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Computers in Human Behavior 34

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2014-05 Volume 34

CHB 2014-05 Volume 34

Quantifying engagement: Measuring player involvement in human-avatar interactions BIBAKFull-Text 1-11
  Anne E. Norris; Harry Weger; Cory Bullinger; Alyssa Bowers
This research investigated the merits of using an established system for rating behavioral cues of involvement in human dyadic interactions (i.e., face-to-face conversation) to measure involvement in human-avatar interactions. Gameplay audio-video and self-report data from a Feasibility Trial and Free Choice study of an effective peer resistance skill building simulation game (DRAMA-RAMA™) were used to evaluate reliability and validity of the rating system when applied to human-avatar interactions. The Free Choice study used a revised game prototype that was altered to be more engaging. Both studies involved girls enrolled in a public middle school in Central Florida that served a predominately Hispanic (greater than 80%), low-income student population. Audio-video data were coded by two raters, trained in the rating system. Self-report data were generated using measures of perceived realism, predictability and flow administered immediately after game play. Hypotheses for reliability and validity were supported: reliability values mirrored those found in the human dyadic interaction literature. Validity was supported by factor analysis, significantly higher levels of involvement in Free Choice as compared to Feasibility Trial players, and correlations between involvement dimension sub scores and self-report measures. Results have implications for the science of both skill-training intervention research and game design.
Keywords: Engagement; Involvement; Human-avatar interactions; Simulation
Simultaneously presented animations facilitate the learning of higher-order relationships BIBAKFull-Text 12-22
  Rolf Ploetzner; Richard Lowe
In an experimental study, we investigated how the simultaneous and sequential presentation of animation episodes affects learners' perceptual interrogation of the animation as well as their acquisition of higher-order relationships. Of the 60 students who participated in the study, 30 studied the animation episodes presented simultaneously and 30 studied the same episodes presented sequentially. The eye movements of eight participants from each group were recorded while they studied the animation episodes. The simultaneous presentation resulted in significantly more visual transitions between the episodes than the sequential presentation. Further, in case of the simultaneous presentation significantly more bi-directional visual transitions occurred than in case of the sequential presentation. Learning of higher-order relationships was significantly more successful from simultaneously presented episodes than from sequentially presented episodes.
Keywords: Animation; Sequential presentation; Simultaneous presentation; Animation processing; Eye tracking; Learning
Facebook: Social uses and anxiety BIBAKFull-Text 23-27
  Bethany McCord; Thomas L. Rodebaugh; Cheri A. Levinson
Research has shown inconsistent relationships between social anxiety and time spent on Facebook, possibly because Facebook's many activities vary in degree of social interactivity. We examined the relationships between social anxiety, anxiety on Facebook, and social Facebook use. A multiple regression predicting social Facebook use revealed an interaction. Participants with high anxiety on Facebook and high social anxiety reported more frequent social Facebook use than those with high anxiety on Facebook and low social anxiety. A second multiple regression predicting social anxiety showed a suppression effect, indicating that social Facebook use predicts social anxiety only once anxiety on Facebook has been accounted for. These findings suggest that anxiety on Facebook clarifies the relationship between social anxiety and social Facebook use.
Keywords: Social anxiety; Social Facebook use; Anxiety on Facebook; Social compensation hypothesis
Psychosocial functions of social media usage in a disaster situation: A multi-methodological approach BIBAKFull-Text 28-38
  German Neubaum; Leonie Rösner; Astrid M. Rosenthal-von der Pütten; Nicole C. Krämer
Disasters are unexpected events that can affect a great number of individuals physically and psychologically. While previous research identified the Internet and especially social media as crucial platforms for information and communication in such situations, the psychological perspective on disaster-related functions of social media is still underrepresented. Building on motivation and emotion theories, this work uses a multi-methodological approach to holistically assess the individual's motives that underlay social media usage in the context of the human stampede at the Love Parade 2010. The results of a content analysis of postings in social networking site groups (N = 5970), qualitative interviews (N = 10), and an online survey (N = 171) delineate social media not only as a means for verifying the well-being of loved ones but also as appropriate spaces for social sharing of emotions and pursuing empathic concerns. Moreover, social media have been found to provide psychological benefits for users: The more individuals actively engaged in social media communication, the more they felt emotionally relieved and as a part of a like-minded community. These findings extend prior knowledge with regard to processes of emotion regulation that accompany social media communication in non-routine situations.
Keywords: Disaster communication; Emotion regulation; Social media; Social networking sites
Differences in intrapersonal and interactional empowerment between lurkers and posters in health-related online support communities BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Andraz Petrovcic; Gregor Petric
Participation in health-related online support communities plays an important role in the psychological empowerment of people who are faced with health problems. Research has suggested that important differences exist in terms of psychological empowerment depending on the form and intensity of participation in such domains by showing that users who contribute to health-related online support communities by posting messages (posters) generally experience greater benefits in terms of intrapersonal empowerment, compared to participants who only read messages (lurkers). However, as yet, very little is known about how the often-neglected interactional aspect of psychological empowerment is associated with participation in these online domains. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore how different forms and intensity of participation in health-related online support communities are associated with both dimensions of psychological empowerment. Drawing on a nonprobability sample of 616 participants in two health-related online support communities, the analysis of the data, obtained with an online questionnaire, revealed that posters scored significantly higher in degree of interactional empowerment than lurkers, whereas no difference was observed in terms of intrapersonal empowerment. In addition, high posting frequency was significantly associated with a high level of interactional empowerment but not intrapersonal empowerment. The study suggests that to better understand the empowering potential of participation for users of health-related online support communities, it is important to distinguish not only between various forms of participation but also between different aspects of psychological empowerment.
Keywords: Psychological empowerment; Online health community; Social support; Participation; LurkingPosting
The relationship between life stress and smartphone addiction on Taiwanese university student: A mediation model of learning self-Efficacy and social self-Efficacy BIBAKFull-Text 49-57
  Shao-I. Chiu
Although numerous studies have examined factors that influence smartphone addiction, few have analyzed the potential protective factors inherent in individuals that may benefit future intervention programs for smartphone addiction. Thus, this study established a model for analyzing the mediating effect that learning self-efficacy and social self-efficacy have on the relationship between university students' perceived life stress and smartphone addiction. Sampling 387 Taiwanese university students, we distributed scales surveying for university students' life stress, learning self-efficacy, social self-efficacy, and smartphone addiction. Data retrieved from the scales were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The SEM path analysis yielded the following results: (1) Academic stress had negative predictive power for social and learning self-efficacies, and interpersonal relationship stress had negative predictive power for social self-efficacy. (2) Social self-efficacy had positive predictive power for smartphone addiction. (3) Family and emotional stresses had positive predictive power for smartphone addiction. Generally, the results of this study could be used to significantly predict the life stresses that influenced university students' smartphone addiction. In addition, social self-efficacy can be considered a cognitive mechanism that mediates the relationships between academic stress and smartphone addiction and between interpersonal relationship stress and smartphone addiction. Finally, we discussed the research results and offered relevant suggestions for schools, university students, and future studies.
Keywords: Life stress; Social self-efficacy; Learning self-efficacy; Smartphone addiction
Conversations with a virtual human: Synthetic emotions and human responses BIBAKFull-Text 58-68
  Chao Qu; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Yun Ling; Pascal Wiggers; Ingrid Heynderickx
To test whether synthetic emotions expressed by a virtual human elicit positive or negative emotions in a human conversation partner and affect satisfaction towards the conversation, an experiment was conducted where the emotions of a virtual human were manipulated during both the listening and speaking phase of the dialogue. Twenty-four participants were recruited and were asked to have a real conversation with the virtual human on six different topics. For each topic the virtual human's emotions in the listening and speaking phase were different, including positive, neutral and negative emotions. The results support our hypotheses that (1) negative compared to positive synthetic emotions expressed by a virtual human can elicit a more negative emotional state in a human conversation partner, (2) synthetic emotions expressed in the speaking phase have more impact on a human conversation partner than emotions expressed in the listening phase, (3) humans with less speaking confidence also experience a conversation with a virtual human as less positive, and (4) random positive or negative emotions of a virtual human have a negative effect on the satisfaction with the conversation. These findings have practical implications for the treatment of social anxiety as they allow therapists to control the anxiety evoking stimuli, i.e., the expressed emotion of a virtual human in a virtual reality exposure environment of a simulated conversation. In addition, these findings may be useful to other virtual applications that include conversations with a virtual human.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Virtual human; Emotion; Dialogue experience; Social anxiety
Memory abilities in action video game players BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  Ashley F. McDermott; Daphne Bavelier; C. Shawn Green
Action video game players (AVGPs) have been shown to outperform non-action video game players (NVGPs) on tasks of perception and attention. Here we set out to investigate if these benefits also extended to another cognitive domain, memory. In particular, while there is some previous evidence suggesting AVGPs demonstrate better visual short-term memory, it is unclear whether this extends to long-term memory processes or indeed, whether these enhancements are due to memory per se or are instead reflective of changes in speed of processing or strategy. Using four tasks that tap distinct areas of memory processing we found evidence for greater speed of processing and enhanced visual short-term memory in AVGPs and compared to NVGPs. However, we found either equivalent or possibly decreased performance in AVGPs in tasks related to long-term memory access. Furthermore, differences in strategy were noted across tasks, in particular differences in the tradeoff between speed and accuracy, which calls for a closer investigation of how task instructions bias performance in future studies.
Keywords: Action video games; Memory; Speed-accuracy trade-off
Misery rarely gets company: The influence of emotional bandwidth on supportive communication on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 79-88
  Andrew C. High; Anne Oeldorf-Hirsch; Saraswathi Bellur
This study introduces the concept of emotional bandwidth to describe a communicator's ability to use technological features to disclose personal affect online. Strategic use of emotional bandwidth was expected to correspond with interpersonal rewards, specifically the willingness of others to provide social support. Participants (N = 84) viewed hypothetical Facebook profiles that contained manipulated levels of emotional bandwidth and were asked how much support they would provide to the person in the profile. Participants who viewed profiles portraying high emotional bandwidth were less willing to provide social support; however, this finding was qualified by personal qualities. Females, people who perceived a sense of community, and people who had a preference for online social interaction indicated a greater willingness to provide support in the high emotional bandwidth condition. Implications for designing affective affordances in technologies and their psychological effects are discussed.
Keywords: Emotional bandwidth; Self-disclosure; Social support; Facebook
Online communication and subjective well-being in Chinese college students: The mediating role of shyness and social self-efficacy BIBAKFull-Text 89-95
  Caina Li; Xinxin Shi; Jianning Dang
The present study attempts to examine the relationship between online communication and subjective well-being from the perspective of psychological need satisfaction, as well as the mediating role of shyness and social self-efficacy among Chinese college students. 574 college students with average age of 20 were asked to complete Psychological Need for Online Communication Scale, Shyness Scale, Social Self-efficacy Scale and Subjective Well-being Scale. SEM evidence supports the stimulation hypothesis, namely, the psychological needs satisfied by online communication can promote a person's social self-efficacy and experience a higher evaluation of subjective well-being. Meanwhile, the psychological needs satisfied by online communication can also influence individuals' status of shyness, which will decrease their social self-efficacy and lead to a lower subjective well-being. Furthermore, Chinese female college students obtain less social self-efficacy from the satisfaction of psychological needs through online communication than their male counterparts did, and resulted in less subjective well-being. The results are discussed in terms of psychological needs theory.
Keywords: Online communication; Psychological need; Shyness; Social self-efficacy; Subjective well-being
Using modern technology to keep in touch with back burners: An investment model analysis BIBAKFull-Text 96-100
  Jayson L. Dibble; Michelle Drouin
Relationship research and theory recognizes that individuals continue to monitor the availability of their romantic/sexual prospects whether or not they are already in a committed relationship. We use the term back burner to describe a desired potential or continuing romantic/sexual partner with whom one communicates, but to whom one is not exclusively committed. Although communication with back burners is not new, modern technology affords novel channels (e.g., social networking applications and text messaging) that individuals are using to connect with back burners. A survey study (N = 374) explored whether people used technology to communicate with back burners, as well as relationships between back burner contacts and investment model variables (Rusbult, 1980). Results indicated that back burner activity through electronic channels was common, men reported more back burners than women, and that number of back burners associated positively with quality of alternatives. For those in committed relationships, no relationships were observed between back burner activity and commitment to or investment in the relationship. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Back burners; Relationship alternatives; Investment theory; Communication technology; Social networking
Exploring how perceived threat and self-efficacy contribute to college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources BIBAKFull-Text 101-109
  Christopher J. McKinley; Erin K. Ruppel
Drawing from prior fear-appeal and information seeking research, this study explored how perceived threat and self-efficacy predicted college students' use and perceptions of online mental health resources. Results showed that perceived vulnerability was a modest, yet robust predictor of visiting any Internet website and joining an online support group, while self-efficacy modestly predicted greater perceived usefulness and trust for online support groups. Although numerous interactions emerged between self-efficacy and perceived threat, the impact of these relationships on use and perceptions of these services varied significantly. In particular, at higher levels of self-efficacy, perceived severity negatively predict use of online services yet also positively predicted trust in these resources. Furthermore, results showed that vulnerability was only associated with favorable judgments of web services at lower levels of efficacy. Overall, the findings suggest that self-efficacy and perceived threat play a small, yet significant role in explaining online mental health information seeking outcomes; however, the exact nature by which these factors operate together to influence one's use and larger impressions such resources remains unclear.
Keywords: Mental health
Completion rates and non-response error in online surveys: Comparing sweepstakes and pre-paid cash incentives in studies of online behavior BIBAKFull-Text 110-119
  Robert LaRose; Hsin-yi Sandy Tsai
This study aims to compare the effects of incentives and contact modes on survey completion rates, and examine how non-response rates might affect the quality of responses in online surveys. Two online surveys with different incentives and contact modes were conducted. In study 1, both pre-paid cash incentives and a sweepstakes offering of equal monetary value were more effective than no incentive but the pre-paid incentive were more effective than the sweepstakes. In study 2, respondents who received a pre-paid cash incentive via postal mail after initially failing to respond to an emailed sweepstakes offer differed from the initial respondents with respect to demographic and psychological characteristics previously found to be important in a widely cited study of social networking. Therefore, non-response error may indeed be a problem in online surveys, at least among those directed to college students and using a common method of recruitment in which offers of sweepstakes drawings are delivered via email. Not only do the levels of variables important to an understanding of online communication vary by survey method, but also the lawful relationships among variables differ between groups recruited by different methods.
Keywords: Survey; Completion rate; Non-response error; Online surveys; Social networking
Exploring users' social responses to computer counseling interviewers' behavior BIBAKFull-Text 120-130
  Sin-Hwa Kang; Jonathan Gratch
We explore the effect of behavioral realism and reciprocal self-disclosure from computer interviewers on the social responses of human users in simulated psychotherapeutic counseling interactions. To investigate this subject, we designed a 3 × 3 factorial between-subjects experiment involving three conditions of behavioral realism: high realism, low realism, and audio-only (displaying no behavior at all) and three conditions of reciprocal self-disclosure: high disclosure, low disclosure, and no disclosure. We measured users' feelings of social presence (Copresence, Social Attraction, and Emotional Credibility), rapport, perception of the quality of users' own responses (Embarrassment and Self-Performance), emotional state (PANAS), perception of an interaction partner (Person Perception), self-reported self-disclosure, speech fluency (Pause Fillers and Incomplete Words), and Verbal Self-Disclosure. We observed some contradictory outcomes in users' subjective reports. However, the results of objective data analysis demonstrated that users disclosed greater Verbal Self-Disclosure (medium level of intimacy) when interacting with computer interviewers that displayed high behavioral realism and high self-disclosure. Users also delivered more fluent speech when interacting with computer interviewers that displayed high behavioral realism.
Keywords: Computer interviewers; Agents; Social-presence; Behavioral realism; Reciprocal self-disclosure; Counseling interactions
How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes BIBAKFull-Text 131-139
  Sanne Kruikemeier
This study investigates the content characteristics of Twitter during an election campaign, and the relationship between candidates' style of online campaigning (i.e., politically personalized and interactive communication) and electoral support for those candidates. Thereby, it provides a better understanding of the linkage between the use of Twitter by candidates and effects on preferential votes. Two data sources are used to examine this relationship: first, a quantitative computer-assisted as well as a manual content analysis of tweets posted by political candidates during the Dutch national elections of 2010 (N = 40,957) and second, a dataset containing the number of votes for electable political candidates during that period. The findings show that using Twitter has positive consequences for political candidates. Candidates who used Twitter during the course of the campaign received more votes than those who did not, and using Twitter in an interactive way had a positive impact as well.
Keywords: Votes; Twitter; Campaigns; Political candidates; Content analysis
Antecedents and consequences of perceived value in Mobile Government continuance use: An empirical research in China BIBAKFull-Text 140-147
  Changlin Wang
This paper examines the antecedents and consequences of perceived value in m-government continuance use. Drawing upon service science studies and Chinese m-government context, a research model is constructed by extending the technology acceptance model (TAM). Data collected from a field survey of 326 m-government users are analyzed to test the proposed hypotheses. The results indicate that perceived value is strongly influenced by mobility, perceived usefulness and security, which is, in turn, significant impact on satisfaction and trust in technology, trust in agent and trust in government. These results contribute to drawing attention to the important role of perceived value in m-government continuance use and providing a new view that supplements to the extant technology acceptance research.
Keywords: Mobile Government; Continuance use; Perceived value; Perceived security; Mobility; Satisfaction; Trust
An experimental study of online chatting and notetaking techniques on college students' cognitive learning from a lecture BIBAKFull-Text 148-156
  Fang-Yi Flora Wei; Y. Ken Wang; Warren Fass
This experimental study investigated the effects of college students' online chatting behavior and notetaking techniques (handwritten vs. computer-mediated) on their cognitive learning. The results showed that regardless of notetaking technique, students who did not participate in off-learning online chatting during class, compared to those who did, demonstrated better recall of lecture content and higher quality of note. In terms of cognitive learning, students who used laptops to take notes were least negatively affected by online chatting during class than those who took handwritten notes or took no notes during the lecture. The findings suggest that task switching and interruption result in reduced effectiveness of learning and notetaking; moreover, switching from handwriting on notepads to typing chat messages on computer keyboards demonstrated a motor delay compared to students who used the same devices to multitask.
Keywords: Cognitive learning; Multitasking; Online chatting; Notetaking; Recall
Does country context matter? Investigating the predictors of teen sexting across Europe BIBAKFull-Text 157-164
  Susanne E. Baumgartner; Sindy R. Sumter; Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg; Sonia Livingstone
Despite growing research interest in sexting, not much is known about individual and country differences in engaging in sexting. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate (a) which individual and country characteristics explain sexting and (b) whether individual predictors vary across countries. On the individual level, we investigated age, gender, sensation seeking, and internet use. On the country level, we investigated traditionalism, gross domestic product, and broadband internet penetration. The sample consisted of 14,946 adolescents (49.7% boys) aged 11-16 from 20 European countries. Data were collected as part of the EU Kids Online project. Participants were interviewed at home. Using multilevel modeling, findings indicate that on the individual level, age, sensation seeking, and frequency of internet use predicted sexting across all countries. Gender differences in sexting varied across countries. Although country characteristics (GDP, broadband internet penetration, traditional values) had no direct effect on adolescent sexting, traditionalism significantly predicted gender differences in sexting. In more traditional countries, gender differences were more pronounced than in less traditional countries, with more boys than girls engaging in sexting. In less traditional countries, gender differences were smaller.
Keywords: Sexting; Gender differences; Adolescents; Internet; Cross-national comparison
Low self-control and cybercrime: Exploring the utility of the general theory of crime beyond digital piracy BIBAKFull-Text 165-172
  Christopher M. Donner; Catherine D. Marcum; Wesley G. Jennings; George E. Higgins; Jerry Banfield
While technological innovations over the last thirty years have markedly improved the ways in which people communicate and gather information, these advances have also led to computer crimes and related deviance becoming permanent fixtures in our society. In an effort to curtail internet offending, it is important for academics and practitioners alike to better understand why some individuals engage in cybercriminality. Criminologists have utilized several theories to investigate this type of deviance, including low self-control theory. However, the vast majority of this prior research has focused on a narrow scope of offending, namely digital piracy. The current study utilizes a sample of 488 undergraduate students to evaluate the theory's generality hypothesis by examining the extent to which low self-control predicts online deviance in general and beyond digital piracy more specifically. Study results support the generality hypothesis in that low self-control is related to non-digital piracy online deviance. Specific findings, policy implications, and directions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Self-control; Computer crime; Cybercrime; Online deviance; Digital piracy; Criminological theory
Student perceptions of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) content and careers BIBAKFull-Text 173-186
  Rhonda Christensen; Gerald Knezek; Tandra Tyler-Wood
Attitudinal data were gathered from 364 high school students participating in a residential science and mathematics program on a university campus in which participating students finish their last 2 years of high school in conjunction with their first 2 years in college. Instruments employed assessed dispositions toward Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) content and careers. Dispositions were analyzed in comparison to data gathered on the same instruments from other groups of students and teachers. Findings included that the residential early admissions students had STEM dispositions more similar to STEM professionals and less similar to traditional high school students. Analyses of disaggregated data characteristics based on attributes such as gender are also presented.
Keywords: STEM dispositions; Secondary education; Student attitudes; Gender studies
Letter repetitions in computer-mediated communication: A unique link between spoken and online language BIBAKFull-Text 187-193
  Yoram M. Kalman; Darren Gergle
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) affords many CMC cues which augment the verbal content of the message: all uppercase letters, asterisks, emoticons, punctuation marks, chronemics (time-related messages) and letter repetitions, to name a few. Letter repetitions are unique CMC cues in that they appear to be a written emulation of a spoken paralinguistic cue -- phoneme extension. In this study we explore letter repetitions as a CMC cue, with specific emphasis on elucidating the link between them and spoken nonverbal cues. The letter repetitions are studied in the Enron Corpus, a large ecologically valid collection (~500,000) of e-mail messages sent by and to employees of the Enron Corporation. We conclude that letter repetitions in the corpus often, but not always, emulate spoken nonverbal cues. This conclusion is examined in a longitudinal analysis that demonstrates the dynamic nature of this cue, and suggests that the usage of letter repetitions is increasing over time, while the link to spoken language is diminishing.
Keywords: CMC cues; Nonverbal cues; Computer-mediated communication; Letter repetitions
Another brick in the Facebook wall -- How personality traits relate to the content of status updates BIBAKFull-Text 194-202
  Stephan Winter; German Neubaum; Sabrina C. Eimler; Vanessa Gordon; Jenna Theil; Jonathan Herrmann; Judith Meinert; Nicole C. Krämer
Status updates represent a new form of one-to-many communication which is widely used among members of social networking sites (SNS). The present study investigated the question of who in particular uses the self-presentational opportunities of this feature and which users engage in riskier self-disclosures than others. Combining questionnaire and content analysis, we related self-reports on users' personality traits (extraversion, narcissism, self-efficacy, need to belong, need for popularity) to the actual use of Facebook status updates. Results showed that higher degrees of narcissism led to deeper self-disclosures and more self-promotional content within these messages. Users with higher need to belong disclosed more intimate information in status updates, while perceived efficacy of self-presentation was negatively related to the mass suitability of postings. Findings extend prior research on personality and SNS usage with regard to dynamic features and content differences in online self-presentation.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Self-presentation; Self-disclosure; Narcissism; Personality traits
A snapshot of the first encounters of visually disabled users with the Web BIBAKFull-Text 203-212
  Markel Vigo; Simon Harper
Navigating the Web is particularly challenging for disabled users who are not familiar with the idiosyncrasies of the Web and have to rely on assistive technologies. We provide insights on the adaptation process of novice visually disabled users through a snapshot that depicts their first encounters with the Web during a period of 2 months. We discover that, as the sessions go on, last resort tactics are replaced by more sophisticated exploration tactics, which suggests that users not only become more skilled, but also more independent and autonomous. We observe that at later stages, tasks are more effectively accomplished at the expenses of reduced efficiency. We propose 2 explanations for this phenomenon: at later stages users may be more prone to misuse tactics from a larger repertoire or alternatively, they may feel more confident and less thoughtful. Design implications suggest that, initially, users should be provided with mechanisms to recover from failure, while interventions at later stages should not interfere with the learning process.
Keywords: Behavioural sciences; Web; Adaptive behaviour; Learning; Skill acquisition; Coping tactics; Visually disabled; Blind users; Visually impaired users
Avatar creation in virtual worlds: Behaviors and motivations BIBAKFull-Text 213-218
  Hsin Lin; Hua Wang
Avatar creation has become common for people to participate and interact in virtual worlds. Using an online survey (N = 244), we investigated both the behavioral characteristics and major motivations for avatar creation in virtual worlds. Our results suggest that a majority of the participants had multiple avatars; these avatars' appearance did not merely resemble the human players; and their personality did not necessarily mirror the player's real personality. Furthermore, participants on average spent over 20 h per week and often interacting with others in the virtual worlds. Our exploratory factor analysis yielded four major motivations: virtual exploration, social navigation, contextual adaptation, and identity representation.
Keywords: Avatar creation; Behavior; Motivation; Virtual worlds
"I Have AIDS": Content analysis of postings in HIV/AIDS support group on a Chinese microblog BIBAKFull-Text 219-226
  Yanru Guo; Dion Hoe-Lian Goh
With the widespread growth and adoption of new technologies, online platforms such as social network sites (SNSs) have become a channel for health information. Online groups have been set up for communication and interaction, among which many are for people with chronic illnesses, including people with HIV/AIDS (PHA). In the study of online communication behavior, the Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT) predicted people will develop deeper interpersonal relationships in online groups over time (Walther, 1996). However, the author argued that CMC content should be examined more closely to get a dynamic picture of how people interaction and how groups develop over time. Thus this paper attempted to refine SIPT by enriching the framework with detailed components, and used directed content analysis to categorize messages posted on the PHA Support Group on Sina Weibo, a China-based microblog. The results showed that the percentage of socio-emotional messages saw an increase of almost 1/3 over time, taking over informational messages as the major content in all online postings. Medical related informational messages surpassed non-medical related informational messages as time went by. Intimacy relationship messages saw drastic increase in the two time periods. This study refined SIPT by providing increased granularity of its categorization scheme to examine group communication more closely.
Keywords: Informational content; Online support group; People living with HIV/AIDS; Socio-emotional content
User experience and personal innovativeness: An empirical study on the Enterprise Resource Planning systems BIBAKFull-Text 227-234
  Yujong Hwang
Although user experience and personal innovativeness are two important factors in new technology adoption, there has been no prior study to test these factors with the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) adoption. This paper investigates moderating roles of user experience on the relationship between the personal innovativeness and the ERP adoption motivations. This issue is important because if the user has more experience with the systems then the power of influence of personal innovativeness on ERP adoption motivation would be different. Thus, this paper tests these important insights of ERP systems adoption with the two different field samples with high (more than three years) and low (less than three years) user experience, based on the innovation diffusion theory, self determination theory, and different types of motivations such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. The findings, based on the PLS analysis of the model using 107 ERP end users, show that there are clear moderating effects of user experience -- such as impacts of personal innovativeness on ERP systems adoption motivations are higher in case of low user experience samples, as expected. Academic and practical implications are discussed in the paper based on these empirical findings.
Keywords: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems; User experience; Personal innovativeness in IT; Innovation diffusion theory; Extrinsic motivation; Intrinsic motivation
Predicting guild commitment in World of Warcraft with the investment model of commitment BIBAKFull-Text 235-240
  Aleksandra M. Odrowska; Karlijn Massar
Many MMORPG offer players the possibility to become a member of a guild, a hierarchical organization of characters with common objectives. Guild membership can be beneficial to game progress, and offer opportunities for social interaction. In the current study we focus on the MMORPG World of Warcraft (WoW), with the main aim to examine whether guild commitment and players' intention to remain in their guild can be predicted by players' satisfaction, investments, and perceptions of alternatives to their guild. To this end, 165 WoW players completed an online questionnaire and answered questions related to their guild membership. They also completed the investment model scale which was reworded so all questions pertained to their guild and their fellow guild members. Results show that satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size significantly predict commitment level (p's < .001), which in turn predicted likelihood of participants' staying with their current guild (p < .001) and the number of guilds they had been a member of in the past (p < .001). Moreover, high levels of guild commitment were indicative of better mental health, whereas weekly hours of game play was negatively related to mental health. In the discussion, we conclude that interdependence theory and the investment model of commitment are applicable to online gaming environments, and we argue that commitment to one's guild is one factor that could prevent the risks associated with online game play (i.e. problematic use).
Keywords: Online gaming; World of Warcraft; Guild membership; Interdependence theory; Investment model of commitment
Spatial augmented reality as a method for a mobile robot to communicate intended movement BIBAKFull-Text 241-248
  Michael D. Coovert; Tiffany Lee; Ivan Shindev; Yu Sun
Our work evaluates a mobile robot's ability to communicate intended movements to humans via projection of visual arrows and a simplified map. Humans utilize a variety of techniques to signal intended movement in a co-occupied space. We evaluated an augmented reality projection provided by the robot. The projection is on the floor and consists of arrows and a simplified map. Two pilots and one quasi-experiment were conducted to examine the effectiveness of visual projection of arrows by a robot for signaling intended movement. The pilot work demonstrates the effectiveness of utilizing arrows as a communication medium. The experiment examined the effectiveness of a simplified map and arrows for signaling the short-, mid-range, and long-term intended movement. Two pilot experiments confirm that arrows are an effective symbol for a robot to use to signal intent. A field experiment demonstrates that a robot can use a projected arrow and simplified map to signal its intended movement and people understand the projection for upcoming short-, medium-, and long-term movement. Augmented reality, such as projected arrows and simplified map, are an effective tool for robots to use when signaling their upcoming movement to humans. Telepresence robots in organizations, museum docents, information kiosks, hospital assistants, factories, and as members of search and rescue teams are typical applications where mobile robots reside and interact with people.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Mobile robot; HRI communication; Modality
Son, you're smoking on Facebook! College students' disclosures on social networking sites as indicators of real-life risk behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 249-257
  Joris J. van Hoof; Jeroen Bekkers; Mark van Vuuren
Health risk behavior in student populations is an issue of major concern, and students' risk levels are difficult to determine. In this study, we explore the extent to which information disclosed publicly on Facebook provides reliable indications of five real-life health behaviors.
   Questionnaire data and Facebook contents (2928 items) on alcohol use, smoking, illicit drug use, (un)healthy nutrition, and participation in sports of 71 respondents were collected and analyzed.
   The study shows that one can analyze Facebook profiles to reliably associate profile owners' smoking and sport behavior. It also shows that regarding alcohol use, some Facebook profile elements are indicative of real-life drinking.
   We discuss and suggest improved methods of coding disclosed public data, which may lead to reliable indications of peoples' real-life behavior.
Keywords: Social networking sites (SNSs); Alcohol; Tobacco; Illicit drugs; Nutrition; Sports
Consumer attitudes toward blogger's sponsored recommendations and purchase intention: The effect of sponsorship type, product type, and brand awareness BIBAKFull-Text 258-266
  Long-Chuan Lu; Wen-Pin Chang; Hsiu-Hua Chang
Sponsored recommendation blog posts, a form of online consumer review, are blog articles written by bloggers who receive benefits from sponsoring marketers to review and promote products on their personal blog. Because national regulations require that marketer sponsorship must be revealed in the blog post, sponsored recommendation posts can no longer conceal their marketing intent. Consumer's attitudes toward sponsored recommendation posts are thus a vital issue in assessing the effectiveness of the advertisement. This study uses a 2(sponsorship type) × 2(product type) × 2(brand awareness) experimental design and a total of 613 valid samples to examine consumer attitudes toward sponsored recommendation posts and purchase intention. The results show that when products recommended in blog posts are search goods or have high brand awareness, consumers have highly positive attitudes toward sponsored recommendation posts, which improves purchase intention. The directly-monetary/indirect-monetary benefits received by the bloggers have no significant effect on readership attitudes. Using these features in blog writings appears to improve online readers' trust toward and the credibility of sponsored recommendation posts and thus can be a vital online marketing tool for marketers.
Keywords: Online consumer review; Blog recommendation; Product type; Brand awareness; Purchase intention
Constantly connected -- The effects of smart-devices on mental health BIBAKFull-Text 267-272
  Joshua Harwood; Julian J. Dooley; Adrian J. Scott; Richard Joiner
A number of studies have demonstrated the mental health implications of excessive Internet-browsing, gaming, texting, emailing, social networking, and phone calling. However, no study to date has investigated the impact of being able to conduct all of these activities on one device. A smart-device (i.e., smart-phone or tablet) allows these activities to be conducted anytime and anywhere, with unknown mental health repercussions. This study investigated the association between smart-device use, smart-device involvement and mental health. Two-hundred and seventy-four participants completed an online survey comprising demographic questions, questions concerning smart-device use, the Mobile Phone Involvement Questionnaire, the Internet Addiction Test and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales. Higher smart-device involvement was significantly associated with higher levels of depression and stress but not anxiety. However, smart-device use was not significantly associated with depression, anxiety or stress. These findings suggest that it is the nature of the relationship a person has with their smart-device that is predictive of depression and stress, rather than the extent of use.
Keywords: Smart-devices; Smart-phones; Mental health; Depression; Stress; Addiction
Neurophysiological correlates of cognitive absorption in an enactive training context BIBAKFull-Text 273-283
  Pierre-Majorique Léger; Fred D. Davis; Timothy Paul Cronan; Julien Perret
Various aspects of intrinsic motivation have long been theorized as key determinants of learning achievement. The present research seeks deeper insights into these intrinsically motivating mechanisms by investigating neurophysiological correlates of cognitive absorption in the context of enactive learning, specifically simulation-based training on the use of enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. An experiment was conducted in which 36 student trainees used ERP software to make decisions while running a simulated company. Consistent with flow theory, skill, difficulty, and their interaction significantly influenced cognitive absorption (R² = .16). Five neurophysiological measures were captured for each trainee: EEG alpha, EEG beta, electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate, and heart rate variability. Each of the five neurophysiological measures explained significant unique variance in cognitive absorption over and above skill, difficulty, and their interaction, and collectively more than doubled the explained variance to R² = .34. Overall, cognitive absorption was positively related to a more relaxed, less vigilant state. Cognitive absorption was significantly related to the training outcome. These findings provide new insights into the psychological states that are conducive to experiencing cognitive absorption during enactive training.
Keywords: NeuroIS; Neurophysiological measures; End-user training; Cognitive absorption; Enactive learning
Depression, loneliness and Internet addiction: How important is low self-control? BIBAKFull-Text 284-290
  Yalçin Özdemir; Yasar Kuzucu; Serife Ak
This study aimed to explore both the direct and indirect relationships between depression, loneliness, low self-control, and Internet addiction in a sample of Turkish youth, based on a cognitive-behavioral model of generalized problematic Internet use. Data for the present study were collected from 648 undergraduate students with a mean age of 22.46 years (SD = 2.45). Participants completed scales for depression, loneliness, self-control and Internet addiction. Structural equation modeling was used to test the model in which depression and loneliness predicted Internet addiction through low self-control. The findings revealed that of the two factors, only loneliness was related to Internet addiction through low self-control. The results are discussed in terms of the cognitive-behavioral model of generalized problematic Internet use, and implications for practice are considered.
Keywords: Depression; Loneliness; Internet addiction; Self-control
Prediction of cyberslacking when employees are working away from the office BIBAKFull-Text 291-298
  Thomas A. O'Neill; Laura A. Hambley; Angelina Bercovich
The landscape of counterproductive workplace behavior is changing with the rapid integration of advanced communication technologies in the modern workforce. Specifically, employers are increasingly allowing employees to spend some work time at home, and to stay connected with the office through communication technologies. These telework arrangements bring about a new form of counterproductive workplace behaviors, namely, cyberslacking. Cyberslacking involves using the Internet for non-work related purposes while on company time. Engaging in cyberslacking might be particularly relevant when working at home because it would be easier to avoid being caught by supervisors and co-workers. The current study examines personality, satisfaction, and perceived performance as antecedents of cyberslacking while working away from the office. Findings from a field study indicate that cyberslacking is positively related to Procrastination, and negatively related to Honesty, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Cyberlacking was also found to be negatively related to both satisfaction and perceived performance while working remotely. The study suggests that personality might be used as an avenue for screening those who may be selected for remote work, or to help develop structures that reduce cyberslacking opportunities for those with personalities that are predisposed to cyberslacking (e.g., closer managerial monitoring of the employee's daily output).
Keywords: Cyberslacking; Cyberloafing; Telework; Remote work; Work outcomes; Personality
When technology acceptance models won't work: Non-significant intention-behavior effects BIBFull-Text 299-300
  Nicolae Nistor
Behavioral intention, use behavior and the acceptance of electronic learning systems: Differences between higher education and lifelong learning BIBAKFull-Text 301-314
  Ángel F. Agudo-Peregrina; Ángel Hernández-García; Félix J. Pascual-Miguel
Widespread implementation of e-learning systems -- learning management systems, virtual learning environments -- across higher education institutions has aroused great interest on the study of e-learning acceptance. Acceptance studies focus on the predictors of system adoption and use, with behavioral intention to use the system as a proxy for actual use. This study proposes a TAM3-based model -- with the inclusion of two additional variables: personal innovativeness in the domain of information technology and perceived interaction -- to study the factors influencing the acceptance of e-learning systems. Attention is also brought towards the role of behavioral intention, especially in its relation with use behavior. In order to do so, two different settings were considered: higher education and lifelong learning; data was gathered from a survey administrated to Spanish graduate and lifelong learning students, and partial least squares analysis was used to test the research model. Results supported TAM relations, except for the intention-behavior linkage, and unveiled a dual nature of perceived usefulness -- with one component related to efficiency and performance, and another component related to flexibility. The adequacy of applying TAM3-based models in educational contexts and suitability of actual system usage measures are also discussed.
Keywords: Educational technology acceptance; Behavioral intention; Use behavior; Self-reported use; TAM3
Predicting teachers' generative and receptive use of an educational portal by intention, attitude and self-reported use BIBAKFull-Text 315-322
  Bram Pynoo; Johan van Braak
This study takes off where most acceptance studies stop, namely by investigating the link between acceptance and different aspects of actual usage of an educational portal. Both receptive (logins, downloads and pageviews) and generative use behavior (uploads and reactions) of 864 teachers was collected on two occasions, and linked to their responses on an acceptance questionnaire based upon C-TAM-TPB. Two research questions were put forward: (1) which dimensions of actual use are predicted by attitude, intention and self-reported use; and (2) can C-TAM-TPB discern uploaders from non-uploaders. Regression analyses showed that receptive use (logins, downloads, pages viewed) was predicted by attitude, intention and self-reported use (variance explained in the range .13-.16). Generative use (uploading and reacting) was not explained by these self-reported measures (Adj. R² .01 and .04). Uploaders scored higher on all use parameters and almost all scales. A logistic regression showed that the more positive teachers' attitudes towards the portal and the higher their perceptions of control; the more likely they will upload information. This study is a call for more research on the factors that influence different dimensions of actual educational technology use, and should be an onset for more research on the link between intention and behavior in different settings, user populations, and technologies.
Keywords: Teachers' technology acceptance; Use behavior; C-TAM-TPB; Educational portal; Generative use behavior; Receptive use behavior
Toward an understanding of the behavioral intention to use a social networking site: An extension of task-technology fit to social-technology fit BIBAKFull-Text 323-332
  Hsi-Peng Lu; Yi-Wen Yang
Social networking sites (SNS) are one of the recent popular social media platforms. Successful SNS can attract millions of users in a few years, which has drawn much attention in the study of SNS. Understanding the relationships between a user's intention and the utilization of SNS is an essential step in engaging the SNS as a marketing or educational tool. However, current research models for technology acceptance can hardly explain the impact on the intention of using SNS from the perspective of technology fit due to the lack of social constructs. This study examines and compares the impact of task, social, and technology characteristics on users' intentions in using SNS by integrating the task-technology fit model and social capital theory. Data of 315 Facebook users were collected from the online questionnaire, and processed using the SmartPLS version 2.0 for path analysis and hypotheses tests. The results reveal that the social-technology fit has a dominant impact over the task-technology fit on users' intentions to employ SNS. For SNS research, it suggests a reconceptualization of the current task-technology fit model by adding social constructs if necessary.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Task-technology fit; Technology acceptance; Social capital theory; Partial least squares
Non-significant intention-behavior effects in educational technology acceptance: A case of competing cognitive scripts? BIBAKFull-Text 333-338
  Ambar Murillo Montes de Oca; Nicolae Nistor
Current technology acceptance research insufficiently considers complex educational settings. Recent research in educational technology acceptance has found weak or non-significant intention-behavior effects. To understand this finding, this paper presents a learning scripts approach to acceptance. A mixed methods approach is used to examine the intention-behavior effect in the context of informal learning in the workplace, focusing on the use of a virtual community of practice (vCoP) where participants share knowledge about the technical use of a software used in daily work tasks. Alternatively, users can access expert knowledge by contacting a Help Desk. As expected, the quantitative results show that the participants develop an intention to use the vCoP, however this intention has a limited effect on the actual vCoP use behavior. Qualitative results reveal that users have two cognitive scripts: an acceptance script, resulting in intention formation, and a help-seeking script, a well-established script in users which is leading them away from the technology and toward alternative help-seeking strategies. The help-seeking script is therefore interfering with the acceptance script, thus explaining weak or non-significant intention-behavior effects. Further research is needed to explore additional scripts that play a role in educational technology acceptance.
Keywords: Educational technology acceptance; Use behavior; Academic help seeking; Informal learning; Scripts
Participation in virtual academic communities of practice under the influence of technology acceptance and community factors. A learning analytics application BIBAKFull-Text 339-344
  Nicolae Nistor; Beate Baltes; Mihai Dascialu; Dan Mihiailia; George Smeaton; Stefan Triausan-Matu
Participation in virtual communities of practice (vCoP) can be influenced at the same time by technology acceptance and by community factors. To overcome methodological issues connected with the analysis of these influences, learning analytics were applied. Based on a recent vCoP model, the collaborative dialogue comprising 4040 interventions in 1981 messages created by a vCoP located at a US American online university was automatically analyzed. The text-based asynchronous online discussions were scored using a cohesion-based participation and collaboration analysis. Additionally, a sample of N = 133 vCoP participants responded a technology acceptance survey. Thus, a combined research model including the vCoP model and an established technology acceptance model was verified. The results confirmed the vCoP model entirely, and the acceptance model only partially. As consequence for educational research, the CoP model was confirmed and extended to vCoP settings, while the acceptance model appears to need reconsideration. For academic practice, the study initiates the development of assessment tools fostering knowledge sharing through dialogue in vCoP. Also, it suggests how virtual classrooms can be extended to open spaces where value creation takes place through social learning. Learning analytics proved thus successful, provides information that impacts both theory and practice of technology-enhanced learning.
Keywords: Communities of practice; Technology acceptance; Learning analytics; Discourse analysis; Natural language processing; Social network analysis
An e-maturity analysis explains intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption in UK schools BIBAKFull-Text 345-351
  Colin Harrison; Carmen Tomás; Charles Crook
This paper addresses the problem of non-significant intention-behavior effects in educational technology adoption, based on a reanalysis of data from the Impact09 project, a UK-government funded evaluation of technology use in high schools in England that had been selected as representing outstanding Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) innovation. The reanalysis focuses on intentionality and teleology, and attempts to combine an ecological perspective with a critical analysis of the intention-behavior correlations among participants, particularly teachers and head teachers. The concept of self-regulation is also considered as a determinant of behavior. The study reports a qualitative analysis of extensive interview data from four schools, and makes use of Underwood's concept of 'linkage e-maturity'. Traditional models of technology acceptance often assumed a steady trajectory of innovation, but such studies failed to explain uneven patterns of adoption. In this reanalysis, an emphasis on learning practices and e-maturity, interpreted within local and system-wide ecological contexts, better explained uneven adoption patterns.
Keywords: Information and communications technologies; Evaluation; Technology adoption; Maturity modeling; Linkage e-maturity; Self-regulation
Corrigendum to "Computerized working memory training: Can it lead to gains in cognitive skills in students?" [Comput. Hum. Behav. 29 (2012) 632-638] BIBFull-Text 352
  Tracy Packiam Alloway; Vanessa Bibile; Gemma Lau
Corrigendum to "Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying -- An analysis of Swedish adolescent data" [Comput. Hum. Behav. 29 (2013) 1896-1903] BIBFull-Text 353
  Linda Beckman; Curt Hagquist; Lisa Hellström