Providing theoretical guidelines for facilitating the reporting of potential terrorist threats in cyberspace, this work complements the classical social identity model of helping by revealing new layers of complex interactive categorization and their potential application to mobilizing counter-terrorist community responses.
Keywords: Internet; Self-categorization; Terrorist threat
Cognitive analysis of experts' and novices' concept mapping processes: An eye tracking study BIBAKFull-Text 82-93
  Berrin Dogusoy-Taylan; Kursat Cagiltay
The goal of this study was to explore how designated experts (subject experts with extensive experience in science education and concept mapping) and novices (pre-service teachers) establish concept map (CM) development processes while considering their cognitive processes. Two experiments were conducted in which eye-tracking, written, and verbal data were collected from 29 novices and 6 subject matter experts. The results showed that despite some similar strategies, novices and experts followed different patterns during the CM development process. Both experts and novices embraced deductive reasoning and preferred hierarchical type CMs. Additional points studied during the process include filling out requested information in different orders, branch construction pattern, content richness and progress pattern. Furthermore, eye behavior patterns also differed among experts and novices. Expert participants differed from novices in all eye behavior metrics (fixation count, fixation and visit duration for specific actions). Novices' fixation count (FC) numbers were higher than the experts' during the entire process and in specific periods. In conclusion, these pattern differences affect the CM development process directly. Considering the patterns revealed in the study may help instructors guide learners more adequately and effectively.
Keywords: Concept map; Eye tracking; Cognitive process; Debriefing protocol; Expertise
Social network sites, marriage well-being and divorce: Survey and state-level evidence from the United States BIBAKFull-Text 94-101
  Sebastián Valenzuela; Daniel Halpern; James E. Katz
This study explores the relationship between using social networks sites (SNS), marriage satisfaction and divorce rates using survey data of married individuals and state-level data from the United States. Results show that using SNS is negatively correlated with marriage quality and happiness, and positively correlated with experiencing a troubled relationship and thinking about divorce. These correlations hold after a variety of economic, demographic, and psychological variables related to marriage well-being are taken into account. Further, the findings of this individual-level analysis are consistent with a state-level analysis of the most popular SNS to date: across the U.S., the diffusion of Facebook between 2008 and 2010 is positively correlated with increasing divorce rates during the same time period after controlling for all time-invariant factors of each state (fixed effects), and continues to hold when time-varying economic and socio-demographic factors that might affect divorce rates are also controlled. Possible explanations for these associations are discussed, particularly in the context of pro- and anti-social perspectives towards SNS and Facebook in particular.
Keywords: Social network sites; Facebook; Marriage well-being; Divorce
Reliance, trust and heuristics in judgmental forecasting BIBAKFull-Text 102-113
  Jorge A. Alvarado-Valencia; Lope H. Barrero
Judgmental forecasting gives light to the use of computers in human decision making. This paper reviews studies in judgmental forecasting focusing on what has been learned from human judgment and human-computer interaction. Available information was analyzed in the framework of three dimensions: reliance and trust on computer suggestions and heuristics employed by forecasters to produce forecasts. Results show that computer's advice disuse is pervasive in forecasting; and the disuse increases with higher task complexity and lower perceived system performance. Explanations and past performance are good candidates to increase trust in computer's advice, but the appropriate format to deliver this information is still controversial. Forecasters usually overforecast but report to prefer underforecast, which can lead to a cognitive dissonance and in turn to conflicting goals in the task. Heuristics research in time series forecasting indicates that forecasters heavily assess their own judgment, which in turn tend to be grounded in last outcomes and an overall evaluation of features like mean, trend and autocorrelation. It appears that heuristics not always lead to harmful biases for the forecast.
Keywords: Judgmental forecasting; Human-computer interaction; Trust; Reliance; Heuristics
Revisiting civic voluntarism predictors of college students' political participation in the context of social media BIBAKFull-Text 114-121
  Yeojin Kim; Hyoungkoo Khang
Utilizing and revamping the civic voluntarism model developed by Verba et al. (1995), this study examines civic voluntarism predictors and their influence on college students' online and offline political participation in the context of social media. Results showed that college students with more civic voluntarism predictors (i.e., resources, psychological engagement, and recruitment) tend to participate more in political activities. The findings further revealed that individual subcomponents of each civic voluntarism predictor have different effects on SNS and offline political participation. The findings also confirmed that there is a mediating role of SNS political participation between civic voluntarism predictors and offline political participation.
Keywords: Civic voluntarism model; Political participation; Social networking service; College students
Adolescents' moral evaluations and ratings of cyberbullying: The effect of veracity and intentionality behind the event BIBAKFull-Text 122-128
  Victoria Talwar; Carlos Gomez-Garibello; Shaheen Shariff
The constant exposure to electronic media has increased the likelihood of adolescents experiencing hurtful events such as cyberbullying. The current study examined how adolescents' moral evaluations of cyberbullying are affected by different aspects of the event including falsity of posts, power imbalance and intention to harm. Adolescents between 12-13 years of age (n = 77) and 15-16 years of age (n = 77) read moral vignettes and were asked to evaluate the actions of the protagonist. They were also asked if the behaviour in the vignette was an incident of cyberbullying. Participants also filled out a questionnaire about their own experiences with cyberbullying. It was found that adolescents evaluated as more negative those situations depicting false stories, imbalance of power, and intention to harm; Younger children had difficulties recognizing the intentions behind on-line posts. Adolescents who have cyber-intimidated others were less severe in their evaluations and less likely to rate vignettes as cyberbullying compared to other youth.
Keywords: Moral evaluation; Cyberbullying; Adolescents
The effects of gratifications on intention to read citizen journalism news: The mediating effect of attitude BIBAKFull-Text 129-137
  Julian Lin
This paper investigates gratifications of reading citizen journalism news by applying the research model drawn from the uses and gratifications approach, and the cognitive-affective-conative framework. Based on the uses and gratifications literature and the cognitive-affective-conative framework, the effects of gratifications on attitude (i.e., affective) and intention (i.e., conative) are examined. The indirect effects of gratifications on intention to read news (i.e., conation) through the interpretation of affection that users experienced are also examined. Using a survey conducted across nearly 300 users, the results show that all gratifications, except for escape, have direct effects on attitude. However, none of the gratifications has a direct effect on intention. The proposed model shows that attitude mediates the path between the effects of all gratifications and intention. The model explains a high percentage of variance with gratifications explaining about 46% of the variance in attitude. However, their effects on intention are limited when attitude is controlled.
Keywords: Mediation; User acceptance; Gratification; Citizen journalism news
Social networking sites and other media use, acculturation stress, and psychological well-being among East Asian college students in the United States BIBAKFull-Text 138-146
  Namkee Park; Hayeon Song; Kwan Min Lee
It is notable that previous studies often looked at either traditional mass media or new technologies in explaining the effects of media on acculturation. We claim that media effects on acculturation should be investigated by simultaneously considering traditional and new media, as today's media environment is far from being simple. The present study examined the effects of ethnic social networking site (SNS) and Facebook use (i.e., minutes per week), interpersonal and mass media use, and individual differences on Korean and Chinese college students' acculturative stress and psychological well-being in the United States. An online survey was conducted in two large universities that were located in cities that were not main ethnic residential enclaves for Korean and Chinese people. The findings indicated that the students who used Facebook only demonstrate a lower degree of acculturative stress and a higher degree of psychological well-being compared to other groups in the study. In addition, the use of ethnic SNS is positively associated with acculturative stress. Also, individual differences -- extraversion, years of stay in the U.S., academic achievement stress, and English competence -- showed strong explanatory power to account for the students' acculturative stress and psychological well-being. Theoretical implications and limitations of the study were discussed.
Keywords: Ethnic SNS; Facebook; Individual differences; International students; Acculturative stress; Psychological well-being
Actual and ideal self-congruity affecting consumers' emotional and behavioral responses toward an online store BIBAKFull-Text 147-153
  Wanmo Koo; Erin Cho; Youn-Kyung Kim
Recognizing that a consumer's congruity judgment with a store image can be formed with both actual and ideal self-images, this study investigates the differential effects that these two congruity judgments might have on a consumer's evaluation of an online store. The results indicate that the closer the image of an online store is to the consumer's actual self, the more favorably the store is evaluated. Interestingly, however, the proximity between the image of an online store and a consumer's ideal self has a negative effect on consumer evaluation toward the store. The results also indicate that the positive visual cues of an online store generate consumer delight more significantly than information cues do. Consumer delight is found to significantly increase the intention to make an initial purchase from the store.
Keywords: Atmospherics; Self-congruity; Online store; Ideal self; Actual self; Consumer delight
Predictors of cyberbullying perpetration among college students: An application of the Theory of Reasoned Action BIBAKFull-Text 154-162
  Ashley N. Doane; Matthew R. Pearson; Michelle L. Kelley
The present study tested the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) as an explanation for cyberbullying perpetration among 375 (128 male, 246 female) college students. Empathy toward cyberbullying victims was also included in the models. Participants completed the cyberbullying perpetration scale of the Cyberbullying Experiences Survey (Doane, Kelley, Chiang, & Padilla, 2013) that assesses four types of cyberbullying (deception, malice, public humiliation, and unwanted contact). Across all four models, results showed that lower empathy toward cyberbullying victims predicted more favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying perpetration, more favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying predicted higher intentions to cyberbully, and higher cyberbullying intentions predicted more frequent perpetration of cyberbullying behaviors. Injunctive norms regarding cyberbullying (e.g., perception of peers' approval of cyberbullying perpetration) predicted intentions to engage in malice and unwanted contact behaviors. The results demonstrate that the TRA is a useful framework for understanding cyberbullying perpetration.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Attitudes; Descriptive norms; Injunctive norms; College students
Texting as a distraction to learning in college students BIBAFull-Text 163-167
  Stephanie Dietz; Christopher Henrich
Texting has been shown to be cognitively distracting for students in lecture settings, but few have done empirical work, or looked at moderating effects between texting and academic outcomes. This experimental study compared the proportion of correct answers on a lecture quiz between students who were randomly assigned to text message during a pre-recorded lecture and those who were not, while investigating possible moderators. The participants who text messaged throughout the lecture scored significantly lower in percent of correct responses (t(95) = -4.6, p < .001, d = .93). No moderating effects were found, including: perceived distraction, perceived texting ability, number of text messages sent and received during the lecture, age, and gender.
The influence of web aesthetics on customers' PAD BIBAKFull-Text 168-178
  Shu-Hao Chang; Wen-Hai Chih; Dah-Kwei Liou; Lih-Ru Hwang
One key focus of an online retail website is to enhance the consumers' online shopping behavior. Based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) framework and pleasure, arousal, and dominance (PAD) emotional model, we investigated the relationship between consumers' emotional model and purchase behavior from the perspective of web aesthetics, and how web aesthetics affect their purchase behaviors through the emotional model. Using 441 questionnaire responses and structural equation modeling, we verified that both aesthetic formality and aesthetic appeal influence purchase behaviors through the emotional model. In the emotional model, web aesthetics have significant and positive influences on control, which is composed of behavior control, cognitive control, and decisional control. Control indirectly influences pleasure through the mediations of energetic arousal and tense arousal. Additionally, pleasure and searching on other websites positively influences purchasing behavior. The aim of this study was to provide practical recommendations in the establishment of a pattern of web aesthetics that influence consumers' emotions.
Keywords: Stimulus-Organism-Response theory; PAD theory; Web aesthetics; Emotional model
Underlying factors of social capital acquisition in the context of online-gaming: Comparing World of Warcraft and Counter-Strike BIBAKFull-Text 179-189
  Felix Reer; Nicole C. Krämer
The present study examines how players' behaviors within gaming-communities (clans and guilds) influence the acquisition of social capital in online-gaming. In contrast to most existing studies, our study asks for crucial underlying factors of social capital acquisition and thereby includes players of online-games of different genres to allow comparisons. We hypothesize that frequently playing together (familiarity), participating in offline events (physical proximity) and being involved in clan/guild administration (social proximity) lead to more communication with fellow players and foster self-disclosure towards fellow players, which together facilitates the formation of bridging and bonding social capital. A sample of 682 clan/guild players of the games Counter-Strike and World of Warcraft was recruited via Internet and was asked to fill out a questionnaire. Results of a path analysis support our assumptions and enhance previous findings that players of online-games especially gain positive social outcomes, when they go beyond the game and join game-related groups, engage in clan/guild administration and participate in offline events. By revealing the crucial role of self-disclosure and communication frequency as underlying factors of social capital acquisition in online-gaming, our results provide a deeper insight into these mechanisms than existing studies. Our findings have implications of general importance, since the tested model worked well for player samples stemming from online-games of different genres.
Keywords: Social capital; Self-disclosure; Online-games; Clans; Guilds
Does virtual diversity matter?: Effects of avatar-based diversity representation on willingness to express offline racial identity and avatar customization BIBAKFull-Text 190-197
  Jong-Eun Roselyn Lee
The present experiment investigated how avatar-based racial diversity representation of virtual worlds influences racial minority individuals' expression of their offline racial identity in the virtual realm. Black and White participants, after being exposed to low- vs. high-diversity representation of Second Life, were given an opportunity to customize a Second Life avatar for themselves. Participants also reported how willing they were to reveal offline racial identity in the virtual world. Perceived racial characteristics (Black-looking vs. White-looking) of the avatars customized by the participants were rated by two independent coders who were blind to the objectives and hypotheses of the present experiment. The results showed that White participants' willingness to reveal offline racial identity and avatar customization were not affected by the levels of avatar-based diversity representation. By contrast, Black participants showed differential responses after being exposed to low- vs. high-diversity representation. When compared with Black participants in the high-diversity condition, Black participants in the low-diversity condition were less willing to reveal their offline racial identity. Furthermore, the avatars customized by Black participants in the low-diversity condition were rated by the independent coders as more White-looking when compared with the avatars customized by Black participants in the high-diversity condition, hinting at virtual racial passing.
Keywords: Avatar; Virtual world; Race; Social identity; Avatar customization
Predicting the drivers of behavioral intention to use mobile learning: A hybrid SEM-Neural Networks approach BIBAKFull-Text 198-213
  Garry Wei-Han Tan; Keng-Boon Ooi; Lai-Ying Leong; Binshan Lin
This study empirically investigates on the elements that affect the user's intention to adopt mobile learning (m-learning) using a hybrid Structural Equation Modeling -- Artificial Neural Networks (SEM-ANN) approach. A feed-forward-back-propagation multi-layer perceptron ANN with the significant determinants from SEM as the input units and the Root Mean Square of Errors (RMSE) indicated that the ANN achieved high prediction accuracy. All determinants are relevant and their normalized importance was examined through sensitivity analysis. The explanation on new computer technologies acceptance have been primarily based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Since TAM omits the psychological science constructs, the study address the weaknesses by incorporating two additional constructs, namely the personal innovativeness in information technology (PIIT) and social influences (SI). Out of the 400 survey distributed to mobile users, 216 usable questionnaires were returned. The results uncovered that the intention to adopt m-learning has significant relationship with TAM. The findings for PIIT, SI and the control variables of age, gender and academic qualifications however show mixed results. The results provide valuable information for mobile manufacturers, service providers, educational institutions and governments when strategizing their adoption strategies. Additionally, from the perspective of an emerging market, the study has successfully extended TAM with psychological constructs.
Keywords: Mobile learning (m-learning); Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Structural Equation Modeling (SEM); Artificial Neural Networks (ANN); User behavior
The examination of individuals' virtual loneliness states in Internet addiction and virtual environments in terms of inter-personal trust levels BIBAKFull-Text 214-224
  Ertugrul Usta; Özgen Korkmaz; Ibrahim Kurt
The aim of this study is to put forth what kind of a relationship there is among the loneliness states of the individuals, the Internet addiction and interpersonal trust levels in virtual environments by examining these states felt by the individuals in virtual environments; and to try to define the virtual loneliness concept in this way. This study is a descriptive study. It has been carried out in scanning model. The study group of this study consists of 225 women, 129 men, 354 people. Data were collected using Virtual Environment Loneliness Scale, Virtual Environment Interpersonal Trust Scale and Internet Addiction Scale. The analyses of arithmetic mean, standard deviation, modes, median, frequency, t, Anova, LSD, Correlation ve Regression have been carried out on. As a result: Virtual environment loneliness is predicted by loneliness factor, interpersonal trust and Internet addiction factor. The order of importance of predictor variable in terms of factors: virtual distrust, virtual honesty, the loss of control and desire for being online for more. These factors are meaningful predictors of virtual level and regression equality is: virtual loneliness = 48.073-0.156, virtual dishonesty +0.172, virtual honesty +0.113 the loss of control +0.052 desire for being online for more.
Keywords: Internet; Loneliness; Confidence; Internet addiction; Virtual loneliness
Cyberspace as a generator of changes in the aggressive-victim role BIBAKFull-Text 225-233
  Isabel Cuadrado-Gordillo; Inmaculada Fernández-Antelo
The interaction of adolescents' presential and cyberspace contexts accentuates the emergence of the aggressive-victim role. This profile takes on new dimensions as a result of the many combinations involved in the co-existence of bullying and cyberbullying. The twofold object of the present work was to: (i) determine the prevalence of victim-aggressive in the various forms that this role might be found in the context of bullying and cyberbullying; and (ii) explore the synergistic relationship established between the type and frequency of the abuse suffered and the type and frequency of the aggression perpetrated. The sample consisted of 1648 adolescents of from 12 to 16 years in age. The instrument used to acquire the data was a questionnaire. The results revealed the existence of four categories of aggressive victims: traditional aggressive-victims, aggressive-cybervictims, cyberaggresive-victims, and cyberaggresive-cybervictims. The types of bullying suffered and perpetrated were found to be directly related and the frequencies of these two classes of attack were positively correlated. This allows one to predict the cyberspace and presential behaviour that will be displayed by adolescents who are being subjected to certain types of bullying and cyberbullying.
Keywords: Agressive-victim; Cyberbullying; Bullying; Co-occurrence; Cybervictim; Cyberbully
Determinants of repurchase intention in online group-buying: The perspectives of DeLone & McLean IS success model and trust BIBAKFull-Text 234-245
  Meng-Hsiang Hsu; Chun-Ming Chang; Kuo-Kuang Chu; Yi-Jung Lee
The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to examine the antecedents of repurchase intention in online group-buying by integrating the perspective of DeLone & McLean IS success model and the literature of trust. The model was tested using the data collected from 253 customers of a group-buying website in Taiwan. The results show that satisfaction with website, satisfaction with sellers, and perceived quality of website have positive influences on repurchase intention, while perceived quality of website and perceived quality of sellers have significant impacts on satisfaction with website and satisfaction with sellers, respectively. The results also show that trust in website has positive influences on perceived quality of website and satisfaction with website, whereas trust in sellers influence perceived quality of sellers and satisfaction with sellers significantly. Finally, the results show that perceived size of website has positive influence on trust in website, while reputation of website and reputation of sellers significantly affect trust in website and trust in sellers, respectively. The implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are also discussed.
Keywords: Online group-buying; Repurchase intention; IS success model; Trust; Reputation; Perceived size
Who drives a crisis? The diffusion of an issue through social networks BIBAKFull-Text 246-257
  Minjung Sung; Jang-Sun Hwang
Digital convergence has permeated the media environment. Social network services such as Twitter and blogs have dramatically changed how people collect and process information. The purpose of this study is to use content analysis to investigate the inter-media agenda-setting relationship among different media regarding a crisis. The findings support the inter-media agenda-setting effects in various dimensions, with Twitter being the leading outlet of crisis-related reports in terms of volume and content.
Keywords: Inter-media agenda-setting; Social media; Crisis communication; Content analysis
Machiavellianism, self-monitoring, self-promotion and relational aggression on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 258-262
  L. Abell; G. Brewer
Machiavellianism is a personality trait characterized by cynicism, emotional detachment and a willingness to manipulate others. Research investigating the behavior of Machiavellian men and women has focused on its influence in offline relationships. The popularity of social networking sites suggests that it is also important to consider the interactions of Machiavellian men and women in this context as well. Men (N = 54) and women (N = 189) completed questionnaires assessing Machiavellianism, self-monitoring, self-promotion and relational aggression. Analyses revealed that women who were high in Machiavellianism engaged in more dishonest self-promotion and relational aggression towards a close friend on Facebook whilst males with high levels of Machiavellianism engaged in more self-promoting behavior. In addition, both men and women high in Machiavellianism engaged in more self-monitoring. The findings demonstrate the importance of considering the influence of personality on online behavior and associated gender differences.
Keywords: Facebook; Machiavellianism; Relational aggression; Self-monitoring; Self-promotion
Understanding the motivation to use web portals BIBAKFull-Text 263-273
  Junghyun Nam
The purpose of this research was to study the motivation attributes of information products from the end-users' perspective, and to measure the impact of these attributes on intention-to-use. In the context of Web portal use, the information product generally includes three types of services: personal services (e.g., email), information services (e.g., online news) and search services. The literature underscores the importance of motivational factors such as social escapism and privacy concerns on the intention to use. Drawing from this theoretical background, an initial set of motivation attributes has been identified, and an experimental study using 142 subjects as Web portal users has been conducted. As far as impact analyses are concerned, social escapism motivation, information motivation, interactive control motivation, and socialization were found to highly correlate to all of the three types of services and the combined use. Lessons learned from this study should also help IT professionals to design, develop and deploy more effective general web portals.
Keywords: Web portals; Motivation; Intention to use; Social escapism; Web use; Entertainment
Personality and Internet usage: A large-scale representative study of young adults BIBAKFull-Text 274-281
  Gloria Mark; Yoav Ganzach
Studies that have examined the relationship between personality and Internet use so far were largely conducted on the basis of small, non-representative samples, and have yielded conflicting results. In the current study we estimate the relationship of the Big 5 personality traits and Internet use in a large nationally representative U.S. sample of over 6900 young adults with average age of 26. Our results suggest that global Internet use is positively related to Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness. We also examine the relationship of the Big 5 with online communication, leisure, academic, and economic activities. Extraversion is correlated with the most different Internet activities. Our findings contrast with many of the relationships found in previous research which have used small, homogeneous samples. We discuss these differences in term of the size and type of samples which were used in previous research, in terms of the time periods of Internet development in which the research was conducted, and in terms of the Internet activities which were measured.
Keywords: Personality; Big-Five; Internet; Internet communication; Leisure; Academic activities
Virtual vs. real body in exergames: Reducing social physique anxiety in exercise experiences BIBAKFull-Text 282-285
  Hayeon Song; Jihyun Kim; Kwan Min Lee
Research indicates that people with body image dissatisfaction (BID) are not benefited from exercising in group contexts. The current study tested whether exercise video games (exergames) can provide unique opportunities for exercise interventions through the use of avatars. An experiment was conducted using a 2 (BID: High vs. Low) × 2 (Exercise context: Solitary vs. Group) between-subjects design. Results demonstrated that individuals with high BID reported similar or more favorable exergame experiences compared to individuals with low BID. Further, individuals' social physique anxiety was significantly reduced during exergame play. Self-presence mediated the relationship between exercise context and exergame experiences.
Keywords: Exercise; Game; Avatar; Body image; Presence
Children's perception of uncanny human-like virtual characters BIBAKFull-Text 286-296
  Angela Tinwell; Robin J. S. Sloan
The Uncanny Valley phenomenon predicts that humans will be less accepting, to the point of rejection, of synthetic agents with a human-like appearance. This is due to a perception of a strangeness or difference in how those characters look and behave from the human norm. Virtual characters with a human-like appearance are increasingly being used in children's animation and video games. While studies have been conducted in adult perception of the Uncanny Valley in human-like virtual characters, little work exists that explores children's perception of "uncanniness" in human-like virtual characters. Sixty-seven children between 9 and 11 years of age rated humans and human-like virtual characters showing different facial expressions for perceived strangeness, friendliness, and human-likeness. The results showed that children do experience uncanniness in human-like virtual characters, perceived as stranger, less friendly, and less human-like than humans. This perception of the uncanny was exaggerated further in human-like characters with aberrant facial expression. That is, when showing a startled expression and/or happiness with a lack of movement in the upper face including the eyes, eyebrows, and forehead. The possible implications of including human-like virtual characters in animation and video games for this age group are discussed.
Keywords: Uncanny Valley; Children; Facial expression; Human-like charactersl; Video games; Animation
Does exposure to sexually explicit Internet material increase body dissatisfaction? A longitudinal study BIBAKFull-Text 297-307
  Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg
Research on the consequences of exposure to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) has neglected body dissatisfaction as a potential outcome. Additionally, research on body dissatisfaction has ignored exposure to SEIM as a potential predictor. Within a social comparison framework, we studied whether exposure to SEIM predicted overall body dissatisfaction, as well as dissatisfaction with one's stomach size, penis size (for males), and breast size (for women). Based on a two-wave panel survey held among a nationally representative sample of 1879 Dutch respondents we found that more frequent exposure to SEIM increased males' dissatisfaction with their body in general and their stomach in particular. However, more frequent exposure to SEIM did not increase males' dissatisfaction with their penis size. Among females, SEIM was generally unrelated to body dissatisfaction. The effects of exposure to SEIM on the various dimensions of body dissatisfaction differed neither by age nor by sexual orientation.
Keywords: Internet pornography; Media effects; Body satisfaction
Damaged corporate reputation: Can celebrity Tweets repair it? BIBAKFull-Text 308-315
  Nienke D. Van Norel; Piet A. M. Kommers; Joris J. Van Hoof; Joost W. M. Verhoeven
These days, many corporations engage in Twitter activities as a part of their communication strategy. Corporations can use this medium to share information with stakeholders, to answer customer questions, or to build on their image. In this study we examined the extent to which celebrity Tweet messages can be used to repair a damaged corporate reputation, and how this message should be designed and what celebrity should be 'used'.
   In two experiments, a 2 × 2 (attractive celebrity versus intelligent celebrity) × (personal message versus general message) design was used. In total, 163 respondents first expressed their feelings regarding the two organisations in a baseline reputation measurement (M = 4.72 on 7 point Likert scale). After that a news items was presented communicating a big fraud and mismanagement, resulting in a decreased reputation score (M = 4.10). In the final stage one of the four experimental Tweets was presented, aimed at repairing the damaged reputation, which succeeded (M = 4.43). For both organisations, the crisis prime significantly decreased reputation scores, and the Tweet significantly increased reputation score again. The analysis of variance shows a main effect for type of celebrity. In our experiment the intelligent celebrity's Tweet was best to use.
   The study reveals that celebrities' Tweets can restore a positive public opinion about corporations. This study shows that when it comes to serious matters, an intelligent celebrity, who has the best fit with the topic, is of best impact. Consequences for corporate communication and future research are discussed.
Keywords: Twitter; Tweet Impact; Tweet Design; Corporate Reputation; Celebrity Tweets
Databases' interface interactivity and user self-efficacy: Two mediators for flow experience and scientific behavior improvement BIBAKFull-Text 316-322
  S. Mahdi Hosseini; Rahmatollah Fattahi
Testing the influence of user interface interactivity (UII) in databases on scientific behaviors (SB) and investigating the flow experience (FE) as mediator between UII and SB, as well as the role of self-efficacy (SE) as an interferer were the aims of this research. 366 Faculty members and Ph.D. students participated as scholars to complete a questionnaire. We made a SB questionnaire through a comparative review of the related literature on FE, UII and SE. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis. We found that the more self-efficient participants, the more they experience UII and SB changes/adaptations. Also, we found those participants who experienced more flow, had more chance to experience SB changes and adaptations in UII environments.
Keywords: Scientific behavior; User interface; Interactivity; Flow theory; Self efficacy; Researchers
Online sexual activity in Mainland China: Relationship to sexual sensation seeking and sociosexuality BIBAKFull-Text 323-329
  Lijun Zheng; Yong Zheng
In this study, we examined online sexual activity (OSA) in Mainland China. Specifically, characteristics of OSA and its relation with sexual sensation seeking and sociosexuality were investigated. OSAs were categorized as viewing sexually-explicit material (SEM), sexual partner seeking, cybersex, and flirting. Participants (N = 460) completed measures of OSA experience within the past 12 months, sexual sensation seeking, and sociosexuality. The majority of participants reported OSA experiences in the past 12 months. However, more men reported engaging in all subtypes of OSA experience than women, and men reported a higher frequency of SEM and flirting than women. Income and sexual experience were also related to frequency of OSA. In addition, sexual sensation seeking, sociosexual behavior and desire, but not sociosexual attitude, significantly predicted OSA. Moreover, sexual sensation seeking, sociosexual behavior, and sociosexual desire fully mediated the relationship between gender and OSA. The results indicated that variables related to offline sexual behavior are also related to OSA, and may account for gender differences in OSA experiences.
Keywords: Online sexual activity; Sexual sensation seeking; Sociosexuality; Gender differences
Learning with dynamic and static visualizations: Realistic details only benefit learners with high visuospatial abilities BIBAKFull-Text 330-339
  Birgit Brucker; Katharina Scheiter; Peter Gerjets
Learning environments can nowadays easily be enriched with different presentation formats of visualizations, because computer graphics technology is constantly and rapidly developing. This study investigates the effectiveness of dynamic compared to static visualizations. Moreover, the influence of realistic details in the visualizations as well as learners' prerequisites in terms of their visuospatial abilities were addressed. Eighty university students were randomly assigned to four conditions of a two-by-two between subjects design with the two independent variables dynamism and realism. Learning outcomes were measured by means of a verbal factual knowledge test about the terminology and visuospatial details and a pictorial recognition test about the dynamic processes. Data analyses revealed no effects for factual knowledge. With respect to recognition, learners with dynamic visualizations outperformed learners with static visualizations. Furthermore, there was an interaction between learners' visuospatial abilities and the degree of realism in the visualization: learners with lower visuospatial abilities showed better recognition with schematized visualizations, whereas learners with higher visuospatial abilities showed better recognition with realistic visualizations. The results imply that when designing instructional materials, both the type of knowledge that has to be acquired as well as learners' prerequisites such as their visuospatial abilities need to be considered.
Keywords: Learning; Realism; Schematization; Dynamic and static visualizations; Pictorial recognition; Visuospatial abilities
Effects of support and job demands on social media use and work outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 340-349
  Peerayuth Charoensukmongkol
Studies related to the use of social media in the workplace are still somewhat scarce despite their increasing popularity in social media research. This paper aims to investigate how employee perceptions of a workplace related to coworker support, supervisor support, and job-related demands can determine the degree of attachment some employees feel to social media use at work. The study also explores some consequences of social media use at work by analyzing its associations with job satisfaction, job performance, and cognitive absorption. The data was collected through the snowball sampling technique of 170 employees in Thailand and analyzed using partial least squares regression. For the factors predicted to influence social media use at work, the analysis found that coworker support and job demands are positively associated with social media use intensity, while supervisor support is negatively associated with it. The analysis also found a positive association between job satisfaction and job performance and social media use at work. An indirect relationship between social media use and cognitive absorption was also found through the mediating effect of job satisfaction. Overall, the evidence suggests that social media use at work may not necessarily lead to negative job-related outcomes.
Keywords: Social media; Social exchange; Social support; Social capital; Media synchronicity theory; Job performance
Becoming a blogger: Trajectories, norms, and activities in a community of practice BIBAKFull-Text 350-358
  Vanessa P. Dennen
This naturalistic study of a blogging community examines the norms and activities that govern the establishment of a community of practice. Activity theory and communities of practice are used as frameworks to guide the analysis of this study. Six brief cases are used to illustrate the paths of blogging newcomers, as they shift from peripheral to inbound paths, and in some cases to insider positions within the community. Findings show that the community values newcomer practices such as engaging in legitimate peripheral participation via observation of norms. Further, although the community is welcoming of newcomers, the burden is on the newcomer to learn about and interact appropriately within the community.
Keywords: Blog; Community of practice; Newcomer; Online community
Social belongingness satisfaction as a function of interaction medium: Face-to-face interactions facilitate greater social belonging and interaction enjoyment compared to instant messaging BIBAKFull-Text 359-364
  Donald F. Sacco; Mohamed M. Ismail
Humans are inherently social, requiring stable access to relationships and groups. Historically, such belonging was satisfied through face-to-face interactions. More recently, numerous technological developments have expanded the type and format of social interactions available to potentially satisfy social belonging. Of interest in the current research was whether computer-mediated communication (CMC) fulfills belongingness needs to the same extent as face-to-face interaction. Participants engaged in a virtual social interaction (Instant Messenger; IM) or a face-to-face interaction (FTF) with a same-sex peer, or completed a separately run control condition involving no social interaction. Participants then reported their basic belongingness needs satisfaction, their mood, and their enjoyment of the previous interaction (for participants in the virtual and face-to-face interaction conditions). The results indicated that participants in the FTF interaction condition reported greater basic social needs satisfaction and positive mood compared to both virtual interaction and no interaction condition participants; however both FTF and virtual interaction participants reported less negative mood compared to participants in the no interaction condition. Collectively, these results demonstrate although computer-mediated social interactions can benefit users (i.e., reduce negative mood), they do not have the same beneficial impact on increasing positive mood and satisfying social belongingness needs compared to FTF interactions.
Keywords: Computer-mediated interaction; Face-to-face interaction; Social belonging
Level of interactivity and executive functions as predictors of learning in computer-based chemistry simulations BIBAKFull-Text 365-375
  Bruce D. Homer; Jan L. Plass
High school students' learning outcomes was examined comparing exploratory vs. worked simulations. The effects of added icons and students' executive functions were also examined. In Study 1, urban high school students (N = 84) were randomly assigned to one of four versions of a web-based simulation of kinetic molecular theory that varied in instructional format (exploratory vs. worked simulation) and representation (added icons vs. no added icons). Learning was assessed at two levels: comprehension and transfer. For transfer, a main effect was found for instructional format: the exploratory condition yielded greater levels of transfer than the worked simulation. Study 2 used the same conditions and a more complex simulation, the ideal gas law, with a similar sample of students (N = 67). For transfer, an interaction between instructional format and executive functions was found: Whereas students with higher levels of executive functions had better transfer with the exploratory condition, students with lower levels of executive functions had better transfer with the guided simulations. Results are discussed in relation to current theories of instructional design and learning.
Keywords: Learning; Simulations; Multimedia; Executive functions; Cognitive load; Chemistry
Body in the interactive game: How interface embodiment affects physical activity and health behavior change BIBAKFull-Text 376-384
  Sung Yeun (Su) Kim; Nathan Prestopnik; Frank A. Biocca
Does the delivery platform for a health behavior game contribute to its effectiveness? With the growing popularity of interactive video games that combine physical exercise with gameplay, known as "exergames," there has been a burgeoning interest in their impact on users' exercise attitudes and behavioral outcomes. This study examines how the level of user interface embodiment, the degree to which the user's body interacts with the game, affects the user's experience, game behavior, and intention for behavior change. We conducted a between-participants experiment in which participants (N = 119) played an exergame under one of the three levels of user interface embodiment (low, medium, and high). Our results revealed a significant positive main effect of user interface embodiment on user experience (i.e., the sense of being in the game, "presence," and enjoyment); level of energy expenditure (change in heart rate); and intention to further engage in exergame-play exercise but not necessarily to increase exercise in the physical world. A further analysis revealed the mediating roles of user experience in the association between user interface embodiment and intention to repeat exergaming and a potential link between heart rate change and level of presence in the game. We conclude that type of interface is a key variable in this health communication environment, affecting user experience, behavior, and some intention for behavior change.
Keywords: Exergame; User interface embodiment; Presence; Enjoyment; Physical activity; Health behavior change
Social gaming, lonely life? The impact of digital game play on adolescents' social circles BIBAKFull-Text 385-390
  Rachel Kowert; Emese Domahidi; Ruth Festl; Thorsten Quandt
In recent years, there have been rising concerns about the impact of online video game play on users' socialization, particularly among adolescent players. The current study addresses one of these concerns and evaluates the potential impact of social displacement on the size and quality of users' social circles due to video game play. Using a representative sample of adolescent players, the results provide support for the emergence of social displacement effects. Increased social online video game play, but not social offline video game play, was found to correspond with smaller, and lower quality, offline social circles. However, further research is needed to assess the impact of these declines on everyday socialization, such its potential negative influence on the development and maintenance of social skills.
Keywords: Video games; Online video games; Adolescents; Social displacement; Social circles
Exploring the structural relationships between high school students' Internet-specific epistemic beliefs and their utilization of online academic help seeking BIBAKFull-Text 391-400
  Wen-Ching Lee; Yen-Lin Chiu; Jyh-Chong Liang; Chin-Chung Tsai
The purpose of this study was to examine the structural relationships between the Internet-specific epistemic beliefs (ISEB) and the online academic help seeking (OAHS) of high school students in Taiwan. Data were collected from 342 Taiwanese high school students by utilizing two self-report instruments: the ISEB survey (including Uncertainty, Complexity and Self-Source of Internet-based knowledge as well as Justification for Internet-based knowing) and the OAHS questionnaire (containing Information Search, Formal Query and Informal Query in online information searching contexts). The results of the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) as well as the alpha values indicated that both the ISEB and OAHS instruments possessed adequate validity and reliability. The path analyses with structural equation modeling (SEM) further verified that students' ISEB were related to their behaviors of online help seeking while undertaking academic tasks on the Internet. It is reported that students with naïve beliefs regarding Uncertainty, Complexity and Self-Source of Internet-based knowledge intended to conduct online information help seeking strategies (Uncertainty: Formal Query, Informal Query; Complexity: Information Search, Formal Query, Informal Query; Self-Source: Informal Query). For example, students with naïve beliefs in Uncertainty of Internet-based knowledge had a higher tendency to use help seeking relating to Formal Query and Informal Query. However, students who believed that course-related content on the Internet should be evaluated through different aspects of other sources (i.e., sophisticated beliefs regarding Justification for Internet-based knowing) were more likely to use Information Search and Informal Query online help seeking strategies.
Keywords: Internet-specific epistemic beliefs; Online academic help seeking
Using erroneous examples to improve mathematics learning with a web-based tutoring system BIBAKFull-Text 401-411
  Deanne M. Adams; Bruce M. McLaren; Kelley Durkin; Richard E. Mayer; Bethany Rittle-Johnson; Seiji Isotani; Martin van Velsen
This study examines whether asking students to critique incorrect solutions to decimal problems based on common misconceptions can help them learn about decimals better than asking them to solve the same problems and receive feedback. In a web-based tutoring system, 208 middle school students either had to identify, explain, and correct errors made by a fictional student (erroneous examples group) or solve isomorphic versions of the problems with feedback (problem-solving group). Although the two groups did not differ significantly on an immediate posttest, students in the erroneous examples group performed significantly better on a delayed posttest administered one week later (d = .62). Students in the erroneous examples group also were more accurate at judging whether their posttest answers were correct (d = .49). Students in the problem-solving group reported higher satisfaction with the materials than those in the erroneous examples group, indicating that liking instructional materials does not equate to learning from them. Overall, practice in identifying, explaining, and correcting errors may help students process decimal problems at a deeper level, and thereby help them overcome misconceptions and build a lasting understanding of decimals.
Keywords: Erroneous examples; Problem solving; Mathematics learning; Computer-based tutors; Decimals
Measurement equivalence and latent mean differences of personality scores across different media and proctoring administration conditions BIBAKFull-Text 412-421
  Gargi Sawhney; Konstantin P. Cigularov
Despite substantial interest and research in measuring personality, little is known about the measurement equivalence and mean differences in scores on personality measures across different administration conditions. The aim of the present study was to assess measurement equivalence and latent and observed mean differences of scores on the Big Five factor markers from the International Personality Item Pool across three conditions: paper-and-pencil proctored, computer-based proctored, and computer-based non-proctored. Undergraduate students (N = 401) from a Midwestern university responded to the personality questionnaire in one of the three conditions. Results indicated configural, metric, scalar, and invariant uniqueness equivalence for four of the five scales across the three conditions; Conscientiousness scores showed partial metric equivalence across computer-based proctored and computer-based non-proctored conditions. Apart from latent and observed mean differences for Emotional Stability scores in paper-and-pencil proctored vs. computer-based non-proctored conditions, no significant differences were found for the other four personality scales. These findings justify both collection and comparison of personality data using the Big Five factor markers and similar personality assessments across the three conditions. Future research should attempt to replicate the findings of the current study in high-stakes environments.
Keywords: Measurement equivalence; Latent means; Personality; Paper-and-pencil test; Computer-based test; Proctoring
How design characteristics of robots determine evaluation and uncanny valley related responses BIBAKFull-Text 422-439
  Astrid M. Rosenthal-von der Pütten; Nicole C. Krämer
Against the background of the uncanny valley hypothesis (Mori, 1970) and its conceptual shortcomings the present study aims at identifying design characteristics which determine the evaluation of robots. We conducted a web-based survey (N = 151) with standardized pictures of 40 robots which were evaluated. A cluster analysis revealed six clusters of robots. We were able to identify different groups of robots which were rated significantly different on six dimensions. Interestingly, in two clusters robots were rated both low in human-likeness and low in "mechanical" indicating that in future research these adjectives should be used separately. The robots in those clusters with a high mean concerning "Threatening" are almost all bi-pedal robots. In contrast to the humanoid robots (cluster 5), the android robots (clusters 3 and 4) were rated higher on "Familiarity", and on "Likability" although all three clusters (3, 4, and 5) were rated as "Threatening" which contrasts the uncanny valley hypothesis. Moreover, the data in the present study could not be explained by a cubic function as would be suggested by the graph proposed by Mori, but rather by linear or quadratic relationships.
Keywords: Uncanny valley; Android; Robot; Human-robot interaction; Design characteristics
How do people use Facebook features to manage social capital? BIBAKFull-Text 440-445
  Eunsun Lee; Yeo Jung Kim; Jungsun Ahn
The goal of this study is to examine and understand the relationship between the utilization of Facebook features and two types of social capital: bonding and bridging. An online survey was conducted using a college sample (n = 256). The results show that, with bonding social capital, the frequent use of Like feature was positively associated whereas that of Comment was negatively associated. With bridging social capital, the frequent use of Wall was positively associated. The results also show that the preference for Wall, Friend, Comment, News Feed, Like, Message, Photo, and Chat was positively associated with both bonding and bridging social capital. On the other hand, the preference for Status and Group was positively associated only with bridging social capital. Limitations of this study and the implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.
Keywords: Facebook features; Facebook feature use; Bonding social capital; Bridging social capital
Does Facebook make you lonely?: A meta analysis BIBAKFull-Text 446-452
  Hayeon Song; Anne Zmyslinski-Seelig; Jinyoung Kim; Adam Drent; Angela Victor; Kikuko Omori; Mike Allen
This meta-analysis explores the relationship between Facebook use and loneliness. Examination of the literature containing quantitative measurements of both Facebook use and loneliness, including close variations of the definition of loneliness, produced a sample of 18 research effects (N = 8798) for review. This study asks two main questions: (1) Does using Facebook increase or decrease loneliness?; and (2) What causes what?: Does Facebook make its users lonely (or less lonely), or do lonely people (or less lonely people) use Facebook? First, researchers observed a significant overall average effect in the positive relationship between Facebook use and loneliness. Researchers also point to measurements of Facebook use as well as measurements of loneliness (and its variations) as possible moderating features or sources of variability in the relationship. Testing the relationship between Facebook use and loneliness in the context of two causal models revealed that (a) the first model outlining a path from elements of loneliness to Facebook use was not an adequate explanation of the data; whereas, (b) testing the relationship for a path in the second model from elements of Facebook use to loneliness showed results consistent with the data.
Keywords: Facebook; Loneliness; Meta analysis; Internet; Social media; Internet paradox
Investigating factors affecting social presence and user satisfaction with Mobile Instant Messaging BIBAKFull-Text 453-459
  Solomon O. Ogara; Chang E. Koh; Victor R. Prybutok
The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence social presence and user satisfaction with Mobile Instant Messaging (mIM). The proposed research model integrates channel expansion, social influence, social presence and media richness theories, to explain how user experience, social influence, and medium richness influence social presence and user satisfaction with mIM. A total of 239 students from a state university in the US participated in this study. Data was collected via a web-based survey. The results suggest that user experience, social influence, and perceived richness are important drivers for social presence and user satisfaction in mIM. The implications of the study findings are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: User satisfaction; User experience; Social presence; Social influence; Richness; Mobile Instant Messaging
Self-disclosure on Facebook among female users and its relationship to feelings of loneliness BIBAKFull-Text 460-468
  Yeslam Al-Saggaf; Sharon Nielsen
The purpose of this study is to determine if there is a relationship between loneliness and self-disclosure in social networking sites (i.e., Facebook). The study collected data from six hundred and sixteen (616) female Facebook users whose profiles were publicly available online. Out of these 616 Facebook users, half (308) were categorised as 'connected' and the remaining 308 users were categorised as 'lonely'; based on clearly stating this feeling in their latest wall posting. Data for each attribute in the user's Facebook profile was recorded as a binomial outcome (Present (1)/Absent (0)). Attributes were grouped together and the binomial responses totalled. The results of this study have shown that more 'lonely' people disclosed their Personal Information, Relationship Information, and Address than 'connected' people and more 'connected' people disclosed their Views and their Wall than 'lonely' people. The study has found no other significant associations between loneliness and the other variables. In addition, in the discussion section the article also highlights the implications of self-disclosure on SNSs users' wellbeing.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Loneliness; Self-disclosure; Facebook; Binomial data; Poisson distribution; Generalised linear model
Developing early warning systems to predict students' online learning performance BIBAKFull-Text 469-478
  Ya-Han Hu; Chia-Lun Lo; Sheng-Pao Shih
An early warning system can help to identify at-risk students, or predict student learning performance by analyzing learning portfolios recorded in a learning management system (LMS). Although previous studies have shown the applicability of determining learner behaviors from an LMS, most investigated datasets are not assembled from online learning courses or from whole learning activities undertaken on courses that can be analyzed to evaluate students' academic achievement. Previous studies generally focus on the construction of predictors for learner performance evaluation after a course has ended, and neglect the practical value of an "early warning" system to predict at-risk students while a course is in progress. We collected the complete learning activities of an online undergraduate course and applied data-mining techniques to develop an early warning system. Our results showed that, time-dependent variables extracted from LMS are critical factors for online learning. After students have used an LMS for a period of time, our early warning system effectively characterizes their current learning performance. Data-mining techniques are useful in the construction of early warning systems; based on our experimental results, classification and regression tree (CART), supplemented by AdaBoost is the best classifier for the evaluation of learning performance investigated by this study.
Keywords: Learning management system; e-Learning; Early warning system; Data-mining; Learning performance prediction
Social engagement and user immersion in a socially based virtual world BIBAKFull-Text 479-486
  Austin M. Grinberg; Jesus Serrano Careaga; Matthias R. Mehl; Mary-Frances O'Connor
Research into online social virtual worlds demonstrates their utility as a methodological tool for studying social behaviors and traits. Less is known about what aspects of the virtual world lead users to experience a sense of immersion (i.e., a psychological state characterized by perceiving oneself to be enveloped by a virtual environment; Witmer & Singer, 1998). The current study extends previous research by assessing the importance of social engagement with other avatars as a key component of immersion in virtual worlds. Participants navigated a virtual "hotel" in Second Life, an online social virtual world. We assessed participants' social engagement with other avatars and the amount participants explored the virtual space e.g., spatial exploration. Positive associations between social engagement and immersion, and negative associations between spatial exploration and immersion, suggest that the users' social experience outweighed the users' spatial experience in creating a sense of immersion in this virtual world. This was despite the fact that the social experience was ultimately less realistic than the visual one. This finding, along with previous literature, suggests that the social nature of virtual worlds is a key component of user's sense of immersion in the virtual environment.
Keywords: Virtual world; Avatar; Exploratory behavior; Immersion; Online; Social interaction
Social desirability is the same in offline, online, and paper surveys: A meta-analysis BIBAKFull-Text 487-495
  D. Dodou; J. C. F. de Winter
The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare social desirability scores between paper and computer surveys. Subgroup analyses were conducted with Internet connectivity, level of anonymity, individual or group test setting, possibility of skipping items, possibility of backtracking previous items, inclusion of questions of sensitive nature, and social desirability scale type as moderators. Subgroup analyses were also conducted for study characteristics, namely the randomisation of participants, sample type (students vs. other), and study design (between- vs. within-subjects). Social desirability scores between the two administration modes were compared for 51 studies that included 62 independent samples and 16,700 unique participants. The overall effect of administration mode was close to zero (Cohen's d = 0.00 for fixed-effect and d = -0.01 for random-effects meta-analysis). The majority of the effect sizes in the subgroup analyses were not significantly different from zero either. The effect sizes were close to zero for both Internet and offline surveys. In conclusion, the totality of evidence indicates that there is no difference in social desirability between paper-and-pencil surveys and computer surveys. Publication year and sample size were positively correlated (ρ = .64), which suggests that certain of the large effects that have been found in the past may have been due to sampling error.
Keywords: Social desirability; Meta-analysis; Self-disclosure; Decline effect
Social media and student learning behavior: Plugging into mainstream music offers dynamic ways to learn English BIBAKFull-Text 496-501
  Hsing-chin Lee
The purpose of this study demonstrates how social media enables mainstream English songs to be extended into the classroom as teaching material for learning English as a second language. Students thrive under such fun conditions and enjoyable activities, improving their listening skills and bettering their control of the English language by learning common, everyday phrases most useful for modern day English communication. The teaching procedure, approach and course of events during the learning activity is described. Researchers such as Berk (2009) emphasize the use of video clips from TV movies, YouTube, and mtvU in the classroom as a systematic teaching tool to improve learning in college courses. Similarly, this paper would like to advance the idea that learning English mainstream songs can be a ubiquitous form of learning since the involvement of technology is omnipresent, and the ease of implementing it into the classroom is readily attainable.
Keywords: Social media; YouTube; Mainstream music; Ubiquitous; Technology; Mobile device
When email use gets out of control: Understanding the relationship between personality and email overload and their impact on burnout and work engagement BIBAKFull-Text 502-509
  Kathrin Reinke; Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic
Research on email overload has mainly focused on email-related predictors and on linking it to stress and productivity. However, only few studies have considered personality traits to explain email overload and no studies to date have examined burnout and work engagement as potential consequences. Hence, this study was conducted (N = 201) to test to which extent Core Self-Evaluations, the Big Five traits and ambition predict email overload beyond email-related predictors. Moreover, the relationship between email overload and burnout/work engagement was examined. Results show that Core Self-Evaluations predict email overload beyond other personality traits and email-related measures. Second, high feelings of email overload and low Core Self-Evaluations are suggested to contribute to higher levels of burnout and low work engagement, beyond other personality traits and control variables. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. This study demonstrated the importance of personality, in particular of Core Self-Evaluations, to explain email overload. Moreover, it strongly indicates that email overload is not only related to productivity but also to burnout and work engagement.
Keywords: Email overload; Personality traits; Core Self-Evaluations; Burnout; Work engagement
Explaining cyberloafing: The role of the theory of planned behavior BIBAKFull-Text 510-519
  Kevin Askew; John E. Buckner; Meng U. Taing; Alex Ilie; Jeremy A. Bauer; Michael D. Coovert
The Internet enables employees to be more productive than ever before, but it also allows employees a new way to escape from work -- cyberloafing. In our investigation, we test the validity of the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of cyberloafing. In Study 1, the goal is to provide an initial test of the theory. In Study 2, we cross-validate the results from Study 1 in a sample that approaches representing the general working population. Results unanimously support the main TPB model, the model accounting for 32% and 37% of the variance in cyberloafing in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. The discussion addresses both the theoretical impact and practical implications of our work.
Keywords: Cyberloafing; Cyberslacking; Personal web usage; Theory of planned behavior; Cyberdeviancy
A bumpy ride on the information superhighway: Exploring turbulence online BIBAKFull-Text 520-529
  Eden Litt; Eszter Hargittai
Managing our personal information is becoming increasingly complex as people share more and more about themselves and others online. Beyond the ordinary challenges people face in disclosing information in face-to-face settings, the Internet presents additional demands users must take into account related to the size and diversity of their audience as well as the longevity and accessibility of their communication. Using survey data from a diverse group of young adults, this paper explores turbulence online, that is, the breakdown of privacy expectations that result in information spreading beyond a user's desired audience. More than a third of these young adults reported at least one turbulent encounter online ranging in tangible consequences like ending a friendship or trouble at work or school to emotional trouble like feelings of embarrassment or betrayal. Results suggest that successful privacy management online requires a combination of social and technological skills and behaviors. Findings also bring to light new questions on self- versus other-generated turbulence and broader implications for researchers, designers, and users.
Keywords: Turbulence; Privacy; Disclosure; Internet skills; Self-monitoring
Social sharing through interpersonal media: Patterns and effects on emotional well-being BIBAKFull-Text 530-541
  Mina Choi; Catalina L. Toma
Social sharing is the act of discussing significant emotional events with others. Using a daily diary methodology, this study investigated (1) patterns of media use for social sharing; and (2) effects of mediated social sharing on sharers' emotions. Results show that easily accessible and non-intrusive media (i.e., texting, Twitter) were more likely to be used for sharing positive than negative events, and intrusive and rich media (i.e., phone calling) were more likely to be used for sharing negative than positive events. Highly intense positive events were more likely to be shared via Twitter than low-intensity positive events, and highly intense negative events were more likely to be shared face-to-face than low-intensity negative events. Regardless of the medium used, people experienced increased positive affect after sharing positive events, and increased negative affect after sharing negative events. The results extend the social sharing framework, and advance the media use and effects literature.
Keywords: Social sharing; Capitalization; Emotional well-being; Media use; Media affordances
Why do media users multitask?: Motives for general, medium-specific, and content-specific types of multitasking BIBAKFull-Text 542-548
  Yoori Hwang; HyoungJee Kim; Se-Hoon Jeong
This study examined the major motives for multitasking, and how those motives are related to general, medium-specific, and content-specific types of multitasking. The major motives for multitasking identified in this study are as follows: information, social, enjoyment, efficiency, and habit. Of these motives, general multitasking behavior was predicted by information, efficiency, and habit. In terms of medium-specific types of multitasking, TV-based multitasking was predicted by habit motive, Internet-based multitasking was predicted by information and enjoyment, and mobile-based multitasking was predicted by information motives. In terms of content-specific multitasking, news-related multitasking was predicted by information motives, entertainment-related multitasking was predicted by information and enjoyment motives, and advertising-related multitasking was predicted by information and social motives.
Keywords: Multitasking; Motives; Medium-specific; Content-specific; Uses and gratifications
Motivational factors of information exchange in social information spaces BIBAKFull-Text 549-558
  Christina Matschke; Johannes Moskaliuk; Franziska Bokhorst; Till Schümmer; Ulrike Cress
Research has shown that there are many barriers that hinder people to participate in online information exchange. We provide an overview about the research done so far and classify the found motivational factors. With two empirical studies we test the simultaneous impact of these factors in order to identify the most important ones. Study 1, a qualitative interview study with potential users investigates key motivational factors for information exchange. Study 2, a quantitative study with users of an established social information space relates all motivational factors to subjective and objective measures of participation in information exchange. We found that internal motivation, gain of prestige, quality and quantity of content and procedural fairness are the strongest motivational factors supporting participation, whereas time and effort requirements for contribution and fear of personal feedback are the strongest factors hindering contribution. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Information exchange; Participation; Internal motivation; Social information spaces; Knowledge sharing
Corrigendum to "Relational maintenance on social network sites: How Facebook communication predicts relational escalation" [Comput. Hum. Behav. 35 (2014) 124-131] BIBFull-Text 559
  Victoria Schwanda Sosik; Natalya N. Bazarova