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Computers in Human Behavior 26

Editors:Robert D. Tennyson
Standard No:ISSN: 0747-5632
Links:Table of Contents
  1. CHB 2010-01 Volume 26 Issue 1
  2. CHB 2010-03 Volume 26 Issue 2
  3. CHB 2010-05 Volume 26 Issue 3
  4. CHB 2010-07 Volume 26 Issue 4
  5. CHB 2010-09 Volume 26 Issue 5
  6. CHB 2010-11 Volume 26 Issue 6

CHB 2010-01 Volume 26 Issue 1

The influence of learner-generated domain representations on learning combinatorics and probability theory BIBAKFull-Text 1-11
  Bas Kolloffel; Tessa H. S. Eysink; Ton de Jong
The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of providing support in the form of tools for constructing representations, and in particular the differential effects of the representational format of these tools (conceptual, arithmetical, or textual) in terms of perceived affordances and learning outcomes. The domain involved was combinatorics and probability theory. A between-subjects pre-test-post-test design was applied with secondary education students randomly distributed over four conditions. Participants completed the same tasks in a simulation-based learning environment. Participants in three experimental conditions were provided with a representational tool that could be used to construct a domain representation. The experimental manipulation concerned the format of the tool (conceptual, arithmetical, or textual). Participants in a control condition did not have access to a representational tool. Data from 127 students were analyzed. It was found that the construction of a domain representation significantly improved learning outcomes. The format in which students constructed a representation did not directly affect learning outcomes or the quality of the created domain representations. The arithmetical format, however, was the least stimulating for students to engage in externalizing their knowledge.
Keywords: External representations; Representational tools; Simulations; Inquiry learning; Mathematics
Knowledge search and people with high epistemic curiosity BIBAKFull-Text 12-22
  Dong-Mo Koo; Young-Yun Choi
Porter sites have tried to increase their business potentials by helping users easily engage in diverse online activities such as search, entertainment, online communities, and others. Knowledge search engine is one of the most successful killer applications increasing user loyalty. However, most studies have independently focused on search engine technology such as search keyword algorithm, presentation of information and user characteristics such as cognitive style, search experiences, and skill levels. However, these previous studies lack an integrated understanding of causal links among critical factors predicting user motives and intention involving more situation-specific user characteristics. To fill these gaps in the literature, the present study focuses on whether knowledge characteristics such as specialization, preciseness, and diversity, and system characteristics such as interactivity, responsiveness, and communication richness are important in forming user motives and intention. The present study also identifies a moderating role of epistemic curiosity in the links between motives and intention. Two hundred and fifty-five data from Korean university students confirmed that knowledge and services characteristics such as specialty, preciseness, diversity, communication richness improve user motives, which have a positive impact on intention. Epistemic curiosity has a moderating effect on the links between motives and intention. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in conclusion.
Keywords: Knowledge; Specialty; Preciseness; Diversity; Epistemic curiosity; Interactivity; Responsiveness; Communication richness
How can one amplify the effect of e-learning? An examination of high-tech employees' computer attitude and flow experience BIBAKFull-Text 23-31
  Li-An Ho; Tsung-Hsien Kuo
While numerous studies have focused on the effectiveness and benefits of e-learning, this study elicits the determinants of the IT professionals' e-learning outcomes by investigating the effect of IT professionals' computer attitudes on two personal outcomes: self-perceived flow experience and learning outcomes. Data collected from 50 technological companies which located in Hsinchu Science Parks in Taiwan (N = 239) were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results confirm that both computer attitude and flow experience generate positive and direct influence on learning outcome. Specially, the effect of personal computer attitude is amplified on learning outcome through experience of flow in an e-learning environment. Managerial implications are proposed and research limitations are discussed.
Keywords: Computer attitudes; Flow experience; Learning outcome; E-learning; Technological company
Exploring factors that influence knowledge sharing behavior via weblogs BIBAKFull-Text 32-41
  Tai-Kuei Yu; Long-Chuan Lu; Tsai-Feng Liu
Knowledge sharing is seen as one of the essential processes for knowledge management. A growing number of professionals have started weblogging, and use this tool to share their ideas. It is important to explore ways to encourage individuals to contribute personal knowledge and to assist community members to share their expertise. Through the lens of sharing culture, we explore the factors that facilitate voluntary knowledge sharing in a virtual community. Specifically, the use of three categories associated with a sharing culture -- fairness, identification and openness -- is considered as a linear combination, which means that enjoying helping and usefulness/relevancy thereafter promote knowledge sharing behavior. To test the theoretical model, we survey 442 members of three online communities. In addition to the positive effects of fairness and openness on community sharing culture, we also find that enjoying helping, sharing culture and usefulness/relevancy are strongly linked to member knowledge sharing behavior. This paper offers a new perspective on the mechanisms related to the sharing culture construct, which in turn facilitates weblog knowledge sharing behaviors and yields important implications for understanding knowledge sharing behavior in online communities.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing behavior; Weblogs; Structural equation modeling
The impact of perceived ease of use on Internet service adoption: The moderating effects of temporal distance and perceived risk BIBAKFull-Text 42-50
  Chung-Chi Shen; Jyh-Shen Chiou
Perceived ease of use is found to affect consumer's intention toward using an Internet-based service. However, to protect online transaction security, more security verification mechanisms are established which in turn increase the complexity and difficulty of using online services. This study proposed that the importance of perceived ease of use is depending on short- vs. long-term transaction expectation, product type, and whether security concern information is presented. In certain situations buyers or sellers of an Internet service may tolerate the inconvenience of using the Internet-based service. A 2 (verification requirement) × 2 (network externality) × 2 (short vs. long term) between-subject design was conducted on sellers of an auction site and a 2 (verification requirement) × 2 (product type) × 2 (with vs. without security concern information) between-subject design was conducted on buyers of an auction site. The results of two studies suggest that perceived ease of use increases the intention toward using online service when sellers expect that the Internet service usage is only for a short-term transaction or when buyers have no access of the security concern information on the website. In contrast, sellers prefer using an online service which requires a relatively high verification requirement when the purpose of using Internet service is for long-term transaction or when buyers have access of security concern information. The results also showed that perceived network externality positively affect sellers' intention toward using an auction website.
Keywords: Internet consumer behavior; Perceived ease of use; Perceived risk; Temporal distance
Effects of color sample display and color sample grouping on screen layout usability for customized product color selection BIBAKFull-Text 51-60
  Fong-Gong Wu; Cheih-Ying Chen; Ying-Jye Lee; Rain Chen
This study investigates the effects of color sample display and color sample grouping on the usability (task efficiency and user preference) of a color combination interface. A 180-subject nested design experiment tested each of the three levels of color sample grouping (associative color number, color series, and product section) against each of the two levels of color sample display (color chip, product thumbnail) for efficiency and effectiveness (search time and error rate). A separate 30-subject experiment evaluated user preference.
   Of the three grouping types, product section (grouping of color chips or product thumbnails to correspond with modular sections of a product preview image) yielded the lowest search time and error rates. Of the two display types, product thumbnails achieved the highest user preference. Of the six formation-display configurations, color sample chips grouped by product section yielded both the lowest search time and highest preference.
Keywords: Web interface; Usability; Color sample grouping; Color sample display; Color information overload
E-mail characteristics, work performance and distress BIBAKFull-Text 61-69
  Rita S. Mano; Gustavo S. Mesch
The purpose of the study is to examine how e-mail affects work performance. E-mail communication studies have aroused both praise and query regarding the suitability, appropriateness and effectiveness of electronic messages in information management. Less is known about the effects of e-mail on work performance. We consider (1) which e-mail features affect work performance; (2) whether these features are differentially associated with positive (work effectiveness) or negative (stress and distress) side-effects; and (3) whether individual- and organizational-level characteristics are associated with positive and/or negative work performance. Using a secondary level analysis based on the Pew and American Life sample we show that extent, content, and increased volume of e-mail are (a) more frequently reported by managers than by non-managers (b) age, gender, marital status and education can become a critical issue (c) the amount of e-mail received and sent is positively related to work performance. These findings suggest that assessing the costs and benefits of electronic communication should cover individual features as well as e-mail-related features to assess their impact on work performance.
Keywords: E-mail characteristics; E-mail effects; Work stress; Work distress; Work performance; Employees
Online activity, motivation, and reasoning among adult learners BIBAKFull-Text 70-73
  Sarah Ransdell
College students' motivational beliefs influence their online behavior and ability to think critically. In the present study, doctoral health science students' reports of motivation, as measured by the California Measure of Mental Motivation, reasoning skill, as measured by the Health Science Reasoning Test, and Web-CT records of online activity during a Web-CT-based statistics course were explored. Critical thinking skill and disposition each contributed unique variance to student grades, with age, organization disposition, and analysis skill as the strongest predictors. The youngest students, those so-called millennial age, and born after 1982, were those with the lowest critical thinking skill and dispositions, and the lowest grades in the class. Future research must take into consideration discrepancies between skill and disposition and interactions with age or cohort. At present, and contrary to popular wisdom, older students may make better online learners than younger.
Keywords: Critical thinking dispositions; Critical thinking skills; Health science students; Online communication
Designing an electronic guidebook for learning engagement in a museum of history BIBAKFull-Text 74-83
  Yao-Ting Sung; Kuo-En Chang; Huei-Tse Hou; Pin-Fu Chen
Museums provide important avenues for lifelong learning, and using information and communication technology to maximize a museum's lifelong learning potential is a recognized issue. This study proposed a human-computer-context interaction (HCCI) framework as a guide for designing a mobile electronic guidebook for a history museum. To fulfill the goals of the HCCI framework, two strategies, problem-based inquiry and historical-context-embedded visiting, were used to implement a HCCI guidebook. To evaluate the effects of the HCCI guidebook, this study conducted an experiment to compare three visiting modes: Visiting with the HCCI guidebook; visiting with a worksheet; and visiting without any supplementary tools. Sixty-two college students participated in the evaluation of the HCCI guidebook in the Tang dynasty tri-color glazed pottery exhibition at the National Museum of History. The results showed that the students with the HCCI guidebooks had, on average, a longer holding time with exhibits than either students with paper-based worksheets or students without supplementary materials. However, there were no significant differences in the knowledge gained about exhibits among the three modes.
Keywords: Museum; Informal leaning; Mobile learning; Guidebook; Life long learning; Interactive learning environment; Multimedia/hypermedia systems
Productive use of learning resources in an online problem-based learning environment BIBAKFull-Text 84-99
  Heisawn Jeong; Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver
This study examined students' use of learning resources in a technologically-mediated online learning environment. Undergraduate student groups were engaged in an online problem-based learning (PBL) environment, rich with pre-selected video and knowledge resources. Quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that students accessed resources fairly frequently and benefited from them. Resources helped students construct a rich understanding of the problem and provided ideas for problem solutions. Detailed analyses of resource exploration along with contrasting case analyses between high-achieving and low-achieving student groups suggested that for learning to be effective in resource-rich environments, students first need to develop an understanding of the resources and learn how to access them efficiently. Second, students need to learn to process the contents of resources in meaningful ways so that they can integrate diverse resources to form a coherent understanding and apply them to solve problems. Finally, students need to develop knowledge and skills to use resources collaboratively, such as sharing and relating to each other's resources. The results indicated that students, especially low-achieving students, need guidance to use resources effectively in resource-rich learning environments.
Keywords: Learning resources; Problem-based learning (PBL); Online hypermedia environments; Contrasting cases analysis; Knowledge resources; Video resources
Getting acquainted through social network sites: Testing a model of online uncertainty reduction and social attraction BIBAKFull-Text 100-109
  Marjolijn L. Antheunis; Patti M. Valkenburg; Jochen Peter
The first aim of this study was to examine which uncertainty reduction strategies members of social network sites used to gain information about a person who they had recently met online. The second aim was to investigate whether and how these uncertainty reduction strategies resulted in social attraction. Drawing on a survey of 704 members of a social network site, we found that respondents had used active, passive, and interactive strategies to reduce uncertainty about their new acquaintance. Interactive strategies were most effective in reducing uncertainty about the target person. Respondents' level of uncertainty about the acquaintance mediated the relationships between the use of interactive uncertainty strategies and perceived similarity on the one hand and social attraction on the other. Finally, respondents' perceived valence of the obtained information about the acquaintance moderated the relationship between the level of uncertainty and social attraction.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; CMC; Social network sites; Social attraction; Uncertainty reduction theory; Uncertainty reduction strategies; Similarity
Why does signaling enhance multimedia learning? Evidence from eye movements BIBAKFull-Text 110-117
  Erol Ozcelik; Ismahan Arslan-Ari; Kursat Cagiltay
Previous studies have suggested that signaling enhances multimedia learning. However, there is not enough evidence showing why signaling leads to better performance. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of signaling on learning outcomes and to reveal the underlying reasons for this effect by using eye movement measures. The participants were 40 undergraduate students who were presented with either signaled or nonsignaled multimedia materials. Labels in the illustration were signaled by temporarily changing the color of the items. The results suggest that the signaled group outperformed the nonsignaled group on transfer and matching tests. Eye movement data shows that signaling guided attention to relevant information and improved the efficiency and effectiveness of finding necessary information.
Keywords: Eye-tracking; Signaling effect; Multimedia learning; Cognitive processes

CHB 2010-03 Volume 26 Issue 2

My Text: An alternative to the traditional textbook BIBAKFull-Text 119-121
  James Reininger
Both college level students and instructors alike have become frustrated with the modern textbook. Textbooks are expensive, passive in tone; water downed, and rarely has the breadth and depth that is needed for a course. Recently, Myles Johnson a former Psychology Instructor, has come up with an instructional method known as My Text that addresses these frustrations. Here students, with the instructor's guidance, create their own textbooks. This paper takes a look at some of the Pedagogical merits of this method as a Learner Centered Approach and makes recommendations for future research.
Keywords: Learner centered instruction; Learner centered approach; Constructivism; Textbooks; Guided discovery learning; Inquiry learning
Latent constructs determining Internet job search behaviors: Motivation, opportunity and job change intention BIBAKFull-Text 122-131
  Geoffrey K. F. Tso; Kelvin K. W. Yau; Monique S. M. Cheung
This study investigates the individual differences of job seekers as the antecedents of Internet job search behaviors using the push and pull theories and theory of planned behavior. Data based on a sample of 361 Hong Kong employed individuals confirm the importance of the two dimensions of the Internet job search behaviors: job search intensity and job sources. By conducting structural equation modeling analysis, the results show that individual differences could be conceptualized as three hypothesized antecedents: motivation, opportunity and job change intention. The results also reveal that motivation is the strongest predictor of job search intensity; opportunity is the strongest predictor of job sources; job change intention is a partial mediator of Internet job search behaviors via motivation, but not via opportunity.
Keywords: Jobs; Internet; Latent constructs
Factors affecting response rates of the web survey: A systematic review BIBAKFull-Text 132-139
  Weimiao Fan; Zheng Yan
The lower response rate in web surveys has been a major concern for survey researchers. The literature has sought to identify a wide variety of factors that affect response rates in web surveys. In this article, we developed a conceptual model of the web survey process and use the model to systematically review a wide variety of factors influencing the response rate in the stage of survey development, survey delivery, survey completion, and survey return. Practical suggestion and future research directions on how to increase the response rate are discussed.
Keywords: Web survey; Response rate; Survey design; Survey delivery; Survey completion; Survey return
The influence of leads on cognitive load and learning in a hypertext environment BIBAKFull-Text 140-150
  Pavlo D. Antonenko; Dale S. Niederhauser
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of leads (or hypertext node previews) on cognitive load and learning. Leads provided a brief summary of information in the linked node, which helped orient the reader to the linked information. Dependent variables included measures of cognitive load: self-report of mental effort, reading time, and event-related desynchronization percentage of alpha, beta and theta brain wave rhythms; and learning performance: a recall task, and tests of domain and structural knowledge. Results indicated that use of leads reduced brain wave activity that may reflect split attention and extraneous cognitive load, and improved domain and structural knowledge acquisition. Further, findings provide insights into differentiating the types of cognitive load apparent in hypertext-assisted learning environments. Use of EEG measures allowed examination of instantaneous cognitive load, which showed that leads may be influencing germane load -- reducing mental burden associated with creating coherence between two linked node. The self-report of mental effort measure appears more closely associated with overall and intrinsic load.
Keywords: Cognition; Learning; Technology; Text structure; Psychophysiology
Awareness of group performance in a CSCL-environment: Effects of peer feedback and reflection BIBAKFull-Text 151-161
  Chris Phielix; Frans J. Prins; Paul A. Kirschner
This study investigated the effects of a peer feedback tool and a reflection tool on social and cognitive performance during computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL). A CSCL-environment was augmented with a peer feedback tool (Radar) and a reflection tool (Reflector) in order to make group members aware of both their individual and their group behavior. Radar visualizes how group members perceive their own social and cognitive performance and that of their peers during collaboration along five dimensions. Reflector stimulates group members to reflect upon their own performance and the performance of the group. A 2 × 2 factorial between-subjects design was used to examine whether Radar and Reflector would lead to better team development, more group satisfaction, lower levels of group conflict, more positive attitudes toward problem-based collaboration, and a better group product. Results show that groups with Radar perceived their team as being better developed, experienced lower conflict levels, and had a more positive attitude towards collaborative problem solving than groups without Radar. The quality of group products, however, did not differ. The results demonstrate that peer feedback on the social performance of individual group members can enhance the performance and attitudes of a CSCL-group.
Keywords: Groupware; Collaborative learning; Peer feedback; Reflection; Group performance
Does Internet use reflect your personality? Relationship between Eysenck's personality dimensions and Internet use BIBAKFull-Text 162-167
  Leman Pinar Tosun; Timo Lajunen
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between three Eysenckian personality dimensions -- psychoticism, extroversion and neuroticism -- and the Internet use. A sample of 427 Turkish university students completed the Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire, an Internet survey which contained questions about interpersonal motives for Internet use and a scale for measuring the tendency for expressing one's "true" self on the Internet. The results indicated that psychoticism was the only personality dimension related to establishing new relationships and having "Internet only" friends; and extroversion was the only personality dimension that is related to maintaining long-distance relationships, and supporting daily face-to-face relationships. The results supported the idea that for some individuals, Internet can be used as social substitute for face-to-face social interactions while for some others it can be used as a tool of social extension, depending on the user's personality characteristics. Also, psychoticism and neuroticism were found to be positively associated with the expressing "true self" on the Internet, and it was shown that the relationship between psychoticism and Internet uses as social substitute is mediated by the tendency to express one's true self on the Internet.
Keywords: Personality; Internet; Psychoticism
School knowledge management framework and strategies: The new perspective on teacher professional development BIBAKFull-Text 168-175
  Jingyuan Zhao
During the epoch of knowledge-based economy and knowledge management, teachers must learn in order to improve professional development. The paper discusses on the problems of teacher professional development in China, and analyze on the relationship among teacher learning, teacher professional development and school knowledge management. From the perspective of schools, this study develops school knowledge management framework to facilitate teacher learning and improve teacher professional development, in the basis of this framework, schools' knowledge management strategies are presented, and provide references for administrators of schools. The result reveals the knowledge management strategies to improve teacher professional development, including school organizational reforger and knowledge leaders, constructing learning school and organization learning culture, establishing teacher knowledge management system of teacher professional development, encouraging team learning, teaching cooperation and knowledge sharing, establishing performance assessment mechanism of knowledge applications and development.
Keywords: Teacher; Professional development; Knowledge management; Learning school
Computer-mediated communication in adolescents with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) BIBAKFull-Text 176-185
  Kevin Durkin; Gina Conti-Ramsden; Allan J. Walker
The various uses of computer-mediated communication (CMC) are transforming the nature of social interactions and human relations among adolescents. Little is known about engagement of exceptional youth with this technology. The present study investigated the implications of language and social factors for frequency of CMC use and its relationship to adolescent well-being in young people with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI). Eighty six adolescents with a history of SLI and 90 typically developing 17 year olds participated. Participants completed standardized assessments of psycholinguistic abilities and self-report measures of language motivations and social motivations for CMC use, as well as anxiety and depression. Results indicate that language abilities have a complex relationship with frequency of CMC use; social abilities have a more direct association and are predictive of frequency of CMC use. Both adolescents with SLI and typically developing adolescents were less shy online. No association was obtained between frequency of CMC use and reported emotional symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. It is argued that the characteristics of CMC, in terms of its less stringent language demands and its reduced-cues environment, can provide a medium for positive adaptation of adolescents with communication challenges.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Adolescence; Specific language impairment (SLI)
Moderating effects of localization differences on ERP use: A socio-technical systems perspective BIBAKFull-Text 186-198
  Kee-Young Kwahk; Hyunchul Ahn
Despite the promised benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, more than two thirds of ERP system projects result in failure. In this study, we investigate some plausible reasons for their failure from the user's perspective. Particularly, we propose the socio-technical factors that affect ERP system use. This study has two research objectives. First, it introduces and tests a theoretical model that views ERP systems as both an organizational change driver and a sophisticated information system to explain the phenomenon of ERP system use. For this purpose, the proposed model includes attitude toward change and computer self-efficacy; this may affect ERP system use behavior through perceived usefulness for the systems. Second, this paper attempts to shed some light on how the localization differences of ERP systems may affect users' intention to use the ERP systems. The results based on survey data using subjects from two different ERP systems support the proposed research model. It identifies the moderating effect of the localization differences. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed along with its limitations.
Keywords: Localization differences; ERP systems; Attitude toward change; Computer self-efficacy; IT implementation
Effects of computer self-efficacy and system reliability on user interaction with decision support systems BIBAKFull-Text 199-204
  Poornima Madhavan; Rachel R. Phillips
Computer self-efficacy (CSE) has been identified as a major determinant of computer-related ability and usage in organizational contexts. However, there has been little research on the impact of CSE on the use of high level computerized systems such as decision support systems. In order to examine this relationship, participants completed a visual search task with the assistance of an automated decision support system which varied in reliability from moderately reliable (70%) to highly reliable (90%). After completion of the task, a median split was performed on participants' CSE scores to divide participants into high-CSE and low-CSE groups. We examined the relationship between CSE and trust and utilization of the system. High-CSE participants trusted the system more, complied with it more and generated significantly more hits than low-CSE participants, particularly on trials in which the aid was highly reliable. This indicated that high-CSE levels led to a better ability to gauge the true capabilities of the system. However, all participants uniformly underestimated the true reliability of the system at both levels of CSE. This study provides insight into the potential significance of personality factors in shaping human-technology interaction and has implications for designers of automated systems.
Keywords: Technology; Trust; Computer self-efficacy; Reliability; Compliance; Reliance
WESONet: Applying semantic web technologies and collaborative tagging to multimedia web information systems BIBAKFull-Text 205-209
  Jose Emilio Labra Gayo; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos; Juan Manuel Cueva Lovelle
The publication of different media types, like images, audio and video in the World Wide Web is getting more importance each day. However, searching and locating content in multimedia sites is challenging. In this paper, we propose a platform for the development of multimedia web information systems. Our approach is based on the combination between semantic web technologies and collaborative tagging. Producers can add meta-data to multimedia content associating it with different domain-specific ontologies. At the same time, users can tag the content in a collaborative way. The proposed system uses a search engine that combines both kinds of meta-data to locate the desired content. It will also provide browsing capabilities through the ontology concepts and the developed tags.
Keywords: Multimedia web information systems; Semantic web technologies; Collaborative tagging
Interactive web environment for collaborative and extensible diagram based learning BIBAKFull-Text 210-217
  José Barranquero Tolosa; Jose E. Labra Gayo; Ana B. Martínez Prieto; Sheila Méndez Núñez; Patricia Ordóñez de Pablos
Nowadays there is a growing need of ubiquity for learning, research and development tools, due to the portability and availability problems concerning traditional desktop applications. In this paper, we suggest an approach to avoid any further download or installation. The main goal is to offer a collaborative and extensible web environment which will cover a series of domains highly demanded by different kinds of working groups, in which it is crucial to have tools which facilitate the exchange of information and the collaboration among their members. The result of those interactions would be the development of one or several diagrams accessible from any geographical location, independently of the device employed. The environment can be adapted through personalized components, depending on the type of diagram that the user wants to interact with and the users can also create new elements or search and share components with other users of the community. By means of this environment, it will be possible to do research on the usability of collaborative tools for design diagrams, as well as research on the psychology of group interactions, assessing the results coming from the employment of known methodologies, techniques, paradigms or patterns, both at an individual and at a collaborative group level.
Keywords: Collaborative; Extensible; Interactive; Web environment; Diagram design; Groupware usability; User tracking; Graph visualization; Semantic web
User goals in social virtual worlds: A means-end chain approach BIBAKFull-Text 218-225
  Yoonhyuk Jung; Hyunmee Kang
The purpose of this study is twofold: first, to investigate user goals in social virtual worlds; second, to introduce a methodological alternative (i.e., a means-end chain approach) for analyzing user goals in cyberspaces. The data were acquired from a web survey, and were analyzed by means-end chain analysis (MECA), which produces users' goal structure in reference to a hierarchical system of interrelated goals (Olson & Reynolds, 1983). The results show that people come to social virtual worlds to satisfy their social and hedonic needs, and to escape from real world constraints, as do virtual community members and virtual gamers; they also pursue unique activities, such as creating virtual objects and selling them. On the other hand, by clarifying relations among users' goals, MECA provides a richer explanation for user goals than prior research which only offers separate user goals for cyberspace users without explanation of relationship among goals.
Keywords: Virtual worlds; Social virtual worlds; User goal; Goal structure; Means-end chain analysis
Face off: Implications of visual cues on initiating friendship on Facebook BIBAKFull-Text 226-234
  Shaojung Sharon Wang; Shin-Il Moon; Kyounghee Hazel Kwon; Carolyn A. Evans; Michael A. Stefanone
This research investigates how moderating factors and theoretically relevant contextual variables affect impression formation and the willingness to initiate virtual friendship. An experiment examined both main and interaction effects for visual cues, profile owner's gender, and evaluator's gender; a 2 (stimulus gender: male and female) × 3 (visual conditions: attractive, unattractive, and no-photo) × 2 (evaluator's gender: male and female) between subjects model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed. A three-way interaction between gender and appearance was revealed. The results indicated that both male and female subjects were more willing to initiate friendships with opposite-sex profile owners with attractive photos. Subjects also displayed comparatively higher willingness to make friends with profile owners who did not include visual cues than with those who revealed an unattractive photo. The hyperpersonal model was supported and extended to address gender attributes.
Keywords: CMC; Facebook; Visucal cues; Impression formation; Physical attractiveness; Hyperpersonal
In justice we trust: Exploring knowledge-sharing continuance intentions in virtual communities of practice BIBAKFull-Text 235-246
  Yu-Hui Fang; Chao-Min Chiu
Knowledge has become the key to success in the global knowledge economy, not only for organizations, but also in virtual communities of practice (VCoPs). The major challenge in sustaining a VCoP is acquiring knowledge spontaneously from members. This challenge leads to our research question: what encourages VCoP members to voluntarily and continuously help one another through continuous knowledge-sharing? In this study, we integrate three research streams -- justice, trust, and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) -- into one model in order to analyze the antecedents of knowledge-sharing continuance intentions in VCoPs. Our model theorizes that the four dimensions of justice (i.e., distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice) affect two different referents of trust (i.e., trust in members and trust in management). We further link these trust constructs to altruism (i.e., OCB directed to the individual) or conscientiousness (i.e., OCB directed to the organization), which in turn effect the knowledge-sharing continuance intentions in VCoPs. This hypothetical model is empirically validated using data collected from 142 members of an IT-oriented VCoP in Taiwan. Our integrated model has been helpful in VCoP research as it broadens our theoretical understanding of knowledge-sharing continuance intentions.
Keywords: Altruism; Conscientiousness; Justice; Knowledge-sharing; Trust; Virtual communities of practice
Who interacts on the Web?: The intersection of users' personality and social media use BIBAKFull-Text 247-253
  Teresa Correa; Amber Willard Hinsley; Homero Gil de Zúñiga
In the increasingly user-generated Web, users' personality traits may be crucial factors leading them to engage in this participatory media. The literature suggests factors such as extraversion, emotional stability and openness to experience are related to uses of social applications on the Internet. Using a national sample of US adults, this study investigated the relationship between these three dimensions of the Big-Five model and social media use (defined as use of social networking sites and instant messages). It also examined whether gender and age played a role in that dynamic. Results revealed that while extraversion and openness to experiences were positively related to social media use, emotional stability was a negative predictor, controlling for socio-demographics and life satisfaction. These findings differed by gender and age. While extraverted men and women were both likely to be more frequent users of social media tools, only the men with greater degrees of emotional instability were more regular users. The relationship between extraversion and social media use was particularly important among the young adult cohort. Conversely, being open to new experiences emerged as an important personality predictor of social media use for the more mature segment of the sample.
Keywords: Internet; Social media; Instant messages; Social networking sites; Big-Five; Personality
An empirical study of the factors affecting social network service use BIBAKFull-Text 254-263
  Ohbyung Kwon; Yixing Wen
Social network services are emerging as a promising IT-based business, with some services already being provided commercially such as Facebook, Cyworld and Xiaonei. However, it is not yet clear which potential audience groups will be key social network service participants. Moreover, the process showing how an individual actually decides to start using a social network service may be somewhat different from current web-based community services. Hence, the aims of this paper are twofold. First, we empirically examine how individual characteristics affect actual user acceptance of social network services. To examine these individual characteristics, we apply a Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to construct an amended model that focuses on three individual differences: social identity, altruism and telepresence, and one perceived construct: the perceived encouragement, imported from psychology-based research. Next, we examine if the users' perception to see a target social network service as human relationship-oriented service or as a task-oriented service could be a moderator between perceived constructs and actual use. As a result, we discover that the perceived encouragement and perceived orientation are significant constructs that affect actual use of social network services.
Keywords: Social network service; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); Social identity; Altruism; Perceived encouragement; Perceived orientation

CHB 2010-05 Volume 26 Issue 3

Multimedia, hypermedia, and hypertext: Motivation considered and reconsidered BIBAKFull-Text 265-276
  Daniel C. Moos; Elizabeth Marroquin
Computer-based instruction (CBI) is becoming increasingly popular in the classroom, particularly because the latest technological advancements allow for visually rich and interactive environments. While the inherent nature of CBIs is often thought to engage learners, research examining the role of motivation in learning with these environments has resulted in mixed findings. These findings are further complicated by unique design characteristics of distinct CBIs. This literature review synthesizes research that has examined the role of theoretically-grounded constructs of motivation in the context of three popular CBIs, multimedia, hypermedia, and hypertext. Specifically, this literature review considered empirical studies that examined the effect of these CBIs on motivation, in addition to the effect of motivation on learning outcomes and the learning process within the context of these environments. The literature review concludes with a theoretical consideration of previous research and a discussion of a framework for future directions.
Keywords: Motivation; Multimedia; Hypermedia; Hypertext; Literature review
Following you home from school: A critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization BIBAKFull-Text 277-287
  Robert S. Tokunaga
More than 97% of youths in the United States are connected to the Internet in some way. An unintended outcome of the Internet's pervasive reach is the growing rate of harmful offenses against children and teens. Cyberbullying victimization is one such offense that has recently received a fair amount of attention. The present report synthesizes findings from quantitative research on cyberbullying victimization. An integrative definition for the term cyberbullying is provided, differences between traditional bullying and cyberbullying are explained, areas of convergence and divergence are offered, and sampling and/or methodological explanations for the inconsistencies in the literature are considered. About 20-40% of all youths have experienced cyberbullying at least once in their lives. Demographic variables such as age and gender do not appear to predict cyberbullying victimization. Evidence suggests that victimization is associated with serious psychosocial, affective, and academic problems. The report concludes by outlining several areas of concern in cyberbullying research and discusses ways that future research can remedy them.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Online harassment; Social implications; Demography; Disturbances; Coping strategies
Peer evaluation in online anchored discussion for an increased local relevance of replies BIBAKFull-Text 288-295
  J. van der Pol; W. F. Admiraal; P. R. J. Simons
This study investigates the use of an evaluation function to increase the local relevance of replies in online anchored discussion. Being implemented in a university course on French linguistics, a regular system for anchored discussion is compared with two versions that are enhanced with an integrated evaluation function. The function asks students to evaluate the relevance of each others' replies. To compare between experimental and control conditions, the collaboration protocols are analysed with a newly developed coding scheme for the local relevance of replies. Statistical processing of the data is done with a multilevel approach and results indicate that an evaluation function can effectively increase the local relevance of students' replies, but only if it is actually used to a certain extent. Using the evaluation function is hypothesized to increase students' awareness of the importance of writing relevant replies.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Anchored discussion; Peer-feedback; Dialogue analysis; Coherence; Relevance
eGames: Is imagination the forgotten ingredient? BIBAKFull-Text 296-301
  Tom Benjamin
Commercial eGames strive to create seamless transitions between realistic virtual worlds. This condenses the experience and can create more intense engagement. However, there is no evidence that this is essential in eGames used for educational applications. Educators seek nearly opposite attributes. They need materials that can be disaggregated into units small enough to fit within timetables and that can be edited and customised to fit curricula without resort to programming. This paper proposes the alternative of a meta-game -- a loose string of game and puzzle tasks in the tradition of heroes' journeys, tournaments, scavenger hunts, and road rallies. Imagination and symbolism provide the links between otherwise unrelated clues, puzzles, and tasks. Spreadsheets serve as the ideal hub for meta-games. Current spreadsheets include form controls such as scroll bars and buttons, share the same multimedia applications as other office software, and can even create animation. The spreadsheet has the versatility to fill the niche of the cardboard box as a plaything. Research is reviewed that supports a role for eGames with less overt reward and more left to the imagination.
Keywords: Games; Education; Electronic games; Virtual worlds; Personalised learning; Spreadsheet; Cognitive dissonance
Psychosocial predictors of the use of enhanced podcasting in student learning BIBAKFull-Text 302-309
  Nathan D. Moss; Erin L. O'Connor; Katherine M. White
The current study examined the influence of psychosocial constructs, from a theory of planned behavior (TPB) perspective, to predict university students' (N = 159) use of a newly offered on-line learning tool, enhanced podcasts. Pre-semester, students completed questionnaires assessing the TPB predictors (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control) related to intended enhanced podcast use until the middle of semester. Mid-semester, students completed similar items relating to podcast use until the end of semester. Self-report measures of podcast use were obtained at the middle and end of semester. At both time points, students' attitudes predicted their intentions and, at the initial time point, subjective norm also predicted intended podcast use. An examination of the beliefs underlying attitudes, the only construct to predict intentions at both time points, revealed differences between those students higher, rather than lower on intentions to use the podcasts, especially for the perceived educational benefits of podcast use later in the semester. Intentions to use enhanced podcasting only predicted self-reported use in the second half of the semester. Overall, this study identified some of the determinants which should be considered by those aiming to encourage student use of novel on-line educational tools.
Keywords: Podcast; e-Learning; Theory of planned behavior; Higher education
An empirical examination of factors influencing the intention to use mobile payment BIBAKFull-Text 310-322
  Changsu Kim; Mirsobit Mirusmonov; In Lee
With recent advances in mobile technologies, mobile commerce is having an increasingly profound impact on our daily lives, and beginning to offer interesting and advantageous new services. In particular, the mobile payment (m-payment) system has emerged, enabling users to pay for goods and services using their mobile devices (especially mobile phones) wherever they go. Mobile payment is anticipated to enjoy a bright future.
   In this paper, we reviewed the relevant literature regarding mobile payment services, analyzed the impact of m-payment system characteristics and user-centric factors on m-payment usage across different types of mobile payment users, and suggested new directions for future research in this emerging field. To analyze the adoption behaviors of m-payment users, we proposed an m-payment research model which consists of two user-centric factors (personal innovativeness and m-payment knowledge) and four m-payment system characteristics (mobility, reachability, compatibility, and convenience). We evaluated the proposed model empirically, applying survey data collected from m-payment users regarding their perceptions on mobile payment. We also attempted to categorize m-payment users into early and late adopters and delineated the different factors for these two types of adoptors that affect their intention to use m-payment.
   The results indicate that the strong predictors of the intention to use m-payment are perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. All respondents reported that the compatibility of m-payment was not the primary reason in their decision to adopt it. Interestingly, our findings indicate that early adopters value ease of use, confidently relying on their own m-payment knowledge, whereas late adopters respond very positively to the usefulness of m-payment, most notably reachability and convenience of usage. Moreover, late adopters' perceived ease of use is influenced by personal innovativeness, which can probably be best explained by the fact that innovative late adopters are tech-savvy and feel confident to use m-payment technologies for their needs.
   Our study will assist managers in implementing appropriate business models and service strategies for different m-payment user groups, allowing them to exert appropriate time, effort, and investment for m-payment system development. Our study also provides directions for future mobile payment-related studies.
Keywords: Mobile payment; System characteristics; Individual differences; Mobile payment users
Self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race and information technology use BIBAKFull-Text 323-328
  Linda A. Jackson; Alexander von Eye; Hiram E. Fitzgerald; Yong Zhao; Edward A. Witt
This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race and information technology use. First, is technology use related to dimensions of self-concept and/or to self-esteem? Second, are there gender and/or race differences in self-concept, self-esteem and technology use? Approximately 500 youth, average age 12 years old, one-third of whom were African American and the remaining two-thirds were Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem scale and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication (email and instant messaging), videogame playing and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of self-concept and self-esteem, with videogame playing having a negative influence, and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions. Gender differences were observed on several self-concept dimensions but contrary to expectations not on the social self-concept dimension. Only one race difference was observed and this was in behavioral self-concept. Implications of the benefits and liabilities of youth's current and future technology use are discussed.
Keywords: Self-concept; Self-esteem; Technology use; Gender differences; Race/ethnicity differences
Time on the Internet at home, loneliness, and life satisfaction: Evidence from panel time-diary data BIBAKFull-Text 329-338
  Irena Stepanikova; Norman H. Nie; Xiaobin He
This study uses data collected from adult U.S. residents in 2004 and 2005 to examine whether loneliness and life satisfaction are associated with time spent at home on various Internet activities. Cross-sectional models reveal that time spent browsing the web is positively related to loneliness and negatively related to life satisfaction. Some of the relationships revealed by cross-sectional models persist even when considering the same individuals over time in fixed-effects models that account for time-invariant, individual-level characteristics. Our results vary according to how the time use data were collected, indicating that survey design can have important consequences for research in this area.
Keywords: Time on the Internet; Loneliness; Life satisfaction
Career HOPES: An Internet-delivered career development intervention BIBAKFull-Text 339-344
  Steve Herman
Career HOPES is an Internet-delivered group counseling intervention designed to facilitate occupational exploration and career decision making. The intervention includes automated interactive lessons and self-assessments, homework assignments, and group discussions in private online forums. A randomized, controlled experiment (N = 64) was conducted to evaluate (a) the efficacy of Career HOPES and (b) the contribution of professional moderation of the online group discussions to outcomes. Participants in two treatment conditions showed greater gains than control condition participants in career decidedness as measured by the Occupational Alternatives Questionnaire (d = .54), occupationally relevant self-knowledge (d = .58), and emission of career exploration behaviors (d = .50). In one of the treatment conditions, the online group discussions were moderated by a psychologist with career counseling experience; in the other treatment condition, the discussions were unmoderated. Professional moderation resulted in better outcomes on several variables and greater overall satisfaction with the intervention.
Keywords: Career development; Intervention; Internet; Computer applications
Computer attitude as a moderator in the relationship between computer anxiety, satisfaction, and stress BIBAKFull-Text 345-352
  Satyanarayana Parayitam; Kiran J. Desai; Mayur S. Desai; Mary K. Eason
The present study empirically examines the relationship between computer anxiety, job satisfaction, career satisfaction, and stress. Based on self-efficacy theory and self-worth theory of achievement-motivation, it is hypothesized that the relationship between computer anxiety and job satisfaction is curvilinear and attitude towards computer moderates such relationship. The relationship between computer anxiety and career satisfaction and job stress were empirically examined in this study. Two hundred and thirty undergraduate students (125 female and 105 male students) at a university in south-western part of Louisiana completed computer anxiety, computer attitude, job satisfaction, career satisfaction and stress surveys. Hierarchical moderated regression results support that the attitude towards computer acts as a moderator in the relationship between (i) computer anxiety and stress, (ii) computer anxiety and job satisfaction, and (iii) computer anxiety and career satisfaction. Implications for management are discussed.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Attitude towards computers; Job satisfaction; Career satisfaction; Stress
Understanding the role of an IT artifact in online service continuance: An extended perspective of user satisfaction BIBAKFull-Text 353-364
  Young Sik Kang; Heeseok Lee
Given increasing investment in an IT (information technology) artifact (i.e., online service website), it is becoming important to retain existing customers. In order to help link website design and investment decisions to the strategy for retaining customers, we propose a model by extending the user satisfaction perspective into research on online service continuance. We empirically tested the model within the context of a social network service. The analysis results found that website information satisfaction and system satisfaction play key roles in forming continuance intention through perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment. It is also noted that computer anxiety serves as an important moderator toward continuance intention. Theoretical and practical implications are offered for better understanding of the role of the IT artifact in online service post-adoption phenomena.
Keywords: Continued IS use; Online service; IT artifact; User satisfaction; Computer anxiety; Social network service
SOCIALSENSE: Graphical user interface design considerations for social network experiment software BIBAKFull-Text 365-370
  Noah Stupak; Nicholas DiFonzo; Andrew J. Younge; Christopher Homan
Using networked computers in laboratory experiments to investigate group dynamics currently requires the creation of special program application software. Design considerations for a useable graphical user interface (GUI) in such software are discussed in this paper. We describe SOCIALSENSE communication software created to experimentally test the effect of different social network configurations, group membership, and group integration on patterns of rumor self-organization. The software connected 16 participants using several different network configurations via a web-accessible Java applet, tasked them with making sense of rumors presented to them, enabled "neighbors" to synchronously or asynchronously communicate, and recorded their selections and beliefs. Four principles of design were followed: employ reading gravity, minimize cognitive load, use pre-existing mental models, and select color to direct attention. A description of each principle is presented, how it was applied to the GUI, and how it could be applied to other social network experiment program interfaces.
Keywords: Apparatus; Computer-mediated communication; Gossip; Group structure; Groupware; Social networks
Neurophysiological correlates in interface design: An HCI perspective BIBAKFull-Text 371-376
  Q. H. Mach; M. D. Hunter; R. S. Grewal
Objective: The current study examines the changes in functional connectivity that occurs when expert users adapt to an alternate mapping. Background: Research has indicated that interfaces that are similar will result in more errors and may contribute to confusion. Methods: Six volunteers were recruited to determine the neurophysiological changes that occur when users are exposed to an alternate mapping once an internal mental model is formed. Results: The results indicated a change in synchronization after alterations to the button mappings occurred. By altering the layout or order of the task, a difference in the activation pattern was observed. New areas became synchronized while synchronized activity that was present in the developed internal model became desynchronized. Altering the complexity of the task resulted in different patterns of activation recorded on the quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG). Conclusion: Users often form a schema when learning a device and subsequent interactions are compared to the mental model formed during the initial learning phase. If the newer interface differs significantly a new schema is formed, resulting in a different pattern of synchronization recorded on the QEEG. Application: The use of this knowledge can assist in the development of new interfaces. If the intent is to create a similar interface design, the activation pattern should remain the same indicating that the old schema can be applied. An interface that displays a different cognitive pattern will indicate that a new schema was developed.
Keywords: QEEG; HCI; Expert user; Novel interfaces
The interactional effects of atmospherics and perceptual curiosity on emotions and online shopping intention BIBAKFull-Text 377-388
  Dong-Mo Koo; Seon-Hee Ju
With increasing importance of online stores, a great number of studies have focused on extending our knowledge related to successful functional aspects increasing ease of use and usefulness. More recent studies have focused on identifying the effects produced by hedonic aspects of online store environment such as web atmospherics on emotional responses of customers. However, previous studies have been somewhat deficient in their investigation of studying diverse aspects of online consumer characteristics, which may have an impact on customer evaluation of atmospheric cues. Building on this research tradition, the present study addresses two critical issues. The present study adopting a well validated S-O-R framework tests the effect of atmospheric cues of online stores on the intervening affective emotional states of consumers, which have a subsequent impact on behavioral intention. Additionally, the model hypothesizes that perceptual curiosity (PC) moderates the relationships between atmospheric cues and shoppers' emotional reactions. Structure equation model confirmed that online atmospherics such as graphics, colors, and links have an impact on customer emotions such as pleasure and arousal, both of which have subsequent effects on intention. The moderating effect of perceptual curiosity has also been supported. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed in conclusion.
Keywords: Online store; Atmospherics; Emotion; Pleasure; Arousal; Intention; Moderator; Perceptual curiosity
Cross-validation of reliability, convergent and discriminant validity for the problematic online game use scale BIBAKFull-Text 389-398
  Min Gyu Kim; Joohan Kim
The main purpose of the present study is to develop a measure of problematic online game use by identifying underlying factors and testing external validities of the scale. The authors tested the scale with the three age groups: 5th, 8th, and 11th graders. Through a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the present study confirmed that the POGU scale produced reliable and consistent factorial structures across the independent samples. The results supported convergent validity of the scale: POGU showed significant correlations with academic self-efficacy, anxiety, loneliness, and satisfaction with daily life. The results also supported the discriminant validity. The POGU scale did not redundantly measure any of individual difference constructs and was statistically distinguishable from the closely correlated constructs.
Keywords: Problematic online game use (POGU) scale; Confirmatory factor analysis; Convergent validity; Discriminant validity
Computer anxiety and attitudes among undergraduate students in Greece BIBAKFull-Text 399-405
  S. Korobili; A. Togia; A. Malliari
This study attempts to give an insight to the computer anxiety levels and attitudes toward computers of the students of the Library and Information Systems (LIS) Department of Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Thessaloniki using Computer Anxiety Rating Scale (CARS) and Computer Attitudes Scale (CAS). Both constructs were examined using explanatory factor analysis. Internal consistency of the factors of each construct was satisfactory. It was found that there was a strong negative relationship between the two concepts. Canonical correlation analysis demonstrated that anxiety explains more variance of the attitudes than vice versa. Another finding was that most of LIS students were not anxious toward computers and with positive attitudes. Factors correlated negatively with anxiety and positively with attitudes, were knowledge of English language, PC ownership, access of students to computers at younger ages, perceived advanced computer skills and computer experience as reflected by frequency of computer use.
Keywords: Computer anxiety; Computer attitudes; Computer experience; Greece; Library Science students
All about me: Disclosure in online social networking profiles: The case of FACEBOOK BIBAKFull-Text 406-418
  Amanda Nosko; Eileen Wood; Seija Molema
The present research examined disclosure in online social networking profiles (i.e., FACEBOOK ). Three studies were conducted. First, a scoring tool was developed in order to comprehensively assess the content of the personal profiles. Second, grouping categories (default/standard information, sensitive personal information, and potentially stigmatizing information) were developed to examine information pertinent to identity threat, personal and group threat. Third, a grouping strategy was developed to include all information present in FACEBOOK, but to organize it in a meaningful way as a function of the content that was presented. Overall, approximately 25% of all possible information that could potentially be disclosed by users was disclosed. Presenting personal information such as gender and age was related to disclosure of other sensitive and highly personal information. Age and relationship status were important factors in determining disclosure. As age increased, the amount of personal information in profiles decreased. Those seeking a relationship were at greatest risk of threat, and disclosed the greatest amount of highly sensitive and potentially stigmatizing information. These implications of these findings with respect to social and legal threats, and potential means for identifying users placing themselves at greatest risk, are discussed.
Keywords: FACEBOOK; Online; Social communication; Social networking; Disclosure; Privacy; Internet; Threat
Comprehension effects of signalling relationships between documents in search engines BIBAKFull-Text 419-426
  Ladislao Salmerón; Laura Gil; Ivar Bråten; Helge Strømsø
A key task for students learning about a complex topic from multiple documents on the web is to establish the existing rhetorical relations between the documents. Traditional search engines such as Google® display the search results in a listed format, without signalling any relationship between the documents retrieved. New search engines such as Kartoo® go a step further, displaying the results as a constellation of documents, in which the existing relations between pages are made explicit. This presentation format is based on previous studies of single-text comprehension, which demonstrate that providing a graphical overview of the text contents and their relation boosts readers' comprehension of the topic. We investigated the assumption that graphical overviews can also facilitate multiple-documents comprehension. The present study revealed that undergraduate students reading a set of web pages on climate change comprehended them better when using a search engine that makes explicit the relationships between documents (i.e. Kartoo-like) than when working with a list-like presentation of the same documents (i.e. Google-like). The facilitative effect of a graphical-overview interface was reflected in inter-textual inferential tasks, which required students to integrate key information between documents, even after controlling for readers' topic interest and background knowledge.
Keywords: Multiple-documents comprehension; Text comprehension; Graphical overviews; Web search engines
Small-device users situationally impaired by input BIBAKFull-Text 427-435
  Yeliz Yesilada; Simon Harper; Tianyi Chen; Shari Trewin
Users of small computational devices, such as Mobile telephones or Personal Digital Assistants, are situationally impaired by both the device and the context of the device's use. This paper describes empirical work which makes the link between the behaviour of motor impaired desktop users and non-impaired users of small-devices. This is important because it may, therefore, be possible to leverage existing solutions for motor-impaired users into the small-device domain. We find that there is significant overlap in the extent of the problems encountered, but not the magnitude. Eight of the 11 existing errors made by motor-impaired users were also present in our small-device study in which two additional error types, key ambiguity and landing errors, were also observed. In addition, small-device rates for common error types were higher than those of desktop users with no impairment, but lower than those of desktop users with motor impairments. We suggest that this difference is because all users were seated to maintain constancy between studies and assert that this magnitude difference will equalise once the small-device is used in a mobile context.
Keywords: Motor-impaired; Dexterity-impaired; Small-device; Typing; Pointing; Input; Errors
Beyond self-efficacy: Measuring pre-service teachers' Instructional Technology Outcome Expectations BIBAKFull-Text 436-442
  Dale S. Niederhauser; Serkan Perkmen
The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent and construct validity for the Instructional Technology Outcome Expectation (ITOE) scale. Outcome expectation is an intrapersonal factor which influences individuals' motivation. In the present study, we examined outcome expectation beliefs with regard to integrating technology into teaching practice. Findings revealed that outcome expectation is a multifaceted construct consisting of three components (performance, self-evaluative and social outcome expectations), and that the ITOE scale shows good validity and psychometric properties. Use of the scale can help teacher educators and inservice providers more efficiently and effectively address outcome expectations as they help teachers integrate technology into their practice.
Keywords: Outcome expectation; Teacher preparation; Computer attitude; Instructional Technology
The effects of incorporating a virtual agent in a computer-aided test designed for stress management education: The mediating role of enjoyment BIBAKFull-Text 443-451
  Seung-A. Annie Jin
Drawing upon the Entertainment-Education paradigm, this study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-aided interactive test designed for stress management education targeting college students. The presence (vs. absence) of a virtual agent incorporated into the interactive test was proposed as the key factor that induces enjoyment and educational outcomes. The interactive test consisted of scenarios describing stressful situations that could occur in college students' everyday lives. Furthermore, college students could relate the concerns raised by these hypothetical situations to the ways they manage their stress and mental health. After the student's choice behavior in each scenario, a virtual agent conveyed health-related educational messages via a text-modal dialogue box. Participants who took the interactive test in which there was a virtual agent perceived the test as more educational and entertaining than those who took the test without a virtual agent. Results of a path analysis also revealed a significant mediating role of enjoyment on educational outcomes (i.e., students' enjoyment of the interactive test mediated the effects of the presence of a virtual agent on their perceived educational value of health information), thus confirming the Entertainment-Education link. In addition, engaging in the interactive test resulted in stress management self-efficacy improvement. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual agent; Interactive test; Stress management; Entertainment-Education; Mediating role of enjoyment
Building an interaction design pattern language: A case study BIBAKFull-Text 452-463
  Stefan L. Pauwels; Christian Hübscher; Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Klaus Opwis
Interaction design patterns are a proven way to communicate good design. However, current pattern collections are not sufficiently powerful and generative to be used as a guide for designing an entire application such as those used in complex business environments. This study shows how we built and validated interaction design patterns that serve as the specification for the redesign of an application. Additionally, they were integrated into a pattern language, as a ruleset for human-computer interaction (HCI) non-professionals to continue development of the application. We demonstrate how individual phases in the redesign of an application can be matched with the process of creating an interaction design pattern language. To facilitate the writing of individual interaction design patterns as well as the development of the pattern language as a whole, a combination of user interviews, controlled experiments and analytical methods has been applied successfully.
Keywords: Design patterns; Pattern languages; Interaction design
Analysis on the evolution of the discourse on computer software and programming languages in the light of literary genres and POWER-KNOWLEDGE BIBAKFull-Text 464-473
  Mohammad Hannan
Although much analyses have been performed on the collaborative nature of software development in papers (Bardram, 1997; Bardram, 1998a, 1998b; Barthelmess & Anderson, 2002) with some of them in the perspective of Vygotsky's Activity theory, less focus has been given on the discursive evolution of software as different 'Genres'. In this article we will investigate discursive formation of software and the programming languages in course of time driven by increased 'Activities', 'Dialogue' and 'Power' exercised by certain user groups and entities which will complement our efforts with Activity theory and Foucaultdian POWER-KNOWLEDGE. We will show that POWER relation is affecting user preferences, choices and activities, which are producing changes in the programming languages and creating new software genres. We have borrowed the term 'Genre' from the literary studies of Bakhtin and applying it for software. The way different coexisting social classes in a specific time in history leave their fingerprints in different speech and text-genres, we claim that similar mechanisms exist in the software world. We will show that a modern software system is developing improved 'Dialogism' or 'Intertextuality', 'Chronotope' 'Heteroglossia' and forming its own discourse. Our presentation is heavily dependent on Mikhail Bakhtin's concept of literary genres and Foucaultdian concept of POWER-KNOWLEDGE.
Keywords: Discourse; Literary genres; Chronotope; Heteroglossia; Dialogism; POWER-KNOWLEDGE
An examination of two mental workload measurement approaches to understanding multimedia learning BIBAKFull-Text 474-481
  Eric N. Wiebe; Edward Roberts; Tara S. Behrend
This study reports on an examination of two measures of mental workload: the NASA-TLX and Paas' Subjective Cognitive Load (SCL) measure. The goal was to assess the relative efficacy of the measures in the design and research of multimedia learning environments. Benchmarks based on the literature as to the goals for mental workload measurement in learning research are established. A multifaceted study was conducted which manipulated various aspects of mental workload in order to study the utility of these two measures in detecting changes in load and their relationship to learning outcomes. The results indicate that the weighted version of the NASA-TLX provided little additional value over the unweighted version of the measure. While both the NASA-TLX and SCL measures were sensitive to changes in both intrinsic and extraneous load, the study revealed differences in the measures based on levels of each of these load factors. The study also concludes that a better understanding of the third factor, germane load, will be needed to both expand the theoretical framework about mental workload in instructional settings and further understand the utility of these two measures.
Keywords: Mental workload; Cognitive load theory; Cognitive load measurement; Subjective ratings; Multimedia learning
Gender, age and income differences in internet usage among employees in organizations BIBAKFull-Text 482-490
  Ibrahim Akman; Alok Mishra
This paper reviews and discusses Internet issues and reports the findings of a survey concerning the impact of gender, age and income on employees' Internet usage in Turkey. Internet usage was categorized in two empirical factors, namely usage profile (reason for using the Internet, average daily use of the Internet) and usage patterns (average daily use of the Internet for communication/e-mailing/chat, information access/downloading/entertainment and electronic services). The survey was conducted among 200 employees from public and private sector organizations. The results indicated that gender has a positive impact on average daily time spent on the use of the Internet for communication/e-mailing/chat and information access/downloading/entertainment. Age has a positive impact on average daily use of the Internet in general and a negative impact on the use of the Internet for information access/downloading/entertainment. Income was not found to have an impact on empirical factors. Finally, gender, age and income do not have any significant impact on average daily use of Internet for electronic services such as e-commerce/e-shopping/e-banking/e-government.
Keywords: Internet; Gender; Age; Income; Employees; Moods median test; Multiple regression; χ² test

CHB 2010-07 Volume 26 Issue 4

Emerging and scripted roles in computer-supported collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 491-494
  Jan-Willem Strijbos; Armin Weinberger
Emerging and scripted roles pose an intriguing approach to analysing and facilitating CSCL. The concept of emerging roles provides a perspective on how learners structure and self-regulate their CSCL processes. Emerging roles appear to be dynamic over longer periods of time in relation to learners' advancing knowledge, but are often unequally distributed in ad hoc CSCL settings, e.g., a learner being the 'typist' and another being the 'thinker'. Empirical findings show that learners benefit from structuring or scripting CSCL. Scripts can specify roles and facilitate role rotation for learners to equally engage in relevant learning roles and activities. Scripted roles can, however, collide with emerging roles and therefore need to be carefully attuned to the advancing capabilities of the learners.
Keywords: Roles; Scripted roles; Emerging roles; Collaborative learning; CSCL
Developing the role concept for computer-supported collaborative learning: An explorative synthesis BIBAKFull-Text 495-505
  Jan-Willem Strijbos; Maarten F. De Laat
The role concept has attracted a lot of attention as a construct for facilitating and analysing interactions in the context of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). So far much of this research has been carried out in isolation and the focus on roles lacks cohesion. In this article we present a conceptual framework to synthesise the contemporary conceptualisation of roles, by discerning three levels of the role concept: micro (role as task), meso (role as pattern) and macro (role as stance). As a first step to further conceptualise 'role as a stance', we present a framework of eight participative stances defined along three dimensions: group size, orientation and effort. The participative stances -- Captain, Over-rider, Free-rider, Ghost, Pillar, Generator, Hanger-on and Lurker -- were scrutinised on two data sets using qualitative analysis. The stances aim to facilitate meaningful description of student behaviour, stimulate both teacher and student awareness of roles at the macro-level in terms of participative stances, and evaluate or possibly change the participation to collaborative learning on all levels.
Keywords: Roles; Collaborative learning; CSCL; Scripting; Narratives; Higher education
Learning to argue online: Scripted groups surpass individuals (unscripted groups do not) BIBAKFull-Text 506-515
  Armin Weinberger; Karsten Stegmann; Frank Fischer
Students often face process losses when learning together via text-based online environments. Computer-supported collaboration scripts can scaffold collaborative learning processes by distributing roles and activities and thus facilitate acquisition of domain-specific as well as domain-general knowledge, such as knowledge on argumentation. Possibly, individual learners would require less additional support or could equally benefit from computer-supported scripts. In this study with a 2 × 2-factorial design (N = 36) we investigate the effects of a script (with versus without) and the learning arrangement (individual versus collaborative) on how learners distribute content-based roles to accomplish the task and argumentatively elaborate the learning material within groups to acquire domain-specific and argumentative knowledge, in the context of a case-based online environment in an Educational Psychology higher education course. A large multivariate interaction effect of the two factors on learning outcomes could be found, indicating that collaborative learning outperforms individual learning regarding both of these knowledge types if it is structured by a script. In the unstructured form, however, collaborative learning is not superior to individual learning in relation to either knowledge type. We thus conclude that collaborative online learners can benefit greatly from scripts reducing process losses and specifying roles and activities within online groups.
Keywords: CSCL; Collaborative learning; Individual learning; Online learning; Collaboration scripts; Argumentative knowledge construction
Roles as a structuring tool in online discussion groups: The differential impact of different roles on social knowledge construction BIBAKFull-Text 516-523
  Bram De Wever; Hilde Van Keer; Tammy Schellens; Martin Valcke
This study focuses on stimulating social knowledge construction in e-discussions and examines the introduction of five roles: starter, summariser, moderator, theoretician, and source searcher. Asynchronous discussion groups of 10 1st-year students Instructional Sciences were organised to foster students' processing of the learning content. Four successive authentic tasks of three weeks each were presented. Taking into account the moment of introduction of the role assignment (at the start of the discussions versus at the end), the differential impact of the roles on knowledge construction is studied through quantitative content analysis based on the interaction analysis model of Gunawardena, Lowe, and Anderson (1997). The results show a positive effect of role assignment on students' social knowledge construction at the start of the discussions. This implies that roles should be introduced at the start of the discussions and can be faded out towards the end. With respect to the differential impact of the roles, the results show that messages from moderators, theoreticians, and summarisers reflect higher levels of knowledge construction at the start of the discussions. Even students without a role in role-supported groups benefit from the role introduction.
Keywords: Roles; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Collaborative learning; Computer-mediated communication; Collaboration; Distance education
Boundaries and roles: Positioning and social location in the Virtual Math Teams (VMT) online community BIBAKFull-Text 524-532
  Johann W. Sarmiento; Wesley Shumar
As research in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) expands its understanding of joint knowledge building, new perspectives on how social reality is constructed become necessary. Our research concentrates on the longitudinal or diachronic trajectories of Virtual Math Teams (VMT) at The Math Forum, an online community supporting mathematical inquiry. We investigate how these virtual teams constitute themselves while engaged in building collaborative knowledge. We describe as well, through the lens of positioning theory, the interactional activities that allow participants to situate themselves, others, and their collective knowledge resources over time. Our analysis suggests that positioning work is central to constructing a sustained problem space and illustrates how the configurations of positions and resources that co-participants put forward through interaction might change across a team's trajectory. These changes constitute and are sensitive to the participants' evolving reasoning routines and other forms of joint participation uniquely related knowledge building. In addition, we show that the VMT activity system affords participants a level of disciplinary engagement which is partly illustrated by active engagement in positioning work. Finally, we suggest that an interactional approach to roles and participation provides a fruitful framework for researchers, designers, and practitioners interested in understanding and creating engaging CSCL interactions.
Keywords: Collaborative learning; Cooperative learning; Computer assisted instruction; Intergroup dynamics; Role taking; Longitudinal analysis
Dynamics of social roles in a knowledge management community BIBAKFull-Text 533-546
  Isa Jahnke
With the emergence of community-oriented Information and Communication Technology (ICT) applications, e.g., Wikipedia, the popularity of socio-technical phenomena in society has increased. This development emphasises the need to further our understanding of how computer-supported social group structures change over time and what forms emerge. This contribution presents the results of a qualitative field study of a Socio-Technical Community (STC). The STC is described from its founding (in 2001) to its sustainable development (in 2006) as well as its transformation phase (2007-2008). The design-based research approach revealed changes of social structures by social roles within the STC over time. The central conclusion is that such STC's -- networks of computer-mediated communication and human interaction -- evolve a specific kind of social structure, which is formal rather than informal. The results indicate that a group evolves from an informal trust-based community with few formal roles to a STC where the social mechanisms, and not the software architecture, supports knowledge management processes.
Keywords: Socio-Technical Communities; Roles; Social structures; Community change; Design-based research; Qualitative paradigm
Of scripts, roles, positions, and models BIBAKFull-Text 547-550
  Hans Spada
The analysis of emerging roles in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is of high relevance for a better understanding of the effects of learning in groups and is important for adapting the scripting of roles to the already existing role pattern(s). This commentary first reviews the individual contributions to this special issue and subsequently addresses three additional perspectives: (a) what are the characteristics of good collaboration in problem-solving and learning, and which roles, or patterns of roles, might have favourable effects in this regard? (b) besides scripting roles learners can be instructed to collaborate by providing them with a model of an exemplary collaboration. Are the effects comparable? (c) ultimately we want learners to use roles in a strategic way, and in concluding the commentary outlines how this aim is in line with the overarching goal of promoting the concept of human agency in learning.
Keywords: Scripts; Roles; Positions; Learning from models; CSCL
Roles, design, and the nature of CSCL BIBAKFull-Text 551-555
  Christopher Hoadley
In this article, I argue that roles are a key construct for CSCL that demonstrate the interdisciplinary strengths of CSCL as a field. CSCL is a problem-driven field with a history of incorporating different paradigms, and has the advantage of using a design stance to understand phenomena like collaboration and learning that are difficult to study. Roles are understood differently by different disciplines, but the concept of roles serves as a boundary object between the different disciplines within CSCL and highlights potential areas for research.
Keywords: Roles; Scripting; CSCL; Design-based research methods
The use of 'Clickers' in the classroom: Teaching innovation or merely an amusing novelty? BIBAKFull-Text 556-561
  Michael E. Lantz
'Clickers' are individual response devices in which students each have a remote control that allows them to quickly and anonymously respond to questions presented in-class. Clickers are now being used in many classrooms as an active learning component of courses. Educators considering the use of clickers in their own classrooms may wonder whether the clickers are a worthwhile, pedagogical tool or merely an amusing novelty. As Li (2008) pointed out, research has examined clicker effects on interaction within the classroom, but little research has examined whether clicker use can affect the understanding of concepts. This article will discuss ways in which clickers may help students organize and understand material presented in the classroom. The paper is intended to help guide educators in potentially effective uses of clickers as well as to guide future research.
Keywords: Individual response technology; Active learning; Active responding; Effective instructing
Towards a social network model for understanding information and communication technology use for general practitioners in rural Australia BIBAKFull-Text 562-571
  Kon Shing Kenneth Chung; Liaquat Hossain
In this study, we develop a theoretical model based on social network theories and the social influence model to understand how knowledge professionals utilise technology for work and communication. We investigate the association between ego-centric network properties (structure, position and tie) and information and communication technology (ICT) use of individuals in knowledge-intensive and geographically dispersed settings. Analysis from data collected using a reliable and validated questionnaire show that task-level ICT use is significantly associated with degree centrality and functional tie diversity; and communication-level ICT use is negatively associated with efficiency. The implications of these associations for knowledge-intensive work mean that it is important to consider the professional social network characteristics of potential users of the technology for designing ICT-enabled organizations. The greater the number and diversity of peers individuals interact with translates into more opportunities to use ICT for context-specific tasks. Results from this study also show that individuals who tend to isolate themselves from peers tend to be slow adopters or low users of ICT. Thus, an understanding of how network structure inter-relates with technology and its adopters proves beneficial in reaping benefits required at the organizational (macro) and individual (micro) levels.
Keywords: Social network; Structure; Ties; Position; ICT use; Knowledge-intensive work
Managing perceived communication failures with affordances of ICTs BIBAKFull-Text 572-580
  Chei Sian Lee
Affordances of information communication technology (ICT) are often thought to influence communicators' usage of a communication technology. This is not surprising since ICTs vary on different dimensions; some ICTs may impose constraints while others afford certain resources. Despite the widespread usage of ICTs in the workplace, we are still not clear about how affordances of ICTs support communicators during ICT-supported interaction. This exploratory study aims to understand the relationship between affordances of ICTs and perceived communication failures (i.e. low, moderate, high). Data for this research was collected from a leading global IT consulting company. We found strong association between affordances of ICT and perceived communication failures. In particular, we found that textual and audio affordances were used to manage high perceived communication failures. Additionally, we were able to identify the core and tangential affordances of ICTs that were useful to help organization communicators enhance their communication competence and reduce potential communication failures.
Keywords: Organizational communication; Affordances; Computer-mediated communication; Human perception; Communication failures; ICT use
A fully personalization strategy of E-learning scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 581-591
  Fathi Essalmi; Leila Jemni Ben Ayed; Mohamed Jemni; A Kinshuk; Sabine Graf
The personalization in E-learning systems has been the subject of many recent research efforts. While a large number of systems have been implemented, many of these systems allow the application of very few if not just one predefined personalization strategy. This is a constraint for providing effective E-learning experience and for rationalizing the personalization needs of the pedagogues, the professors and the learners. In this paper, we propose a new approach for personalization of learning scenarios based on two levels: The first level allows the personalization of learning scenarios according to a predefined personalization strategy. The second level allows teachers to select personalization parameters and combine them flexibly to define different personalization strategies according to the specifics of courses. The proposed solution is a step to federate the research efforts on the E-learning personalization by integrating and combining the personalization parameters. Concerning the technological aspect, Web service technology constitutes an operational solution for implementing our approach and for the interoperability with other E-learning personalization systems. Beside the implementation of an interoperable solution, we also aim to enable teachers to provide proper personalized learning scenarios.
Keywords: Personalization parameters; Personalized E-learning systems; Learning scenarios; Linguistic variable; Web services
Guided self-help via internet for panic disorder: Dissemination across countries BIBAKFull-Text 592-596
  T. Nordgreen; B. Standal; H. Mannes; T. Haug; B. Sivertsen; P. Carlbring; G. Andersson; E. Heiervang; O. E. Havik
Guided self-help via Internet is a promising way of treating panic disorder (PD). The present study examined the effects of a self-help program via Internet with weekly therapist contact for PD after disseminated to a new country. Predictors of outcome were also examined. The study was an open trial with 27 participants with PD with or without agoraphobia as their primary diagnose. Medium to large effects on PD-symptoms were reported after treatment and at 6 months follow-up, with smaller effects on secondary outcome measures, i.e. depression, interpersonal problems, and sleep problem. The attrition rate of 30% in present study was higher than in Swedish studies. Predictor analysis showed that participants with longer duration of PD-symptoms had less improvement on all outcome measurers, whereas higher age predicted more improvement. The guided self-help program remained effective when disseminated to a new country, but the high attrition rate needs to be addressed in future studies.
Keywords: Panic disorder; Guided self-help; Internet; Cognitive behaviour therapy; Predictors
Exploring gender differences in online shopping attitude BIBAKFull-Text 597-601
  Bassam Hasan
While attitude and gender are important factors that affect online shopping behavior, toward online shopping attitude remains a poor understood construct. Moreover, very few studies, if any, have explicitly addressed gender differences in online shopping attitude. Using attitude as a multidimensional concept to include cognitive, affective, and behavioral components, the present study examines gender differences across the three attitudinal components. The results of empirical testing demonstrate three distinct components of online shopping attitude and significant gender differences in all three attitudinal components. The results also show that the largest gender difference is in the cognitive attitude, indicating that females value the utility of online shopping less than their male counterparts do.
Keywords: Gender; Online shopping; Attitude; Affect; Cognition; Behavior
Presenting a model of predicting computer anxiety in terms of epistemological beliefs and achievement goals BIBAKFull-Text 602-608
  Reza G. Jahromi; Masoud G. Lavasani; Ahmad Rastegar; Alireza Mooghali
The aim of this study was to prepare a model for computer anxiety through investigating the relationship of achievement goals and epistemological beliefs with computer anxiety. In order to fulfill this, 375 undergraduate students (218 female and 157 male) from the University of Tehran were chosen through relative class sampling. They completed a questionnaire composed of an achievement goals scale, an epistemological beliefs questionnaire, and a computer anxiety scale. The results showed that mastery and performance-avoidance goals directly and epistemological beliefs indirectly, i.e.; through the mediating role of achievement goals, can significantly (p < 0.01) predict computer anxiety.
Keywords: Model of computer anxiety; Achievement goals; Epistemological beliefs
School counselors perceived importance of counseling technology competencies BIBAKFull-Text 609-617
  Russell A. Sabella; Timothy A. Poynton; Madelyn L. Isaacs
The purpose of this study was to determine levels of perceived importance of technological competencies among school counselors, school counseling students, supervisors, and counselor educators as the competencies relate to their work. Results indicated that technology competencies relating to Ethical Standards and Data Management practices were rated as most important. Technological competencies rated lowest for level of importance related to Multimedia and Web Development. Four of the other subscales were very similar in overall average ratings and included Word Processing, World Wide Web, Communication and Collaboration, and Operating Systems. In addition, findings indicate that neither the participant's age, level of practice, or position (e.g., graduate student vs. practitioner) affects the perceived importance of technological competencies included in this survey. Implications for practice, training, and future research are included.
Keywords: Educational psychology; Educational/vocational counseling and student services; School counseling; Technology adaptation; Technological literacy
Coping with information technology challenges to identity: A theoretical framework BIBAKFull-Text 618-629
  Hamid Nach; Albert Lejeune
Drawing on ideas from identity control theory and coping theory and on a diverse range of social psychology literature, we propose an integrative theoretical framework that unpacks and traces the processes by which information technology comes to affect users' identity. We define four types of strategies (acting on the situation, adjusting the self, cathartic practices and distancing) through which people cope with technological challenges to the self. We suggest that these strategies may lead to four individual-level outcomes, namely reinforced identity, redefined identity, ambivalent identity and anti-identity. The model is provided with a preliminary support through reference to real life situations, carefully selected from extant empirical IS enquiries.
Keywords: Identity control theory; Coping theory; Information technology; Identity; Emotion
Team member selection decisions for virtual versus face-to-face teams BIBAKFull-Text 630-635
  Geeta C. D'Souza; Stephen M. Colarelli
We compared the importance placed on task skills and four personal characteristics when selecting members of virtual and face-to-face teams. We expected that task skills would be most important in selection decisions for virtual teams due to the lack of physical proximity and visibility, whereas personal characteristics would be more important for face-to-face team selection. In a policy capturing study, 100 undergraduates' decision policies indicated that task skills had a greater impact on selection decisions for virtual teams. Gender also influenced selection decisions, with women choosing more female than male applicants for both types of teams. Applicants' race, physical attractiveness, and attitudinal similarity to participants did not influence selection decisions for either type of team; however, when assessed by self-report evaluations, these characteristics and gender, had a greater influence for face-to-face teams.
Keywords: Virtual teams; Face-to-face teams; Selection; Decision-making
E-file adoption: A study of U.S. taxpayers' intentions BIBAKFull-Text 636-644
  Ludwig Christian Schaupp; Lemuria Carter; Megan E. McBride
The United States Congress has set ambitious goals for the diffusion of e-government initiatives. One of congress' goals for the 2007 tax year was for 80% of tax and informational returns to be filed electronically (IRS., 2004). In 2008, 90 million Americans choose to e-file (IRS., 2009); however, Congress' goal of 80% adoption has still fallen short. This paper integrates the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model, online trust, perceived risk, and optimism bias into a comprehensive model of e-file adoption. To empirically test the model a survey is administered to 260 United States taxpayers. Structural equation modeling is used to evaluate relationships between these concepts and intention to use. Results indicate performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, and optimism bias all have a significant impact on e-file intention. Trust in the internet and trust in the e-file provider were shown to significantly influence perceived risk. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Keywords: E-government; E-filing; IT adoption; Perceived risk; Trust; Optimism bias
Group norms, media preferences, and group meeting success: A longitudinal study BIBAKFull-Text 645-655
  Zixiu Guo; Felix B. Tan; Tim Turner; Huizhong Xu
Group norms are known to have an effect on group meeting success. But to what extent do these norms affect choice of media for communication of group members, and what role does this effect play, if any, in group meeting success? This paper empirically examines these questions. It takes a novel approach in considering these questions longitudinally to investigate the importance of the formation and affect of norms over time. The study presented here showed that group norms do influence group member media preference and that, over time, these effects grow stronger. Furthermore, a strong positive association between the similarity of group media preferences and group meeting success is revealed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the importance and implications of understanding the effect of group norms on technology use and meeting success.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication (CMC); Group meeting success; Group norms; Longitudinal research methods; Partial least squares (PLS)
Technology and young children: How 4-7 year olds perceive their own use of computers BIBAKFull-Text 656-664
  Susan McKenney; Joke Voogt
This study examined young children's access, perceptions and use of technology within and outside of school settings. One hundred sixty seven children from varied ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds participated in the study. Regardless of gender, socio-economic status or ethnic group, most children had access to computers in and outside of schools. In both settings, pre-K through grade 2 children report that they primarily use computers to play games. Children's attitudes toward computers are positive. Older children tend to use the computer more often, are better able to operate the computer and their attitudes towards computers are more positive. Boys' attitudes towards computers are more positive than the attitudes of girls, but no gender differences were found for computer use nor ability level. While no significant differences were found between the attitudes of Dutch and immigrant children, the latter group indicated more frequent use. Also, children from a lower socio-economic neighborhood had more positive attitudes towards computers and used computers slightly more often than middle class children. The findings of this study inform the debate on the desirability of young children's exposure to computers at home as well as in educational settings. Further, these findings may help educators and parents to both critically assess their current practices (e.g. the relative value of the most frequently used applications -- games), and strive to integrate developmentally appropriate uses of technology at home and in classrooms.
Keywords: Kindergarten; Elementary school; Computer; Technology; Gender; Ethnicity
The more humanlike, the better? How speech type and users' cognitive style affect social responses to computers BIBAKFull-Text 665-672
  Eun-Ju Lee
The present experiment investigated if anthropomorphic interfaces facilitate people's tendency to project social expectations onto computers and how such effects might vary depending on users' cognitive style. In a 2 (synthetic vs. recorded speech) × 2 (flattering vs. generic feedback) × 2 (low vs. high rationality) × 2 (low vs. high experientiality) experiment, participants played a trivia game with a computer. Use of recorded speech did not amplify the previously documented flattery effects (Fogg & Nass, 1997), challenging the notion that anthropomorphism will promote social responses to computers. Participants evaluated the human-voiced computer more positively and conformed more to its suggestions than the one using synthetic speech, but such effects were found only among less analytical or more intuition-driven individuals, suggesting dispositional differences in people's susceptibility to anthropomorphic cues embedded in the interface.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism; Computers Are Social Actors (CASA); Experientiality; Rationality
Increasing trust in mobile commerce through design aesthetics BIBAKFull-Text 673-684
  Yung-Ming Li; Yung-Shao Yeh
The growth of mobile commerce (m-commerce) has motivated a better understanding of how trust can be built on a mobile device. Researchers have previously examined design aesthetics (or visual aesthetics) of mobile website and incorporated a hedonic component of enjoyment in m-commerce domain, but the relationship between design aesthetics of mobile website design and customer trust in m-commerce has been rarely investigated. In this study, design aesthetics was enhanced to include a website characteristics component as important to trust development on the mobile Internet. This model was examined through an empirical study involving 200 subjects using structural equation modeling techniques. Our research found that design aesthetics did significantly impact website characteristics component, especially customization, perceived usefulness and ease of use, all of which were ultimately shown to have significant explanatory power in affecting customer trust.
Keywords: Mobile commerce; Trust; Design aesthetics; Website design; Website quality
Why provide an online review? An extended theory of planned behavior and the role of Big-Five personality traits BIBAKFull-Text 685-696
  Sergio Picazo-Vela; Shih Yung Chou; Arlyn J. Melcher; John M. Pearson
Online review, an important form of reputation systems, has been studied intensively because of its powerful impact on online retailers, intermediaries, and customers. However, to date, very little attention has been paid to factors that influence an individual's intention to provide an online review. An extended theory of planned behavior and Big-Five personality framework are used in this study. We empirically examine our model by using a cross-sectional survey study, collecting data from a sample of 171 online shoppers. Results show that attitude, perceived pressure, neuroticism, and conscientiousness are significant predictors of an individual's intention to provide an online review. Findings may help online retailers and/or intermediaries increase the number of online reviews provided, which will lead to more accurate rating information about transactions, products, or services and may serve as a stepping-stone to continuous improvements. Implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed.
Keywords: Online reviews; Theory of planned behavior; Big-Five personality
In-store consumer behavior: How mobile recommendation agents influence usage intentions, product purchases, and store preferences BIBAKFull-Text 697-704
  Tobias Kowatsch; Wolfgang Maass
Product information given in purchase situations influences purchase behavior. In online purchase situations, the use of recommendation agents increases the value of product information as information becomes adaptive and thus more relevant to consumers' information needs. Correspondingly, mobile recommendation agents (MRAs) may also increase the value of product information in bricks-and-mortar stores. In this sense, product information is not only adaptive but can also be requested at any place such as in front of products consumers are interested in. Because unprecedented, we investigate the use of a MRA that is virtually bound to a physical product via an RFID-enabled mobile device and provides product information. Based on Theory of Planned Behavior, Innovation Diffusion Theory, and Technology Acceptance Model, we develop a model to better understand the impact of MRAs on usage intentions, product purchases and store preferences of consumers. This model is then tested in a lab experiment (n = 47). Among high usability scores, results indicate that perceived usefulness of a MRA influences product purchases, predicts usage intentions and store preferences of consumers. Thus, new business models for retail stores can be considered in which MRAs satisfy both the information needs of consumers and the communication needs of retailers.
Keywords: Consumer behavior; Decision support system; Personal digital assistant
Effectiveness of image-based mnemonic techniques for enhancing the memorability and security of user-generated passwords BIBAKFull-Text 705-715
  Deborah Nelson; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Complex passwords are hard to remember, so people often pick simple passwords, write complex ones down, and reuse the same password across multiple accounts. Proactive password checking (PPC) restrictions and mnemonic techniques can enhance password security and memorability. Participants in this study were assigned to one of three password generation groups: PPC restrictions alone, image-based mnemonic, or text-based mnemonic. They were asked to generate and later recall passwords for five separate fictitious online accounts. The use of mnemonic techniques resulted in the generation of longer and more complex passwords. Furthermore, passwords were more accurately recalled when they were generated using the image-based mnemonic technique or PPC restrictions alone, as opposed to the text-based mnemonic technique. However, passwords generated using PPC restrictions alone were more easily forgotten and susceptible to being cracked. Thus, the image-based mnemonic technique was shown to be the most effective method for generating secure and memorable passwords.
Keywords: Human memory; Security; Passwords; Username-password; Mnemonics
Fostering transfer of websearchers' evaluation skills: A field test of two transfer theories BIBAKFull-Text 716-728
  Amber Walraven; Saskia Brand-Gruwel; Henny P. A. Boshuizen
Transfer of complex cognitive skills is important when stimulating students to become life long learners. An example of a complex cognitive skill is the skill of evaluating results, information and source while solving information problems using the WWW. Especially the knowledge and use of evaluation criteria is crucial in this matter. Two educational programs to foster this skill in students were designed and evaluated. The programs were based on two different transfer theories. The first program was based on the theory that transfer of complex cognitive skills is fostered through the development of a rich knowledge structure. The second program is based on the theory that transfer is fostered by paying explicit attention to the various steps that have to be taken in a problem solving process. Effects of the two programs on increase in knowledge and use of criteria and degree of transfer were determined. Results show that both programs enable transfer.
Keywords: Information-problem solving; WWW; Transfer; Evaluation of information; Instruction
Is compulsive internet use related to sensitivity to reward and punishment, and impulsivity? BIBAKFull-Text 729-735
  G.-J. Meerkerk; R. J. J. M. van den Eijnden; I. H. A. Franken; H. F. L. Garretsen
Aim of the present study was to examine whether the personality correlates sensitivity to reward and to punishment, and impulsivity predict compulsive internet use (CIU). Furthermore, the predictive value of these personality correlates was compared to the predictive value of factors relating to psychosocial wellbeing. The results showed that particularly rash spontaneous impulsivity predicts CIU and that this personality factor is more important than psychosocial wellbeing factors. Sensitivity to reward, which is supposed to play a role in craving processes associated with substance abuse and eating disorders, could not be related to CIU. The data suggest that internet users who are characterized by an impulsive personality feature, are less able to control their use of the internet, which makes them more vulnerable to develop CIU.
Keywords: Compulsive internet use; Internet addiction; Impulsivity; Sensitivity to reward; Sensitivity to punishment
Internet administration of self-report measures commonly used in research on social anxiety disorder: A psychometric evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 736-740
  Erik Hedman; Brjánn Ljótsson; Christian Rück; Tomas Furmark; Per Carlbring; Nils Lindefors; Gerhard Andersson
The Internet has become increasingly popular as a way to administer self-report questionnaires, especially in the field of Internet delivered psychological treatments. Collecting questionnaire data over the Internet has advantages, such as ease of administration, and automated scoring. However, psychometric properties cannot be assumed to be identical to the paper-and-pencil versions. The aim of this study was to test the equivalence of paper-and-pencil and Internet administered versions of self-report questionnaires used in social phobia research. We analyzed data from two trials in which samples were recruited in a similar manner. One sample (N = 64) completed the paper-and-pencil version of questionnaires and the second sample (N = 57) completed the same measures online. We included the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale-self-assessment (LSAS-SR), the Social Interaction and Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) as measures of social anxiety. Also included were the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale-self-assessment (MADRS-S), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI). Results showed equivalent psychometric properties across administration formats. Cronbach's α ranged between 0.77 and 0.94. There was an indication of a somewhat higher construct validity when participants filled out questionnaires using paper-and-pencil. We conclude that the LSAS-SR, SIAS, and SPS can be administered via the Internet with maintained psychometric properties.
Keywords: Self-report questionnaire; Internet; Psychometrics; Social anxiety disorder
Motivation in online learning: Testing a model of self-determination theory BIBAKFull-Text 741-752
  Kuan-Chung Chen; Syh-Jong Jang
As high attrition rates becomes a pressing issue of online learning and a major concern of online educators, it is important to investigate online learner motivation, including its antecedents and outcomes. Drawing on Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory, this study proposed and tested a model for online learner motivation in two online certificate programs (N = 262). Results from structural equation modeling provided evidence for the mediating effect of need satisfaction between contextual support and motivation/self-determination; however, motivation/self-determination failed to predict learning outcomes. Additionally, this study supported SDT's main theorizing that intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and a motivation are distinctive constructs, and found that the direct effect and indirect effects of contextual support exerted opposite impacts on learning outcomes. Implications for online learner support were discussed.
Keywords: Online learning; Motivation; Self-determination theory; Structural equation modeling; Student support; Instructional strategies
Using audio to support animated route information in a hospital touch-screen kiosk BIBAKFull-Text 753-759
  Patricia Wright; Anthony Soroka; Steve Belt; Duc T. Pham; Stefan Dimov; David De Roure; Helen Petrie
It can be difficult for both patients and staff to find particular locations within large, modern hospital building complexes. Interactive way-finding information on a touch-screen kiosk might remedy this, but numerous design issues face those developing appropriate interfaces. This paper discusses the decisions underlying a design which provided routes to 16 destinations in the UK's third largest hospital, for both stair users and those wishing to avoid stairs. All routes included an animated map, photographs and text boxes with optional spoken output. Assessment methods included unobtrusive observation of kiosk users, analysis of computer logs, and interviews with reception staff who normally answered way-finding queries. Observation confirmed that people using the touch-screen reached their destinations. The computer logs over 10 weeks showed a stable daily average of 82 people interacting with the kiosk. Most way-finders (72%) retained the voice output but 28% turned it off, suggesting that modality choice is needed in multimedia interfaces for the public. This study highlighted beneficial side-effects of interactive way-finding kiosks, such as enabling patients to access relevant route information before visiting the hospital. This information could be provided via the internet or by including a printout of the relevant route with the appointment letter.
Keywords: Animated maps; Pedestrian navigation; Public information kiosks; Route information; Spoken text; Way-finding
Integrating TTF and UTAUT to explain mobile banking user adoption BIBAKFull-Text 760-767
  Tao Zhou; Yaobin Lu; Bin Wang
Due to its advantages such as ubiquity and immediacy, mobile banking has attracted traditional banks' interests. However, a survey report showed that user adoption of mobile banking was much lower than that of other mobile services. The extant research focuses on explaining user adoption from technology perceptions such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, interactivity, and relative advantage. However, users' adoption is determined not only by their perception of the technology but also by the task technology fit. In other words, even though a technology may be perceived as being advanced, if it does not fit users' task requirements, they may not adopt it. By integrating the task technology fit (TTF) model and the unified theory of acceptance and usage of technology (UTAUT), this research proposes a mobile banking user adoption model. We found that performance expectancy, task technology fit, social influence, and facilitating conditions have significant effects on user adoption. In addition, we also found a significant effect of task technology fit on performance expectancy.
Keywords: Task technology fit (TTF); Unified theory of acceptance and usage of technology (UTAUT); Mobile banking; User adoption
Exploring and mitigating social loafing in online communities BIBAKFull-Text 768-777
  Yih-Chearng Shiue; Chao-Min Chiu; Chen-Chi Chang
The motivation to share members' knowledge is critical to an online community's survival and success. Previous research has established that knowledge sharing intentions are based on group cohesion. Several studies also suggested that social loafing behavior will seriously corrode group cohesion. Therefore, social loafing is a key obstacle to fostering online community development. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect social loafing in the learning group, those on online communities are still lacking. By integrating two perspectives, social capital and perceived risk, a richer understanding of social loafing behavior can be gained. In the research model, social ties and perceived risk have been driven by anonymity, offline activities, knowledge quality, and media richness. Social ties and perceived risk are hypothesized to affect social loafing in the online community, which, in turn, is hypothesized as negatively affecting group cohesion. Data collected from 323 online users in online communities provide support for the proposed model. The study shows that social loafing is a significant negative predictor of the users' group cohesion. The study also shows that social ties and perceived risk are important components of social loafing. Anonymity, offline activities, knowledge quality, and media richness all have strong effects on social ties and perceived risk in the online community. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Social loafing; Group cohesion; Online community; Social capital; Perceived risk
Balancing uniqueness and assimilation in computer-mediated groups BIBAKFull-Text 778-784
  Junghyun Kim
The goal of the current study is to investigate how the augmented visual similarity and individuation can influence group identification process in computer-mediated groups. In investigating this topic, this study relies on the assumption that human beings need to meet two competing motivations -- assimilation motivation and uniqueness motivation -- at the same time. An experiment using virtual self-representations showed that uniform virtual appearance, whatever form it may take, encouraged group identification. However, uniform appearance did not increase assimilation within computer-mediated groups all the time, because uniform appearance made individuals perceive a strong threat to their uniqueness and became less willing to agree with others as a way to restore their uniqueness. On the contrary, people might have pandered to their uniqueness motivation from being represented by excessively idiosyncratic visual cues. As a way to boost up the other motivation, assimilation motivation, they tried to find any cue that can bond themselves with others even amongst differences in their visual representations.
Keywords: Group identity; Computer-mediated communication (CMC); Social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE); Uniqueness theory; Optimal distinctiveness theory; Uniqueness motivation; Assimilation motivation

CHB 2010-09 Volume 26 Issue 5

Advancing educational research on collaboration through the use of gStudy computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) tools: Introduction to special issue BIBAKFull-Text 785-786
  Carmen L. Z. Gress; Allyson F. Hadwin
This is an introduction to a special issue on computer-supported collaborative learning.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; gStudy; Roles; Prompts; Scripts; Co-operative learning; Self-regulated learning; Ontology
The learning kit project: Software tools for supporting and researching regulation of collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 787-793
  Philip H. Winne; Allyson Fiona Hadwin; Carmen Gress
Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is a dynamic and varied area of research. Ideally, tools for CSCL support and encourage solo and group learning processes and products. However, most CSCL research does not focus on supporting and sustaining the co-construction of knowledge. We identify four reasons for this situation and identify three critical resources every collaborator brings to collaborations that are underutilized in CSCL research: (a) prior knowledge, (b) information not yet transformed into knowledge that is judged relevant to the task(s) addressed in collaboration, and (c) cognitive processes used to construct these informational resources. Finally, we introduce gStudy, a software tool designed to advance research in the learning sciences. gStudy helps learners manage cognitive load so they can re-assign cognitive resources to self-, co-, and shared regulation; and it automatically and unobtrusively traces each user's engagement with content and the means chosen for cognitively processing content, thus generating real-time performance data about processes of collaborative learning.
Keywords: Collaborative learning environment; gStudy; Self-regulated learning; Tracing
Innovative ways for using gStudy to orchestrate and research social aspects of self-regulated learning BIBAKFull-Text 794-805
  Allyson F. Hadwin; Mika Oshige; Carmen L. Z. Gress; Philip H. Winne
This paper explores the ways three different theoretical perspectives of the social aspects of self-regulated learning [Hadwin, A. F. (2000). Building a case for self-regulating as a socially constructed phenomenon. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; Hadwin, A. F., & Oshige, M. (2006). Self-regulation, co-regulation, and socially-shared regulation: Examining many faces of social in models of SRL. In A. F. Hadwin, & S. Jarvela (Chairs), Socially constructed self-regulated learning: Where social and self meet in strategic regulation of learning. Symposium conducted at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA] have been operationalized in a computer supported learning environment called gStudy. In addition to contrasting social aspects of SRL and drawing connections with specific collaborative tools and structures, this paper explores the potential of gStudy to advance theory, research, and practice. Specifically it discusses how the utilization of differing collaborative models provides new avenues for systematically researching social aspects of SRL and their roles in collaboration.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning; gStudy; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Socio-cognitive; Socio-cultural; Social constructionist
Measurement and assessment in computer-supported collaborative learning BIBAKFull-Text 806-814
  Carmen L. Z. Gress; Meghann Fior; Allyson F. Hadwin; Philip H. Winne
The overall goal of CSCL research is to design software tools and collaborative environments that facilitate social knowledge construction via a valuable assortment of methodologies, theoretical and operational definitions, and multiple structures [Hadwin, A. F., Gress, C. L. Z., & Page, J. (2006). Toward standards for reporting research: a review of the literature on computer-supported collaborative learning. In Paper presented at the 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Kerkrade, Netherlands; Lehtinen, E. (2003). Computer-supported collaborative learning: an approach to powerful learning environments. In E. De Corte, L. Verschaffel, N. Entwistle & J. Van Merriëboer (Eds.), Unravelling basic components and dimensions of powerful learning environments (pp. 35-53). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier]. Various CSCL tools attempt to support constructs associated with effective collaboration, such as awareness tools to support positive social interaction [Carroll, J. M., Neale, D. C., Isenhour, P. L., Rosson, M. B., & McCrickard, D. S. (2003). Notification and awareness: Synchronizing task-oriented collaborative activity. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 58, 605] and negotiation tools to support group social skills and discussions [Beers, P. J., Boshuizen, H. P. A. E., Kirschner, P. A., & Gijselaers, W. H. (2005). Computer support for knowledge construction in collaborative learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior 21, 623-643], yet few studies developed or used pre-existing measures to evaluate these tools in relation to the above constructs. This paper describes a review of the measures used in CSCL to answer three fundamental questions: (a) What measures are utilized in CSCL research? (b) Do measures examine the effectiveness of attempts to facilitate, support, and sustain CSCL? And (c) When are the measures administered? Our review has six key findings: there is a plethora of self-report yet a paucity of baseline information above collaboration and collaborative activities, findings in the field are dominated by 'after collaboration' measurement, there is little replication and an over reliance on text-based measures, and an insufficient collection of tools and measures for examining processes involved in CSCL.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Measurement; Assessment
Designing roles, scripts, and prompts to support CSCL in gStudy BIBAKFull-Text 815-824
  R. Morris; A. F. Hadwin; C. L. Z. Gress; M. Miller; M. Fior; H. Church; P. H. Winne
This paper addresses the paucity of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) tools and research that focus on actual computer embedded supports, guides, and scaffolds to effectively support the collaborative process. This paper: (a) explores the potential of support in the form of roles, scripts, and prompts to scaffold collaborative engagement in computer-based learning environments, (b) explores ways these supports might be implemented in a CSCL learning environment, namely gStudy, (c) describes how collaborative supports in gStudy might enhance opportunities for students to learn to self-regulate collaborative activity, and (d) uses examples from our research to propose ways these types of support tools might advance research in CSCL.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Roles; Prompts; Scripts; Scaffold; gStudy
Assessing process in CSCL: An ontological approach BIBAKFull-Text 825-834
  Vive S. Kumar; Carmen L. Z. Gress; Allyson F. Hadwin; Phillip H. Winne
Educational technology innovations enable students to collaborate in online educational tasks, across individual, institutional, and national boundaries. However, online interactions across these boundaries are seldom transparent to each other. As a result, students are not motivated to share their best learning practices. Also, there is no singular basis on which one can compare learning practices of multiple students. In addressing these problems, we offer a solution that encourages students to record and share their learning interactions using our ontology-oriented theory-centric software tool. In doing so, students not only observe the products of their learning but also the process of how they learnt. These unique and computationally formal recordings of learning interactions not only allow educators to observe how learners learn, but also provide opportunities for learners to reflect on their understanding of meta-cognitive processes that they employed or neglected in their learning. Further, these recordings feed our software system to autonomously analyze students' learning behaviour and to actively promote self- and co-regulation among learners. This article presents the need for such a system, the architecture of the system, and concludes with key experimental observations from software prototypes.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Ontology; Trace data; gStudy
On the nature of support in computer-supported collaborative learning using gStudy -- January 17, 2009 BIBAKFull-Text 835-839
  Philip C. Abrami
The authors of the articles in this special issue of Computers in Human Behavior explore the nature of support in gStudy, a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environment, especially from the perspective of the theory of self-regulation [e.g., Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attainment of self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation, research and applications (pp. 13-39). Orlando, FL: Academic Press]. To comment critically on the systematic and comprehensive research this collection of articles represents is a daunting task. Therefore, I want to begin by insuring that the reader has the appropriate impression of the quality and importance of the collection of studies and the tool itself.
Keywords: Discussant; Commentary; Computer-supported collaborative learning; Cooperative learning
Managing workload in human-robot interaction: A review of empirical studies BIBAKFull-Text 840-856
  Matthew S. Prewett; Ryan C. Johnson; Kristin N. Saboe; Linda R. Elliott; Michael D. Coovert
Working with artificial agents is a challenging endeavor, often imposing high levels of workload on human operators who work within these socio-technical systems. We seek to understand these workload demands through examining the literature in major content areas of human-robot interaction. As research on HRI continues to explore a host of issues with operator workload, there is a need to synthesize the extant literature to determine its current state and to guide future research. Within HRI socio-technical systems, we reviewed the empirical literature on operator information processing and action execution. Using multiple resource theory (MRT; Wickens, 2002) as a guiding framework, we organized this review by the operator perceptual and responding demands which are routinely manipulated in HRI studies. We also reviewed the utility of different interventions for reducing the strain on the perceptual system (e.g., multimodal displays) and responses (e.g., automation). Our synthesis of the literature demonstrates that much is known about how to decrease operator workload, but there are specific gaps in knowledge due to study operations and methodology. This work furthers our understanding of workload in complex environments such as those found when working with robots. Principles and propositions are provided for those interested in decreasing operator workload in applied settings and also for future research.
Keywords: Performance; Teleoperation; Automation; Perception; Display
How shall I trust the faceless and the intangible? A literature review on the antecedents of online trust BIBAKFull-Text 857-869
  Ardion Beldad; Menno de Jong; Michaël Steehouder
Trust is generally assumed to be an important precondition for people's adoption of electronic services. This paper provides an overview of the available research into the antecedents of trust in both commercial and non-commercial online transactions and services. A literature review was conducted covering empirical studies on people's trust in and adoption of computer-mediated services. Results are described using a framework of three clusters of antecedents: customer/client-based, website-based, and company/organization-based antecedents. Results show that there are many possible antecedents of trust in electronic services. The majority of the research has been conducted in the context of e-commerce; only few studies are available in the domains of e-government and e-health. For many antecedents, some empirical support can be found, but the results are far from univocal. The research calls for more, and particularly more systematic, research attention for the antecedents of trust in electronic services. The review presented in this paper offers practitioners an overview of possibly relevant variables that may affect people's trust in electronic services. It also gives a state-of-the-art overview of the empirical support for the relevance of these variables.
Keywords: e-Commerce; Trust; Online trust; Website design; Organizational reputation; e-Government; e-Health
Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review BIBAKFull-Text 870-882
  Nicole Wagner; Khaled Hassanein; Milena Head
As the populations of most of the world's developed nations experience an increase in average age, a similar trend is being observed in the population of computer and Internet users. In many cases, older adults are the fastest growing computer and Internet user group in both personal and workplace contexts. However, the needs and concerns of older adults as computer users differ from those of younger users as a result of the natural changes associated with the aging process. Much research has been conducted in a variety of fields in order to understand how these changes experienced by older adults impact their use of computers and the Internet. This article reviews this existing research and provides a holistic view of the field. Since the study of computer use by older adults is a multi-disciplinary topic by nature, we provide a synthesis of the findings across these many disciplines, and attempt to highlight any gaps that exist. We use Social Cognitive Theory as a lens to view and organize the literature, as well as illustrate means through which computer use by this user group can be encouraged. Finally, suggestions for future research are proposed, and implications for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Older adults; Aging; Computer use; Literature review; Social Cognitive Theory
Comparing narratives of personal and preferred partner characteristics in online dating advertisements BIBAKFull-Text 883-888
  Elizabeth M. Morgan; Tamara C. Richards; Emily M. VanNess
This study explored online personal ads of 294 heterosexual and homosexual men and women in the United States through a qualitative analysis and comparison of participant-generated "personal" and "preferred partner" narratives. Nine characteristics were identified and combined into three overarching categories: physical, lifestyle, and personality characteristics. These three personal and preferred partner characteristics were examined for difference by gender, sexual orientation, age and desired relationship type of the advertisers. Main effects emerged for all four predictors, most notably for age and desired relationship type. Additionally, this study explored the possibility that personal and preferred partner narratives contained similar constellations of characteristics, finding significant correlations on all three variables, lending support for the matching hypothesis in dating partner characteristics.
Keywords: Internet dating; Gender differences; Mate preferences; Initiation of personal relationships
The effect of emoticons in simplex and complex task-oriented communication: An empirical study of instant messaging BIBAKFull-Text 889-895
  Tainyi (Ted) Luor; Ling-ling Wu; Hsi-Peng Lu; Yu-Hui Tao
Many studies have shed light on general computer-mediated communication, instant messaging (IM), and emotion or emoticons, but little is known specifically about the impacts of emoticons in task-oriented IM communication in the workplace. Therefore, the current study addresses this issue by conducting an exploratory experiment to (1) categorize workplace IM messages into coherent groups, (2) identify the most commonly used emoticons (emblems) for expressing positive, negative, and neutral emotions in the case company, (3) test the differences in the emotional effects of the received text messages with and without emoticons on the reader/s, and (4) examine the intention to use emoticons in IM in the workplace. The results showed that (1) negative emoticons could cause a negative effect in both simplex and complex task-oriented communication, (2) positive emoticons only created a positive effect in complex communication and for female employees in simplex communication, and (3) there is no significant difference between task-oriented messages with or without neutral emoticon. Furthermore, the intention of using emoticons was not statistically significant in terms of gender, but it has a higher tendency on female employees. The corresponding suggestions provided by this research may help increase our understanding on the effect of emoticon use in IM in the workplace.
Keywords: Instant messaging; Task-oriented communication; Simplex and complex communication; Emotional effects; Emoticons
A longitudinal study of the relation between adolescent boys and girls' computer use with friends and friendship quality: Support for the social compensation or the rich-get-richer hypothesis? BIBAKFull-Text 896-905
  Malinda Desjarlais; Teena Willoughby
Using computers with friends either in person or online has become ubiquitous in the life of most adolescents; however, little is known about the complex relation between this activity and friendship quality. This study examined direct support for the social compensation and rich-get-richer hypotheses among adolescent girls and boys by including social anxiety as a moderating factor. A sample of 1050 adolescents completed a survey in grade 9 and then again in grades 11 and 12. For girls, there was a main effect of using computers with friends on friendship quality; providing support for both hypotheses. For adolescent boys, however, social anxiety moderated this relation, supporting the social compensation hypothesis. These findings were identical for online communication and were stable throughout adolescence. Furthermore, participating in organized sports did not compensate for social anxiety for either adolescent girls or boys. Therefore, characteristics associated with using computers with friends may create a comfortable environment for socially anxious adolescents to interact with their peers which may be distinct from other more traditional adolescent activities.
Keywords: Online communication; Computers; Friendship quality; Social anxiety; Internet
Determinants of users' intention to adopt wireless technology: An empirical study by integrating TTF with TAM BIBAKFull-Text 906-915
  David C. Yen; Chin-Shan Wu; Fei-Fei Cheng; Yu-Wen Huang
This paper reported the results of a survey study and provided evidences of empirically testing a model that integrates both technology acceptance model (TAM) and task-technology fit (TTF) model in understanding the determinants of users' intention to use wireless technology in organizations. Questionnaires were distributed to organizations that bring mobile commerce into practice through the wireless handheld devices. The results indicated that both technology acceptance model and task-technology fit model are robust models by themselves. First, both perceived usefulness and ease of use significantly influence users' behavior intention to utilize wireless technology. Perceived ease of use has significant effect on perceived usefulness. Second, characteristics of technology and task significantly predict the fit between these two constructs. Significant effect of characteristics of technology on perceived ease of use and usefulness were observed. Finally, significant relationships between TAM and TTF model were also observed. Task-technology fit is a significant direct predictor of technology adoption intention. Overall, users' intention to adopt wireless technology in organizations was determined directly by fit between characteristics of task and technology as well as users' perceived ease of use and usefulness.
Keywords: Mobile commerce; Technology acceptance model; Task-technology fit
Netiquette within married couples: Agreement about acceptable online behavior and surveillance between partners BIBAKFull-Text 916-926
  Ellen J. Helsper; Monica T. Whitty
The internet has become an integral part of many people's everyday lives. It is unclear what its role is in maintaining intimate offline relationships and whether the use of the internet might cause conflicts between partners about what constitutes acceptable online behavior. An online survey of 920 married couples in the UK who used the internet investigated whether partners have similar netiquettes. There were high levels of agreement between married partners about the unacceptability of online infidelities; similarly they agreed more than two random individuals about the acceptability of entertainment activities which, in excess, might be addictive. Partners further showed high correspondence in surveillance behavior. Women were more concerned about their own and their partner's behavior and were more likely to monitor their partner's online activities. These findings suggest that a netiquette is developed and consciously or subconsciously negotiated within intimate relationships. Nevertheless, traditional gender differences as regards risk perception still hold; women are more likely to problematies their own and their partners behaviors.
Keywords: Nettiquette; Internet; Marriage; Surveillance; Intimate relationships
Guiding students' online complex learning-task behavior through representational scripting BIBAKFull-Text 927-939
  B. Slof; G. Erkens; P. A. Kirschner; J. G. M. Jaspers; J. Janssen
This study investigated the effects of representational scripting on students' collaborative performance of a complex business-economics problem. The scripting structured the learning-task into three part-tasks, namely (1) determining core concepts and relating them to the problem, (2) proposing multiple solutions to the problem, and (3) coming to a final solution to the problem. Each provided representation (i.e., conceptual, causal, or simulation) was suited for carrying out a specific part-task. It was hypothesized that providing part-task congruent support would guide student interaction towards better learning-task performance. Groups in four experimental conditions had to carry out the part-tasks in a predefined order, but differed in the representation they received. In three mismatch conditions, groups only received one of the representations and were, thus, only supported in carrying out one of the part-tasks. In the match condition, groups received all three representations in the specified order (i.e., representational scripting). The results indicate that groups in the match condition had more elaborated discussions about the content of the knowledge domain (i.e., concepts, solutions and relations) and were better able to share and to negotiate about their knowledge. As a consequence, these groups performed better on the learning-task. However, these differences were not obtained for groups receiving only a causal representation of the domain.
Keywords: External representations; Complex learning-tasks; Computer Supported Collaborative Learning; Representational scripting; Student interaction
Towards a unified Media-User Typology (MUT): A meta-analysis and review of the research literature on media-user typologies BIBAKFull-Text 940-956
  Petter Bae Brandtzæg
Considering the increasingly complex media landscape and diversity of use, it is important to establish a common ground for identifying and describing the variety of ways in which people use new media technologies. Characterising the nature of media-user behaviour and distinctive user types is challenging and the literature offers little guidance in this regard. Hence, the present research aims to classify diverse user behaviours into meaningful categories of user types, according to the frequency of use, variety of use and content preferences. To reach a common framework, a review of the relevant research was conducted. An overview and meta-analysis of the literature (22 studies) regarding user typology was established and analysed with reference to (1) method, (2) theory, (3) media platform, (4) context and year, and (5) user types. Based on this examination, a unified Media-User Typology (MUT) is suggested. This initial MUT goes beyond the current research literature, by unifying all the existing and various user type models. A common MUT model can help the Human-Computer Interaction community to better understand both the typical users and the diversification of media-usage patterns more qualitatively. Developers of media systems can match the users' preferences more precisely based on an MUT, in addition to identifying the target groups in the developing process. Finally, an MUT will allow a more nuanced approach when investigating the association between media usage and social implications such as the digital divide.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Media behaviour; User typology; User needs; Internet; Digital divide
Blogging privacy management rule development: The impact of self-monitoring skills, concern for appropriateness, and blogging frequency BIBAKFull-Text 957-963
  Jeffrey T. Child; Esther A. Agyeman-Budu
The current study utilized communication privacy management (CPM) theory to examine how individuals' blogging privacy management rules are related to their communication-based personality dispositions (self-monitoring skills and concern for enacting socially appropriate interactions). The study also explored relationships between the same dispositions and blogging frequency. Overall, 356 bloggers completed an online survey instrument. Regression analysis provided support for both hypotheses. Bloggers with higher self-monitoring skills had a more private orientation towards their blogging privacy management practices. Bloggers' CFA level was related to more public and open blogging permeability rules. High self-monitors and high CFA dispositions were positively related to blogging frequency. Implications of the study to current computer-mediated communication (CMC) theory and research are discussed.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; Self-monitoring skills; Concern for appropriateness; Blogging interaction; Communication privacy management
Error correction strategies of professional speech recognition users: Three profiles BIBAKFull-Text 964-975
  Mariëlle Leijten; Daniel Janssen; Luuk van Waes
One of the challenges in writing research in general is to explain the structural variation in writing processes within and between subjects. More or less recursivity has been attributed to writing experience, proficiency, task characteristics and the writing mode or medium. This study focuses on professional writers (n = 10) who use a modern writing instrument -- speech recognition -- as their primary tool for text production and revision. More specifically we are interested in the way this new technology affects the cognitive processes that underlie text production. In our study we have focused on error correction. We provide a description of the errors that professional speech recognition users need to deal with, how they deal with them and why they opt for various error correction strategies. Different converging research methods were used: (1) product, (2) process, and (3) protocol analysis. The results are described on two levels: the overall level and the subgroup level (three writer groups).
   The results show that the contrast between immediate and delayed error correction is quite decisive for the way in which writers structure their writing process. Next to this, the distinction between technical problems and revisions also plays an important role. Most writers prefer solving technical problems immediately. The same does not necessarily hold for other revisions. However, the revision behavior is not random: overall results show three distinct patterns or profiles of error correction. First, there are writers who prefer writing a first time final draft and solve technical problems immediately as well as revising the text produced so far immediately (handle profile). Second, writers who solve more than half of the deficiencies in the text produced so far immediately, but who also delay or postpone various technical problems and revisions (postpone revisions profile). Finally, writers who prefer delaying error correction and who delay technical problems to a second draft (postpone technical problems profile).
Keywords: Cognitive processes; Error correction; Inputlog; Keystroke logging; On-line writing processes; Pauses; Pause analysis; Research methods; Speech recognition; Writing modes; Writing observation
Comparative study of three training methods for enhancing process control performance: Emphasis shift training, situation awareness training, and drill and practice BIBAKFull-Text 976-986
  Dina Burkolter; Annette Kluge; Jürgen Sauer; Sandrina Ritzmann
Three training methods to improve attention management skills in process control were compared. Forty students from technical disciplines participated in a five-hour module of emphasis shift training (EST), EST combined with situation awareness training (EST/SA), and drill and practice (D&P) on a simulated process control task. Participants were then tested three times for 45 min each (immediately after training, two weeks after training, and six weeks after training) for system control performance and diagnostic performance on familiar and nonfamiliar fault states. D&P led to superior diagnostic performance on familiar system faults. EST/SA training supported the diagnosis of novel system faults. EST was less effective than expected for system control performance. Implications for training design in process control are discussed.
Keywords: Training; Process control; Attention; Emphasis shift; Situation awareness; Practice
Optimistic bias about online privacy risks: Testing the moderating effects of perceived controllability and prior experience BIBAKFull-Text 987-995
  Hichang Cho; Jae-Shin Lee; Siyoung Chung
This study examined the ways in which Internet users construct their risk judgments about online privacy. The results, based on telephone survey data from a national probability sample in Singapore (n = 910), revealed that (a) individuals distinguish between two separate dimensions of risk judgment (personal level and societal level), (b) individuals display a strong optimistic bias about online privacy risks, judging themselves to be significantly less vulnerable than others to these risks, and (c) internal belief (perceived controllability) and individual difference (prior experience) significantly moderate optimistic bias by increasing or decreasing the gap between personal- and societal-level risk estimates. The implications of the findings for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Online privacy; Optimistic bias; Risk judgments; Perceived vulnerability; Perceived controllability; Prior experience
Computer-based instruction and generative strategies: Conceptual framework & illustrative example BIBAKFull-Text 996-1003
  Dave S. Knowlton; Julia Simms
Adult students who are enrolled in higher education must experience computer-based instruction that is well-designed in terms of both efficiency and relevance. Published practical examples of processes that will result in such instruction are rare. This article begins by describing the needs of adult students who are enrolled in higher education. Then, this article describes a project in which Morrison, Ross, and Kemp's (2004) curvilinear instructional design model was used to create computer-based instruction in the field of developmental mathematics. Both the design and development phases are described. The article concludes with implications for others who might use a similar approach in higher education.
Keywords: Computer-based instruction; Generative strategies; Computer integration
Proficiency and attitudes toward information technologies' use in psychology undergraduates BIBAKFull-Text 1004-1008
  Ana Cázares
In this study we had two aims: first, to evaluate the self-reported proficient use of data analysis and information technologies in psychology undergraduates. Second, to investigate the relationship between their proficiency level and attitude toward the technology's use for academic, social and personal activities. Two hundred students were asked to answer two short Likert scales which shown a high internal consistency (proficiency α = 0.93; attitudes α = 0.88) and a coherent factorial structure. They also were required to answer a semantic differential scale (α = 86) of whose bipolar adjectives evaluated the technologies' use in their learning-teaching process. A regression analysis showed that an efficient e-information searching and e-downloading strategies as well as considering the active vs passive use of the technology can together predict (R2 = .754) the usage of complex technology and abilities.
Keywords: Proficiency; Attitudes; Abilities; Data analysis and information technologies
Experiencing flow with instant messaging and its facilitating role on creative behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 1009-1018
  Maliha Zaman; Murugan Anandarajan; Qizhi Dai
The goal of this study is to explore how experiencing flow with IM, an Internet-based communication technology, can facilitate an individual's perception on creativity. We argue that certain capabilities in IM, telepresence and perceived control, provide users a means to experience flow. We further investigate whether flow and its outcomes, positive affect and exploratory behavior have any influence on the perception of creativity of the users. Using an online survey with 207 observations we found that user's perceived control over the technology and its ability to transport the user to a virtual environment were shown to facilitate the experience of flow. We found that flow in itself does not influence perceived expected creativity in its users but does indirectly influence perceived expected creativity through exploratory behavior and positive affect. From these initial findings we believe that our study provides implications for both users and designers on IT. Furthermore, managers can apply the findings during implementation and use of interactive information technologies for communications in the workplace.
Keywords: CMC; Affect; Creativity; Flow; Telepresence; Control
Will the experience of playing a violent role in a video game influence people's judgments of violent crimes? BIBAKFull-Text 1019-1023
  Kwan Min Lee; Wei Peng; Julian Klein
The present study investigates the impact of the experience of role playing a violent character in a video game on attitudes towards violent crimes and criminals. People who played the violent game were found to be more acceptable of crimes and criminals compared to people who did not play the violent game. More importantly, interaction effects were found such that people were more acceptable of crimes and criminals outside the game if the criminals were matched with the role they played in the game and the criminal actions were similar to the activities they perpetrated during the game. The results indicate that people's virtual experience through role-playing games can influence their attitudes and judgments of similar real-life crimes, especially if the crimes are similar to what they conducted while playing games. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Keywords: Video game; Role playing; Computer game; Violence; Attitude towards crime; Police crime
Interactivity in multimedia learning: An integrated model BIBAKFull-Text 1024-1033
  Steffi Domagk; Ruth N. Schwartz; Jan L. Plass
What does interactivity entail? What factors need to be taken into account in the design of interactive systems? Although interactivity is a widely used term accorded great prominence in discussions of multimedia learning, even a preliminary look at the literature suggests that how interactivity is defined, and what benefits it may offer, are not at all clear. The goal of this article is therefore to clarify the concept of interactivity. We present a unifying model that includes the user, the learning environment, and a system of connections and concepts that together make up interactivity. Such a model can help inform research, discussion, and design decisions on interactive multimedia instruction.
Keywords: Interactivity; Multimedia learning; Learner control; Guidance; Emotion; Motivation
Tracing elementary school students' study tactic use in gStudy by examining a strategic and self-regulated learning BIBAKFull-Text 1034-1042
  Jonna Malmberg; Hanna Järvenoja; Sanna Järvelä
This study investigated, with the help of log file traces (f = 172), how 20 elementary school students used study tactics when studying science within the gStudy learning environment and examined how tactic use contributed to the students' achievement. The analysis of this study is divided into two parts. First, at the situational level, the focus is on capturing the tactics that were used in different gStudy sessions, classifying the gStudy sessions based on the tactic use, and illustrating the patterned use of tactics during these sessions. Second, at the individual level, the focus is on examining individual students' typical methods of using tactics, which helps to illustrate how tactic use contributes to the students' achievement. The gStudy sessions were classified into three categories on the basis of tactic use: rare, moderate, and frequent. Findings indicate that frequent tactic use did not contribute to deep learning. Moderate tactic use was fairly effective for learning, but rare tactic use contributed to deep learning. The results did not show that the use of many study tactics improves learning; rather, they suggest that the distinguishing feature in strategic learning is not the tactic use itself but the way the tactic is performed.
Keywords: Self-regulated learning; Study tactic; Learning strategy; gStudy; Computer supported learning; Elementary school students
The way we share and learn: An exploratory study of the self-regulatory mechanisms in the professional online learning community BIBAKFull-Text 1043-1053
  Fan-Chuan Tseng; Feng-Yang Kuo
Self-regulation involves a triadic interplay among personal beliefs, individual behavior, and environment that both proactively and reactively influences one's adjustment of efforts, courses of action, and attainment of goals to reach the anticipated outcomes. In this study, we propose and validate a self-regulation model that explores the effects of social capital and social cognitive factors on knowledge-sharing behavior. The results demonstrate that members of an online knowledge communities regulate his or her internal motivation, external demands, interpersonal relationships, help-seeking strategies, as well as confidence of capability in utilizing social resources and performing knowledge sharing task. Through a stronger sense of community, emotional attachment and empathic concern about others' needs, members develop a high level of professional competence to collaborate with others and adequate efficacious beliefs to emotionally and instrumentally help others. The implications to both research and practice are discussed to enhance the understanding and effectiveness of self-regulation in the realm of knowledge management.
Keywords: Knowledge sharing; Self-regulation; Social capital; Self-efficacy
Comparison of paper-and-pencil versus Web administration of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS): Participation, data quality, and perceived privacy and anonymity BIBAKFull-Text 1054-1060
  Maxine M. Denniston; Nancy D. Brener; Laura Kann; Danice K. Eaton; Timothy McManus; Tonja M. Kyle; Alice M. Roberts; Katherine H. Flint; James G. Ross
The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors priority health-risk behaviors among US high school students. To better understand the ramifications of changing the YRBSS from paper-and-pencil to Web administration, in 2008 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a study comparing these two modes of administration. Eighty-five schools in 15 states agreed to participate in the study. Within each participating school, four classrooms of students in grades 9 or 10 were randomly assigned to complete the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire in one of four conditions (in-class paper-and-pencil, in-class Web without programmed skip patterns, in-class Web with programmed skip patterns, and "on your own" Web without programmed skip patterns). Findings included less missing data for the paper-and-pencil condition (1.5% vs. 5.3%, 4.4%, 6.4%; p < .001), less perceived privacy and anonymity among respondents for the in-class Web conditions, and a lower response rate for the "on your own" Web condition than for in-class administration by either mode (28.0% vs. 91.2%, 90.1%, 91.4%; p < .001). Although Web administration might be useful for some surveys, these findings do not favor the use of a Web survey for the YRBSS.
Keywords: Privacy; Anonymity; Web-based surveys; Paper-and-pencil surveys
When more is too much: Operationalizing technology overload and exploring its impact on knowledge worker productivity BIBAKFull-Text 1061-1072
  Pamela Karr-Wisniewski; Ying Lu
Individuals within organizations are beginning to make an important realization: more information technology (IT) usage in the workplace can, at times, lead to productivity losses. We conceptualize this frequently observed, but largely ignored phenomenon as technology overload, when additional technology tools begin to crowd out one's productivity instead of enhancing it. We found support for three main factors contributing technology-based productivity losses through information overload, communication overload, and system feature overload. Interestingly, these factors are a function of the individuals who use the technology, not the technology itself. In this paper, we present the results from three studies that (1) develop and pre-test a scale measurement for technology overload and its distinct dimensions, (2) validate the instrument, and (3) explore the relationship between technology overload and knowledge worker productivity. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between information technology usage and knowledge worker productivity, and they suggest how tradeoffs can be managed to ameliorate technology overload.
Keywords: Technology overload; Productivity; Bounded rationality; Cognitive load theory; Human interruption theory; System feature overload; Information overload; Communication overload
An empirical investigation of electronic word-of-mouth: Informational motive and corporate response strategy BIBAKFull-Text 1073-1080
  Young Lyoul Lee; Seokwoo Song
The proliferation of the Internet has given birth to a number of complaint web sites where dissatisfied and frustrated consumers can easily articulate their opinions and comments on products, services, or companies. Little attention, however, has been paid to the influence of online complaints on potential consumers' behaviors. This study attempts to provide the understanding of causal attribution process in the online complaining behaviors. The results showed that informational factors, such as vividness and consensus, facilitated consumers' attribution to companies' responsibility for the negative events, and subsequently led to changing their evaluation of the companies. In addition, we found that corporate response strategies to online complaints should be different from the conventional response strategies.
Keywords: Electronic word-of-mouth; Online complaint behavior; Corporate response strategies
Interactivity and presence of three eHealth interventions BIBAKFull-Text 1081-1088
  Robert P. Hawkins; Jeong-Yeob Han; Suzanne Pingree; Bret R. Shaw; Timothy B. Baker; Linda J. Roberts
A number of researchers have identified interactivity and presence as potentially important attributes of eHealth applications, because they are believed to influence users to interact with systems in ways that increase commitment, learning, and other desirable responses. This paper reports on the development of brief scales to assess the two concepts, and on use of them with participants in six conditions of a large-scale trial of interventions for breast cancer patients. Overall, the Internet scored very low on both measures. Versions of an integrated system of services (CHESS) scored higher, particularly as conditions added features to different versions of the system. Interventions involving a human Cancer Information Mentor scored highest, though even the Mentor was perceived as more interactive and having more presence when combined with the integrated eHealth system.
Keywords: Health psychology and medicine; Cognitive therapy; Specialized interventions; Mass media communications
Theory and measurement of generalized problematic Internet use: A two-step approach BIBAKFull-Text 1089-1097
  Scott E. Caplan
This study tested an updated cognitive-behavioral model of generalized problematic Internet use and reports results of a confirmatory analysis of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2). Overall, the results indicated that a preference for online social interaction and use of the Internet for mood regulation, predict deficient self-regulation of Internet use (i.e., compulsive Internet use and a cognitive preoccupation with the Internet). In turn, deficient self-regulation was a significant predictor of the extent to which one's Internet use led to negative outcomes. Results indicated the model fit the data well and variables in the model accounted for 27% of the variance in mood regulation scores, 65% of variance in participants' deficient self-regulation scores, and 61% of variance in the negative outcome scores.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; Computer-mediated communication; CMC; Internet addiction; Preference for online social interaction; Deficient self-regulation; GPIUS2; Measurement
The contingent effects of leadership on team collaboration in virtual teams BIBAKFull-Text 1098-1110
  Rui Huang; Surinder Kahai; Rebecca Jestice
Decision-making in virtual teams creates challenges for leaders to structure team processes and provide task support. To help advance our knowledge of leadership in virtual teams, we explore the interaction effects between leadership styles and media richness on task cohesion and cooperative climate, which in turn influence team performance in decision-making tasks. Results from a laboratory study suggest that transactional leadership behaviors improve task cohesion of the team, whereas transformational leadership behaviors improve cooperative climate within the team which, in turn, improves task cohesion. However, these effects of leadership depend on media richness. Specifically, they occur only when media richness is low. Our results also suggest that task cohesion leads to group consensus and members' satisfaction with the discussion, whereas cooperative climate improves discussion satisfaction and reduces time spent on the task.
Keywords: Leadership styles; Media richness; Virtual teams; Decision-making
Internet use intention and adoption among Chinese older adults: From the expanded technology acceptance model perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1111-1119
  Shuya Pan; Maryalice Jordan-Marsh
The purpose of this paper is to discuss how various factors intertwine to affect Chinese older adults' decisions to adopt the Internet by applying the expanded technology acceptance model (TAM). Perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), subjective norm (SN), and facilitating conditions (FC) were four key predictors. Gender and age were included in the proposed model as factors to moderate the effect of two key TAM components (PU and PEU) on adoption behaviors. The results indicate that PU, PEU, and SN were significant predictors of Internet adoption among Chinese older adults, while PU, SN, and FC were significant predictors of Internet use intention. The effect of PEU on Internet use intention was also found to be stronger for older seniors than younger seniors. Implications for future research and practices are discussed.
Keywords: Internet adoption; Internet use intention; Older adults; TAM; Subjective norm; Facilitating conditions
When is trust not enough? The role of perceived privacy of communication tools in comfort with self-disclosure BIBAKFull-Text 1120-1127
  Nancy E. Frye; Michele M. Dornisch
In what circumstances might privacy concerns about new communication tools like instant messaging help predict the degree to which people feel comfortable communicating via these new communication tools? The current study examined whether topic intimacy and perceived privacy predict levels of comfort with disclosure, and whether these associations are moderated by overall levels of trust and frequency of technology use. Participants reported on the degree to which they would feel comfortable discussing each of 32 topics (e.g., "times when I felt that I was in love") using 10 different communication tools. Topic and tool interacted, such that the privacy of the communication tool was related to disclosure comfort only for intimate topics. Privacy concerns were more important to less frequent technology users, and topic intimacy mattered most to participants with low levels of trust. Results are discussed in terms of implications for extending models of disclosure to the selection of new communication tools.
Keywords: Self-disclosure; Trust; Personality
Cyberbullying in adolescents: Modalities and aggressors' profile BIBAKFull-Text 1128-1135
  Esther Calvete; Izaskun Orue; Ana Estévez; Lourdes Villardón; Patricia Padilla
In this study, a questionnaire (Cyberbullying Questionnaire, CBQ) was developed to assess the prevalence of numerous modalities of cyberbullying (CB) in adolescents. The association of CB with the use of other forms of violence, exposure to violence, acceptance and rejection by peers was also examined. In the study, participants were 1431 adolescents, aged between 12 and17 years (726 girls and 682 boys). The adolescents responded to the CBQ, measures of reactive and proactive aggression, exposure to violence, justification of the use of violence, and perceived social support of peers. Sociometric measures were also used to assess the use of direct and relational aggression and the degree of acceptance and rejection by peers. The results revealed excellent psychometric properties for the CBQ. Of the adolescents, 44.1% responded affirmatively to at least one act of CB. Boys used CB to greater extent than girls. Lastly, CB was significantly associated with the use of proactive aggression, justification of violence, exposure to violence, and less perceived social support of friends.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Adolescents; Proactive and reactive aggression; Exposure to violence; Social support
Relationships among ERP post-implementation success constructs: An analysis at the organizational level BIBAKFull-Text 1136-1148
  Princely Ifinedo; Birger Rapp; Airi Ifinedo; Klas Sundberg
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems implementation success factors have been widely researched; however, few have investigated ERP post-implementation success in organizational contexts. The paucity of research into ERP system success evaluations partly motivates this research. To that end, the objective of this study is twofold. First, it primarily investigates the relationships among six constructs or dimensions in a respecified ERP system success measurement model, which was developed from prior relevant frameworks. Second, this research adds to the body of knowledge in the information system (IS) success evaluation domain, especially with its focus on ERP packages. The extended ERP system success model was tested using data collected in a cross-sectional field survey of 109 firms in two European countries. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test six relevant hypotheses. The SEM results showed that five out of the six hypotheses have significant, positive associations. Namely, the constructs of System Quality, Service Quality, Individual Impact, Workgroup Impact, and Organizational Impact have strong relevance in ERP success conceptualization, whereas Information Quality does not, at least, in the context of our data. The pertinence of the study's findings for IS success evaluation as well as its implications for practice and research are discussed.
Keywords: Enterprise resource planning (ERP); Information system (IS) success; Measurement model; ERP post-implementation success; ERP system success constructs; Structural equation modeling
Does multimedia help students answer test items? BIBAKFull-Text 1149-1157
  Yungwei Hao
The aim of this study was to investigate the difficulty levels of test items and student perceptions of the test formats while taking a multimedia exam (Vexam). The participants were 390 students in the Department of Anthropology, at the University of Texas at Austin, who took an online, self-paced undergraduate course, integrated with Vexam. The hypothesis of the quantitative study was that the difficulty level would be influenced when multimedia formats were integrated with test items. Qualitative data was collected during and after the exams, using think-aloud activities and individual interviews respectively, to explore the effect of multimedia on students. The mixed research methods elicited findings and some suggestions for future study, and the results of this study provided implications for educators regarding student assessment of multimedia integration.
Keywords: Media in education; Multimedia/hypermedia systems; Post-secondary education; Testing; Student perceptions
The use of interactive media among today's youth: Results of a survey BIBAKFull-Text 1158-1165
  Antoine Van den Beemt; Sanne Akkerman; Robert-Jan Simons
The intensive use of interactive media has led to assertions about the effect of these media on youth. This paper presents a quantitative study on the position of interactive media in young people's lives. Rather than following the assumption of a homogeneous generation, we investigate the existence of a diversity of user patterns. The research question for this paper: Can patterns be found in the use of interactive media among youth? We answer this question by a survey among Dutch youngsters aged 10-23. Four clusters of interactive media users, namely Traditionalists, Gamers, Networkers and Producers were identified using cluster analysis. Behind these straightforward clusters, a complex whole of user activities can be found. Each cluster shows specific use of and opinions about interactive media. This provides a contextualized understanding of the position of interactive media in the lives of contemporary youth, and a nuanced conceptualization of the 'Net generation'. This allows for studying the intricate relationship between youth culture, interactive media and learning.
Keywords: Youth culture; Interactive media; Games; User's activities; User's opinions
Programmed instruction and interteaching applications to teaching Java: A systematic replication BIBAKFull-Text 1166-1175
  Henry H. Emurian; Peng Zheng
Students in a Java computer programming course completed a programmed instruction tutor and an interteaching session to learn a Java computer program as the first technical training exercise. The program presented a text string in a browser window. Prior to the interteaching session, students completed a tutorial that included exemplars of a test of rule-governed performance that was administered on three different occasions during this initial learning. Students showed progressive improvements in test performance and software self confidence, although the gains observed during interteaching did not always transfer to a subsequent quiz. The reported backgrounds of the students were found to relate to the knowledge acquired from the several instructional tactics. The replication shows the value of using several different instructional media successively to help students achieve skill and confidence.
Keywords: Programmed instruction; Interteaching; Java training
Reading direction and signaling in a simple computer simulation BIBAKFull-Text 1176-1182
  Günter Daniel Rey
The experiment investigated whether layout of cause and effect affects learning for causal connections in a simple computer simulation. Students (N = 113) used an introductory text and a simulation to learn central concepts about neural networks and then took a retention and transfer test. Each learner was randomly assigned to one cell of a 2 (compliance with reading direction or not) × 2 (with or without signaling) between subjects factorial design. Students who obtained the causal connection in reading direction (the cause is positioned on the left side, the effect is placed on the right side) performed better on transfer than did students, for whom the reading direction was reversed (from right to left). Furthermore, signals that indicated the layout of the causal connection fostered transfer performance and reduced time spent with the simulation. These results are consistent with the signaling principle and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.
Keywords: Multimedia learning; Computer simulation; Causal connection; Reading direction; Signaling
Empowering processes in online support groups among people living with HIV/AIDS: A comparative analysis of 'lurkers' and 'posters' BIBAKFull-Text 1183-1193
  Phoenix K. H. Mo; Neil S. Coulson
The proliferation of online support groups provides an opportunity for individuals living with HIV/AIDS to obtain support online. The present study aimed to explore how different levels of participation in online support groups are associated with empowering processes and outcomes for individuals living with HIV/AIDS. A total of 340 individuals living with HIV/AIDS were recruited. They completed an online questionnaire consisting of measures on satisfaction with online support groups, empowering processes, self-care self efficacy, loneliness, optimism, coping, depression, and health-related quality of life. Results revealed that compared to posters, members who only read the messages (lurkers) scored lower in receiving social support and receiving useful information in empowering processes, and lower in satisfaction with their relationship with group members. They also scored higher in distraction and lower in planning in the brief COPE. In addition, they scored lower in social function and higher in energy. There were no significant differences in self-care self efficacy, loneliness, depression, or optimism between posters and lurkers. Our results suggest that lurking in the online support groups may be as empowering as reading and posting messages to the groups. More research is needed to identify the long term effects of online support group use.
Keywords: HIV/AIDS; Internet; Online support groups; Lurking; Posting
Thirty years after Harrison and Saeed: Does the medium make the message? BIBAKFull-Text 1194-1198
  Rosemarie Reynolds
In 1977, Harrison and Saeed published what became the classic study of personal advertisements. They found that women tended to offer youth and attractiveness, while seeking financial security or wealth. Men, in turn, sought youth and attractiveness, while offering financial security. The purpose of the current study was to determine if changes in the medium used for personal ads (Internet versus print) has had an impact on stated preferences in mate selection. Our results duplicated the Harrison and Saeed (1977) findings, suggesting that neither the medium, nor the societal changes of the last 30 years, have had any effect on mate selection. In a supplementary analysis of women in the 50-69 age group, however, we found that these women were less willing to date older men, preferring younger partners.
Keywords: Mate selection; Dating; Attraction; Personal ads; Sexual Strategies Theory; Internet
Stressful life events and problematic Internet use by adolescent females and males: A mediated moderation model BIBAKFull-Text 1199-1207
  Dongping Li; Wei Zhang; Xian Li; Shuangju Zhen; Yanhui Wang
In a sample of 660 adolescents (M age = 14.14 years; 55% females), this study examined a mediated moderation model in which temperamental effortful control and sensation seeking moderated the relationship between stressful life events and problematic Internet use (PIU), and this moderating effect was mediated by maladaptive cognitions. Findings revealed that effortful control buffered the risk of stressful life events for females' PIU, and this effect was mediated through maladaptive cognitions. The risk-buffering effect of effortful control for males' PIU was not significant, although it buffered the risk of maladaptive cognitions for PIU. The risk-enhancing effect of sensation seeking was not significant in both female and male adolescents. In addition, males scored higher on risks but lower on protective factors of PIU than females, which explain the gender difference in PIU. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Keywords: Internet; Problematic Internet use; Life events; Temperament; Adolescents
Consumer perceptions on web advertisements and motivation factors to purchase in the online shopping BIBAKFull-Text 1208-1222
  Jong Uk Kim; Woong Jin Kim; Sang Cheol Park
The principal objective of this study was to investigate the mediating and moderating effects of product involvement and trust toward websites in relation to the effects of the attributes of web advertisements on customers' purchase intentions. We collected data consisting of a total of 264 responses from individuals with previous experience with purchasing products from online shopping mall sites, and utilized the PLS (partial least squares) method to analyze the collected data.
   Our findings demonstrated that consumers with greater product involvement tended to shop in shopping malls, where they could obtain more information on products, and that consumers with low product involvement tended to be more willing to consider entertainment. Additionally, consumers with higher levels of trust toward websites tended to be influenced by perceived entertainment and thus stay longer at shopping sites; conversely, consumers with low levels of trust toward websites tended to be more willing to consider perceived informativeness as minimizing environmental uncertainty.
   On the basis of our results, online shopping malls must stress the intrinsic attributes of products to attract highly-involved consumers and must present a benevolent corporate image for consumers concerned with better service. Our results also demonstrated that, for less-involved consumers who wish to search for products to present, it may be appropriate to mix entertainment components with product information, and also to implement creative web interface designs for more effective browsing.
Keywords: Perceived informativeness; Perceived entertainment; Trust; Product involvement; Intention to purchase

CHB 2010-11 Volume 26 Issue 6

Defining the lines between virtual and real world purchases: Second Life sells, but who's buying? BIBAKFull-Text 1223-1227
  Ashleigh K. Shelton
The present study examines the virtual spending habits of Residents in Second Life, a unique Massively Multi-player Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) with a thriving economy where virtual goods and services are purchased with real money. Large corporations are entering the virtual worlds of MMORPGs through advertising; yet, few studies have examined the relationship between virtual identities, virtual consumption and real world consumption. This study formulates a preliminary taxonomy of user motivations for playing Second Life and addresses how these diverse reasons impact both virtual and 'real world' consumer behaviors. A total of 209 participants completed a Web-based questionnaire. The independent variable in the study was motivation for using Second Life, and respondents completed measures of frequency of purchasing different products, motivations for using Second Life, and demographic characteristics. Results are consistent with the expectation that not all Second Life users are the same in their motivations or behaviors, despite popular media coverage of the phenomenon.
Keywords: Second Life; Product consumption; Motivation
Games without frontiers: On the moral and psychological implications of violating taboos within multi-player virtual spaces BIBAKFull-Text 1228-1236
  Garry Young; Monica T. Whitty
When assessing the appropriateness of massively multiplayer online role-playing games, it is our contention that questions dealing with the morality of their content -- especially regarding the more 'adult' nature of potential interactions -- are the wrong sorts of questions to ask. Instead, when considering the permissibility of such games, a more informative strategy is to focus on what gamers are able to deal with, psychologically, especially regarding taboo violation. Thus, we argue that there is nothing morally problematic with online gamespace per se, no matter how prohibitive the simulated behaviour is offline (as long as the space is frequented by adults only). Instead, we should concern ourselves with whether the potential moral freedoms afforded the online gaming community are psychologically healthy: For it is our contention that underlying any change to the gamer's behaviour offline is the need (in some) to seek psychological parity across domains (making congruent one's identity and actions in both the virtual and offline worlds). It is therefore not so much what games are doing to us that is of concern, here, but what we are doing to ourselves through the process of seeking psychological parity.
Keywords: MMORPGs; Violent computer games; Moral prohibition; Taboos; Psychological parity; Psychological harm
Facebook® and academic performance BIBAKFull-Text 1237-1245
  Paul A. Kirschner; Aryn C. Karpinski
There is much talk of a change in modern youth -- often referred to as digital natives or Homo Zappiens -- with respect to their ability to simultaneously process multiple channels of information. In other words, kids today can multitask. Unfortunately for proponents of this position, there is much empirical documentation concerning the negative effects of attempting to simultaneously process different streams of information showing that such behavior leads to both increased study time to achieve learning parity and an increase in mistakes while processing information than those who are sequentially or serially processing that same information. This article presents the preliminary results of a descriptive and exploratory survey study involving Facebook use, often carried out simultaneously with other study activities, and its relation to academic performance as measured by self-reported Grade Point Average (GPA) and hours spent studying per week. Results show that Facebook® users reported having lower GPAs and spend fewer hours per week studying than nonusers.
Keywords: Facebook; Social networking software; Grade point average; Academic performance
Applying the self-explanation principle to multimedia learning in a computer-based game-like environment BIBAKFull-Text 1246-1252
  Cheryl I. Johnson; Richard E. Mayer
What is the most effective way to incorporate self-explanation into an educational game? In Experiment 1, students who played a 10-level computer game about electrical circuits performed better on an embedded transfer test (i.e., level 10) if they were required to select the reason for each move from a list on levels 1-9 (selection self-explanation) than if they were not required to engage in self-explanation (d = 1.20). In Experiment 2, the same pattern of results was replicated (d = 0.71), but students who were required to type in their reason for each move on levels 1-9 (generation self-explanation) did not perform any better than those who were not required to engage in self-explanation (d = -0.06). Overall, asking students to select a reason from a list fosters some degree of reflection while not overly disrupting the flow of the game.
Keywords: Educational game; Self-explanation; Science learning
Online assessment of problem solving skills BIBAKFull-Text 1253-1258
  Seth Mayotte
This overview evaluates the effectiveness of an alternative interactive scenario based assessment system (ISBAS). ISBAS addresses the limitations of traditional assessment methods, allowing students to troubleshoot complex scenarios, ask questions, and make diagnoses through an interactive web interface. The choices the student makes are tracked and scored based on predetermined, objective values. An analysis of student choices/decisions is used to assign a grade/proficiency level and provide the student feedback. ISBAS is efficient, flexible, and objectively evaluates the sophistication of complex knowledge and skills.
   The research question: is ISBAS more effective in assessing complex knowledge and skills in students than traditional methods of school assessment? This is a complex question; this study is a continuing step in the research to answer it.
Keywords: Interactive; Scenario; Assessment
Advergames and the effects of game-product congruity BIBAKFull-Text 1259-1265
  Michelle L. Gross
Electronic games transcend demographic boundaries and are a prevalent cultural phenomenon. Marketers see potential of this immersive venue as a way to reach a highly receptive audience with brand messages. Designing games around a brand -- advergames -- has become a common marketing practice. However, few empirical studies have tested the effectiveness of this communication strategy in delivering the brand message. This paper serves to fill some research gaps and explores the influence of game-product congruity on brand memory and attitudes toward the game. A product-congruent advergame is compared to a product-incongruent advergame using a stimulus brand for a low-involvement product category. The findings indicate that highly congruent games lead to superior memory for the sponsoring brand. However, benefits of these positive memory effects may be negated by the negative attitudes players have toward the highly thematic game for a low-involvement product. Implications are discussed.
Keywords: Advertising; Advergames; Brand memory; Product involvement
Thanks for the memory: Cooperative autonomous agent search in uncertain environments BIBAFull-Text 1266-1275
  Trey Hickman
The effects of cooperation between autonomous electronic or physical agents are widely studied in computational science literature. We concentrate on a homogenous population of agents in a multi-agent system (MAS) to explore the effects of useful memory on goal achievement. We use simulations to consider two-dimensional planar surfaces upon which N targets are randomly scattered. N agents exist each with a maximal interest in one specific target. Agents may observe the positions of "uninteresting" targets in the environment and communicate this information to other agents encountered within the environment. The benefits of cooperation can be approximated by pure probabilistic analysis for theoretical search success, but the introduction of real-world cost factors (e.g. fuel, energy, transmission time) associated with movement within the environment renders these predictions unusable. In pure probabilistic terms, higher numbers of cooperative agents can greatly increase search effectiveness. In systems where positive costs are associated with search, internal agent memory factors can allow agent density to approximate pure probabilistic effectiveness. Practical applications for this research include real-time electronic document search, problems in robotic multi-agent systems (e.g. "foraging" or "consumption" problems), and network coverage for wireless communication devices.
Reeves, B., & Read, J.L. (2009). Total engagement: Using games and virtual worlds to change the way people work and businesses. Harvard Business School Press BIBFull-Text 1276-1277
  Trey Hickman
Integrating cognitive load theory and concepts of human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 1278-1288
  Nina Hollender; Cristian Hofmann; Michael Deneke; Bernhard Schmitz
With the continually increasing complexity of e-learning environments, there is a need for integrating concepts of cognitive load theory (CLT) with concepts of human-computer interaction (HCI). Basic concepts of both fields were reviewed and contrasted. A literature review was conducted within the literature database "The Guide to Computing Literature," searching for "cognitive load theory" and "Sweller." Sixty-five publications contained "cognitive load" in their titles or abstracts. Each publication was checked to see whether it contained the concepts of intrinsic, extraneous, or germane cognitive load. The review showed that CLT concepts have been adopted in HCI. However, the concept of germane cognitive load has attracted less attention up to the present time. Two conceptual models are proposed. The first model divides extraneous cognitive load into load induced by the instructional design and load caused by software usage. The model clarifies the focus of traditional usability principles and of existing instructional design principles derived from CLT. The second model fits CLT concepts into the basic components of user-centered design. The concept of germane cognitive load illustrates that an increase of cognitive load can be desirable when designing e-learning environments. Areas for future interdisciplinary research are sketched.
Keywords: Cognitive load theory; Human-computer interaction; Computer assisted instruction; Learning
Social network use and personality BIBAKFull-Text 1289-1295
  Yair Amichai-Hamburger; Gideon Vinitzky
Studies have shown a connection between the individual personality of the user and the way he or she behaves on line. Today many millions of people around the world are connected by being members of various Internet social networks. Ross et al. (2009) studied the connection between the personality of the individual users and their behavior on a social network. They based their study on the self-reports of users of Facebook, one of the most popular social networks, and measured five personality factors using the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992) questionnaire. They found that while there was a connection between the personalities of surfers and their behavior on Facebook, it was not strong. This study is based on that of Ross et al. (2009), but in our study the self-reports of subjects, were replaced by more objective criteria, measurements of the user-information upload on Facebook. A strong connection was found between personality and Facebook behavior. Implications of the results are discussed.
Keywords: Internet and personality; Facebook; Social network
Antecedents of customer satisfaction with online banking in China: The effects of experience BIBAKFull-Text 1296-1304
  Cheolho Yoon
This study investigates the antecedents of customer satisfaction with online banking in China, and explores the effects of experience on the relationships between the antecedents and customer satisfaction. Based on prior research, the six antecedents of customer satisfaction -- ease of use, design, speed, security, information content and customer support service -- are proposed, and the effects of experience on the relationships between these and customer satisfaction are analyzed using a structural multi-group (a high-experience group and a low-experience group) model.
   The results show that design, speed, security, information content, and customer support service have a significant influence on customer satisfaction in the high-experience group or the low-experience group, but ease of use does not have a significant influence on customer satisfaction in either of the groups. Also, the results relating to the influence of the level of customer experience reveal that the effects of design, security, speed and information content on customer satisfaction were significantly higher in the high-experience group, whereas the effect of customer support service on customer satisfaction was significantly higher in the low-experience group.
Keywords: Online banking; Customer satisfaction; Experience; Multi-group analysis; China
Change detection in desktop virtual environments: An eye-tracking study BIBAKFull-Text 1305-1313
  Hacer (Uke) Karacan; Kursat Cagiltay; H. Gurkan Tekman
It is common knowledge that attention is important for learning. We need to utilize attention in order to learn something efficiently and effectively. Similarly, we may also need to acquire familiarity with (i.e., learn) our surroundings in order to utilize our attention. In this study, learning is defined as a product of one's exposure to natural visual stimuli. Using a virtual model of a natural scene, we investigate both attention and its relationship to learning, according to this definition. Specifically, our focus is the effect of environment familiarity on gaze direction. Our findings reveal that the factor of familiarity with one's surroundings in virtual reality environments exerts a significant influence on peoples' ability to detect a variety of specific changes that occur within scenes under their observation.
Keywords: Spatial learning; Attention; Virtual reality; Eye movements; Scene memory
Intragroup status and social presence in online fan groups BIBAKFull-Text 1314-1317
  Stephen Reysen; Jason D. Lloyd; Iva Katzarska-Miller; Brett M. Lemker; Russell L. Foss
Low and high status member posts from online fan message board posts were examined. Low status members, as compared to high status members, were found to use more intimacy and immediacy social presence cues, including: praise for the group, self-disclosure, friendly and positive affective language, first person singular pronouns, and present tense verbs. Low status members were less likely than high status members to use articles, larger words, and discrepancy words. Lastly, low status members were rated as more likeable than high status members. The results suggest that low status members may strategically use social presence cues as a means of ingratiating themselves to the group.
Keywords: Intragroup status; Internet; Fans; Social presence; Communication accommodation
Solving problems: How can guidance concerning task-relevancy be provided? BIBAKFull-Text 1318-1326
  Martin Groen; Jan Noyes
The analysis of eye movements of people working on problem solving tasks has enabled a more thorough understanding than would have been possible with a traditional analysis of cognitive behavior. Recent studies report that influencing 'where we look' can affect task performance. However, some of the studies that reported these results have shortcomings, namely, it is unclear whether the reported effects are the result of 'attention guidance' or an effect of highlighting display elements alone; second, the selection of the highlighted display elements was based on subjective methods which could have introduced bias. In the study reported here, two experiments are described that attempt to address these shortcomings. Experiment 1 investigates the relative contribution of each display element to successful task realization and does so with an objective analysis method, namely signal detection analysis. Experiment 2 examines whether any performance effects of highlighting are due to foregrounding intrinsic task-relevant aspects or whether they are a result of the act of highlighting in itself. Results show that the chosen objective method is effective and that highlighting the display element thus identified improves task performance significantly. These findings are not an effect of the highlighting per se and thus indicate that the highlighted element is conveying task-relevant information. These findings improve on previous results as the objective selection and analysis methods reduce potential bias and provide a more reliable input to the design and provision of computer-based problem solving support.
Keywords: Problem solving support; Eye tracking; Signal detection analysis; Task relevance
The effects of survey administration on disclosure rates to sensitive items among men: A comparison of an internet panel sample with a RDD telephone sample BIBAKFull-Text 1327-1335
  Denise A. Hines; Emily M. Douglas; Sehar Mahmood
Research using Internet surveys is an emerging field, yet research on the legitimacy of using Internet studies, particularly those targeting sensitive topics, remains under-investigated. The current study builds on the existing literature by exploring the demographic differences between Internet panel and RDD telephone survey samples, as well as differences in responses with regard to experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, alcohol and substance use/abuse, PTSD symptomatology, and social support. Analyses indicated that after controlling for demographic differences, there were few differences between the samples in their disclosure of sensitive information, and that the online sample was more socially isolated than the phone sample. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for using Internet samples in research on sensitive topics.
Keywords: Sensitive topics; Survey research; Online surveys; Phone surveys; Methodology
Profiling good Samaritans in online knowledge forums: Effects of affiliative tendency, self-esteem, and public individuation on knowledge sharing BIBAKFull-Text 1336-1344
  Eun-Ju Lee; Jeong-woo Jang
Two studies investigated what motivates knowledge sharing in online knowledge forums. Based on the uses and gratifications model, we hypothesized that individuals would respond to information requests broadcast by unknown others to fulfill their needs for social interaction (affiliative tendency), to maintain a positive self-image (self-esteem), or to proclaim one's uniqueness (public individuation). Consistent with the hypotheses, a web-based survey with current users of a public knowledge sharing site found that those with stronger affiliative tendency, higher self-esteem, or stronger public individuation were more likely to contribute to the open information repository (Study 1). However, a 2 (social presence: low vs. high) × 2 (recognition rewards: absent vs. present) between-subjects design experiment also showed that these psychological traits significantly enhanced individuals' intention to share knowledge on a public web site, only when other users' presence was rendered salient and individual contributions were visibly acknowledged (Study 2).
Keywords: Affiliative tendency; Knowledge sharing; Public individuation; Recognition rewards; Self-esteem; Social presence
Open source software: A community of altruists BIBAKFull-Text 1345-1354
  Hoda Baytiyeh; Jay Pfaffman
To learn about what drives people to devote their time and expertise to creating and supporting free/open source software, a survey with Likert-scaled items measuring different types of motivations was sent to contributors of several open source projects. Open-ended comments were used to illustrate the Likert-scaled items and open-ended questions allowed respondents to express their reasons for participating in these open source communities. Results indicate that the open source contributors (n = 110, 38 paid to work on OSS projects and 72 volunteers) are motivated primarily by a sense of altruism as well as the desire to create and learn. Payment did not significantly impact the reasons for contributing to OSS projects. The comments and open-ended questions validated the findings and indicated that building a "Utopian" community -- the desire to help for the greater good worldwide -- is one of the most important motivators. Also, respondents revealed that they join and persist as members of open source communities because they enjoy the freedom to create and share free software, tools and knowledge with others inside and outside the community.
Keywords: Open source software; Motivations; Collaboration; Altruism; Factor analysis
Measurement development for cultural characteristics of mobile Internet users at the individual level BIBAKFull-Text 1355-1368
  Inseong Lee; Jinwoo Kim; Boreum Choi; Se-Joon Hong
Culture plays an important role in how an information technology is developed and used. However, few studies attempt to identify the cultural traits most relevant to the specific technology being examined. The main purpose of this study is to develop measures for cultural characteristics of individual users with a specific information technology, the mobile Internet. We propose measures for four cultural characteristics important in the context of the mobile Internet, which are expected to be widely used in the future. The proposed measures were verified empirically through online surveys conducted in seven countries. The results indicate that the measures have high validity and reliability, as well as comparability among the seven countries. The paper ends with a discussion of the study's limitations and implications.
Keywords: Culture; Mobile Internet; Individualism; Uncertainty avoidance; Contextuality; Time perception
Construction of an instrument to measure student information and communication technology skills, experience and attitudes to e-learning BIBAKFull-Text 1369-1376
  Ann Wilkinson; Julia Roberts; Alison E. While
Over the past 20 years self-report measures of healthcare students' information and communication technology skills have been developed with limited validation. Furthermore, measures of student experience of e-learning emerged but were not repeatedly used with diverse populations. A psychometric approach with five phases was used to develop and test a new self-report measure of skills and experience with information and communication technology and attitudes to computers in education. Phase 1: Literature review and identification of key items. Phase 2: Development and refinement of items with expert panel (n = 16) and students (n = 3) to establish face and content validity. Phase 3: Pilot testing of draft instrument with graduate pre-registration nursing students (n = 60) to assess administration procedures and acceptability of the instrument. Phase 4: Test-retest with further sample of graduate pre-registration nursing students (n = 70) tested stability and internal consistency. Phase 5: Main study with pre-registration nursing students (n = 458), further testing of internal consistency. The instrument proved to have moderate test-retest stability and the sub-scales had acceptable internal consistency. When used with a larger, more diverse population the psychometric properties were more variable. Further work is needed to refine the instrument with specific reference to possible cultural and linguistic response patterns and technological advances.
Keywords: Instrument development; Scale validation; Test-retest; Nurse education; ICT skills; Attitudes
Motivations of Wikipedia content contributors BIBAKFull-Text 1377-1383
  Heng-Li Yang; Cheng-Yu Lai
Rapidly developing web technologies have increased the prevalence of user-generated Internet content. Of the many websites with user-generated content on the Internet, one of the most renowned is Wikipedia, which is the largest multilingual free-content encyclopedia written by users collaboratively. Nevertheless, although contributing to Wikipedia takes time and knowledge, contributors are rarely compensated. As a result, there is a need to understand why individuals share their knowledge in Wikipedia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of both conventional and self concept-based motivation on individual willingness to share knowledge in Wikipedia. After performing an online questionnaire survey, SEM was applied to assess the proposed model and hypotheses. The analytical results showed that internal self-concept motivation is the key motivation for knowledge sharing on Wikipedia.
Keywords: Motivation theory; Self-concept-based motivation; Knowledge-sharing; Wikipedia
Digital natives, better learners? Students' beliefs about how the Internet influenced their ability to learn BIBAKFull-Text 1384-1391
  Yifat Ben-David Kolikant
In the literature students are sometimes assumed to feel empowered with respect to learning because of their familiarity with and access to ICT. However, after interviewing 25 students from post-elementary schools, it was found that the majority of the students, although they use the Internet and other ICT for school purposes, believed that their generation is not as good at learning as the pre-ICT generation. Several students explained the situation in terms of the school's failure to build on their abilities. Nonetheless, the majority believed that the Internet over-simplifies schoolwork (perceived primarily as the traditional processing of textual sources), which in turn diminishes learning abilities. These results carry important implications regarding school, given that low self-efficacy might make students less likely to apply themselves to learning.
Keywords: Digital native; Schooling; Internet influence; Perceived self-efficacy
MySpace is your space? Examining self-presentation of MySpace users BIBAKFull-Text 1392-1399
  Kris Boyle; Thomas J. Johnson
The study examined the role of self-presentation on MySpace pages through the information users post on their sites. MySpace users were more comfortable with posting the broad pieces of information, like gender, race, zodiac sign, and hometown. They were not as willing to present personal information like income, whether they smoke or drank or groups they belonged to. Age and motivations for creating a page were major predictors of how much information people revealed about themselves.
Keywords: MySpace; Self-presentation; Social network sites; Uses and gratifications
Differences among breast and prostate cancer online support groups BIBAKFull-Text 1400-1404
  Thomas O. Blank; Steven D. Schmidt; Stacey A. Vangsness; Anna Karina Monteiro; Paul V. Santagata
Online support resources have become viable alternatives to face-to-face support groups for cancer patients. It is important to understand how individuals make use of such online support resources and what, if any, differences exist between groups. A content analysis was conducted on 3203 posted messages to prostate and breast cancer support sites on Google Groups and WebMD. Overall, post-treatment survivors were the most common posters followed by spouses; however, the proportion of posters varied by site. For both groups, messages of support were most frequent. However the type of support varied by cancer type. Support messages on the breast cancer sites were mostly offers of emotional support. Conversely, messages of support on the prostate cancer sites focused on informational support. Messages of emotional well-being and medical-related comments were next most common on the breast cancer sites, whereas medical issues and sexual intimacy were on the prostate cancer sites. Overall, these findings identify several key differences in the use and benefits of online support sites for breast and prostate cancer.
Keywords: Support groups; Cancer; Medical; Content analysis; Emotional support; Informational support
Image and video disclosure of substance use on social media websites BIBAKFull-Text 1405-1411
  Elizabeth M. Morgan; Chareen Snelson; Patt Elison-Bowers
The present study examines young adults' use of social media websites, such as MySpace, Facebook, and YouTube, to post public images and videos of themselves depicting alcohol consumption, inebriated behavior, or recreational marijuana use. A content analysis revealed that the majority of image and video representations of alcohol consumption depicted females in social gatherings while images and videos depicting marijuana use depicted solitary males. Videos typically were viewed frequently and gained positive ratings. Among a sample of college students, one-third of participants reported having posted a picture depicting substance use on a social networking site, with 97% aware that others engage in this phenomenon. Students' perceptions of alcohol-related postings were generally positive or seen as a matter of individual choice while marijuana-related postings were generally viewed more negatively.
Keywords: Social networking; MySpace; Facebook; YouTube
Pragmatism, connectionism and the internet: A mind's perfect storm BIBAKFull-Text 1412-1418
  Michael Glassman; Min Ju Kang
This paper explores that natural relationships between Pragmatic theory of knowing, the dynamic structuring of the mind and thinking suggested by connectionist theory, and the way information is distributed and organized through the world wide web (www). We suggest that these three "innovations" can be brought together to offer a better understanding of the way the human mind works. The internet and the information revolution may finally offer the opportunity to use and develop inductive learning practices and information based social inquiry in ways Pragmatic philosophers envisioned a hundred years ago, while the recent rise of connectionist and cognitive architecture works provides a concrete context for such developments. This confluence of process represents the type of synergy that only history can offer. The information revolution -- exemplified by both the rise of connectionism and the internet -- is the apotheosis of the Pragmatic revolution -- bringing together radical empiricism and democratization of information in community practice. We offer three important realizations in our understanding of how information is organized and thinking progresses made possible by burgeoning virtual communities on the internet -- open source thinking, scale-free networks, and interrelationships in the development of blogs to illustrate our thesis.
Keywords: Internet; Dewey; Connectionism; Democracy
Development and usability of an online CBT program for symptoms of moderate depression, anxiety, and stress in post-secondary students BIBAKFull-Text 1419-1426
  Shannon L. Currie; Patrick J. McGrath; Victor Day
Internet-based intervention programs can improve mental health outcomes, and may offer a novel medium for reducing emotional distress in post-secondary students. This paper describes the development and usability testing of a new cognitive behavioral therapy-based program, "Feeling Better" designed to reduce symptoms of emotional distress in post-secondary students. An iterative qualitative usability testing approach was used to assess the program's usability (i.e., ease of navigation, clarity, efficiency and acceptability). Three cycles of participant feedback and feedback from counselling centre staff was coded and used to iteratively modify the interface. Changes were both structural (e.g., shortening sections) and stylistic (e.g., aesthetic features), remodeling "Feeling Better" into a user-friendly platform ready to be used and its effects evaluated in further studies.
Keywords: Mental health; Cognitive behavioral therapy; Computer-assisted therapy; Students; Selfhelp approaches
Adopt, adapt, abandon: Understanding why some young adults start, and then stop, using instant messaging BIBAKFull-Text 1427-1433
  Jeremy Birnholtz
Instant messaging (IM) has become a popular and important mode of staying in touch for teens and young adults. It allows for easy, frequent and lightweight interaction that contributes to building and sustaining friendships, as well as coordinating social activities. Despite the initial appeal of IM, however, some have found it too distracting and have changed their usage or abandoned it. I interviewed 21 former users of IM about their adoption, usage and eventual abandonment of the technology. Results show that participants were initially attracted to features of IM that enabled them to maximize their use of leisure time via easy and frequent interaction with their friends, but that, in a different usage context, these same features became distracting and annoying. Participants adapted their behavior to avoid these drawbacks, but IM did not support these adaptations effectively. In particular, IM did not allow for control over interruptions, which became more important as their contact lists grew and social time became scarce; and they ultimately abandoned the technology. These results point to a need for understanding use beyond adoption, and a theoretical and practical focus on understanding the adaptation and changing utility that accompany long-term usage of technologies.
Keywords: Instant messaging; Young adults; Adoption; Dropouts; Computer-mediated communication (CMC)
Assessing blog-user satisfaction using the expectation and disconfirmation approach BIBAKFull-Text 1434-1444
  Chung-Chi Hsieh; Pao-Li Kuo; Szu-Chi Yang; Shih-Han Lin
The growing popularity of blogs has drawn an increasing amount of attention from corporations keen to expand market share and establish better customer relationships. It is thus imperative to probe into why some blogs attract a tremendous amount of interest and why they are sustainable. Although there are a number of studies exploring the factors underlying popular or successful blogs, few results have been reported from the integrated perspective of IS success and marketing. By segregating blog quality into information quality and system quality, this study investigates the linkage between blog quality and blog-user satisfaction within the expectation-disconfirmation paradigm. It establishes nine key constructs for blog-user satisfaction and tests the relationships among them. The results of this study provide directions for bloggers and system administrators to achieve higher levels of blog-user satisfaction by developing multi-faceted strategies based on the reported dimensions of blog quality.
Keywords: Blog; Expectation-disconfirmation paradigm; Information quality; System quality
Expressive aesthetics to ease perceived community support: Exploring personal innovativeness and routinised behaviour as moderators in Tuenti BIBAKFull-Text 1445-1457
  Manuel J. Sanchez-Franco; José L. Roldán
The aim of this study is to investigate moderating effects of personal innovativeness and routinised behaviour on relationships between expressive aesthetics and perceived community support (PCS) in the domain of the social network site Tuenti. Our research, therefore, contributes to the existing literature by examining the heterogeneous influence of affective cues on the sense of belongingness to a community, and emotional benefits from intense bonds to close members.
   A structural equation modeling, specifically partial least square (PLS), is proposed to assess the relationships between the constructs together with the predictive power of the model analysed. In particular, the research model is validated empirically using data from a field survey of the most popular computer-mediated SNS among the Spanish college student population, Tuenti.
   The results demonstrate that expressive aesthetics significantly predicts PCS. Likewise, the results provide strong support for the proposals that these effects (i.e., expressive aesthetics on PCS) will be moderated by personal innovativeness and routinised behaviour. The model and results can, consequently, be used to assess affective design aspects during the electronic interaction process.
Keywords: Social network sites; Personal innovativeness; Routinised behaviour; Aesthetics; Perceived community support; Tuenti
Coping with information overload in email communication: Evaluation of a training intervention BIBAKFull-Text 1458-1466
  Roman Soucek; Klaus Moser
The present paper introduces three facets of information overload in email communication: A large amount of incoming information, inefficient workflow, and deficient communication quality. In order to cope with these facets of information overload, a training intervention was developed and evaluated. Data were collected from 90 employees on several evaluation levels within a longitudinal evaluation design (one pretest double posttest design). The results reveal that the training contributed to an increase in knowledge and media competencies. We also found evidence for a transfer of training contents to the workplace. Finally, strain diminished on several dimensions. In particular, problems with media usage and work impairment decline significantly, an effect that was stronger for those participants who face a large amount of email at their workplaces.
Keywords: Email communication; Information overload; Training intervention; Evaluation study
Policies and procedures to manage employee Internet abuse BIBAKFull-Text 1467-1471
  Kimberly Young
Industry analysts estimate that billions of dollars in lost revenue were attributed to employee Internet abuse. Trends also suggest that lost job productivity and corporate liability have emerged as new workplace concerns due to growth of new online technologies and mobile computing. Such employee Internet misuse creates new management dilemmas on how to respond to incidences of such misuse as well poses network security risks and drains on network bandwidth. Within an organization, it is imperative to ensure that employees are using computing resources effectively and appropriately. Utilizing the previous literature in the field, this paper proposed a revised framework to manage employee Internet abuse. The former model proposed did not account for new digital media and recommended screening applicants for Internet addiction, using more of a clinical test than a job performance test. This new model describes both prevention and intervention methods to address incidents of online misuse in the workplace and refocuses hiring decisions into post-employment training. It also examines the new hiring concerns with the new iGeneration of college graduates and it examines how organizations should best utilize acceptable Internet use policies with clear methods of Internet monitoring to enforce that workers are complying with company policies. This paper also talks about the potential benefits of rehabilitation approaches to manage employees who abuse instead of terminating them to decrease job turnover and improve job retention. Implications for current management practices are also discussed.
Keywords: Employee relations; Employee Internet abuse; Internet addiction; Risk management; Internet use policies; Employee monitoring
Group interaction styles in a virtual context: The effects on group outcomes BIBAKFull-Text 1472-1480
  Pilar González-Navarro; Virginia Orengo; Ana Zornoza; Pilar Ripoll; José M. Peiró
The influence of communication and information technologies (TICs) on group functioning and group outcomes is an important topic. Interdependent group work implies the need to communicate in order to share information and knowledge related to the task. The importance of this group interaction in the group functioning and outcomes stands out. In this sense, a line of investigation has arisen to study the role of interaction styles in the relationship between communication technology and group outcomes, as some functional or dysfunctional outputs depend on group interaction styles. From this perspective, the objective of this study is twofold: (1) to analyze the group interaction styles in virtual teams over time, and (2) to analyze whether the group virtuality level moderates the relationships between group interaction style and group outcomes over time. Data was collected from a laboratory study in which 44 groups of four members participated. Groups were randomly assigned to communication contexts with different virtuality levels. The results obtained have shown a differential role of group interaction style according to the group virtuality level. Virtuality level plays a moderate role in the relationships between passive group interaction style and objective and subjective outcomes and between constructive interaction style and subjective outcomes.
Keywords: Group interaction styles; Virtual teams; Group outcomes; Communication media; Performance; Longitudinal study
The roles of self-concept clarity and psychological reactance in compliance with product and service recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 1481-1487
  Gyudong Lee; Jaeeun Lee; Clive Sanford
This article investigates the effects of self-concept clarity (the extent to which self-knowledge is clearly and confidently defined, internally consistent, and temporally stable) and psychological reactance (the adoption of or strengthening a view or attitude that is contrary to what was intended) on compliance with product and service recommendations. Our empirical study of choice tasks on digital cameras and computer security software reveals that individuals' compliance to product and service recommendations is negatively related to their strength of self-concept clarity. Perceived threats to freedom are also negatively associated with compliance to recommendations when individuals are faced with choices of products, however it has no significant effect with software services such as computer security software. The implications of these findings on product and service recommendations are discussed.
Keywords: Self-concept clarity; Psychological reactance; Product recommendation; Compliance; Purchase involvement
What are participants doing while filling in an online questionnaire: A paradata collection tool and an empirical study BIBAKFull-Text 1488-1495
  Stefan Stieger; Ulf-Dietrich Reips
The use of online questionnaires is rapidly increasing. Contrary to manifold advantages, not much is known about user behavior that can be measured outside the boundaries set by standard web technologies like HTML form elements. To show how the lack of knowledge about the user setting in web studies can be accounted for, we present a tool called UserActionTracer, with which it is possible to collect more behavior information than with any other paradata gathering tool, in order to (1) gather additional data unobtrusively from the process of answering questions and (2) to visualize individual user behavior on web pages. In an empirical study on a large web sample (N = 1046) we observed and analysed online behaviors (e.g., clicking through). We found that only 10.5% of participants showed more than five single behaviors with highly negative influence on data quality in the whole online questionnaire (out of 132 possible single behavior judgments). Furthermore, results were validated by comparison with data from online address books. With the UserActionTracer it is possible to gain further insight into the process of answering online questionnaires.
Keywords: Response behavior; Response latency; Response visualization; Non-reactive data; Online questionnaire; Paradata
Individual and team annotation effects on students' reading comprehension, critical thinking, and meta-cognitive skills BIBAKFull-Text 1496-1507
  Tristan E. Johnson; Thomas N. Archibald; Gershon Tenenbaum
Many students enter college without the needed skills to be successful. Colleges and universities are seeking instructional interventions to address these needs. Various classes are leveraging web-based social media to provide new instructional technologies that will help students learn. This paper reports on two studies related to the potential of online social annotation for improving teaching and learning in second-semester Freshman English classes. The approach, referred to as the Social Annotation Model-Learning System (SAM-LS), combines various instructional strategies, team-based learning, and a social annotation computer-supported collaborative learning tool, HyLighter, to increase student engagement with selected essays and with classmates. SAM-LS stimulates students to actively monitor their thoughts and compare them to both peers and the instructor (or domain experts). Study 1 showed no significant difference between the SAM-LS approach and a control; however, results appear to be related to confounding factors. Study 2 showed that students achieve better outcomes on measures of reading comprehension and meta-cognitive skill, but not critical thinking, when SAM-LS activities include small team collaborations. The two studies suggest future directions for research and development of SAM-LS and the HyLighter tool.
Keywords: Computer-supported collaborative learning; Web 2.0; Social annotation; Small group collaboration; Learning technology; Reading comprehension; Critical thinking; Meta-cognition
Revisiting the uncanny valley theory: Developing and validating an alternative to the Godspeed indices BIBAKFull-Text 1508-1518
  Chin-Chang Ho; Karl F. MacDorman
Mori (1970) proposed a hypothetical graph describing a nonlinear relation between a character's degree of human likeness and the emotional response of the human perceiver. However, the index construction of these variables could result in their strong correlation, thus preventing rated characters from being plotted accurately. Phase 1 of this study tested the indices of the Godspeed questionnaire as measures of humanlike characters. The results indicate significant and strong correlations among the relevant indices (Bartneck, Kulic, Croft, & Zoghbi, 2009). Phase 2 of this study developed alternative indices with nonsignificant correlations (p > .05) between the proposed y-axis eeriness and x-axis perceived humanness (r = .02). The new humanness and eeriness indices facilitate plotting relations among rated characters of varying human likeness.
Keywords: Affective appraisal; Embodied agents; Human-robot interaction; Psychometric scales; Social perception
Online mutual support in bereavement: An empirical examination BIBAKFull-Text 1519-1525
  Karolijne van der Houwen; Margaret Stroebe; Henk Schut; Wolfgang Stroebe; Jan van den Bout
Thus far, online mutual bereavement support has not been the subject of rigorous empirical examination, despite the fact that this type of support is rapidly growing. Assessment is needed, not only to establish whether there are desirable effects, but also whether there could be negative side effects. This study was designed to increase our understanding of the people who use online mutual bereavement support and provide a preliminary examination of its potential to ameliorate their suffering. Our findings show that people who are currently using online mutual bereavement support are younger, less likely to be part of a religious community, and more likely to have lost a child than bereaved people who had never used this type of support. The former group also shows worse mental health and reports lower levels of social support than people who had stopped using online mutual bereavement support. There was no indication that people who seek out online mutual bereavement support were more likely to live in remote, rural areas than people who do not use this type of support. Using this type of support did not predict changes in mental health over time. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Bereavement; Grief; Mutual support; Internet
Perceived stress, sensation seeking, and college students' abuse of the Internet BIBAKFull-Text 1526-1530
  Rodrigo Velezmoro; Katharine Lacefield; Jonathan W. Roberti
College students (n = 140) were examined to test whether sensation seeking and perceived stress would predict abuse of the Internet. Previous studies have found that disinhibition, boredom susceptibility, and total sensation seeking scores were related to Internet abuse (Chaney & Chang, 2005; Lin & Tsai, 2001). Because stress has been documented to have a negative effect on students (Pierceall & Keim, 2007), and may be linked to Internet use (Lavoie & Pychyl, 2001), it was tested as a possible predictor of Internet abuse. This study also analyzed abuse of the Internet for sexual purposes, because sexuality is prevalent online, and college students are in an age of sexual exploration. Results of stepwise regression analyses revealed that disinhibition and total perceived stress were predictive of Internet abuse for sexual purposes, and perceived hopelessness and boredom susceptibility were predictive of Internet abuse for non-sexual purposes. Implications for students and Internet abuse are discussed.
Keywords: Perceived stress; Sensation seeking; Internet abuse; Internet addiction; College students; Internet usage patterns
Low self-directedness is a better predictor for problematic internet use than high neuroticism BIBAKFull-Text 1531-1535
  Christian Montag; Magdalena Jurkiewicz; Martin Reuter
The classification of internet addiction as a distinct diagnosis in the upcoming DSM-V is currently under debate. Nevertheless, before this issue is resolved, there are important related questions in the field of internet addiction that are in need of an answer, e.g. which personality dimensions may predispose towards problematic internet use. One such factor seems to be neuroticism. However, a sole factor like neuroticism alone is not very useful with respect to generating implications for behavior therapy and treatment of afflicted patients, because it includes too many facets of negative personality traits ranging from shyness to anxiety. Therefore, in this study we aimed to measure the grade of problematic internet use with the internet addiction test (IAT); moreover, we measured personality with Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) and with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). In addition to the EPQ-R, the TCI provides further information with respect to which facets of personality are associated with problematic internet use. In N = 201 participants, we found that self-directedness is a better predictor than neuroticism for problematic internet use. Moreover, the time spent online in leisure activities was a significant predictor for a high IAT score. Implications for behavior therapy are discussed.
Keywords: Internet addiction; Self-directedness; Neuroticism; Problematic internet use; Personality research; TCI
Flaming on YouTube BIBAKFull-Text 1536-1546
  Peter J. Moor; Ard Heuvelman; Ria Verleur
In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame, flaming appears to be very common on YouTube. Second, views on flaming varied but were more often negative than positive. Some people refrain from uploading videos as a result of flaming, but most users do not think of flaming as a problem for themselves. Third, several explanations of flaming were found to be plausible, among which were perceived flaming norms and the reduced awareness of other people's feelings. Although some YouTube users flame for entertainment, flaming is more often intended to express disagreement or as a response to a perceived offense by others.
Keywords: Internet; Interpersonal communication; Flaming
Customization, immersion satisfaction, and online gamer loyalty BIBAKFull-Text 1547-1554
  Ching-I Teng
Software designers often attempt to increase the customizability of their products to facilitate human-computer interaction and improve user response. However, exactly how customizability affects online gaming is unclear. This study posits that customization enhances gamer immersion satisfaction and loyalty. The study sample consists of 865 online gamers who provided valid responses to an online survey.
   Three models are compared using structural equation modeling: a partial mediator model, in which customization increases gamer loyalty directly and indirectly via enhanced immersion satisfaction; a full mediator model, in which immersion satisfaction fully mediates how customization influences loyalty; and an independent variable model, in which customization and immersion satisfaction are independent variables impacting gamer loyalty. The results of this study demonstrate that the partial mediator model significantly outperforms the other two models, suggesting that online game providers that increase customization and satisfy gamer needs regarding immersion can better foster gamer loyalty.
Keywords: Customization; Immersion satisfaction; Gamer loyalty; Online game
Influences of data filtering on human-computer interaction by gaze-contingent display and eye-tracking applications BIBAKFull-Text 1555-1563
  Giacomo Veneri; Pamela Federighi; Francesca Rosini; Antonio Federico; Alessandra Rufa
We describe an interactive gaze-contingent display (GCD) applied to clinical applications; the system uses a simple texture hole to inhibit peripheral vision, to test and stress overt mechanisms of visual searching in normal subjects. The correct use of GCD in vision research is affected by tremor of the hole, due to system noise, nystagmus, eye blinking, calibration and subject reactivity. These issues compromise the execution of task. In order to obtain a stable GCD hole, we implemented a predictive gaze-contingent display (PGCD), fitting through dispersion of fixations and modulating a filter. The paper describes the PGCD and compare it with the common technique, providing evidence that humans fit exploration based on the characteristics of the computer system; in particular we found significant difference applying PGCD or a simple finite impulse response filter. We suggest that a correct human-computer interaction applied to neuropsychological context must be developed taking in consideration both technical point of view and human behavior.
Keywords: Eye movements; Gaze-contingent displays; Filter; Attentive displays; Eye-tracking
MMORPGS and cognitive performance: A study with 1280 Brazilian high school students BIBAKFull-Text 1564-1573
  Bruno Campello de Souza; Leonardo Xavier de Lima e Silva; Antonio Roazzi
The present paper attempts to empirically study the cognitive impacts of Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) in uncontrolled contexts in light of the Cognitive Mediation Networks Theory, a new model of human intelligence that aims to explain cognition as the result of brain activity combined with the information-processing done by external structures such as tools, social groups and culture. A sample of 1280 students Brazilian high school students answered a form inquiring about socio-demographic information plus the use of computer games, and also was submitted to a short knowledge exam and a mini psychometric test. The findings indicated that, due to their underlying structure and sociocultural nature, MMORPGs are associated to a greater level of insertion into the Digital Age, higher levels of logical-numerical performance, and better scholastic ability. Finally, suggestions are made for future studies on the subject.
Keywords: MMORPG; Cognition; Mediation
Altruistic traits and organizational conditions in helping online BIBAKFull-Text 1574-1580
  Gyudong Lee; Won Jun Lee
Helping is more likely to occur when potential helpers can clearly understand the help-seeker's needs and when they can freely choose whether to help or not. Information systems such as electronic bulletin boards, web communities, and knowledge management systems all satisfy these conditions. In order to explain helping behaviors in the workplace, we employ the personality traits of altruism and job autonomy, as well as the characteristics of the information systems used by employees in organizations. In this study, we conducted a survey of business persons who use information systems in the workplace. The results of our study indicate that altruism and job autonomy have both the main and interaction effects on the willingness to help others through information systems. With regard to the effects of the characteristics of information systems, the media richness of information systems exerts a positive impact on willingness to help. On the contrary, the size of the user group affects the willingness to help negatively, which reflects the bystander effect in the offline world. Implications for both researchers and practitioners are discussed.
Keywords: Helping in organizations; Knowledge management; Knowledge sharing; Information providing
An analysis of multiple factors of cyberbullying among junior high school students in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 1581-1590
  Yun-yin Huang; Chien Chou
Cyberbullying, as a serious kind of repeated, intentional, and harmful aggressive behavior, cannot be ignored. In light of the limited studies and inconsistent findings on the matter, this study explores cyberbullying's frequency and other factors (gender, academic achievement, types of technologies used, and anonymity) relevant to both the issue itself and the East Asian context. The interrelationship of different roles (bullies, victims, and bystanders) in cyberbullying is also examined. A survey was conducted with 545 Taiwan junior high school students. The results indicate that male students were more likely to bully others in cyberspace and that cyberbullying was not affected by one's level of academic achievement. Regarding the various technologies and various country-specific cyberbullying forms pertinent to technology users, instant messenger (IM) users experienced significantly more cyberbullying than users of other technologies. The survey results also indicate that the anonymity of cyberbullying was not a pertinent factor. The study found that the dominant attitude toward cyberbullying was indifference, raising alarms about the lack of cyberbullying prevention. Peers, who were the people most teenagers would likely turn to when experiencing cyberbullying, usually took no action because of their tendency to avoid conflicts and to maintain group harmony. In its interpretation of the findings, this study emphasizes Taiwan's context, including Confucian philosophy.
Keywords: Cyberbullying; Technology; Anonymity; Academic achievement; Peer support; Instant messenger
Predicting adolescents' use of social networking sites from an extended theory of planned behaviour perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1591-1597
  Rosland K. Baker; Katherine M. White
The popularity of social networking sites (SNSs) among adolescents has grown exponentially, with little accompanying research to understand the influences on adolescent engagement with this technology. The current study tested the validity of an extended theory of planned behaviour model (TPB), incorporating the additions of group norm and self-esteem influences, to predict frequent SNS use. Adolescents (N = 160) completed measures assessing the standard TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention, as well as group norm and self-esteem. One week later, participants reported their SNS use during the previous week. Support was found for the standard TPB variables of attitude and PBC, as well as group norm, in predicting intentions to use SNS frequently, with intention, in turn, predicting behaviour. These findings provide an understanding of the factors influencing frequent engagement in what is emerging as a primary tool for adolescent socialisation.
Keywords: Social networking sites; Theory of planned behaviour; Adolescents; Group norm
Perceived job effectiveness in coopetition: A survey of virtual teams within business organizations BIBAKFull-Text 1598-1606
  Chieh-Peng Lin; Yi-Ju Wang; Yuan-Hui Tsai; Yu-Fang Hsu
This study establishes a model by drawing from key postulates and findings under coopetition to explain the formation of perceived job effectiveness in team collaboration. In the proposed model, perceived job effectiveness is influenced directly by knowledge sharing, cooperative attitude, and competitive conflict, while knowledge sharing is influenced by cooperative attitude and competitive conflict. Accordingly, perceived job effectiveness is influenced indirectly by shared value, perceived trust and perceived benefit via the mediation of cooperative attitude and competitive conflict. Empirical testing of this model, by investigating personnel in information technology (IT) organizations, confirms the applicability of coopetition in virtual teams. The test results indicate that all the model paths except one (linking shared vision and competitive conflict) are significant. Finally, managerial implications and limitations of the research are provided.
Keywords: Cooperation; Competition; Coopetition; Knowledge sharing; Perceived job effectiveness
The impact of perceived risk, intangibility and consumer characteristics on online game playing BIBAKFull-Text 1607-1613
  Lily Shui-Lien Chen
Online game is the most popular entertainment application in the virtual world and online gamers demonstrate high attachment to playing online games. Previous studies have linked to the numerous negative outcomes in playing online games. The factors contribute to the negative consequences on using online game have been relatively neglected. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of perceived risk, intangibility, gender and age (adolescent/adult) difference on online game playing consequences and intentions. Past usage frequency is also made to look into the influence additional purchase intention. A total of 1418 useful questionnaires (including 1018 from public interview and 400 from online questionnaire feedback) were collected for final data analysis. The results demonstrated the important roles that time risk, psychological risk, financial risk, physical intangibility, mental intangibility and generality play on the negative consequences associated with online game playing. The results also indicated that male and adolescent individuals spent much more time on online game and intented to act the entertainment more than females and adults did. Finally, past online game playing frequency was showed to be a positive predictor of future online game playing intention.
Keywords: Online game; Perceived risk; Intangibility; Behavioral intention
Do males and females think in the same way? An empirical investigation on the gender differences in Web advertising evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 1614-1624
  Yongqiang Sun; Kai H. Lim; Chunping Jiang; Jerry Zeyu Peng; Xiaojian Chen
Informativeness and entertainment are regarded as two types of advertising value that can influence consumers' attitudes toward Web advertising. Despite of many studies on these two factors, there are two research gaps in extant literature. First, the effects of informativeness and entertainment on attitude are considered separately, yet their interaction effect is neglected. Second, the role of individual characteristics (e.g., gender) in the advertising evaluation process is far from clear. To address these two issues, a laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the interaction effect between informativeness and entertainment, and also the moderating role of gender. The results indicate that informativeness can help form a more positive attitude for males than for females, and entertainment can lead to a more positive attitude for females than for males. It is also found that there is a three-way interaction among informativeness, entertainment, and gender. More specifically, the interaction effect between informativeness and entertainment is significant for females, but insignificant for males. Results, research contributions, and limitations are discussed, and implications for future studies are suggested.
Keywords: Web advertising; Advertising value model; Gender difference; Synergy effect
Color red in web-based knowledge testing BIBAKFull-Text 1625-1631
  Timo Gnambs; Markus Appel; Bernad Batinic
Computer- and web-based testing procedures are increasingly popular for the assessment of cognitive abilities and knowledge. This paper identified color red as a critical context factor that may influence the results. Two studies showed that color red may harm the performance in web-based tests of general knowledge. In Study 1 (N = 131) a red (vs. green) progress bar impeded the performance in a knowledge test, but only for the male participants. In Study 2 (N = 190) the color of the survey's forward-button was manipulated (red vs. blue vs. mixed color) which led to a replication of the gender-dependent color effect. Evolutionary psychology and stereotype threat research explain why red impedes the activation of knowledge among men, but not among women.
Keywords: Color; General knowledge; Red; Web-based testing; Gender
Motivational factors that influence the acceptance of Moodle using TAM BIBAKFull-Text 1632-1640
  R. Arteaga Sánchez; A. Duarte Hueros
Moodle and other virtual teaching platforms have bolstered the ability and motivation of universities to support distance learning.
   The aim of our study is to improve understanding of the motivational factors behind student satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, with the Web-based learning platform, Moodle.
   Our study extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to include technical support and perceived self-efficacy, with the expectation that they influence usage of Moodle. We surveyed 226 students of the Business Administration and Management (LADE) and Infant and Primary School Teaching degree courses of the University of Huelva.
   The data showed that technical support has a direct effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Moodle usage was also directly influenced by perceived ease of use and attitude. The results reveal the importance of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness on attitude.
Keywords: Moodle; Technology Acceptance Model (TAM); E-learning
"It doesn't matter what you are!" Explaining social effects of agents and avatars BIBAKFull-Text 1641-1650
  Astrid M. von der Pütten; Nicole C. Krämer; Jonathan Gratch; Sin-Hwa Kang
Empirical studies have repeatedly shown that autonomous artificial entities, so-called embodied conversational agents, elicit social behavior on the part of the human interlocutor. Various theoretical approaches have tried to explain this phenomenon: According to the Threshold Model of Social Influence (Blascovich et al., 2002), the social influence of real persons who are represented by avatars will always be high, whereas the influence of an artificial entity depends on the realism of its behavior. Conversely, the Ethopoeia concept (Nass & Moon, 2000) predicts that automatic social reactions are triggered by situations as soon as they include social cues. The presented study evaluates whether participants' belief in interacting with either an avatar (a virtual representation of a human) or an agent (autonomous virtual person) lead to different social effects. We used a 2 × 2 design with two levels of agency (agent or avatar) and two levels of behavioral realism (showing feedback behavior versus showing no behavior). We found that the belief of interacting with either an avatar or an agent barely resulted in differences with regard to the evaluation of the virtual character or behavioral reactions, whereas higher behavioral realism affected both. It is discussed to what extent the results thus support the Ethopoeia concept.
Keywords: Virtual agents; Avatars; Social presence; Experimental study; Behavioral realism; Media equation
To control or not to control? Parenting behaviours and adolescent online aggression BIBAKFull-Text 1651-1656
  Danielle M. Law; Jennifer D. Shapka; Brent F. Olson
Non-empirical publications have espoused the importance of monitoring/controlling children's online and computer activities through monitoring software; however, no empirical research has verified whether this is a viable means for promoting responsible and safe internet use. This study examined the association between parenting behaviours and adolescent online aggression. The sample included 733 adolescents (451 females), between 10 and 18 years, from Western Canada. Participants completed a questionnaire that included questions on internet aggression, and parenting. The parenting questions were modified from Stattin and Kerr's (2000) questionnaire to better suit the online environment. Results from the univariate least squares factor analysis revealed two distinct factors: (1) Parent Solicitation (parents ask where child is going on the internet), (2) Child Disclosure (child naturally tells parents what they are doing). Hierarchical Linear Regression analysis revealed that having a computer in the bedroom increased the likelihood of engaging in online aggression and that adolescent self-disclosure of online behaviours (and not controlling or monitoring online activities) was negatively associated with online aggression. These findings emphasize the importance of establishing good communication between parents and adolescents rather than investing money on monitoring software and on controlling adolescent internet use.
Keywords: Internet aggression; Parenting; Child and adolescent development
Personal journal bloggers: Profiles of disclosiveness BIBAKFull-Text 1657-1666
  Erin E. Hollenbaugh
Personal journal blogs, which are primarily about bloggers' selves and inner states, are often characterized by high amounts of self-disclosure. This study employed the uses and gratifications perspective to reveal the characteristics of disclosive personal journal bloggers. Path analyses of data from an online survey revealed that the most disclosive bloggers were women who were generally disclosive in their offline lives as well. Disclosive bloggers were typically motivated to blog to archive and organize their thoughts, much as one would expect for an online diary. Target audience was a stronger predictor of disclosiveness than the potential audience. The theoretical and practical implications of study results are discussed, along with potential directions for future research.
Keywords: Communication; Self-disclosure; Individual differences; Motivation; Online social networks; Computer-mediated communication
Emotion encoding and interpretation in computer-mediated communication: Reasons for use BIBAKFull-Text 1667-1673
  Monica A. Riordan; Roger J. Kreuz
As computer-mediated communication (CMC) is increasingly used to build and maintain relationships, the examination of channel choice for the development of these social ties becomes important to study. Using free response data from Riordan and Kreuz (submitted for publication), we examine reasons for choosing among face-to-face, asynchronous email, or synchronous instant message channels to transmit negatively or positively valenced emotional information. The most common reason for choosing face-to-face over channels of CMC was the ability to use more nonverbal cues. The most common reason for choosing a CMC channel over face-to-face was to shield oneself from the message recipient. Face-to-face was deemed more effective, more personal, more comfortable, and less permanent than CMC channels. Reasons differed significantly by valence and channel. We suggest that better knowledge of why people choose certain channels for different types of socio-emotional communication can help develop more comprehensive theories of CMC that account for different attributes of each channel in information transmission.
Keywords: Computer-mediated; Emotion; Face-to-face; Email; Instant messenger
Age differences in perceptions of online community participation among non-users: An extension of the Technology Acceptance Model BIBAKFull-Text 1674-1684
  Jae Eun Chung; Namkee Park; Hua Wang; Janet Fulk; Margaret McLaughlin
This study examined age differences in perceptions of online communities held by people who were not yet participating in these relatively new social spaces. Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), we investigated the factors that affect future intention to participate in online communities. Our results supported the proposition that perceived usefulness positively affects behavioral intention, yet it was determined that perceived ease of use was not a significant predictor of perceived usefulness. The study also discovered negative relationships between age and Internet self-efficacy and the perceived quality of online community websites. However, the moderating role of age was not found. The findings suggest that the relationships among perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and intention to participate in online communities do not change with age. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations were discussed.
Keywords: Online community; Technology Acceptance Model; Generation gap; Older adults
Content information desired by Chinese users for effective use of information appliances BIBAKFull-Text 1685-1693
  Yinni Guo; Gavriel Salvendy; Robert W. Proctor
Many studies have been conducted to determine how to present information on mobile phones in such a way as to enhance usability, but those studies have not considered what information users need for effective decision making. To investigate what users want from mobile phones, we carried out a content preparation study. A questionnaire was constructed based on prior results from website content research, traditional usability studies on consumer electronics, and extensive study on various types of mobile phones; it was completed by 375 Chinese industrial participants. The statistical results revealed nine major factors of mobile phone content: information relating to input/search, functions, operation, multimedia functions, stored files, phone calls, help/service, accessory functions, and messages. Also, users of different ages and genders evidenced different requirements for mobile phone content, especially concerning accessory and multimedia functions. This study suggests guidelines for mobile phone designers targeted at the Chinese market and provides a base for content study of other information appliances.
Keywords: Content preparation; Mobile phone; Survey; Factor analysis; Information appliance
Cyber patients surfing the medical web: Computer-mediated medical knowledge and perceived benefits BIBAKFull-Text 1694-1700
  Gül Seçkin
Information and communication technologies have introduced new and impressive tools for information sharing and building computer-mediated knowledge repositories in a global context. Clinicians and researchers pay particular attention to technology as a promising tool to empower patients through self-health care management skills and to improve health care communication with providers. This represents a significant step in modern medicine of computer-integrated patient self-health care. This paper aims to examine perceived informational and decisional benefits of computer-mediated health and medical information, more specifically of cancer web-sites, and presents the results of two separate statistical models of perceived benefits. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses showed that the frequency and time spent visiting medical web-sites are significant predictors of perceived benefits of computer-mediated knowledge. The results also indicated that computer-mediated medical information empowers health consumers to make informed decisions for their health care. The discussion section of the paper contextualizes the findings within the current sociomedical trends of self-health care and partnership with health providers. It is important to understand the perceived benefits of using computer-mediated medical knowledge, so that information and communication technologies can be targeted to educate patients to make informed decisions and to develop patient self-health-care management competencies.
Keywords: Computer; Internet; Health; Patient; Information; Decision
Knowledge and information awareness for initiating transactive memory system processes of computer-supported collaborating ad hoc groups BIBAKFull-Text 1701-1709
  Mareike Schreiber; Tanja Engelmann
This paper presents an innovative approach for initiating processes of a transactive memory system in newly formed groups of experts collaborating computer-supported in a complex problem-solving task. Our empirical study compared 15 experimental and 15 control groups, each consisting of triads. In the experimental condition, the triads were provided with a tool for fostering knowledge and information awareness, that is, being informed about the knowledge and the underlying information of the collaboration partners in form of digital concept maps. In the control condition, the groups had no access to this tool. Results confirmed the potential of the tool to initiate processes of a transactive memory system: shared agreement of the knowledge of the other group members' knowledge proved to influence group performance positively. In addition, previous findings of the tool's potential to establish knowledge and information awareness and to augment group performance could be replicated. However, the postulated mediating effect of processes of a transactive memory system concerning the impact of knowledge and information awareness on group performance did not reach statistical significance. Aspects for future studies and implications of these findings regarding their practical implementation, for example, in teams of organizations, are discussed.
Keywords: Knowledge and information awareness; Transactive memory system; Computer-supported collaboration
Older adults talk technology: Technology usage and attitudes BIBAKFull-Text 1710-1721
  Tracy L. Mitzner; Julie B. Boron; Cara Bailey Fausset; Anne E. Adams; Neil Charness; Sara J. Czaja; Katinka Dijkstra; Arthur D. Fisk; Wendy A. Rogers; Joseph Sharit
Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption.
Keywords: Technology; Older adults; Work; Healthcare; Home
Why shy people use instant messaging: Loneliness and other motives BIBAKFull-Text 1722-1726
  C. Albert Bardi; Michael F. Brady
Existing research suggests shy people may satisfy their affiliation needs through computerized forms of communication such as instant messaging (IM). Fifty-five undergraduates completed an IM use index, the Cheek and Buss (1981) shyness scale and a motives for IM use scale developed for this study. It was found that the strongest motives for IM use were to increase personal contact as opposed to gain social ease or to decrease loneliness. While a direct association between shyness and IM use intensity was not found, shyness was associated with using IM to decrease loneliness in comparison to other motives. It was concluded that shyer people have multiple motives for using IM, but that decreasing loneliness is particularly important for them. Future research could examine how IM and other computerized communications compare to face-to-face interactions between shy and non-shy people.
Keywords: Shyness; Loneliness; Instant messaging; Computer-mediated communication
The effects of scaffolding metacognitive activities in small groups BIBAKFull-Text 1727-1738
  Inge Molenaar; Carla A. M. van Boxtel; Peter J. C. Sleegers
This study examined the effects of scaffolds on triads' metacognitive activities in complex open learning environments. In an experimental design, two experimental groups receiving scaffolds were compared with a control group. The experimental groups differed in the form of scaffolding messages used: structuring scaffolds vs. problematizing scaffolds. We analyzed the effects of scaffolding and the different forms of scaffolds on the amount of metacognitive activities of triads on the interpersonal plane. The results show that scaffolding has a significant effect on stimulating metacognitive activities; triads receiving scaffolds performed significantly more metacognitive activities on the interpersonal plane. Additionally, scaffolding also has a significant development effect; triads continue to show more metacognitive activities after the scaffolding is ceased. Finally, no significant differences between the two forms of scaffolding were found: triads receiving problematizing scaffolds did not showed more metacognitive activities during or after the scaffolding compared to triads receiving structuring scaffolds.
Keywords: Metacognitive activities; Scaffolding; Complex open learning environments; Virtual agents; Elementary education
It won't happen to me: Promoting secure behaviour among internet users BIBAKFull-Text 1739-1747
  Nicola Davinson; Elizabeth Sillence
Fraudulent activity on the Internet, in particular the practice known as 'Phishing', is on the increase. Although a number of technology focussed counter measures have been explored user behaviour remains fundamental to increased online security. Encouraging users to engage in secure online behaviour is difficult with a number of different barriers to change. Guided by a model adapted from health psychology this paper reports on a study designed to encourage secure behaviour online. The study aimed to investigate the effects of education via a training program and the effects of risk level manipulation on subsequent self-reported behaviour online. The training program 'Anti-Phishing Phil' informed users of the common types of phishing threats and how to identify them whilst the risk level manipulation randomly allocated participants to either high risk or low risk of becoming a victim of online fraud. Sixty-four participants took part in the study, which comprised of 9 males and 55 females with an age range of 18-43 years. Participants were randomly allocated to one of four experimental groups. High threat information and/or the provision of phishing education were expected to increase self-reports of secure behaviour. Secure behaviour was measured at three stages, a baseline measure stage, an intention measure stage, and a 7-day follow-up measure stage. The results showed that offering a seemingly tailored risk message increased users' intentions to act in a secure manner online regardless of whether the risk message indicated they were at high or low risk of fraud. There was no effect of the training programme on secure behaviour in general. The findings are discussed in relation to the model of behaviour change, information provision and the transferability of training.
Keywords: Security; Risk perception; Risk information; Training; Phishing; Internet
Beauty or realism: The dimensions of skin from cognitive sciences to computer graphics BIBAKFull-Text 1748-1752
  François Giard; Matthieu J. Guitton
As the most visible interface between the individual and the others, the skin is a key element of visually-carried inter-individual social information, since skin displays a wide array of information regarding gender, age, or health status. Adequate skin perception is central in individual identification and social interactions. This topic elicited marked interest in artists since the first development of visual arts in Antiquity. Often performed in order to identify the biological correlates of attractiveness, psychological research on skin perception made a jump forward with the development of virtual image synthesis. Here, we investigate how advances in both computer graphics and the psychology of skin perception may be turned to use in real-time virtual worlds. We propose a model of skin perception based both on purely physical dimensions such as color, texture, and symmetry, and on dimensions carrying socially-oriented information, such as perceived youth (information regarding putative fertility), markers of sexual dimorphism (information regarding hormonal status), and level of oxygenation (information regarding health status). It appears that for almost all of the dimensions of skin, maximal attractiveness and realism are the two opposite extremities of a single perceptive continuum.
Keywords: Avatar; Human-machine interactions; Uncanny valley; Skin perception; Synthesized skin; Virtual settings
The moderating effects of gender on e-commerce systems adoption factors: An empirical investigation BIBAKFull-Text 1753-1760
  Yujong Hwang
For e-commerce designers and human-computer interaction researchers, electronic commerce (e-commerce) systems adoption factors and the moderating effects of gender are important topics. Even though there are research endeavors to explain e-commerce systems adoption, one of the main questions to be answered is regarding the normative and affective factors based on the theory of reasoned action and self-determination theory. In this paper, social norms, perceived enjoyment, and their relationships to intention to adopt an e-commerce system are tested (n = 322). Furthermore, the moderating effects of gender are tested based on the sociolinguistic literature. As expected, the influence of social norms is stronger in the female group while the influence of enjoyment is stronger in the male group. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed in the paper.
Keywords: E-commerce; Social norms; Perceived enjoyment; Gender; Technology adoption
CASA, WASA, and the dimensions of us BIBAKFull-Text 1761-1771
  Pamela Karr-Wisniewski; Michael Prietula
In this paper we replicate and extend the work of the Computers are Social Actors (CASA) researchers who repeatedly found evidence that humans treat computers with typical social norms as if they were humans. We performed a between-subjects 2 × 2 factorial experiment to test our hypotheses as well as an exploratory factor analysis to further refine and validate a construct which measures politeness. We retest the CASA hypothesis and found that our new hypothesis -- Websites are Social Actors (WASA) reduces the CASA effect in contexts where individuals form a social attachment to websites instead of computers. We found evidence that suggests humans can exhibit politeness toward websites and literally (not virtually) treat them as social actors. Finally, we tease out the elements of politeness as a construct and identify the key items in the instrument for data reduction, and initiate efforts towards establishing reliability and construct validity. As we shall see, the results of an exploratory factor analysis are quite consistent to recent research in social cognition, and suggest that the politeness construct may be tapping similar and fundamental components of how humans engage with others in their social world.
Keywords: Computers are Social Actors (CASA); Politeness; Human-computer interaction; Websites
Cross-modal compensation between name and visual aspect in socially active avatars BIBAKFull-Text 1772-1776
  Matthieu J. Guitton
Avatars serve for humans immersed in virtual settings as the interface between real and virtual worlds. The avatar-creation process involves numerous choices, including choice of visual representation, and choices to imbue the character with personality. Here, we hypothesised that these choices are not independent, and that a cross-modal talk may occur between the different components of the avatar identity. Specifically, we investigated whether name properties may be affected by the visual aspect (human vs. non-human) of the avatar. We analyzed names structure of players characters from the popular massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG) World of Warcraft, which display both human and non-human avatars. We selected 1261 names of characters actively engaged in the in-game and out-game social networks. Analysis of the names revealed that female names presented more variability than male names, and contained systematically more vowels than male names. However, the strategy used to enrich the vowel composition of female names differed between human-like and non-human characters, suggesting that a lesser proximity with human regular appearance was compensated by an increase of "feminization" of the name. Altogether, our results suggest that a cross-modal compensation occurs between name and visual aspect in the creation of socially active avatars.
Keywords: Avatar; Embodiment; Gender effect; Name; Social interactions; Virtual human
The impact of goods-classification and landmarks for spatial knowledge and goods-finding in the elderly within a 3D virtual store BIBAKFull-Text 1777-1786
  Cheng-Li Liu
Online shopping has become quite popular since its first arrival on the internet. Although numerous studies have been performed to investigate various issues related to the internet store, some research issues relating to the spatial cognition of the elderly (the fastest growing internet group) when exploring a 3D virtual store still await further empirical investigation. The objective of this study was to examine how elderly users acquire spatial knowledge in an on-screen virtual store. Specifically, the impact of different types of landmarks on the acquisition of spatial knowledge was examined. In addition, in this study, goods-classification was seen as an implicit landmark associated with the acquisition of spatial knowledge. Therefore, it is worth observing the impact during the location of the goods and examining the combined effect with landmarks. The experimental results indicated that landmarks are important for the elderly as they attempt to locate goods within a 3D virtual store, no matter what types are used. However, landmarks are not the only resources for constructing spatial knowledge in a 3D virtual store; the classification of goods is also a good resource and may be more important than landmarks. In addition, the combined effect of goods-classification and landmarks in a 2D image would be best for the elderly in terms of acquired spatial cognition and the location of goods within a 3D virtual store.
Keywords: 3D virtual store; Goods-finding; Goods-classification; Landmarks; Route knowledge; Survey knowledge
The effects of interactive brand placements in online games on children's cognitive, affective, and conative brand responses BIBAKFull-Text 1787-1794
  Eva A. van Reijmersdal; Jeroen Jansz; Oscar Peters; Guda van Noort
This study investigated how persuasive messages integrated in an online game affects children's cognitive, affective, and conative responses to the brand, as well as their attitude toward the game itself. An experiment conducted among 2453 girls between the ages of 11 and 17 demonstrated that confrontation with interactive brand placement in the game resulted in more positive attitudes toward the game, higher top of mind awareness of the brand, more positive brand images, and more favorable behavioral intentions. In addition, consistent with persuasion literature and theories on child development, this study showed that there was a three-way interaction effect between exposure to the brand placement, age, and prior brand use for behavioral intentions. The youngest girls who had no prior experience with the brand were more strongly influenced by the brand placement than the oldest girls who had no prior brand experience.
Keywords: Brand placement; In-game advertising; Online games; Interactivity
A proposed model for evaluating the success of WebCT course content management system BIBAKFull-Text 1795-1805
  Tella Adeyinka; S. Mutula
WebCT is an online course management system which is accessed through the portal. It has a wide range of tools which support teaching and learning and enable online delivery of lecture notes, representations, surveys and quizzes, coursework, discussion boards and much more. Evaluation of WebCT systems success or effectiveness is a fundamental challenge to education institutions. A review of previous e-learning research suggests a focused evaluation approach, thus offering limited discussion of comprehensive views of WebCT systems success or systematic and practical guidance to its evaluations. Based on a prevalent information systems success model, this paper proposes and describes a revised model for evaluating WebCT systems success in educational settings. The study findings suggest that content quality, system quality, support service quality, teaching and learning quality, self-regulated learning, intention to use/use, user satisfaction and net benefits are important factors for evaluating the success of WebCT CCMS. Implications of the proposed model for theory and practice were illustrated. In addition, future research directions that extend the reported study are also preferred.
Keywords: E-learning; WebCT; Course content management system; Information system success; Information communication technology (ICT); Botswana
Cues in computer-mediated communication: A corpus analysis BIBAKFull-Text 1806-1817
  Monica A. Riordan; Roger J. Kreuz
An analysis of five contemporary corpora examines the use of several different cues in four channels of computer-mediated communication. With an in-depth corpus analysis, we show that a wealth of cues is available in online communication, and that these cues are often matched with words that have particular functions and/or semantic meanings. Using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count text analysis software (Pennebaker et al., 2007), we found the two largest categories represented by cue-laden words involved affect and cognitive mechanisms, suggesting that cues are largely used to indicate emotion or to disambiguate a message. We argue that learning the meaning of these cues is central to learning how people communicate nonverbally while online.
Keywords: Nonverbal; Email; Chat; Blogs; Cues; Online communication
Changes in adolescent online social networking behaviors from 2006 to 2009 BIBAKFull-Text 1818-1821
  Justin W. Patchin; Sameer Hinduja
As online social networking has become an immersive and pervasive phenomenon, traditional considerations and expectations of personal privacy have been drastically altered. This paradigmatic change has led to adolescents possibly making themselves vulnerable to embarrassment, censure, damage to one's name or reputation, or even victimization by others because of unwise postings or revelations online. The current study sought to determine the extent to which adolescent information disclosure on MySpace.com has changed between 2006 and 2009. We found significant changes in the nature of personal content made publicly available across the two time points and a trend in which teens are being increasingly more selective and discrete when it comes to what they share and with whom they share it.
Keywords: Social networking; MySpace; Internet; Cyberspace; Computer-mediated communication; Adolescence
Investigating aspects of an emerging digital ethnicity: Development of the Digital Ethnicity Scale (DES) BIBAKFull-Text 1822-1830
  Nan B. Adams; Thomas A. DeVaney; Wilma S. Longstreet
The Digital Ethnicity Scale (DES), utilizing Longstreet (1978) model of the aspects of ethnicity, was developed to describe the impact human interaction with digital communication technologies is having on cultural development. Longstreet's definition of ethnicity focuses on cultural development during the earliest stages of human development, prior to the onset of children's abstract thinking. The ultimate goal for the development of the Digital Ethnicity Scale is to describe those aspects of digital ethnicity and collect these descriptions along with demographic data to achieve profiles of various digital ethnicities. These digital ethnic profiles may provide insight into the social and educational needs of rapidly changing societal groupings with hopes of providing guidance for future practice. A 5-phase development process, including the development and validation of both Likert-type items and semantic differentials, was conducted with more than 2000 respondents. Both theoretical and practical results of this inquiry are presented.
Keywords: Socio-cultural patterns; Cultural context; Social development
Symmetry and aesthetics in website design: It's a man's business BIBAKFull-Text 1831-1837
  Alexandre N. Tuch; Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Klaus Opwis
In recent years the aesthetic appearance of user-interfaces has become a topic of increasing interest in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). At the same time, it is well known that there are gender-specific effects in HCI. The present study investigates the effect of web page symmetry by taking gender differences into account. A total of 60 people (30 male, 30 female) participated in a laboratory experiment, where 20 website start-pages had to be rated regarding symmetry, intuitive beauty, classical and expressive aesthetics. Results show that vertical symmetry is an important factor in aesthetic website design. It has an impact on intuitive straightforward beauty appraisals and on classical and expressive aesthetics judgments. Asymmetrically designed web pages were considered to be less beautiful and achieved lower scores on the classical and expressive dimensions. Moreover, the study indicates that the symmetry effect only occurs among male participants: only men react unfavorably to asymmetrically designed websites, whereas women's judgments are not influenced by symmetry. These findings should be taken into consideration by website designers, especially when they aim to design for target audience consisting of a majority of a certain gender.
Keywords: Web design; Gender effects; Classical aesthetics; Expressive aesthetics; HCI
Psychometric properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire BIBAKFull-Text 1838-1845
  Kevin J. Kelley; Elon M. Gruber
Several instruments have been designed to measure problems associated with excessive, compulsive, or addictive use of the Internet. One such instrument, the 18-item Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire, was recently published with data supporting a three subscale model (Demetrovics et al., 2008). These researches utilized an online format with a sample taken from the general population of Hungary. We utilized an American college student sample and a paper and pencil format to perform a confirmatory factor analysis of the PIUQ. In addition, we examined the reliability and construct validity of the PIUQ by examining the scales' relationship with several indices of psychological and physical health. CFA results indicate a barely adequate and not completely problem free three factor model for the PIUQ (χ² = 477.40; root mean square error = .097; comparative fit index = .831; Tucker Lewis coefficient = .804). Cronbach's α for the total scale was .91 while the Cronbach's α for each subscale were .81, .77, and .79. Construct validity for the model is demonstrated with significant correlations between the subscales and several indices of psychological and physical health. Suggestions for further research are provided.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; Internet addiction; Health; Methodology
Understanding factors affecting perceived sociability of social software BIBAKFull-Text 1846-1861
  Qin Gao; Yusen Dai; Zao Fan; Ruogu Kang
Sociability is considered to be important to the success of social software. The goal of the current study is to identify factors that affect the users' perception of the sociability of social software and to examine the impact of sociability on the users' attitude and behavior intentions. In a pilot study, 35 web users were interviewed to gain understanding of how they use social software to supplement their social life and to explore the possible factors that influence the users' utilization of social software. In the first study, a questionnaire was developed, and 163 valid responses were collected. From the factor analysis results, seven important factors for social software design emerged, which accounts for 63.3% of the total variance. In the second study, 246 participants were asked to evaluate one of ten popular social applications with respect to the seven factors, their perceived sociability, and their attitudes and intention regarding the use of the applications. Results show that sociability is influenced by social climate, benefits and purposes, people, interaction richness, self-presentation, and support for formal interaction. System competency is not a sociability factor, but it significantly influences the user's experience. Sociability and system competency, when combined, can predict 43% of users' attitude towards social software and 51% of their intentions to use social software.
Keywords: Sociability; Computer-mediated communication; Social software
Falling in love with online games: The uses and gratifications perspective BIBAKFull-Text 1862-1871
  Jen-Her Wu; Shu-Ching Wang; Ho-Huang Tsai
Playing online games is experience-oriented but few studies have explored the user's initial (trial) reaction to game playing and how this further influences a player's behavior. Drawing upon the Uses and Gratifications theory, we investigated players' multiple gratifications for playing (i.e. achievement, enjoyment and social interaction) and their experience with the service mechanisms offered after they had played an online game. This study explores the important antecedents of players' proactive "stickiness" to a specific online game and examines the relationships among these antecedents. The results show that both the gratifications and service mechanisms significantly affect a player's continued motivation to play, which is crucial to a player's proactive stickiness to an online game.
Keywords: Proactive stickiness; Uses and Gratifications theory; Service mechanisms; Presence; Continuance motivation; Online games
Corrigendum to "Causal knowledge-based design of EDI controls: An explorative study" [Comput. Hum. Behav. 23 (2007) 628-663] BIBFull-Text 1872
  Kun Chang Lee; Sangjae Lee