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BCSHCI Tables of Contents: 050607-107-208-108-209101112131415

Proceedings of the 27th BCS International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 27th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference
Note:The Internet of Things
Editors:Steve Love; Kate Hone; Tom McEwan
Location:Brunel University, London, England
Dates:2013-Sep-09 to 2013-Sep-13
Standard No:ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: BCSHCI13
Links:Conference Web Site
  1. Sustainability and the internet of things
  2. Visual displays
  3. Innovative interaction
  4. Visualising and exploring data
  5. HCI from cradle to grave
  6. HCI in the workplace
  7. Accessibility
  8. HCI and learning
  9. Short papers
  10. Work in progress papers
  11. AltHCI papers
  12. Interactive demos

Sustainability and the internet of things

Exploring a hybrid control approach for enhanced user experience of interactive lighting BIBAFull-Text 1
  Serge Offermans; Harm van Essen; Berry Eggen
Modern lighting systems allow for light settings that are more in tune with users' activities, by going beyond mere functional illumination. These systems have a large amount of controllable parameters such as intensity and colour of individual light sources. Using an autonomous control system is therefore an attractive option, especially since such control systems may also lead to reduced energy consumption. From a user experience point of view however, there are certain drawbacks to this automation.
   This paper proposes a hybrid approach towards lighting control to create a dynamic balance between user control and system automation. Such a hybrid system has the ability to autonomously set the lighting according to its knowledge about the current context, while offering users the possibility to manually adapt the light settings. These manual adaptations can in turn be used by the system to learn about user preferences in various situations, and thereby to improve its future lighting suggestions.
   To explore and evaluate this approach, a smart lighting system was developed as an initial implementation, and installed in a real office environment. The system employs a machine learning algorithm to achieve intelligent behaviour and provides users with an interface to control the lights and give feedback to the system. In a six-week study, the user experience of this initial implementation is evaluated. The results provide an insight in design considerations when adopting this approach for the design of smart lighting control systems. The considerations regard the type of machine learning, the degrees of freedom offered to the user, the insight in the system's decision making process, and the user interface.

Visual displays

WidgetLens: a system for adaptive content magnification of widgets BIBAFull-Text 2
  B. Agarwal; W. Stuerzlinger
On displays with high pixel densities or on mobile devices and due to limitations in current graphical user interface toolkits, content can appear (too) small and be hard to interact with. We present WidgetLens, a novel adaptive widget magnification system, which improves access to and interaction with graphical user interfaces. It is designed for usage of unmodified applications on screens with high pixel densities, remote desktop scenarios, and may also address some situations with visual impairments. It includes a comprehensive set of adaptive magnification lenses for standard widgets, each adjusted to the properties of that type of widget. These lenses enable full interaction with content that appears too small. We also present several extensions.
Visual guides for comprehending digital ink in distortion lenses BIBAFull-Text 3
  Paul Schmieder; Andrew Luxton-Reilly; Beryl Plimmer; John Hosking
We devised and tested two new visual guides to help users comprehend distorted sketched information in magnification lenses. Distortion techniques, such as fisheye lenses, have the advantage of magnifying information without occluding the surrounding content. However distorted information in the transition region requires extra mental workload to understand: this can lead to frustration and rejection of magnification lenses. Our evaluation shows any visual guide is better than none and identifies strengths and weaknesses of the new guides. We tested for the four visual properties important for understanding distorted information: scale, alignment, distance and direction. Surprisingly grids are not as effective in many contexts as our new lenses.

Innovative interaction

Investigating the affective impression of tactile feedback on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 4
  Julia Seebode; Robert Schleicher; Ina Wechsung; Sebastian Möller
On mobile devices, vibrotactile messages are a common way to give feedback to the user. They might be a less obtrusive means to communicate information about the system status compared to auditory feedback. Much research has focused on the possibilities to perceive and discriminate different vibrotactile messages, less regarding her contentual interpretation. We describe a series of two studies. Aim of the pilot study was to find meaningful vibrotactile messages of which we then wanted to investigate the affective impression and functional connotation on a mobile device within varying staged contexts. Results show that the affective impression of those so-called Tactons is independent of the context. Moreover, we observed a relation between ratings of affective quality and functional applicability. We conclude that tactile feedback messages are unobtrusive, but have to be designed carefully to convey their intended meaning in a working context as well as in a leisure time situation.
CUBOD: a customized body gesture design tool for end users BIBAFull-Text 5
  Jeff K. T. Tang; Takeo Igarashi
As motion sensors have become more advanced, gesture-control systems have become more popular in gaming and everyday appliances. However, in existing systems, gestures are predefined by designers or pattern-recognition experts. Such predefined gestures can be inconvenient for specific users in specific environments. Hence, it would be useful to provide end users the flexibility to design and customize gestures to satisfy their own needs. In this paper, we present a system that allows end users to design and customize gestures interactively. A key challenge is that arbitrary user-defined gestures can be difficult for the computer to recognize reliably. A gesture may be too similar to frequent unintentional moves, too difficult to distinguish from other gestures, and/or too difficult to perform consistently. Hence, our system first evaluates the user-defined gesture and then gives feedback on its appropriateness to guide the user in the design of appropriate gestures. A user study demonstrated that users were able to design more appropriate gestures with such guidance than without it.
CoStream: co-construction of shared experiences through mobile live video sharing BIBAFull-Text 6
  Niloofar Dezuli; Jochen Huber; Elizabeth F. Churchill; Max Mühlhäuser
Mobile media sharing is an increasingly popular form of social media interaction. Research has shown that asynchronous sharing fosters and maintains social connections and serves as a memory aid. More recently, researchers have investigated the potential for mobile media sharing as a mechanism for providing additional event-related information to spectators in a stadium. In this paper, we describe CoStream, a novel system for mobile live sharing of user-generated video in-situ during events. Developed iteratively with users, CoStream goes beyond prior work by providing a strong real-time coupling to the event, leveraging users' social connections to provide multiple perspectives on the ongoing action. Field trials demonstrate that real time sharing of different perspectives on the same event has the potential to provide fundamentally new experiences of same-place events, such as concerts or stadium sports. We discuss how CoStream enriches social interactions, increases context, social and spatial awareness, and thus encourages active spectatorship. We further contribute key requirements for the design of future interfaces supporting the co-construction of shared experiences during events, in-situ.

Visualising and exploring data

Assessing and improving 3D rotation transition in dense visualizations BIBAFull-Text 7
  Maxime Cordeil; Christophe Hurter; Stéphane Conversy; Mickaël Causse
When visually exploring a multidimensional dataset with a 2D visualization (e.g. scatterplots), users may switch views with a smooth 3D rotation. We identified three expected benefits of such transitions: tracking graphical marks, understanding their relative arrangements, and perceiving structural elements. We studied existing implementations of progressive 3D rotation and found problems that prevent those benefits when dealing with dense scenes. To address this issue, we propose an improvement by wisely placing the rotation axis. We performed two controlled experiments, which confirm the expected benefits and validate our improvements to the technique. Based on these experiment results, we describe a set of interaction techniques to control the rotation axis placement and apply them to the exploration of aircraft data.
Less is more: classifying mobile interactions to support context sensing in journeys BIBAFull-Text 8
  Claudia Krehl; Sarah Sharples; Martin Flintham
This paper develops a classification of mobile interactions based on contextual information relevant to the mobile device user in journeys. Context-aware systems can be used to reduce the stress involved, support users in their activities and increase utility of travel time. But context is often portrayed as real, stable and structured, which can limit the value of applications as they lack dynamics and relevancy. This paper aims to classify mobile interactions in journeys by adopting an alternative view of context. It is argued that sensing less contextual information can be more valuable providing the most relevant information to the user can be identified. Context is explored using qualitative approaches that investigate user interactions during end-to-end journeys. The resulting classification serves as a basis for understanding mobile interactions and it assists designers and HCI practitioners to develop improved context-aware application.
Comparison of off-screen visualization techniques with representation of relevance on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 9
  Tiago Gonçalves; Ana Paula Afonso; Maria Beatriz Carmo; Paulo Pombinho
When exploring map information on mobile devices, relevant points of interest (POIs) are often located off-screen. Despite the existence of several techniques that allow the exploration of the surrounding areas, none represents the POIs' relevance. Furthermore, when the number of POIs increases, the visualization of the information often becomes unintelligible. This paper presents: our approach to enhancing off-screen visualization techniques with the representation of relevance and cluttering reduction; and a comparative study, using three modified techniques with the proposed approach, HaloDot, Scaled Arrows and Mini-Map. We concluded that while Scaled Arrows has advantages when analysing the distance to the most relevant objects, the Mini-Map provides better information about the distribution of the POIs, helping users on navigational tasks. Also, the choice of an off-screen technique depends, at least, on two factors: number and geographic distribution of POIs.

HCI from cradle to grave

On being cool: exploring interaction design for teenagers BIBAFull-Text 10
  Janet C. Read; Matthew Horton; Daniel Fitton; Linda Little; Russell Beale; Nicola Toth
This paper describes a suite of studies that investigated 'cool' as it applies to the design of interactive products for teenagers. Beginning with a hierarchy of cool that situated cool across three dimensions of having, doing, and being cool, the studies reported here are described in terms of their findings and the extent to which they confirm the model. The contribution, and potential, of the different methods used, in terms of their ability to describe aspects of the model and the insights gained from the findings, are discussed The work demonstrates that the model was indeed appropriate, and the combination of methods described here goes a considerable distance towards covering the exploration of the design space. For the current construction of cool, a set of key aspects for its design is presented and these concepts are demonstrated in a small example. In terms of understanding cool, it is evident that this is a complex design space; one surprising aspect of the work is an understanding of how to avoid the design of uncool.
The development of a sensor-based system for older people: a case study BIBAFull-Text 11
  Jean D. Hallewell Haslwanter; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
An aging population is creating increasing pressures on health care systems. Assistive technologies including telecare monitoring applications installed in the home are being promoted as part of the solution. These systems differ from other more interactive systems both in using sensor-based technologies and having older users, aspects that can affect the way the user is viewed, which in turn can affect what is prioritised in design decisions. However little is known to date about the processes involved in designing such systems, especially from the perspective of how 'users' are considered. To explore this we studied a development project in telecare with a focus on how the user discourse evolved. Using qualitative methods and thematic analysis, we identified two broad themes about how 'users' are considered: the disappearing older user, where the discussion moved from rich pictures of older people's lives to sense-able scenarios; and the privileged developer, where representations of older relatives were mediated by the developers' stories of their own relatives, inadvertently prioritising their own needs as carers for those relatives. The findings demonstrate some of the challenges for a user-centred design process that can occur when working with sensor-based systems and older people that could have implications for whether these systems will be accepted.

HCI in the workplace

Putting the lab in the lab book: supporting coordination in large, multi-site research BIBAFull-Text 12
  Francois Roubert; Mark Perry
Large and distributed science projects present researchers with a challenging environment for interaction and collaboration. While digital technologies offer promises in supporting these difficulties, researchers appear reluctant to discontinue their use of analogue resources. We present a study of communication practices in very large-scale collaborative scientific research programmes that involve multidisciplinary and multinational research consortia. Qualitative data collection with researchers, principal investigators and project coordinators were carried out to examine the conduct and coordination of biological, biomedical and chemistry experiments that were distributed over multiple geographical locations. Results show that many problems in collaboration appear to result from the collective documentation of experimental operating procedures, tracking of experimental samples, and the sharing and cross-association of physical and digital experimental materials. Our analysis highlights the crucial but problematic role of the laboratory notebook as a driver for collaboration, most notably in supporting traceability of the distributed experimental process. We identify opportunities for improving experimental coordination, scientific communication and project synchronisation, drawing implications for digital interaction design that offers opportunities to enhance research coordination.
A look at unsociability on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 13
  Marisela Gutierrez Lopez; Saila Ovaska
We propose unsociability as a novel perspective to approach and support online social interactions. With examples taken from focus group discussions, we highlight the need of users to save face in their online interactions within social network sites. We claim that people follow a "social-over-technical" pattern on Facebook, as they base their interactions on their social understanding of this site instead of on its technical capabilities. These social norms and patterns challenge social translucence which has for more than a decade been recognized as one of the cornerstones of social computing systems.
Towards a tool for design ideation: insights from use of SketchStorm BIBAFull-Text 14
  Siân Lindley; Xiang Cao; John Helmes; Richard Morris; Sam Meek
We present findings from a deployment of SketchStorm, a tool for designers that supports sketch in a central canvas, whilst streaming images relating to a search query around the periphery. Our overarching goal was to explore the potential for combining sketching and use of examples, two activities that are associated with design ideation. Initial interviews with designers suggested that a tool that supports encounters with non-designerly content, that supports awareness of what has already been collected, and that allows this content to be laid out, manipulated, and integrated into the process of working out of ideas, would be of value. A month-long deployment allowed us to examine these ideas in more depth, through 'research through prototypes in practice' (Keller et al., 2009). Our findings highlight two ways in which web-based images can be utilised. On the one hand, they can serve as examples and, where this is the case, encounters with them should be rich and memorable, and tools should support a range of actions such as triaging, annotation, and manipulation. On the other hand, images can be used to create a backdrop to on-going activity, so as to underpin serendipitous encounters. Where this is the case, enabling designers to engineer these encounters, so that they are framed by moments of idleness and latent goals, is key.
Developing intuitive user interfaces by integrating users' mental models into requirements engineering BIBAFull-Text 15
  Diana Loeffler; Anne Hess; Andreas Maier; Joern Hurtienne; Hartmut Schmitt
Today, the demand for software that is 'intuitive to use' is very high. In fact, this has become a determining factor for the success of a system. However, building software that is intuitive to use is challenging. This is particularly true for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). They have to face a variety of problems to remain competitive: Usually no or just small staff is available that is specialized in user requirements engineering research, design, and testing. Furthermore, time schedules and budget are tight. All these factors require a method that delivers creative and intuitive-to-use software even with little design experience and expertise. In this paper, we address this problem by introducing a method for capturing and specifying the user's mental models with image schemas and image-schematic metaphors during the requirements engineering phase of a software engineering project. This method also enables SMEs to systematically transfer these elicited requirements into design solutions, which then result in software that is intuitive to use.


Cross-modal collaborative information seeking (CCIS): an exploratory study BIBAFull-Text 16
  Dena Al-Thani; Tony Stockman; Anastasios Tombros
Most previous studies of users with visual impairments access the web have focused solely on human-web interaction. This study explores the under investigated area of cross-modal collaborative information seeking (CCIS), that is the challenges and opportunities that exist in supporting visually impaired users to take an effective part in collaborative web search tasks with sighted peers. We observed behaviour patterns that occurred in CCIS activities between 8 pairs of visually impaired and sighted users in both co-located and distributed settings. Our findings showed the influence of the different interaction modalities employed, as well as differences due to whether pairs were working together co-located or distributed from one another. The effects of these factors were most clearly seen in the way pairs opted to divide the labour involved in search tasks, and the way in which they provided and used awareness information. Asymmetric division of labour strategies were employed to try to overcome the challenges imposed by accessibility issues and the use of different interaction modalities. We also observed that participants expended unnecessary effort in supplying more awareness information than was needed in an attempt to compensate for the absence of a tool to support cross-modal awareness information exchange.
Designing a mobile diet diary application with and for older adults with AMD: a case study BIBAFull-Text 17
  Lilit Hakobyan; Jo Lumsden; Dympna O'Sullivan; Hannah Bartlett
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the UK's leading cause of severe visual impairment amongst the elderly. It accounts for 16,000 blind/partial sight registrations per year and is the leading cause of blindness among people aged 55 years and older in western countries (Bressler, 2004). Our research aims to design and develop a self-monitoring, ability-reactive technology (SMART) for users with AMD to support their dietary-based AMD risk mitigation and progression retardation over time. In this paper, we reflect on our experience of adapting and applying a participatory design (PD) approach to support the effective design of our application with and for older adults with AMD. We introduce the outcome of a series of PD sessions with older adults with AMD -- that is, a paper prototype of our proposed application which focuses on accessibility for our target users -- and discuss implications for the eventual prototype development.

HCI and learning

A protocol study of novice interaction design behaviour in Botswana: solution-driven interaction design BIBAFull-Text 18
  Helen Sharp; Nicole Lotz; Richard Blyth; Mark Woodroffe; Dino Rajah; Turugare Ranganai
Think aloud studies and protocol analysis are well-known in the field of HCI, but most often these studies focus on usability evaluations, or on the use of technology. Rarely are they used to investigate the behaviour of interaction designers. In this paper, we report on a protocol study with novice interaction designers in Botswana. Participants had just completed the design section of an undergraduate module on Interaction Design that actively promotes a problem-driven approach to the design of interactive products, yet the participants behaved in a way that is closer to a solution-driven approach. The module emphasizes user-centred design, prototyping methods to support design development, and evaluating design detail. Yet participants suggest solutions before exploring the context of use, use prototyping methods to capture, rather than to develop, designs, and do not produce detailed designs. In a problem-solving context, some of these behaviours are typical of novices, but in a design context they are also seen in experienced designers. The results presented here reveal the detail of the approach adopted by these students, and contribute to the wider debate concerning the internationalization of HCI education.
Recommending additional study materials: binary ratings vis-à-vis five-star ratings BIBAFull-Text 19
  Juha Leino
As various recommender approaches are increasingly considered in e-learning, the need for actual use cases to guide development efforts is growing. We report on our experiences of using non-algorithmic recommender features to recommend additional study materials on an undergraduate course in 2009-2011. The study data comes from student e-questionnaire replies and actual click-by-click use data. Our discussion centres on using binary (useful/not useful) rating scale (2009-2010) vis-à-vis five-star rating scale (2011). Using five-star scale to increase the complexity of the rating decision significantly reduced dishonesty (rating items without viewing them), but at the price of fewer ratings overall and increased complexity of interpreting the ratings. In addition to explaining how ratings and other factors inter-influenced item-selecting, we also discuss how different scales (binary and five-star) affect the rating behaviour in e-learning and how the five-star rating distributions in e-learning relate to those in other domains. Furthermore, we discuss two models, high-quality approach and low-cost approach, of employing non-algorithmic recommending features in e-learning that emerge from our findings. The findings provide the field with insight into the actual dynamics of using recommender features in e-learning. Moreover, they provide practitioners with actionable information on dishonesty.

Short papers

How to manage your inbox: is a once a day strategy best? BIBAFull-Text 20
  Adam Bradley; Duncan P. Brumby; Anna L. Cox; Jon Bird
Many people are overloaded by the amount of email they receive. Because of this, a considerable amount of time can be spent every day managing one's inbox. Previous work has shown that people adopt different strategies for managing their inbox. However, there has been little work examining how the choice of email management strategy impacts the total time that one gives to email activities each day. In the current study seven academics spent one week trying out different email management strategies: either a once-a-day strategy or a frequent strategy. Data on the amount of time spent managing email and subjective feelings towards each strategy were gathered. Results suggest that a once a day email management strategy may be effective in reducing the total time spent dealing with email.
Examining the use of thematic analysis as a tool for informing design of new family communication technologies BIBAFull-Text 21
  Nela Brown; Tony Stockman
Frequently family members are geographically separated for large parts of the day. This separation, allied to a busy schedule, can make it difficult to share daily experiences and maintain the feeling of connectedness. This paper describes an exploratory study to investigate family dynamics and the use of technology in families with primary school children. We interviewed five families about their daily communication and use of technology. We examined the use of thematic analysis, a method for qualitative data analysis used in social science, as a tool for systematically identifying and describing features of qualitative data and informing the design of new family technologies. The results of the investigation showed that the first 3 phases of the 6-phase thematic analysis approach were the most fruitful in yielding information about the families' use of technology and information at a level that could be of value for designing new communications technology. The use of the full 6 phases of the approach however, is more appropriate where it is required to produce a summary of the data in a form of a high level thematic map accompanied by the analytic narrative.
Investigating the extent to which children use mobile phone application stores BIBAFull-Text 22
  Brendan Cassidy; Claire Louise Haywood; Gavin Sim
This paper reports the results of a short survey aimed at examining the extent to which children use mobile phone application stores. Aspects investigated included whether children used application stores on their own or parents' devices, how children use application stores and whether they think app stores could be improved. The key contribution of this paper is the provision of evidence that children are prolific users of smart phone application stores, children are using both their parents phones and their own phones to access app stores and over half the children who download games do so at a rate of 1-2 per week. The paper also looks at how children choose the games they do on the app store and their view on how easy it is to find their chosen game. Over half the children who download games do so either having played the game before or on the recommendation of a friend. The findings raise issues about the design of app store interfaces/information architectures and whether or not children should be considered in the design of future app store interfaces.
Should cool be a design goal? BIBAFull-Text 23
  Benjamin R. Cowan; Katerina Avramides; Russell Beale
Recently HCI researchers have taken an interest in the concept of cool and how it can be harnessed in the design process. This is due to cool's potential positive impact on adoption and the wider user experience. In this paper we explore the concept of cool and the challenges faced in the study of cool in design. We highlight the lack of rigorous research and causal understanding of cool, the social nature of the concept, and the likely need of heavy marketing strategy to achieve such status as challenges to the setting of cool as a design goal. We propose that more needs to be understood about the behaviour of cool before it can be considered an appropriate design aim.
"We were all the same age once": experiences of intergenerational app design BIBAFull-Text 24
  Julie Doyle; Antonella Sassu; Teresa McDonagh
SANDPiT is a novel intergenerational project whereby 40 school students and 12 older adults worked together over 9 months to design and prototype technology applications for mobile devices. The main remit of the project was to design applications that are of benefit to younger and older generations alike, focusing on the similarities between generations rather than the differences. This paper explores some of the successes and challenges of creating an intergenerational design team, highlighting issues surrounding collaboration, communication, engagement and mutual learning.
Exploring tilt-based text input for mobile devices with teenagers BIBAFull-Text 25
  Daniel Fitton; I. Scott MacKenzie; Janet C. Read; Matthew Horton
Most modern tablet devices and phones include tilt-based sensing but to-date tilt is primarily used either for input with games or for detecting screen orientation. This paper presents the results of an experiment with teenage users to explore a new tilt-based input technique on mobile devices intended for text entry. The experiment considered the independent variables grip (one-handed, two-handed) and mobility (sitting, walking) with 4 conditions. The study involved 52 participants aged 11-16 carrying out multiple target selection tasks in each condition. Performance metrics derived from the data collected during the study revealed interesting quantitative findings, with the optimal condition being sitting using a two-handed grip. While walking, task completion time was 22.1% longer and error rates were 63.9% higher, compared to sitting. Error rate were 31.4% lower using a two-handed grip, compared to a one-handed grip. Qualitative results revealed a highly positive response to target selection performed using the method described here. This paper highlights the potential value of tilt as a technique for text input for teenage users.
An exploratory study into the accessibility of a multi-user virtual world for young people with aphasia BIBAFull-Text 26
  Julia Galliers; Stephanie Wilson
This paper describes an exploratory study into the accessibility of the virtual world Second Life for two young people with aphasia. Aphasia is a communicative disorder most commonly caused by a stroke. It affects both written and spoken language, is frequently accompanied by right-sided paralysis and people with aphasia can experience isolation and social exclusion. Multi-user virtual worlds are a potential source of fun and contact with others, but how accessible are such worlds to those with communication issues?
   We report an investigation into the accessibility and potential of Second Life for people with aphasia. This was accomplished through a critique and an empirical study involving two young people: Ann was in her mid twenties and Bob in his early thirties. They were selected because both were comfortable with computer technologies before their strokes and each continues to use them, albeit in a more limited capacity. We discuss implications of the results for people with aphasia interacting with multi-user virtual worlds.
A user-centred approach to inform the design of a mobile application for STI diagnosis and management BIBAFull-Text 27
  Voula Gkatzidou; Kate Hone; Jo Gibbs; Lorna Sutcliffe; Syed Tariq Sadiq; Pam Sonnenberg; Claudia Estcourt
Mobile, pervasive, and ubiquitous computing technologies have the potential to transform healthcare by providing solutions to diagnose conditions and manage care. This paper describes a patient-centred approach to the design of a mobile application to support self-testing for sexually transmitted infections, providing easy and immediate access to diagnosis, treatment via electronic prescription, and partner notification. This paper presents the results of a series of focus group discussions with young people to explore their perceptions of the proposed system and discusses the emergent design principles that present challenges for user interface design and require consideration prior to the adoption of this mobile-based sexual health care.
Distributing web components in a display ecosystem using Proxywork BIBAFull-Text 28
  Pedro G. Villanueva; Ricardo Tesoriero; Jose A. Gallud
Proxywork is a system that allows users to distribute user interface components of Web applications among a set of devices. The distribution is controlled by the user through a set of primitives (i.e. show, hide, copy, move, etc.) attached to Web page components. As these operations are automatically attached to Web page components on runtime by the Proxywork, Web pages do not require any extra information to be distributed among different devices. To illustrate how to distribute Web application user interface components, this paper presents a Web site as a study case showing the results of performing user interface distribution operations among devices running on different platforms. This paper also presents the evaluation of the Proxywork system.
What are you complaining about?: a study of online reviews of mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 29
  Claudia Iacob; Varsha Veerappa; Rachel Harrison
In this paper, we explore the content of online reviews of mobile applications to get a better understanding of the most recurring issues users report through reviews, and the way the price and the rating of an app influences the type and the amount of feedback users report. Results show that users tend to provide positive feedback, often associating it with requirements for additional features. Also, users tend to provide more feedback for the lower rated apps and the optimal price range was found to be between £2.25 and £3.50.
Visual walkthrough as a tool for utility assessment in a usability test BIBAFull-Text 30
  Kristiina Juurmaa; Janne Pitkänen; Sirpa Riihiaho
This paper presents a compact procedure for classifying the importance of elements in a user interface based on the visual walkthrough method. This method was used during a usability evaluation of an information service for healthcare professionals. Paper printouts were given to users who were asked to highlight the parts of the system they consider most important for them. This method proved to be a quick and useful way to understand which parts of complex user interfaces are the most important for users. In addition, heat maps were constructed based on these answers and they proved to be an easy way to visualise the results both for the evaluators and the different stakeholders. These heat maps could be formed right after the last test session, on the spot of the actual test session.
Is usability evaluation important: the perspective of novice software developers BIBAFull-Text 31
  Fulvio Lizano; Maria M. Sandoval; Anders Bruun; Jan Stage
In this paper we present the results of a study which aims to explore the perspective of novice software developers about usability evaluation. It is important for a software organization to understand how novice developers perceive the role and importance of usability evaluation. This will permit development of effective methods and training programs that could potentially increase the application of usability evaluation. The results suggest that the perspectives of novice software developers about usability are characterized by a clear understanding about what usability evaluation is and a clear awareness about obstacles and advantages. However, our study also reveals certain shortcomings in the "usability culture" of novice developers, especially about the users' role in usability evaluation. Despite this limited "usability culture", novice developers' understanding of usability evaluation reflects a positive opinion about their participation in these activities. In addition, novice developers think that usability, in a general sense, is an important aspect of their work.
CarbonCulture at DECC: digital engagement for sustainability at work BIBAFull-Text 32
  Dan Lockton; Rebecca Cain; David Harrison; Luke Nicholson
This paper reports on CarbonCulture at DECC, an employee engagement platform for sustainable behaviour, which took place at the Department of Energy & Climate Change in London. Through a participatory design process, we developed simple web apps enabling staff to log actions around late working, food choices and commuting, and see colleagues' actions, providing a digital interface linking physical and spatial behaviour. We achieved a high level of engagement (16% of staff used the apps) and identified patterns of user engagement to inform future development.
Under the table: tap authentication for smartphones BIBAFull-Text 33
  Diogo Marques; Tiago Guerreiro; Luís Duarte; Luís Carriço
Current smartphone authentication methods are known to be susceptible to even rudimentary attacks based on observation. In this paper, we propose an approach to authentication based on rich tapping patterns that addresses this problem. We present a novel tapping detection technique, using a single example as a template. We also report on two user studies (N = 30 and N = 19) where tapping authentication is compared to the leading alternatives, both in an "out in the open" and in an "under the table" condition. Results indicate that the tapping method approximates current standards of security and usability, but also affords inconspicuous authentication, thus allowing the user to self-protect in social settings.
Crafting for major life events: implications for technology design and use BIBAFull-Text 34
  Michael Massimi; Daniela Rosner
Technology increasingly plays a role in the way that we prepare for, celebrate, and reflect upon major life events. Modern digital artefacts, such as Facebook messages and digital photos, now stand alongside traditional artefacts, such as guest books and heirloom jewellery, as cherished mementos of these occasions. Considering how these physical artefacts are crafted provides a useful lens for understanding the evolving relationship among digital tools, the artefacts they produce, and the major life events where these artefacts are used and imbued with meaning. In this paper, we present themes from an interview study conducted with crafters who created items for major life events including weddings, household moves, and births. Our findings outline properties of the crafting process and of the crafted items. Across all occasions, crafters saw major life events as opportunities to learn new skills and use special materials to create personalized artefacts that codified and extended interpersonal relationships. This occurred in parallel with a creative, thoughtful process to make crafts that were appropriate for each occasion and meaningful enough to be kept and treasured for years to come. We reflect on the properties of these crafters' processes and artefacts, and suggest implications for the role of digital tools and assets in relation to major life events. In particular, digital ways to reveal an artefact's provenance and relationship to an event may be useful for augmenting its symbolic meaning and its ability to represent interpersonal relationships.
Predictive modelling for HCI problems in novice program editors BIBAFull-Text 35
  Fraser McKay; Michael Kölling
We extend previous cognitive modelling work to four new programming systems, with results contributing to the development of a new novice programming editor. Results of a previous paper, which quantified differences in certain visual languages, and feedback we had regarding interest in the work, suggested that there may be more systems to which the technique could be applied. This short paper reports on a second series of models, discusses their strengths and weaknesses, and draws comparisons to the first. This matters because we believe "bottlenecks" in interaction design to be an issue in some beginner languages -- painfully slow interactions may not always be noticeable at first, but start to become intrusive as the programs grow larger. Conversely, text-based languages are generally less viscous, but often use difficult symbols and terminology, and can be highly error-prone. Based on the models presented here, we propose some simple design choices that appear to make a useful and substantive difference to the editing problems discussed.
Georeferencing in the field using constellations of similar you-are-here maps BIBAFull-Text 36
  Andrew Molineux; Keith Cheverst
In this paper we investigate a new interaction technique that enables users to capture You-Are-Here maps using their smartphone, and then manipulate the captured image in such a way that it can be used for navigation purposes. This technique utilises groups of similar You-Are-Here maps, which we call map constellations. Results from our field study, in which we tested a working prototype of our interaction technique, are presented. The results show an insight into users' views towards the interaction, and the techniques they employed to identically frame two You-Are-Here maps using a smartphone camera.
'Mind the gap': evaluating user physiological response for multi-genre video summarisation BIBAFull-Text 37
  Arthur G. Money; Harry Agius
Existing video summarisation techniques are often only capable of summarising video from pre-specified content genres and are often not able to produce personalised summaries as they are not able to source relevant user specific data. Because users often experience strong emotions and associated physiological responses whilst watching video, their physiological response to video content may serve as a new and valuable data source for video summarisation. Previously, we developed the Entertainment-Led VIdeo Summarisation (ELVIS) technique that summarises video based on five physiological response measures: electro-dermal response (EDR), heart rate (HR), blood volume pulse (BVP), respiration rate (RR), and respiration amplitude (RA). Here, we report a statistical analysis on a range of data collected from ELVIS in trials with 100 users relating to five distinct video content genres (Action, Drama, Romance, Horror and Comedy). The results show that the ELVIS, EDR, HR, BVP, RR and RA video summaries all consistently match with the most entertaining video sub-segments as self-reported by the user, and that the composite ELVIS video summaries achieve significantly higher level of overlap compared with a RANDOM selection. More generally, users reported that, compared with video summaries produced by another contemporary video summarisation technique, ELVIS video summaries are comparatively 'enjoyable' and 'informative' for all five video content genres. We therefore conclude that video summarisation according to users' physiological responses has great value for future development of video summarisation techniques that are applicable across a wide range of video content genres.
Towards ubiquitous awareness tools for blind people BIBAFull-Text 38
  Ivo Rafael; Luís Duarte; Luís Carriço; Tiago Guerreiro
Blind people are deprived from a wide set of information about the surrounding environment. This is a reality for places, objects and people. In particular, if social norms are disrespected, the blind person is likely to miss out the presence and absence of people in the same room or passing by. Current mobile devices provide a bundle of sensors that are able to provide more information about its user's whereabouts and people nearby. We focus our research on improving the implicit awareness these users have access about their surrounding environment. We interviewed 19 blind people to understand the limitations and needs they have in indoor and outdoor environments both in orientation and social tasks. Based on our findings, we developed a prototype system able to recognize people nearby and notify the user about their presence. A preliminary probe with 3 blind people revealed that such awareness is a requirement and shed light about novel scenarios pertaining recognition, augmentation and sharing of information about people, places and objects.
Design recommendations for the development of a digital storytelling mobile application BIBAFull-Text 39
  Elisa Rubegni; Luca Colombo; Monica Landoni
This paper focuses on the educational benefits of Digital Storytelling (DST) in the context of a primary school and on the importance of a DST application that supports teaching strategies and pedagogical objectives (as defined by the school curriculum). The work presented here is part of a 4-year longitudinal study aimed at understanding how to design an application that supports collaborative DST as educational practice in schools with children aged 6 to 11. In this paper, we describe how a typical case study has been conducted and how we used the Narrative Activity Model (NAM) as a framework to guide the activity analysis and to organize our findings. The result is a set of users' needs and guidelines for the development of an innovative DST application to be used in a formal learning context.
Are users more diverse than designs?: testing and extending a 25 years old claim BIBAFull-Text 40
  Martin Schmettow; Jop Havinga
Twenty-five years ago, Dennis Egan published a review on the impact of individual differences in human-computer interaction, where he claimed that users are more diverse than designs are [5]. While being cited frequently, this claim has not been tested since then. An efficient research design for separating and comparing variance components is presented, together with a statistical model to test Egan's claim. The results of a pilot study indicate that Egan's claim does not universally hold. An extension to the claim is suggested, capturing the trade-offs when prioritizing user tasks. An alternative strategy towards universal design is proposed.
Bent necks and twisted wrists: exploring the impact of touch-screen tablets on the posture of office workers BIBAFull-Text 41
  Katarzyna Stawarz; Rachel Benedyk
Touch-screen tablets are becoming increasingly popular as office work tools. However, as current health and safety regulations applied to office equipment do not cover tablets, the importance of understanding their impact on the posture of office workers increases. As the research on ergonomic issues related to tablet use is scarce, especially in the context of office work, we explore, through an online questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and observations with postural analysis, how and where office workers use tablets and what potential posture-related issues could arise as a result. Our findings show that the lack of screen adjustability and the virtual keyboard encourage poor posture and tablet use could lead to discomfort in a number of body areas, especially the neck and wrists.

Work in progress papers

End-user construction mechanisms for the internet of things BIBAFull-Text 42
  Andrea Alessandrini
The prototyping process is a key phase in the design of the Internet of Things (IoT). Designing connections and communications for computational elements is a challenging part in constructing IoT prototypes. The goal of this study is to explore and describe the processes, practices, and technologies used in the construction of prototypes in practice. This article reviews interactive prototypes and interviews with practitioners. In particular I intend to describe and analyse how connections are made and which components and technologies are used. This is not intended to be an exhaustive analysis, but instead focuses on assessing the qualities of each system design in order to create an initial framework that explores an approach toward IoT construction. Finally, the implications of such a findings are discussed.
ESSAVis: a 2Dplus3D visual platform for speeding up the maintenance process of embedded systems BIBAFull-Text 43
  Ragaad AlTarawneh; Jens Bauer; Patric Keller; Achim Ebert
Modern embedded systems contain complex structures, as they are composed of many subsystems. Maintaining such systems requires collaboration between the engineers who designed them and the engineers who analyzed the failures in them. In this paper we present our proposed visual platform ESSAVis, a 2Dplus3D environment, to help both kinds of engineers in understanding the failure mechanisms of such systems. The goal of the proposed platform is to improve the understanding of the failure mechanisms in these systems and to reduce the communication gap between the system engineers and safety engineers. We describe the design process and the implementation of the 2Dplus3D visual platform, which was accomplished through a continuous end-user feedback. We designed a detailed evaluation study, in which we aim to measure the usability of our tool. The plan of the evaluation is designed with the help of the end-users to ensure that ESSAVis fulfills the expected goals in speeding up the analyzing process of safety aspects of embedded systems.
Cognitive styles in HCI education and practice BIBAFull-Text 44
  Ann Austin; José Abdelnour-Nocera
This project examines the cognitive profile of the HCI professional with the view of providing a benchmark against which to compare HCI students. 134 professionals responded to an online survey which captured their individual cognitive style using Hayes and Allinson's Cognitive Style Index and Blazhenkova & Kozhevnikov's Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire. Some of these were HCI practitioners in the field, some were educators, and some were both practitioner and educator. It was expected that successful HCI practitioners would fall somewhere within the 60% of the population who are categorised as "quasi intuitive", "adaptive" or "quasi analyst" and that they would score more highly as an object-imager than an engineer or computer scientist, and more highly as a spatial-imager than a visual artist. Preliminary results partially support this. The profile of the educator is clearly distinct from that of the practitioner professional which may have implications for the delivery of the curriculum.
Display pointing: a qualitative study on a recent screen pairing technique for smartphones BIBAFull-Text 45
  Matthias Baldauf; Markus Salo; Stefan Suette; Peter Fröhlich
In this paper, we investigate display pointing as a recent mobile pairing technique for public screens enabling the simple targeting of the remote display with the mobile device. We evaluate a functional prototype in a user study emphasizing the crucial first connection phase independent from any consequent interaction style. In the presented initial study, we deliberately focus on the qualitative issues of this technique and identified a list of practical and fun aspects. According to the results, the display pointing approach is perceived as a (partly too) fast, robust and fascinating pairing technique which has the potential to gamify the connection process.
Encouraging sustainable fashion with a playful recycling system BIBAFull-Text 46
  Lilian Bosch; Marije Kanis
This paper presents the design and study of UNI2BIN, a playful interactive system challenging its users to recycle their textiles so to adopt more sustainable fashion habits. The system initially rewards the user with direct playful interactions when depositing clothes in the recycling machine, followed by dispensing a token granting access to a user specific website further depicting what happens to their recycled clothes. To close the loop, a clothing line is created from the supplied textiles. This paper addresses the design of the system to encourage sustainable fashion and textile awareness amongst young adults, including the sustainability challenges, playful strategy used and the studies that informed the system, namely an interview study with 30 participants between 18 and 25 years old. Furthermore, preliminary lessons learned are presented from the design and evaluation of the system.
Motor expressions as creativity support: exploring the potential for physical interaction BIBAFull-Text 47
  Alwin de Rooij; Sara Jones
This research explores the effects of physical interactions designed on the basis of motor expressions to support creative ideation in creativity support technologies. The presented research looks into the effects on creative ideation of incompatibility between motor expressions and problem situations, and appraisals of (un)pleasantness. We report the results of a preliminary study which suggests that affective incompatibility between a problem situation and a motor expression benefits creative ideation, and that pleasantness motor expressions enhance task enjoyment, which in turn leads to a beneficial effect on the originality of ideas generated. Based on these results, we conclude with two new directions for the design of physical interactions with novel creativity support technologies.
ST-TrajVis: interacting with trajectory data BIBAFull-Text 48
  Tiago Gonçalves; Ana Paula Afonso; Bruno Martins; Daniel Gonçalves
Huge amounts of movement data are nowadays being collected, as a consequence of the prevalence of mobile computing systems and location based services. While the research interest on the analysis of spatio-temporal data has also significantly increased, there are still several open challenges in areas such as interaction and information visualization. In this paper, we present the first steps of a research project that aims to study the usability of visualization techniques of mobility data. We present ST-TrajVis, an application for the visualization of movement data, based on the innovative combination of two popular techniques, namely a 2D map and a space-time cube, augmented with data processing techniques supporting the interaction with interesting subsets of the data. We conducted a user study to assess the usefulness of ST-TrajVis, and to obtain feedback regarding the users interaction with the different techniques. The results suggest the adequacy of the combination of 2D maps with space-time cubes, the existence of some features of interest to users, and the need to conduct further comparative studies between the different techniques.
A novel gesture-based CAPTCHA design for smart devices BIBAFull-Text 49
  Nan Jiang; Feng Tian
CAPTCHAs have been widely used in Web applications to prevent service abuse. With the evolution of computing environment from desktop computing to ubiquitous computing, more and more users are accessing Web applications on smart devices where touch based interactions are dominant. However, the majority of CAPTCHAs are designed for use on computers and laptops which do not reflect the shift of interaction style very well. In this paper, we propose a novel CAPTCHA design to utilise the convenience of touch interface while retaining the needed security. This is achieved through using a hybrid challenge to take advantages of human's cognitive abilities. A prototype is also developed and found to be more user friendly than conventional CAPTCHAs in the preliminary user acceptance test.
Exploring movies through interactive visualizations BIBAFull-Text 50
  Ana Jorge; Teresa Chambel
Videos and movies are important sources of information in the entertainment and learning form, having great power to affect us, perceptually, cognitively and emotionally. By integrating various media like image, sound and text along time, they are very rich and they are becoming pervasive on the Internet and interactive TV, increasing the need for new and powerful ways to access, browse and view them. Interactive visualization techniques have the potential to help handling with this rich but complex information: both the time when they were released, and the time along which their contents are weaved, in each movie. In previous work we have presented visualizations that allow the access to the movies released over a certain period of time based on genres and rankings, and to overview and browse movies based on their contents represented with tag clouds. In this paper, we explore the movies through visual representations of the different aspects of their contents, especially image, audio, and subtitles, with a focus on emotions. This approach has the ultimate goal of providing overviews, and browsing mechanisms based on interactive visualizations that may provide insights in analytical or more ludic uses, that may be efficient in conveying and accessing information, and are also easy, funny and aesthetical.
"Apps that make things, not apps that do things": appropriation and assistive learning technologies BIBAFull-Text 51
  Lorna McKnight
This paper describes three initial case studies of software use by teachers to support learners with special educational needs. In each case, the teachers were observed to be appropriating the software in ways that went beyond the intended use of the technologies. Appropriation has been previously explored as a positive process that provides benefits to users, yet these cases suggest that there may be specific benefits of appropriation for teachers in this context, and this is worthy of deeper investigation in the future.
Location as interaction: exploring blended spaces in the global village BIBAFull-Text 52
  Stephen Mokey; Alexander Nalbandian; Brian O'Keefe
We present a novel means of experiencing an unfamiliar tourist destination using location-based interaction design with mobile devices. Tracking a visitor's location allows us to automatically present the visitor with relevant information as soon as they arrive at a point-of-interest. By synchronizing the delivery of digital content with the visitor's physical location, the visitor is able to move through and explore the physical and digital spaces simultaneously, using a location-based interface to experience a blended space. We theorize that this location-based content delivery method will instill a sense of freedom and immersion as the visitor explores the blended space in a natural and serendipitous way. To test our theory and validate our design strategy, we have developed a prototype application called Global Village Explorations.
Investigating the fidelity effect when evaluating game prototypes with children BIBAFull-Text 53
  Gavin Sim; Brendan Cassidy
The development and evaluation of prototypes is an important part of game development. Using an iPad, this study aimed to establish whether the fidelity of the prototype affects the ability of children to evaluate the user experience of a game. The participants were aged between 11 and 13 and used the Fun Toolkit to measure user experience in both fidelities. The results showed that the majority of children rated the low-fidelity version lower in terms of look, control and idea with the most significant difference being for the construct relating to the overall experience of the game. When evaluating monetary transactions with children it is important to realise that parental controls might influence the results.

AltHCI papers

Exploring the internet of things: an interdisciplinary workshop approach BIBAFull-Text 54
  Sarah Eagle; Peter Bennett
This paper gives an account of our experience running a workshop series exploring the 'Internet of Things' which was designed to focus on the idea the Internet of Things may develop from interdisciplinary collaboration and hacking/tinkering/making as opposed to large-scale corporate development.
A category theory approach to HCI BIBAFull-Text 55
  David England
In this paper we revisit Category Theory as a modelling tool for Human Computer Interaction. We first review past approaches and limitations to formal methods in HCI. We then introduce a category theory with a tutorial example, before moving onto a more complex example. We end by discussing the further implications for theories of HCI.
Tradeoffs in design research: development oriented triangulation BIBAFull-Text 56
  Koen van Turnhout; Sabine Craenmehr; Robert Holwerda; Mike Menijn; Jan-Pieter Zwart; René Bakker
The Development Oriented Triangulation (DOT) framework in this paper can spark and focus the debate about mixed-method approaches in HCI. The framework can be used to classify HCI methods, create mixed-method designs, and to align research activities in multidisciplinary projects. The framework is generic enough to capture the diversity of research within the HCI community, while being specific enough to foster constructive debate about combinatorial opportunities and difficulties in mixed-method research in HCI. An analysis of 10 previously published academic HCI research papers showed the utility of the framework for describing a wide range of HCI papers and for raising methodological questions about mixed method approaches in HCI.

Interactive demos

ChiCo: a platform to support children co-design BIBAFull-Text 57
  Diego Alvarado; Paloma Díaz; Pedro Paredes
Multi-touch interactive systems are being increasingly exploited in the last few years for learning purposes, since they are able to foster collaboration in children. However, there are other factors that need special attention when trying to engage children in a collaborative process, like level of fun and simplicity of tools provided, for instance. This paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of ChiCo, a platform aiming at supporting children in a co-design process.
Feasibility of utilising 3D software in occupational therapy practice BIBAFull-Text 58
  Arthur Money; Anita Atwal; Georgia Spiliotopoulou; Michele Turko; Anand Unadkat
Occupational home visits for older adults are a standard part of the discharge process within the NHS. However, there is limited research on the efficacy of this practice (Atwal et al 2012) or on alternative approaches, including the use of technology, for carrying out this intervention more effectively. Home visits typically involve a short visit with the patient to their home to assess their ability to perform usual everyday tasks. Consequently, the practitioner proposes recommendations for adaptations to the patient's home and for the provision of specialist assistive equipment such as bed hoists, support rails, shower seats and grab rails and so forth.
An extensible presentation tool for flexible human-information interaction BIBAFull-Text 59
  Reinout Roels; Beat Signer
Nowadays, presentation tools such as PowerPoint and Keynote play an important role when transferring knowledge in educational or business settings. Nevertheless, a number of shortcomings of existing presentation tools in terms of the management, visualisation and navigation of content have been pointed out in literature [1]. Some of these limitations are based on the fact that slideware tools were originally used for the production of physical slides (e.g. transparencies) and existing solutions still simulate the affordances of physical slides. We investigate innovative forms to manage, visualise and navigate the content of a presentation, which, for example, includes the transclusion [2] or integration of content from other presentations and cross-media sources, as well as the non-linear navigation in a presentation. In order to explore and experiment with innovative human-information interaction techniques, we have developed the extensible MindXpres cross-media presentation platform. The modular architecture of MindXpres and its plug-in mechanism enable the reusability of content as well as the integration of new visualisation and interaction components which ultimately may improve the transfer of knowledge [3].
Feeding a finch with social media: a bird that responds to tweets! BIBAFull-Text 60
  James Sutton; David Bell; Stanislao Lauria
This paper presents the design and implementation of a system to allow the control of robots or other systems using natural language and social networks.
Achieving shared understanding in face-to-face 'tabletop' exercises BIBAFull-Text 61
  Sara Tena; Ignacio Aedo; Paloma Díaz
Shared understanding plays a key role within the emergency-planning context to successfully develop planning tasks. Particularly in 'tabletop' exercises, such an understanding is required to make decisions about planning. However, as the task progresses, the amount of relevant knowledge that a planner can remember about the task progressively decreases. This fact can impose a limit on the task progress. With the purpose of overcoming such a limitation, this work presents a computer-based face-to-face collaborative tool aimed at supporting 'tabletop' exercises.
SUPERHUB: integrating digital behaviour management into a novel sustainable urban mobility system BIBAFull-Text 62
  Simon Wells; Paula Forbes; Judith Masthoff; Silvia Gabrielli; Antti Jyllha
In this paper we present SUPERHUB, a prototype, open platform for urban-mobility that integrates multi-modal journey planning with captology influenced digital behaviour management in order to encourage increasingly sustainable travel behaviours. We build upon recent research in digital persuasion, mobile HCI, and findings from a user-centered design process to create a novel and sustainable urban-mobility platform that comprises an integrated server platform with an open API, Android mobile client, and a responsive web interface. Our goal is to support our users in realising their expressed sustainable travel goals.