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BCSHCI Tables of Contents: 0001020304050607-107-208-108-209101112131415

Proceedings of the HCI'08 Conference on People and Computers XXII

Fullname:Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group
Note:Culture, Creativity, Interaction
Editors:Omar Abuelma'atti; David England
Location:Liverpool, United Kingdom
Dates:2008-Sep-01 to 2008-Sep-05
Standard No:ISSN 1477-9358; 1-906124-06-X, 978-1-906124-06-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: BCSHCI08-2
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. BCSHCI 2008-09-01 Volume 2
    1. Short Papers
    2. Student Papers
    3. Posters
    4. Panels
    5. Laboratory and Organisation Overviews
    6. Workshops
    7. Tutorials
    8. HCI Practice Day
    9. Doctoral Consortium

BCSHCI 2008-09-01 Volume 2

Short Papers

Enabling Storytelling by Aphasics in an Augmented Home Environment BIBAPDFFull-Text 3-6
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Jean-Bernard Martens
We present the design of a system for Aphasics that assist them in storytelling. Storytelling, in the sense of being able to relate recent and past experiences to relevant others, is considered to be crucial for the quality of life and psychological wellbeing of most people. The storytelling support system that we propose is primarily intended to be used by Aphasics in their post-rehabilitation period. Our focus is on the creation of daily stories with the help of passively captured materials, hence emphasizing the need for fairly effortless interaction from the side of the end user. End-user requirements gathering was especially difficult in this project, because of the verbal limitations in our user group. Many requirements for the system were hence decided through consulting proxies of the Aphasics, such as their caregivers. The preliminary feedbacks on our design provide interesting insights for the design of a more complete storytelling system for Aphasics. We also discuss some interesting challenges from a technological and methodological point of view that arose in the course of the design.
EZ Phone: Persuading Mobile Users to Conserve Energy BIBAPDFFull-Text 7-10
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Omar Mubin; Suleman Shahid; James F. Juola; Boris de Ruyter
Mobile persuasion is using a mobile device to motivate people to change their behavior in a positive way. Thus there is the potential in investigating how mobile technology could motivate people to change their behavior towards energy use in a home setting. In this paper we report a pilot study that was conducted to determine which of three visualization media (text, audio, multimedia) on a mobile device (EZ Phone: Energy Zaving Phone) can be the most effective in persuading users to conserve energy in a home setting. The design of the device was presented in the form of a video prototype. The study was carried out as a between subjects design with the type of medium the independent variable and persuasion was measured in the form of subjective perception. Our results show that text (SMS) is perceived to be the most persuading and Multimedia Message Service (MMS) the least persuading. We also present our thoughts on the implications to design and future development of our ongoing research on mobile persuasion.
Walk 2 Win: Towards Designing a Mobile Game for Elderly's Social Engagement BIBAPDFFull-Text 11-14
  Omar Mubin; Suleman Shadid; Abdullah Al Mahmud
In this paper we describe a user-centered approach to designing and evaluating a socially interactive mobile game for the elderly. The objective of the game is to encourage the elderly to socially engage amongst themselves and to make the time that they spend in the community center more enjoyable. The design of the game, known as Walk 2 Win was done for and with the elderly. Two levels of the game (easy, difficult) across two modes (single, multi player) were evaluated with the elderly in a community center over two sessions. Our results show that senior citizens are keen to play simple games having uncomplicated rules as long as they can customize the game according to their whims. Their preference lies in playing games that are enhancements of existing games that they usually play. It was found that the elderly expressed a strong preference and interest to build a team, with for example their grand children. Additionally it was revealed that games for the elderly should incorporate everyone, regardless of gender or their role in the game. The methodological lessons that we came across throughout the design process are also presented.
An Eye Tracking Study of How Font Size and Type Influence Online Reading BIBAPDFFull-Text 15-18
  David Beymer; Daniel Russell; Peter Orton
In order to maximize online reading performance and comprehension, how should a designer choose typographical variables such as font size and font type? This paper presents an eye tracking study of how font size and font type affect online reading. In a between-subjects design, we collected data from 82 subjects reading stories formatted in a variety of point sizes, san serif, and serif fonts. Reading statistics such as reading speed were computed, and post-tests of comprehension were recorded. For smaller font sizes, fixation durations are significantly longer, resulting in slower reading -- but not significantly slower. While there were no significant differences in serif vs. san serif fonts, serif reading was slightly faster. Significant eye tracking differences were found for demographic variables such as age group and whether English is the subject's first language.
The SenseCam as a Tool for Task Observation BIBAPDFFull-Text 19-22
  Daragh Byrne; Aiden R. Doherty; Gareth J. F. Jones; Alan F. Smeaton; Sanna Kumpulainen; Kalervo Järvelin
The SenseCam is a passive capture wearable camera, worn around the neck and developed by Microsoft Research in the UK. When worn continuously it takes an average of 2,000 images per day. It was originally envisaged for use within the domain of Human Digital Memory to create a personal lifelog or visual recording of the wearer's life, which can be helpful as an aid to human memory. However, within this paper, we explore its applicability as a tool for use within observational and ethnographic studies. We employed the SenseCam as a tool for the collection of observational data in an empirical study, which sought to determine the information access practices of molecular medicine researchers. The affordances of the SenseCam making it appropriate for use within this domain, as well as its limitations, are discussed in the context of this study. We found that while the SenseCam, in its current form, will not offer a complete replacement of traditional observational methods, it offers a complimentary and supplementary route to the collection of observational data.
Understanding Behaviors and Needs for Home Videos BIBAPDFFull-Text 23-26
  Marco Campanella; Jettie Hoonhout
Nowadays, people capture, edit and share more and more home videos. Devices with video capturing capability and services for video sharing and editing are becoming increasingly popular. This study was conducted to chart in more detail what users currently do with their home videos, and what their desires, problems and needs are. The results of an Internet-based survey learned that home videos have a social function. They are used to keep memories of group experiences and watched mainly with groups of interested acquaintances. Furthermore, home videos are shared and edited quite frequently. The insights we report here can serve as starting points for designing better and more helpful systems for managing home videos.
SMART: a SysteM of Augmented Reality for Teaching 2nd Grade Students BIBAPDFFull-Text 27-30
  Rubina Freitas; Pedro Campos
In this paper, we describe the design and evaluation of SMART, an educational system that uses augmented reality for teaching 2nd grade-level concepts, adequate and integrated with national curriculum guidelines. SMART puts children exploring concepts like means of transportation, types of animals and similar semantic categories through the use of a set of racquets that are used to manipulate a TV-show style game with 3D models which are superimposed to the real time video feed of the whole class. Experiments were performed with several classes of students in three different, local primary schools. Results suggest that SMART is effective in maintaining high levels of motivation among children, and also that SMART has a positive impact on the students' learning experience, especially among the weaker students.
Eunomia: Toward a Framework for Multi-touch Information Displays in Public Spaces BIBAPDFFull-Text 31-34
  Tom Cuypers; Jan Schneider; Johannes Taelman; Kris Luyten; Philippe Bekaert
Multi-touch interaction techniques are becoming more widespread because of new industrial initiatives to make this hardware available and affordable for the consumer market. To cope with the diversity in hardware setups and the lack of knowledge about developing generic multi-touch applications, we created a framework, Eunomia, for abstracting the hardware from the software and to enable software developers to easily develop interactive applications taking advantage of multitouch interaction. We describe our first set of applications created on top of this framework that are targeted for public spaces. During the deployment of these applications, we were able to observe users that are confronted with multi-touch technologies in a public space.
Distributed Cognition and Mobile Healthcare Work BIBAPDFFull-Text 35-38
  Joseph McKnight; Gavin Doherty
In this paper, we look at the application of the DiCoT methodology [4] to the analysis of a mobile healthcare setting. While the methodology includes a set of principles and themes, and provides significant leverage in the analysis of control room settings, the highly mobile nature of healthcare work throws up some unique challenges. We present an analysis of patient process management within a hospital using DiCoT. While the information flow and artefact analysis themes of the methodology were found to be useful in the analysis, the mobile nature of the work meant that the principles outlined for the physical theme only partially cover the issues of interest.
Future Mobile Health Systems: Designing Personal Mobile Applications to Assist Self Diagnosis BIBAPDFFull-Text 39-42
  Dina Ahmad; Andreas Komninos; Lynne Baillie
In Europe we live in an increasingly ageing society and solutions that help that ageing society to self care in context are a major goal for the EU and UK governments. Given this climate coupled with the fact that more than 80% of people aged 35-54 own a mobile phone (National Statistics, 2003) we believe that developing an easy to use application for self diagnosis may be of great use to this age group as they grow older. In our paper we present how we designed one such mobile application, targeted to 40-55 years olds with declining eyesight. Our system enables users to undertake self diagnosis via their mobile phone. This article reports our findings on the challenges of interface design for this particular age group.
Conveying Availability and Capability to Communicate in Naturalistic Interaction BIBAPDFFull-Text 43-46
  Victoria Land; Mary Lumkin; David Frohlich
This paper investigates the basis for social awareness; analysing naturalistic data to understand how people convey availability and capability to communicate in everyday interaction and how they use existing presence systems. The findings show that people in close personal relationships provide intermittent information about their activities and plans which are used to infer and negotiate future contact and communication decisions. The implications for more sophisticated cross-media communication systems are discussed.
Dance.Draw: Exquisite Interaction BIBAPDFFull-Text 47-51
  Celine Latulipe; Sybil Huskey
We present a light-weight, low-cost, portable system for interactive dance performances in which projected visualizations reflect the dancers' movements in real-time. This project has spawned a new and exciting collaboration between dance and technology at UNC Charlotte.
Ubiquitous Healthcare: Do we want it? BIBAPDFFull-Text 53-56
  Linda Little; Pam Briggs
In this paper we describe the development and test of a futuristic health scenario that allows the seamless exchange of sensitive personal data. The scenario was used to elicit user attitudes and concerns in thirty-eight focus groups drawn from a representative population sample. Emergent themes are described in terms of firstly, those hygiene factors that act as precursors to successful engagement with the technology, secondly, those motivators that would drive acceptance and thirdly, longer-term societal impact.
A Comparison of the Impact of Avoidance Cues in Hazard Avoidance During Evaluation of Text Entry BIBAPDFFull-Text 57-60
  Joanna Lumsden; Patrick Drost
The research presented in this paper is part of an ongoing investigation into how best to support meaningful lab-based evaluations of mobile technologies. In our previous work, we developed a hazard avoidance system for use during lab evaluations [1]; in the work reported here, we further assess the impact of this system, specifically in terms of the effect of avoidance cue type on speech-based text entry tasks.
Understanding Children's Contributions during Informant Design BIBAPDFFull-Text 61-64
  Emanuela Mazzone; Janet Read; Russell Beale
In this paper we describe the analysis of the outcomes of a design session with children. Designing with children is often considered an inspirational activity mainly useful for the designers to get first hand insights of the users' world. For this study we attempt an analytical approach to the results of a specific design session where children used low-tech prototyping to design the content of an interactive interface for a museum context. This analysis helped to inform the design of the specific product but was also useful to investigate methods of interpreting qualitative data of this kind. The analysis showed that the design method employed enabled the children to consider design features but also demonstrated that in some areas the children had only a limited understanding. Results from this work will be used to improve, and describe future design sessions.
Comparing Interaction Strategies for Constructing Diagrams in an Audio-only Interface BIBAPDFFull-Text 65-69
  Oussama Metatla; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Tony Stockman
Although research on non-visual access to visualisations is steadily growing, very little work has investigated strategies for constructing such forms of representation through non-visual means. This paper describes the design of two interaction strategies for constructing and manipulating relational diagrams in audio. We report on a study that compared the two strategies, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages in terms of how efficiently they support the activity of constructing diagrams in an audio-only interface.
Sharing Vocabularies: Tag Usage in CiteULike BIBAPDFFull-Text 71-74
  Sylvie Noël; Russell Beale
CiteULike is a collaborative tagging web site which lets users enter academic references into a database and describe these references using tags (categorizations of their own choosing). We looked at the tagging behavior of people who were describing four frequently entered references. We found that while people tend to agree on a few select tags, people also tend to use many variants of these tags. This lack of consensus means that the collaborative aspect of tagging is not as strong as may have been suggested in the past.
Office Activity Recognition using Hand Posture Cues BIBAPDFFull-Text 75-78
  Brandon Paulson; Tracy Hammond
Activity recognition plays a key role in providing information for context-aware applications. When attempting to model activities, some researchers have looked towards Activity Theory, which theorizes that activities have objectives and are accomplished through tools and objects. The goal of this paper is to determine if hand posture can be used as a cue to determine the types of interactions a user has with objects in a desk/office environment. Furthermore, we wish to determine if hand posture is user-independent across all users when interacting with the same objects in a natural manner. Our initial experiments indicate that a) hand posture can be used to determine object interaction, with accuracy rates above 94% for a user-dependent system, and b) hand posture is dependent upon the individual user when users are allowed to interact with objects as they would naturally.
What You See is What You Worry About: Errors -- Real and Imagined BIBAPDFFull-Text 79-82
  Janet C. Read
This paper describes a text task in which children wrote their own stories in their regular school books, copied these stories onto digital paper using digital pens, had their handwritten stories recognized by the computer software, and then, looked at the text presented back to them and highlighted errors. There was considerable variability in the ability of the children to spot errors. Some children marked text as being wrong when in fact it was right. Most children spotted almost all the errors but were less likely to notice errors where incorrect but reasonable words had been presented back to them than where the words given by the recognizer were nonsense. In 13 instances, children had one of their own errors corrected by the interface but this was not noticed. The study highlighted several difficulties with the classification and reporting of errors in handwriting recognition based interfaces especially in the counting and classification of errors. Two new metrics for classifying and counting errors in this context are therefore proposed in this paper.
Struggling with Gift-Giving Obligations: When Mobile Messages are too Laborious to Reciprocate BIBAPDFFull-Text 83-86
  Antti Salovaara
Messaging with new media should be fun, but sometimes participating in conversations can become a burden for users due to the effort required. In this paper, examples of such situations are presented from a study on a multimedia program for mobile phones that can be used to create MMS-based comic strips. The examples show how the social system of gift-giving obligations, originally presented by anthropologist Marcel Mauss, still has a role in everyday social interaction of today. The identified problems give rise to a number of design implications to alleviate problems in gift-giving.
Pixaura: Supporting Tentative Decision Making when Selecting and Sharing Digital Photos BIBAPDFFull-Text 87-91
  Lalatendu Satpathy; Saara Kamppari; Bridget Lewis; Ajay Prasad; Yong Woo Rhee; Benjamin Elgart; Steven Drucker
Current advances in digital technology promote capturing and storing more digital photos than ever. While photo collections are growing in size, the amount of time that can be devoted to viewing, managing, and sharing digital photos remains constant. Photo decision-making and selection has been identified as key to addressing this concern. After conducting exploratory research on photo decision-making including a wide-scale survey of user behaviors, detailed contextual inquiries, and longer-term diary studies, Pixaura was designed to address problems that emerged from our research. Specifically, Pixaura aims to bridge the gap between importing source photos and sharing them with others, by supporting tentative decision-making within the selection process. For this experience, the system incorporates certain core elements: 1) flexibility to experiment with relationships between photos and groups of photos, 2) the ability to closely couple photos while sharing only a subset of those photos, and 3) a tight connection between the photo selection and photo sharing space.
A Comparison of Motion and Keypad Interaction for Fine Manipulation on Mobile Devices BIBAPDFFull-Text 93-96
  Lasse Schwarten; Benjamin Walther-Franks; Christoph Grimmer; Sebastian Fei
Ever since the introduction of products such as the Nintento Wii or the Nokia N95, motion-based interaction has become en vogue in research and industry alike. The employment of this new form of interaction is the subject of extensive research, especially for mobile use. Tilt or gesture interaction allow for quick and intuitive manipulation since the device is already at hand.
   So far there is neither a consensus on which metaphors can support input based on device motion, nor what types of applications are benefited on device motion, nor what types of applications are benefited by this control. Motion-based approaches exist for coarse tasks such as selecting an entry from a menu, but how does such an input mechanism work for finer input? Further, it is important to scrutinize whether this new way of interacting really is an improvement over tried-and-tested keypad interaction.
   In order to address these questions, we present a comparison of tilt-based interaction with the established keypad interface fro fine manipulation. For this we developed a new metaphor for tilt-based control we call MarbleControl, which can be used for a wide range of applications.
In Search of Tangible Magic BIBAPDFFull-Text 97-100
  Diana Xu; Janet C. Read; Robert Sheehan
This paper describes a small study of children's drawings in the context of tangible interaction. The study was intended to discover what children could draw that would indicate what they understood about tangible interactions.
   Two different tangible interfaces were considered, and for each of these, a different reporting format was used. The children's drawings were coded by three researchers and the results aggregated.
   The study shows that the coding method chosen was effective in conveying the information from the diagrams. The different reporting methods were similar but there was some evidence that one reporting format seemed to favour the inclusion of people in the drawings. Around a third of all the drawings conveyed information pertaining to user experience and in particular, expressions of tangible magic.
Why an Emergency Alert System isn't Adopted: The Impact of Socio-Technical Context BIBAPDFFull-Text 101-104
  Philip Fei Wu; Yan Qu; Jennifer J. Preece
The purpose of this study is to understand the laggard adoption of an SMS-based emergency alert system on a university campus. Based on findings from in-depth interviews and a focus group, we discuss some critical issues in designing and implementing such alert systems, with a focus on the sociocultural factors that de-motivate people to use them. Our findings show that, even for a system with simple technology, the adoption process involves complex interactions between individual perceptions and the social context in which the system is situated.

Student Papers

Efficiency of Multimodal Metaphors in the Presentation of Learning Information BIBAPDFFull-Text 107-110
  Marwan Alseid; Dimitris Rigas
The comparative study described in this paper has been conducted to investigate the effect of including multimodal metaphors on the usability of e-learning interfaces. Two independent groups of users were involved to evaluate two different interfaces of an experimental e-learning platform. The control group used the visual only interface that presents information about class diagram notation in textual approach, and the experimental group used the multimodal interface in which a combination of recorded speech sounds, non-speech sounds (earcons), and avatar with simple facial expressions were employed to communicate the same information. Three usability parameters which are efficiency, effectiveness, and users' satisfaction were considered in the study. The scope of this paper is to discuss the results that related to efficiency only, which has been measured by task completion time. It was found that the multimodal interface group taken significantly less time to complete the experimental tasks compared to the visual only interface group. These results encouraged for further exploration to examine the contributing role of each of the applied multimodal metaphors.
Supporting Scenario Building in Product Design BIBAPDFFull-Text 111-114
  Irene Anggreeni; Mascha van der Voort
Designing consumer products has grown more challenging due to the increasingly complex characteristics of these products. Design research has promoted the use of scenarios -- concrete stories about product use -- to support the design process. However, design practice still lacks a thorough guidance that integrates various scenario uses effectively. In this paper, we describe a software concept that guides designers in generating meaningful scenarios. Inspired by design practice, we expect the support tool to serve as a framework for documenting design knowledge, enabling designers to make well-informed decisions.
News Not Noise: Socially Aware Information Filtering BIBAPDFFull-Text 115-118
  Jonathan Melhuish; Russell Beale
An understanding of how people in social networks consume news media by and about their friends shows that information overload is soon going to be a major problem for many participants. Users dislike manually prioritizing their friendships to help organize this data, and this leads us to develop a new interface to help users to find the news that most interests them by providing a visual representation of social proximity, in which friends most visited and those most likely to be met offline we prioritized.
Bodily Awareness: An Exploration in Critical Design BIBAPDFFull-Text 119-122
  Daniel Brynolf; Vanessa Carpenter; Mads Hobye; Henrik Svarrer Larsen
There exists a routine in most people's lives wherein they wake, work, and sleep with few activities in between those main moments. During this routine, typical behaviors occur wherein the participants are completely numb to the activities that they are completing each day, they are so used to doing them that they no longer are aware of their movements. Work and everyday life is so typical that people feel the need to exercise to offset their lack of movement, their typical actions. Assuming this situation, we seek to explore how everyday bodily attention and movement can be challenged, and made aware. If there is a possibility that we can make people aware of their full body movements, we can therefore create the tendency for people to become more explorative in their daily lives. We explore concepts of the body-mind disconnect, introduce elements of curiosity and examine unawareness of body. We developed a process of research wherein we conducted initial research observations, a series of low, mid and high fi prototypes, body movement workshops, and cultural probes to examine how people experience bodily awareness.
Usability Framework for the Design and Evaluation of Multimodal Interaction BIBAPDFFull-Text 123-126
  Jaeseung Chang; Marie-Luce Bourguet
The design and evaluation of multimodal interaction is difficult. For designers in industry, developing multimodal interaction systems is a big challenge. Although past researches have presented various methodologies, they have addressed only specific cases of multimodality and failed to generalise their methodologies to a range of applications. In this paper, we present a usability framework for the design and evaluation of multimodal interaction. First, in the early phase of multimodality design, elementary multimodal commands are elicited using traditional usability techniques. Second, based on the CARE (Complementarity, Assignment, Redundancy, and Equivalence) properties and the FSM (Finite State Machine) formalism, the original set of elementary commands is automatically expanded to form a more comprehensive set of multimodal commands. Third, this new set of multimodal commands is evaluated in two ways: user-testing and error-robustness evaluation. This framework acts as a structured and general methodology both for designing and evaluating multimodal interaction. We expect that it will help designers to produce more usable multimodal systems.
PDP -- Pen Driven Programming BIBAPDFFull-Text 127-130
  Jonathan Frye; Björn Franke
Programming is an activity centred primarily around the keyboard which is not necessarily the optimal input device for all users. Little research has taken place into alternative input devices for programming despite huge advances in handwriting and voice recognition for natural language. This project explored using a pen as the primary input device for programming. A variety of different methods for using the pen were designed, developed and evaluated. Existing variable and method declarations were used in the handwriting recognition to improve its accuracy. Additionally code generation techniques were explored to minimize the volume of writing required. These features were then integrated into Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, a commercial IDE, to enable the evaluation of a pen driven environment complete with all the features expected of a modern day IDE.
Seam Carving for Enhancing Image Usability on Mobiles BIBAPDFFull-Text 131-134
  Nicholas Hill; Parisa Eslambolchilar
In this paper we discuss a visual interface for presenting large images on small screen devices. We use the seam carving algorithm as an example technique to improve the readability of images, experimenting with it in various ways. We explain the results of a pilot study where we examined the use of seam carving algorithms on a small screen, making comparisons with simple other image processing methods. This is the first example of a visual interface which uses the seam carving algorithm for mobile devices. We discuss scenarios for the use of such techniques.
Can Technology-rich Spaces Support Multiple Uses? BIBAPDFFull-Text 135-138
  Nadia Pantidi; Hugh Robinson; Yvonne Rogers
A number of technology-rich spaces have been designed and created over the last few years with the purpose of supporting and enhancing learning, collaboration, community participation and a variety of everyday activities. Our research is concerned with how such spaces are used and whether they can support multiple uses. We report on an observational fieldwork study of a technology-rich multipurpose space based in a library. We examine its everyday use and discuss the tensions that were revealed in our analysis between anticipated and actual use. These are: (i) public versus private, (ii) play space versus meeting room and (iii) technology use versus non-use.
Representing Location in Location-based Social Awareness Systems BIBAPDFFull-Text 139-142
  Michael Voong; Russell Beale
We analyze the results of a survey distributed to heavy users of social networking website on current mobile communications practices regarding location disclosure. We discovered that deception on location disclosure is a common practice amongst this demographic. We also discovered privacy issues of location are reduced in line with cue accuracy. We discuss the social behavior of deception in location sharing, and discover that online social network users are more open to revealing location, but more likely to be deceptive. We demonstrate the user interface of a mobile location-based awareness system that allows the user's location cue and disclosure accuracy to be set explicitly.


Exploring Multimodal Robotic Interaction through Storytelling for Aphasics BIBAPDFFull-Text 145-146
  Omar Mubin; Abdullah Al Mahmud
In this poster, we propose the design of a multimodal robotic interaction mechanism that is intended to be used by Aphasics for storytelling. Through limited physical interaction, mild to moderate aphasic people can interact with a robot that may help them to be more active in their day to day activities. In our proposed design Aphasics interact with the iCat robot which recognizes and understands the gestures of Aphasics hereby enabling both of them to participate in a one to one interaction. This interaction helps Aphasics to share and reinforce their experience of storytelling and consequently helps them to reengage in their post-stroke life.
Interactive Whiteboards in the Living Room? -- Asking Children about their Technologies BIBAPDFFull-Text 147-148
  Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read
In this poster we report the findings from a study of technologies in the home and school and use these results to discuss the validity and variability of children's reports of technologies.
   The results indicate that children may not understand well the types of interactive technologies that were discussed and that there may be some confusion about the names of technologies. In addition, the study indicated some confusion about where a technology resides.
Experiences in Designing Personal Health Assistants for the Impending Aged Generation BIBAPDFFull-Text 149-150
  Dina Ahmad; Andreas Komninos; Lynne Baillie
Our work aims to address the problems of designing health assistant applications that run on mobile devices. We discuss the lessons learnt through the design of a mobile application for use by 45-55 year olds, who will be the likely users of such assistive technologies within the next decade.
Design Approach for Touch Based User Interfaces BIBAPDFFull-Text 151-152
  Hyun-Chul Lee; Jung-Woon Lee
Touch based interfaces are commonplace these days. A design approach for touch based user interfaces carried out in the course of developing a digital system for nuclear power plants is introduced in this paper. A style guide and human factors experiment play an important role in designing touch based user interfaces.
Are Concepts Useful for Organizing Search Results? BIBAPDFFull-Text 153-154
  P. Y. Ko; R. W. P. Luk; E. K. S. Ho; F. L. Chung; D. L. Lee
This paper reports an explorative study on organizing search results by concepts that are selected titles of Wiki pages. Because of limited display areas and for ease of navigation, two novel algorithms identify at most three general concepts, and at most five of their specific concepts for display. Our evaluation shows that the retrieval effectiveness improvement is significant at 90% confidence level using the paired student' s t-test, albeit our users have no access to document titles nor to the content.
Involvement in Video Material: Concept Mapping BIBAPDFFull-Text 155-156
  Nele Van den Ende; Jettie Hoonhout; Lydia Meesters
Involvement is an important mediating factor in judgements concerning user experience. Concept mapping was used to further understand and define the construct of involvement within the context of watching television.


Seeding Without Leading: Making Space for Participant Contribution in Design Elicitation Techniques BIBAPDFFull-Text 159-161
  Ann Light; Pam Briggs; Karen Martin
As HCI embraces experience design, it will increasingly rely on new elicitation methods that are capable of drawing out the multi-faceted subjectivities of individuals without being overly prescriptive as to the final design or experience outcome. In this panel we wish to describe and discuss subtle elicitation techniques that allow the elicitation of participant ideas and interests with minimum prejudicing by the researcher. We argue that leaving space for meaning to be made by project informants is a valuable approach to understanding both design requirements and use issues. We show work that has come from taking this approach and discuss why we have been concerned to keep a creative space open in our research and how we invite people into it.
HCI: Whose Job is it Anyway? BIBAPDFFull-Text 163-164
  Tom Stewart
A panel of experts on human computer interaction (HCI) argues about who is best placed to 'own' HCI and the user centred design process, The experts come from a range of private and public sector organisations, both large (like Microsoft and the NHS) and small (System Concepts). The format of the panel will be loosely based on the popular radio and TV panel game "Whose line is it anyway?"

Laboratory and Organisation Overviews

The Creativity and Cognition Studios BIBAPDFFull-Text 165-168
  Ernest Edmonds
In this paper, we describe the Creativity and Cognition Studios as the University of Technology, Sydney. We give a brief overview of the work being conducted on creative uses of digital technology, advances in that technology and new digital art.
The HCI Lab at UNC Charlotte BIBAPDFFull-Text 169-170
  Celine Latulipe; Heather Richter Lipford
At the Human Computer Interaction Lab (HCILab) at UNC Charlotte, we investigate novel ways for people to interact with computers, and through computers with their environments. Our research covers a broad range of areas within Human Computer Interaction, such as Novel Interaction and Multimedia, Privacy, Creativity, and Visual Analytics. We collaborate with researchers in a number of areas related to HCI, such as visualization, gaming, art, and psychology. We also study interaction in a variety of domains such as intelligent information systems, information privacy and security, image processing and graphics, and intelligence analysis.
UsaLab: the Experience of a Usability Lab from the Mexican Perspective BIBAPDFFull-Text 171-172
  Mario A. Moreno Rocha; Dayfel Hernández Martinez
This paper presents the knowledge and lessons learned from our experience running the first usability lab in Mexico, originated from the academia and now moving into servicing the industry. It also describes the HCI research made in our university, our current projects and future direction, from a Mexican perspective.
SArt Project: Research in the Intersection between Software and Art BIBAPDFFull-Text 173-176
  Anna Trifonova; Letizia Jaccheri
In this article we present the research of SArt project at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. In SArt we have the vision that software engineering can benefit from multidisciplinary research at the intersection with art for the purpose of increasing innovation and creativity. The group participates in the development of several interactive art installations and studies the issues and problems in this particular domain. Our findings show several peculiarities of the software development projects which require further study from software engineering perspective. Furthermore, we observe that some important software engineering concepts, like testing and maintenance, which are recognized as important in contemporary software development, are often underestimated in interactive installation art.


E-health BIBAPDFFull-Text 179-180
  Elizabeth Sillence; Linda Little; Pam Briggs
E-health refers to information and health services delivered via the Internet or related technologies. Whilst usage statistics suggests that the internet is an e-health success story issues surrounding quality of information, user interaction and personalization raise important questions for researchers and designers alike. The move towards ubiquitous computing accentuates these concerns and highlights the relevance of trust, privacy and disclosure to the debate. This one-day workshop will bring together an interdisciplinary group of researchers and practitioners to discuss how the fields of human computer interaction and applied psychology can address the issues raised by the growing domain of e-health.
Creating Creative Processes: A Workshop Demonstrating a Methodological Approach for Subjects Between the Sciences and the Arts BIBAPDFFull-Text 181-182
  Carola Boehm
There is a lack of 'explicit education' of different modes of creativity and different methodologies for initiating creative processes. This is important for not only art practitioners, but specifically for developers of tools that support creative processes. The workshop, titled the "Creating-Creative-Processes-Workshop", will demonstrate how a series of short exercises can provide a brief experience with a wide variety of distinct forms of creative processes, geared towards professionals that sit "inbetween" the sciences and the arts. Consequently participants experience a greater critical awareness of the methodologies and techniques chosen to create something artistic, the design of tools for creative productions, the understanding of creative processes in us humans, and the potential diversity of interaction between software tools and humans in the process of being creative.
Critical Issues in Interaction Design BIBAPDFFull-Text 183-184
  Mark Blythe; Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell; Alan Blackwell
Computing technology is now so entwined with everyday life that enquiries into human computer interaction (HCI) are also studies of society and culture Cultural and Critical theory is then increasingly relevant to studies of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). It is both timely and important to develop understandings of the strengths and limitations of the various perspectives available within the fractious traditions of cultural and critical theory. This workshop will consider the challenges of making such theory relevant and accessible to HCI and interaction design.
HCI for Technology Enhanced Learning BIBAPDFFull-Text 185-186
  Willem-Paul Brinkman; Charles van der Mast; Annette Payne; Joshua Underwood
The involvement of technology to support and enhance learning is ever increasing; for example moving from the traditional blackboard to electronic whiteboards, from printed books to virtual reality training simulations, and from class room meetings to (a-)synchronised meeting over the web with handheld mobile devices. These technologies promise improved efficiency for traditional ways of learning or even to open up totally new ways of learning. Designing technology-enhanced learning that engages learners in successful learning strategies requires an understanding of the learning context, learners' needs, motivations, habits and desires as well as ease of use. This workshop invites researchers, designers, and educators to discuss their work in this area and explore how HCI practices and methods can be applied or should be extended.
Evaluation Instruments for Creativity Support Tools BIBAPDFFull-Text 187-188
  Celine Latulipe; Michael Terry
Significant research has been dedicated to the development of creativity support tools, tools intended to amplify human creativity in the arts, sciences, and design disciplines. While examples of such tools abound, instruments are generally lacking to systematically and reliably assess these tools' impact on the creative process. Without these instruments, it is difficult to identify what aspects of a tool's design most positively affect the creative process. This workshop will focus on the development of evaluation instruments for creativity support tools. From this workshop, we expect a range of instruments to be proposed, explored, and eventually developed. These instruments will range from cognitive assessment instruments (e.g., modified forms of the NASA TLX), to heuristic evaluations for creativity support tools, to techniques that meld with qualitative methods.
Emotion in HCI -- Designing for People BIBAPDFFull-Text 189-190
  Christian Peter; Elizabeth Crane; Marc Fabri; Harry Agius; Lesley Axelrod
As computing is changing and becoming increasingly social in nature, the role of emotions in computing has become ever more relevant and commercial. Emotions are central to culture, creativity, and interaction. The topic attracts more and more researchers from a range of multidisciplinary fields including design, gaming, sensor technologies, psychology and sociology. The need for discussion, exchange of ideas, and interdisciplinary collaboration is ever-increasing as the community grows. This workshop will meet requirements of individuals working in the field, giving them a podium to explore different aspects of emotion in HCI, raise questions and network with like-minded people on common subjects. The workshop will focus around working group sessions, and will use predominantly small group work, rather than being presentation-based.
Workshop HCI for Medicine and Health Care (HCI4MED) BIBAPDFFull-Text 191-192
  Andreas Holzinger; Harold Thimbleby; Russell Beale
Ensuring good usability can be seen as the key success factor in our whole digital world: technology must support people. In particular, Medicine and Healthcare are currently subject to exceedingly rapid technological change. Vital areas for the economy include health of nations; medicine and healthcare entangles everybody, accordingly the role of usability is of increasing importance. Consequently, Medicine and Healthcare are a great challenge for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research; however, it is of vital importance that the findings are integrated into engineering at a systemic level. Information Processing, in particular its potential effectiveness in modern Health Services and the optimization of processes and operational sequences, is of increasing interest, but we need to ensure that we engineer effective solutions as well as understanding the stakeholders and the issues they can and do encounter. It is particularly important for Medical Information Systems (e.g. Hospital Information Systems and Decision Support Systems) to be designed from the perspective of the end users, especially given that this is a diverse set of people.
HCI and the Older Population BIBAPDFFull-Text 193-194
  Joy Goodman-Deane; Suzette Keith; Gill Whitney
HCI issues for older people are extremely important in light of the rapidly ageing population in developed countries. In addition, technology offers great potential for this age group but will only be useful if it can be used effectively by its target users. In this workshop, we will therefore examine how HCI can address the needs and situations of this increasing older population. We aim to build up and support the research community in this area by providing a forum for the presentation of current work and a platform for discussing key challenges in this area. This workshop continues a successful series held at HCI in recent years and this year focuses on methodology, exploring how older people can be considered and included most effectively in design.
First International Workshop on using Ontologies in Interactive Systems, ONTORACT'08 BIBAPDFFull-Text 195-196
  Matt-Mouley Bouamrane; Saturnino Luz; Masood Masoodian
The aim of the workshop is to hold a multidisciplinary event bringing together researchers and practitioners to share their experiences of using ontologies for managing user interaction and interactive systems.
Innovations in Measuring Accessibility: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives BIBAPDFFull-Text 197-198
  Helen Petrie; Chris Power; Ray Adams; Faustina Hwang; Gerhard Weber; Jenny Darzentas; Carlos A. Velasco
Recently, there has been an increased awareness in the general public, in government and in business that people with disabilities and older people have distinct needs and preferences that must be met in order for them to participate as equal members of environments incorporating information and communications technologies. With this increased awareness has come legislation and company policies stating the necessary provision of accessible systems for disabled and older people in all facets of society.
   In order for these policies to be properly implemented there is a need to further understand accessibility and its impact on the people and systems around us. This workshop will focus on exploring the concept of accessibility and the boundaries of accessibility research. It is intended to bring together individuals working in disparate fields of research to improve the definition of accessibility and to refine our understanding of the as yet unaddressed barriers in the information society such as the impact of mobile technology and the aging population.
Aesthetics, Digital Technology and Collaboration BIBAPDFFull-Text 199-200
  Tommaso Colombino; Antonietta Grasso; David Martin; Jacki O'Neill; John Bowers
The workshop examines aesthetics-in-action through naturalistic studies focusing on the role of technology in artistic composition-production, performance, consumption, aimed at creating a body of knowledge to inform innovative technology design.
Designing for People who do not Read Easily BIBAPDFFull-Text 201-202
  Caroline Jarrett; Katie Grant; William Wong; Neesha Kodagoda; Kathryn Summers
Many people do not read easily for all sorts of reasons: social and cultural, because of impairments, or because of their context. Even in the area of impairments, design for people with learning disabilities might be very different from design for people with visual impairments. But many sets of guidelines, such as WCAG 2.0, are promulgated that attempt to provide one unified approach to design. This workshop will attempt to explore issues in design for people who do not read easily: what do we know, what commonalities can we exploit, and what we need to find out.
The Challenges Faced by Academia Preparing Students for Industry: What We Teach and What We Do BIBAPDFFull-Text 203-204
  Lidia Oshlyansky; Paul Cairns; Angela Sasse; Chandra Harrison
This workshop re-opens the discussion of the challenges faced by academia when preparing students to take jobs in industry. The workshop's goal is to develop a framework by which academia and industry can better communicate and resolve their differing needs and goals. The workshop will provide practical guidance for academia and industry to take forward and continue the dialogue.
Evaluating Player Experiences in Location Aware Games BIBAPDFFull-Text 205-206
  Rod McCall; Anne-Kathrin Braun; Barbara Maria Grüter
This workshop will bring together practitioners, students and researchers with an interest in studying player experiences and evaluating playability and usability of location aware games ranging from mixed reality environments through to mobile phone based systems. It will specifically explore the applicability of current HCI practice, how to enhance or develop new techniques and lessons learned from existing studies in the form of methodologies and general design principals.
HCI and the Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Services BIBAPDFFull-Text 207-208
  Peter J. Wild
Services are considered to be one of the key growth areas within local and global economies. Services and Service Design are emerging, crossing, and in some cases redefining disciplinary boundaries. Approaches to Service design have emerged that share HCI commitment to working with and for people albeit in the development of useful services, rather than IT artefacts. However there has been little explicit interaction between the two communities. This workshop will explore HCI's actual and potential inputs to Service Design activities and vice versa.
Whole Body Interaction 2 BIBAPDFFull-Text 209-210
  David England
In this workshop we will explore the multi-disciplinary research topics of whole body interaction. Generally interaction design is considered as a non-integrated collection of physical behaviour by users. However as technology advances we can integrate the behaviour of the whole body at multiple levels. In this workshop we will explore these levels and recommend some directions for future research.


Low Cost Prototyping: Part 1, or How to Produce Better Ideas Faster by Getting User Reactions Early and Often BIBAPDFFull-Text 213-214
  Stephen Brown; Andreas Holzinger
Although approaches to User Centered Software Development have existed for almost 20 years a rift still exists between theory and practice. In practice, many software projects are designed at the code level. Almost automatically, the end user -- the human being -- vanishes from the viewpoint of the software developers. Good Usability Engineering combines complex back-end functionalities with a well operated, attractive, effective and efficient user interface, with full regard to efficiency. The first half of this two-part tutorial provides practical guidance on how to resolve web design issues quickly using paper prototypes. You will be introduced to the STAR model (Stage, Types, Aims, Resources) for determining an appropriate prototyping/test strategy and then guided through a series of team based activities to produce a paper based micro Website design. In the second part these designs are tested to provide insights into the thinking and behaviour of end users.
Using Personas Effectively BIBAPDFFull-Text 215-216
  Peter Bagnall
Personas are a powerful design and communication tool to help all those involved in the creation of interactive systems to better focus their efforts on their users. A persona is a fictional character made to represent an archetypal user, and is best derived from field research. They help direct design, and clearly communicate that design to both to marketing and engineering teams.
Low Cost Prototyping: Part 2, or How to Apply the Thinking-Aloud Method Efficiently BIBAPDFFull-Text 217-218
  Andreas Holzinger; Stephen Brown
Customer satisfaction with regard to user interfaces becomes increasingly more important and is, eventually, decisive for the selection of systems within a competitive market. End-users demand benefits and a clear increase in value. They expect efficient and optimum support in their work with their interfaces. One possible method to achieve this is User-Centered Design, which means to incorporate end-users in the interface development from scratch. Essential is the knowledge about the end-user, which in return, will lead to better insights into their thinking and behavior, consequently resulting in better user interfaces. The challenge is to combine complex back-end functionalities with a well operated, attractive, effective and efficient user interface. Thinking Aloud (THA) is one of the most valuable usability engineering methods to address this challenge. In combination with the use of paper mock-ups and appropriate tasks software engineers are able to gain insight into the thinking and behaviour of their end users. Videos taken during the THA sessions can be analyzed and the insights integrated into redesign. THA was first used by psychologists during research in problem solving.
Provoking Creative Design: Making it Scale BIBAPDFFull-Text 219-220
  Neil Maiden; Sara Jones
Creativity is indispensable for more innovative interactive system development. This tutorial is relevant to anyone involved in large projects that are exploiting new technologies or developing new interactive systems and media. The tutorial will familiarize participants with both the need for creativity, and the techniques and tools to bring this about. It will interleave short presentations with group work activities that allow participants to use different techniques for stimulating creativity. No prior knowledge of creativity models or techniques is expected. Over the last 6 years, the presenters have designed and run 14 different creativity workshops in projects developing large-scale interactive systems for major clients. Neil Maiden is Professor of Systems Engineering in the Centre for HCI Design at City University, and Sara Jones is the RCUK academic fellow in creative socio-technical system design.
Research Methods for HCI BIBAPDFFull-Text 221-222
  Anna L. Cox; Paul Cairns; Harold Thimbleby; Natalie Webb
The aim of the tutorial is to help researchers, particularly early career researchers, to develop the appropriate skills to make a useful research contribution to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). This is in recognition of the fact that HCI draws on a wide variety of disciplines which means that there is a wide variety of methods that a researcher could use and moreover new researchers may have education or experience in only a small fraction of the methods available.

HCI Practice Day

Are you Searching for Ways to Find Information? BIBAPDFFull-Text 225-227
  Colin Bird
Effective information retrieval is important not only for its own sake but also for improving our understanding and allowing us to evolve our information into knowledge and wisdom, and thus to stimulate our creativity and enhance our culture. Classification enables us to discover those items that are about the subjects in which we are interested, but for greater effectiveness we must harness the power of community-developed folksonomies in alliance with formal taxonomies. This paper discusses experiments aimed at realizing such an alliance.
Label Placement in Forms -- What's Best? BIBAPDFFull-Text 229-230
  Caroline Jarrett
The details of forms design often absorb unreasonable amounts of designers' time. For example, where should labels be placed? The recent fashion has been to right-justify the labels and place them to the left of the fields -- is that really always the right answer? This talk draws on the author's 15 years' experience of forms design and on recent eye-tracking data.
Mobile LifeDiaryTM: True Life Management Service BIBAPDFFull-Text 231-235
  Youngho Rhee; Banghun Chun; Eun Jung Lee
Recently, mobile devices penetrate people's everyday life and become personalized necessaries of human's life. Therefore, people, today, always carry mobile device anytime and anywhere. Given the current lifestyle, the present paper believes that mobile device evolves to personal life recorder for caching everyday life. The LifeDiary creates daily activity automatically in a time line and allow to share their memories through online. In addition, p.c. client encourages users to generate their contents simply given simple template. Mobile LifeDiary encourages users to create, synchronize, and share their everyday life.
Exploring the Impulsion and Vibration Effects of Tactile Patterns BIBAPDFFull-Text 237-240
  Muhammad Tahir; Gilles Bailly; Eric Lecolinet
This paper explores the impulsion and vibration properties of different tactile patterns. These properties describe the unique states of the pins for example raised or lowered. The tactile feedback is provided by Braille pins on a finger and is in the form of different patterns chosen for the experiments. We tested these features on the Braille display of dimension 4x2 (8 pins). The experiments were conducted to determine the selection time and error rate of impulsion and vibration characteristics. We report preliminary results of informal tests. We also discuss the related issues and propose possible future directions.
User Test of Soccer Highlights Application BIBAPDFFull-Text 241-244
  Lu Wang; Pedro Fonseca; Bas Zoetekouw
This paper describes an evaluation of a consumer application for soccer highlights detection, which combines advanced user interaction with an underlying automatic highlights detection algorithm. The application was developed for a home entertainment setting, i.e., for non-professional use, and was implemented on a Media Center PC with a remote control. The evaluation uses a qualitative assessment to measure the participants' satisfaction with the application, and investigates their satisfaction regarding several important factors, such as the participants' expectations and their satisfaction with the highlights. In the evaluation, we found that the participants' expectations regarding a soccer highlights detection application vary widely, and there is a gap between what participants expect and what any automatic detection application can provide. Despite this gap, the results from the qualitative assessment indicate that the application is very positively perceived by the participants. The results indicate that the participants showed positive satisfaction with the application, especially in its ease-of-learning, ease-of-use, and the feeling of being in control. Moreover, the results suggest new and further tuned user requirements that help improve satisfaction with the application.

Doctoral Consortium

Helping Users Create and Remember More Secure Text Passwords BIBAPDFFull-Text 247-248
  Alain Forget
This doctoral research aims to persuade users to choose and remember more secure text passwords. The first component involved user studies demonstrating that users can be persuaded to create more secure text passwords. Unfortunately, the stronger passwords were not as memorable as we had hoped. For the second component, we will attempt to improve password memorability by providing implicit feedback and cueing to users as they login. The third component involves developing password rehearsal games that persuade users to employ established memory aids to assist them in remembering more secure passwords.
MECE Method For Categorising Typing Errors BIBAPDFFull-Text 249-250
  Akiyo Kano
This research aims to create an MECE (Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive) categorisation method for typing errors. The research is grounded in theory by gathering typing error types found in both HCI and psychology literature. Empirical studies gathering typing errors from children are used to validate these error types. It is hoped that at a later date, this categorisation method can be used to detect dyslexia in children by inspecting their typing errors.
Determining Value in Informant Design with Children BIBAPDFFull-Text 251-252
  Emanuela Mazzone
This research looks at design methods for children technologies. It takes a User-Centred Design approach, where the involvement of the users is essential to the achievement of satisfactory products.
Facilitating and Measuring Older People's Creative Engagement in a User Centred Design Process BIBAPDFFull-Text 253-254
  Helena Sustar
The goal of my PhD is to research the relationship between creativity and age in the user centred design (UCD) process for user interfaces. To assess this, a comparative study will be conducted. First a UCD process with group of older people -- future consumers (mainly 60+) will be run. Then the results from this group will be compared with sessions I will run with Human Computer Interaction (HCI) design students. Finally the same study will be conducted with mixed generation groups. The participants will be involved in two stages of the UCD process: in a contextual enquiry stage and in a prototyping stage. Throughout the process creativity, motivation and methodology adoption will be measured and compared across groups. As a result of this study new (or adapted) methodologies for encouraging creative participation of older people in the UCD process will be developed. This will be a valuable contribution to the HCI design field, as it will provide guidance on how to more effectively involve older people in the UCD process.
Human-Centric Framework for Perceptually Adaptive Interfaces BIBAPDFFull-Text 255-256
  Priyamvada Tripathi
Multimodal interfaces have long held the promise of enhanced and effective human machine interaction. The ultimate goal of multimodal interfaces is to facilitate human activity allowing seamless exchange of information. This goal requires a coordinated development effort that incorporates a thorough understanding of human perceptual system in the design of interfaces. In this manner, multimodal interfaces can supplement and expand current paradigms in human computer interaction. A novel framework is, therefore, proposed for design, development and evaluation of perceptual interactions between human and the computer. The proposed framework hopes to enable interfaces that aim to 'fit' and 'adapt' with the human perceptual system. An empirically driven conceptual approach is used to derive guidelines, create artefacts, and develop models for these perceptually adaptive interfaces.
Mobile Location-based Awareness and Connectedness BIBAPDFFull-Text 257-258
  Michael Voong
Mobile social awareness systems open up new social opportunities by enabling the automatic disclosure of awareness cues. We are trying to understand which cues work best to achieve feelings of connectedness between users and identify valid and comprehensive effect measures to evaluate such systems in HCI. We choose to study specifically two sensors -- location, via GPS and movement, via accelerometers. The methodology of this research mixes in-lab testing with ethnographic studies using data to be collected using a self-report, ecologically valid technique from psychology: ESM.
Motivation for Adopting Emergency Response Technology in Community Settings BIBAPDFFull-Text 259-260
  Philip Fei Wu
My dissertation work focuses on the motivation for adopting emergency response technology in community settings. The main purpose of my study is to understand various factors that affect community members' motivation and ability to participate in ICT-enabled emergency response. The key questions my research intends to answer are: What motivates community members to adopt and use emergency response technologies? What prevents them from using such technologies? What can be done to lower the cognitive, social, and technical barriers of adopting emergency response systems? Answers to these questions not only will inform the system design and assist practitioners in deploying and promoting response systems, but will also provide useful insights to researchers interested in how technologies can facilitate communication and cooperation among community members, especially in response to high-stress, high-stakes situations.