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INT Tables of Contents: 9901030507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-315-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'11: Human-Computer Interaction 2011-09-05

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERACT'11: IFIP TC13 13th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III
Note:Building Bridges
Editors:Pedro Campos; Nicholas Graham; Joaquim Jorge; Nuno Nunes; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Location:Lisbon, Portugal
Dates:2011-Sep-05 to 2011-Sep-09
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 6948
Standard No:hcibib: INT11-3; ISBN: 978-3-642-23764-5 (Print) 978-3-642-23765-2 (Online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2011-09-05 Volume 3
    1. Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques I
    2. Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques II
    3. Paper 2.0
    4. Recommender Systems
    5. Social Media and Privacy
    6. Social Networks
    7. Sound and Smell
    8. Touch Interfaces
    9. Tabletops I
    10. Tabletops II
    11. Ubiquitous and Context-Aware Computing
    12. UI Modeling I
    13. UI Modelling II
    14. Usability

INT 2011-09-05 Volume 3

Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques I

A Framework to Develop VR Interaction Techniques Based on OpenInterface and AFreeCA BIBAKFull-Text 1-18
  Diego Martínez; J-Y. Lionel Lawson; José P. Molina; Arturo S. García; Pascual González; Jean Vanderdonckt; Benoit Macq
Implementing appropriate interaction for Virtual Reality (VR) applications is one of the most challenging tasks that a developer has to face. This challenge is due to both technical and theoretical factors. First, from a technical point of view, the developer does not only have to deal with non-standard devices, he has to facilitate their use in a parallel a coordinated way, interweaving the fields of 3D and multimodal interaction. Secondly, from a theoretical point of view, he has to design the interaction almost from scratch, as a standard set of interaction techniques and interactive tasks has not been identified. All these factors are reflected in the absence of appropriate tools to implement VR interaction techniques. In this paper, some existing tools that aim at the development of VR interaction techniques are studied, analysing their strengths and, more specifically, their shortcomings, such as the difficulties to integrate them with any VR platform or their absence of a strong conceptual background. Following that, a framework to implement VR interaction techniques is described that provides the required support for multimodal interaction and, also, uses experience gained from the study of the former tools to avoid previous mistakes. Finally, the usage of the resulting framework is illustrated with the development of the interaction techniques of a sample application.
Keywords: Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques; Tools for Design; Modelling; Evaluation; Multimodal interfaces; Virtual Reality
Exploring Interaction Strategies in the Context of Sleep BIBAKFull-Text 19-36
  Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Jia Du; Elly Zwartkruis-Pelgrim; Sriram Subramanian
This paper highlights opportunities and considerations when developing interaction techniques in the relatively unexplored area of sleep. We do this by first describing the sociological aspects of sleep such as the need for scheduling and coordinating sleep within a collective, followed by a description of the physiological aspects such as the circadian rhythm and sleep stages. We then examine how some external factors like the location of sleep and family settings can affect sleep to highlight potential design opportunities. We finish the paper by describing five distinct themes such as scheduling for a collective, supporting sleep transitions and feigning and inhibiting sleep around which design opportunities are explored. The main contribution of this paper is a discussion on the phenomenon of sleep and its position in the social life to provide a rich understanding of sleep and a set of opportunities for interaction design research around sleep.
Keywords: Sleep; interaction design; sleep quality; bedroom context
FeetUp: A Playful Accessory to Practice Social Skills through Free-Play Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 37-44
  Andrea Rosales; Ernesto Arroyo; Josep Blat
In this paper we describe the design process of an interactive accessory to play anywhere and anytime while encouraging free-play and practice social skills. We explain the design process, the resulting conceptual design of FeetUp and the preliminary user's evaluation. FeetUp is a playful accessory that takes advantage of children's interest to jump, or perform body stunts. These activities generally include lifting both feet, and FeetUp gives audiovisual feedback whenever this happens to encourage free-play related with jump activities. Preliminary user's experience shows how FeetUp, encourages freeplay.
Keywords: free-play; children; playful; augmented technologies; social interaction; wearable
Designing Snakey: A Tangible User Interface Supporting Well Path Planning BIBAKFull-Text 45-53
  John Harris; James Young; Nicole Sultanum; Paul Lapides; Ehud Sharlin; Mario Costa Sousa
We present our ongoing design of Snakey, a tangible user interface (TUI) dedicated to the field of reservoir geosciences and engineering. Our design of Snakey emphasizes intuitive manipulation and interaction with 3D curves, common to underground well path exploration and planning. Snakey is not designed to replace the traditional CAD reservoir well path planning tools, but rather to augment them with tangible and collaborative interaction, facilitating spatial exploration during the multi-stage planning processes involved in well path design. Our short paper presents design goals and prototyping solutions relating to Snakey's physicality, sensing technology, input/output mapping, and multi-modal feedback, as well as our findings from a preliminary evaluation of the latest Snakey prototype in a design critique session by experienced reservoir engineers.
Keywords: Well path planning; Tangible user interfaces (TUIs); physical interaction; real-time 3D curve manipulation; interactive visualization techniques; reservoir and geosciences engineering

Novel User Interfaces and Interaction Techniques II

OP: A Novel Programming Model for Integrated Design and Prototyping of Mixed Objects BIBAKFull-Text 54-72
  Céline Coutrix; Laurence Nigay
In the context of mixed systems that seek to smoothly merge physical and digital worlds, designing and prototyping interaction involves physical and digital aspects of mixed objects. However, even though mixed objects are recurrent in the literature, none of the existing prototyping tools explicitly supports this object level. Moreover, designers have to use distinct tools, on the one hand, tools for designing ideas and on the other hand tools for prototyping them: this makes the design process difficult. To help alleviate these two problems, we present OP (Object Prototyping), a toolkit that provides a new programming model focusing on mixed objects and allows us to seamlessly go back and forth from conceptual ideas to functional physical prototypes, making the iterative design process smooth and integrated. Indeed, OP is explicitly based on an existing conceptual design model, namely the Mixed Interaction Model that has been shown to be useful for exploring the design space of mixed objects. Our user studies show that, despite its threshold, designers and developers using OP can rapidly prototype functional physical objects as part of a design process deeply intertwining conceptual design with prototyping activities.
Keywords: Prototyping; Toolkit; Mixed Systems; Mixed Objects; Augmented Reality; Physical User Interfaces; Tangible User Interfaces; Design
A Personal Approach: The Persona Technique in a Companion's Design Lifecycle BIBAKFull-Text 73-90
  Joana Campos; Ana Paiva
Artificial companions are a new type of technology that is changing the way people interact with intelligent systems, by trying to build and sustain long term relationships with users. To evaluate such systems the typical usability methods for system evaluation are not enough, due to the need of accessing aspects such as social behaviour, emotional sensitivity and personalized interaction over long periods of time, with very specific users. In this paper, we describe the (full) design cycle of a companion system, arguing that a user-centred approach is the more appropriate, taking into account the referred specific issues. As such, to help us focus on developing a companion system for the prospective users, we based our design in the archetype of actual users -- a persona. Furthermore, we brought this same concept into the evaluation phase in order to access the companion performance in a long-term interaction.
Keywords: Companion design; persona; companion evaluation; long-term
Emotive Expression through the Movement of Interactive Robotic Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 91-99
  Eric Kryski; Ehud Sharlin
In this paper, we discuss our on going design of interactive personal vehicles that exhibit behavioral constructs expressed through motion in order to improve the user's commuting experience. The behavioral, personality-like traits demonstrated by the interactive vehicles are intended to be useful and helpful, as well as to stretch beyond the effectiveness into affect and emotion, creating an overall more satisfying experience for the user. This short paper presents our design goals and approach, describes the evolution of the implementation of our personal vehicle prototypes, and outlines our current preliminary design critique evaluation findings.
Keywords: Social human-robot interaction (HRI); Vehicle personality; Emotional expression through motion

Paper 2.0

Evaluation of an Integrated Paper and Digital Document Management System BIBAKFull-Text 100-116
  Matthew Jervis; Masood Masoodian
Paper documents are still an integral component of our everyday working lives, and are likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. Fortunately, advances in electronic technology in recent years have made it possible to develop digital systems that better integrate paper and digital document management. However, as far as we are aware, none of these integrated document management systems have been evaluated to demonstrate whether the users would indeed find them valuable for managing paper documents. In this paper we present a user study of one such system, called SOPHYA, that provides a means of linking the management of real world document artefacts (e.g., folders) with their electronic counterparts, so that document management activities such as locating, retrieving, and filing documents can be better supported, especially for large collections. The study is in the form of a laboratory-based evaluation, in which participants with experience in document management used the system to perform several tasks, such as locating and retrieving folders, and provided feedback based on their own experience. The results of this study show that users are able to apply software functionality they use for storage and retrieval of electronic documents to effectively manage paper documents as well. Our study has also identified a range of other potential benefits that the users envisage for such a technology in their diverse work environments.
Keywords: Document management; paper documents; electronic documents; digital documents; tangible interfaces; evaluation
BendFlip: Examining Input Techniques for Electronic Book Readers with Flexible Form Factors BIBAKFull-Text 117-133
  Doug Wightman; Tim Ginn; Roel Vertegaal
We present recommendations for the design of flexible electronic book readers, based on an empirical evaluation of form factors and input techniques in a page navigation task. We compared capacitive touch, pressure, and bend sensors between rigid and flexible form factors using a prototype electronic book reader. Results suggest that the time required to perform bend techniques is comparable to button techniques for page navigation on flexible form factors. We also found that a bend technique had fewer errors on flexible form factors. We discuss the physical affordances of flexible e-book form factors, and why they might be preferable to rigid designs. We conclude by presenting recommendations for the design of future flexible e-book readers.
Keywords: Flexible displays; electronic book readers; bimanual input
Who's That Girl? Handheld Augmented Reality for Printed Photo Books BIBAKFull-Text 134-151
  Niels Henze; Susanne Boll
Augmented reality on mobile phones has recently made major progress. Lightweight, markerless object recognition and tracking makes handheld Augmented Reality feasible for new application domains. As this field is technology driven the interface design has mostly been neglected. In this paper we investigate visualization techniques for augmenting printed documents using handheld Augmented Reality. We selected the augmentation of printed photo books as our application domain because photo books are enduring artefacts that often have online galleries containing further information as digital counterpart. Based on an initial study, we designed two augmentations and three techniques to select regions in photos. In an experiment, we compare an augmentation that is aligned to the phone's display with an augmentation aligned to the physical object. We conclude that an object aligned presentation is more usable. For selecting regions we show that participants are more satisfied using simple touch input compared to Augmented Reality based input techniques.
Keywords: augmented reality; mobile phone; photo sharing; mobile interaction; image analysis; photo book

Recommender Systems

Looking for "Good" Recommendations: A Comparative Evaluation of Recommender Systems BIBAKFull-Text 152-168
  Paolo Cremonesi; Franca Garzotto; Sara Negro; Alessandro Vittorio Papadopoulos; Roberto Turrin
A number of researches in the Recommender Systems (RSs) domain suggest that the recommendations that are "best" according to objective metrics are sometimes not the ones that are most satisfactory or useful to the users. The paper investigates the quality of RSs from a user-centric perspective. We discuss an empirical study that involved 210 users and considered seven RSs on the same dataset that use different baseline and state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms. We measured the user's perceived quality of each of them, focusing on accuracy and novelty of recommended items, and on overall users' satisfaction. We ranked the considered recommenders with respect to these attributes, and compared these results against measures of statistical quality of the considered algorithms as they have been assessed by past studies in the field using information retrieval and machine learning algorithms.
Keywords: Recommender systems; quality metrics; user study
All the News That's Fit to Read: Finding and Recommending News Online BIBAKFull-Text 169-186
  Juha Leino; Kari-Jouko Räihä; Sanna Finnberg
Our survey study of 147 Finns shows that online news is becoming the most important news source today: Online newspapers have bypassed paper newspapers and also TV and radio in importance, especially among young adults. Although most respondents routinely visited their preferred news sites directly, recommendations from their social network also played an important role in helping them find salient news. We analyzed the factors that affected which recommendations were read and why, and also discuss participants' expectations on the behavior of the receivers of the recommendations. The person recommending and the means of recommending affect what gets read. In contrast with previous studies, we found that the role of email as a recommendation tool is decreasing as the use of social media is becoming more common. However, personally targeted recommendations still have a better chance of being influential than recommendations made to the public at large.
Keywords: News; recommending; sociality; online
Helping Users Sort Faster with Adaptive Machine Learning Recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 187-203
  Steven M. Drucker; Danyel Fisher; Sumit Basu
Sorting and clustering large numbers of documents can be an overwhelming task: manual solutions tend to be slow, while machine learning systems often present results that don't align well with users' intents. We created and evaluated a system for helping users sort large numbers of documents into clusters. iCluster has the capability to recommend new items for existing clusters and appropriate clusters for items. The recommendations are based on a learning model that adapts over time -- as the user adds more items to a cluster, the system's model improves and the recommendations become more relevant. Thirty-two subjects used iCluster to sort hundreds of data items both with and without recommendations; we found that recommendations allow users to sort items more rapidly. A pool of 161 raters then assessed the quality of the resulting clusters, finding that clusters generated with recommendations were of statistically indistinguishable quality. Both the manual and assisted methods were substantially better than a fully automatic method.
Keywords: Mixed initiative interactions; adaptive user interfaces; information interfaces; interactive clustering; machine learning

Social Media and Privacy

Sharing Ephemeral Information in Online Social Networks: Privacy Perceptions and Behaviours BIBAKFull-Text 204-215
  Bernardo Reynolds; Jayant Venkatanathan; Jorge Gonçalves; Vassilis Kostakos
This paper presents a study where the online Facebook practices of a sample of users (n=103) was analysed over a period of two years, via the scraping of data in Facebook and the collection of questionnaire data. The data allows for a contrast between implicit and explicit attitudes regarding Facebook and online sharing. Our analysis reveals that while overall privacy concerns are not reflected in posting behaviour, awareness and familiarity with privacy controls is. This is supported by contrasting users' attitudes regarding day-to-day sharing against actual behaviour on Facebook. We theorise that there exists a failure in translating users' privacy needs into a social-technical environment such as social networking sites. This work demonstrates how aspects such as demographics and usage influence and shape users' behaviour and practices towards privacy. We therefore argue that the factorization of these aspects may augment the translation of users' privacy needs and improve the design of privacy sensitive mechanisms for day-to-day information sharing.
Keywords: Social media; sharing; privacy
An Investigation into Facebook Friend Grouping BIBAKFull-Text 216-233
  Patrick Gage Kelley; Robin Brewer; Yael Mayer; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Norman Sadeh
With increasingly large friend networks, Facebook users may be losing sight of exactly with whom they are sharing content they post to Facebook. When Facebook released a new privacy interface in summer 2010 they simplified privacy controls; however, group-based permissions remain at the core of fine-grained privacy control. In order to use these fine-grained controls, users must be able to accurately and usefully specify friend groups. In a series of 46 semi-structured interviews, we investigated how participants group their online friends using four different grouping methods. Our results show that these different mechanisms alter the strategies and groups that users create, that groups created a priori need further refinement before they can adequately address privacy decisions, and that users are adapting their online behavior to avoid the need to specify groups in the current Facebook interface. We conclude with several recommendations that would allow users improved group-based access control.
Keywords: grouping; online social networks; privacy; access control
Privacy Concern and Trust in Using Social Network Sites: A Comparison between French and Chinese Users BIBAKFull-Text 234-241
  Li Chen; Ho Keung Tsoi
Though privacy and trust have been studied in the social network site (SNS), few have identified the relationships among users' privacy concern, trust and their actual usage behavior in SNS. Moreover, little attention has been paid to investigating the differences between users from different cultural contexts. In this paper, we have been engaged in addressing these concerns by surveying two typical user groups. The analysis of their answers showed that French and Chinese are not only significantly different regarding privacy and trust belief in SNS, but also act significantly different in disclosing personal information, posting messages, and developing new relationships. Furthermore, the effect of privacy concern and trust on users' visiting frequency and willingness to meet new people is also found different between the two groups.
Keywords: social network site; privacy concern; trust; usage behavior; cultural differences
Privacy Concerns in Enterprise Social Travel: Attitudes and Actions BIBAKFull-Text 242-249
  Netta Aizenbud-Reshef; Artem Barger; Yael Dubinsky; Ido Guy; Shiri Kremer-Davidson
Privacy in travel refers to the way people manage their personal travel information and their willingness to share this information with others. Travel privacy concerns affect the amount and type of information people are willing to share within social networks, before or after their trip. Our study focuses on privacy and sharing concerns regarding business travel in an enterprise setting. We briefly present Voyage, an enterprise social travel application, and describe a study based on qualitative and quantitative data that inspects privacy and sharing concerns in business travels. We found that most employees are theoretically willing to share their business travel plans, but in practice they share less than expected. Further, most employees are less concerned to share their past travel information than their future plans. Based on our study, we suggest guidelines for the development of location based and enterprise travel applications.
Keywords: Privacy; business travel; information sharing; social activity

Social Networks

Online Games and Family Ties: Influences of Social Networking Game on Family Relationship BIBAKFull-Text 250-264
  Jing Wen; Yong Ming Kow; Yunan Chen
How do online games impact intergenerational family relationships? To answer this question, we investigated QQ Farm, the most popular online game available on a popular Chinese social networking site. We conducted observations and semi-structured interviews with sixteen pairs of Chinese parents and their adult children. Of the sixteen pairs, seven lived locally; nine pairs lived remotely. The findings of this study suggest that online games provide common conversational topics among local family members and enrich family time. Online games with well-designed shared virtual spaces can also help enhance remote families' awareness of each other's real-life activity. For future intergenerational games, we recommend a game design that requires minimal effort, has a 'healthy' theme, and provides features, such as an activity log and message board, which help maintain game based family communications.
Keywords: Social Network Games; Parents-children Relationship; Domestic Play; Generational Gap
The Influence of Customer Familiarity and Personal Innovativeness toward Information Technologies on the Sense of Virtual Community and Participation BIBAKFull-Text 265-279
  Manuel J. Sánchez-Franco; José Antonio Carballar-Falcón; Francisco J. Martínez-López; Juan Carlos Gázquez-Abad
The aim of this study is to investigate, on the one hand, the main effects of personal innovativeness and familiarity on perceived community support in the domain of the social network site Tuenti, and, on the other hand, the moderating effects of personal innovativeness on relationships between familiarity and perceived community support. A Structural Equation Modelling, specifically Partial Least Square, is proposed to assess the relationships between the constructs together with the predictive power of the model analysed. The results demonstrate that increasing PIIT and familiarity can be seen as important initiatives that promote perceived community support and avoid the consideration of competitive social network sites.
Keywords: Perceived community support; Social Network Sites; sense of virtual community; familiarity; personal innovativeness; moderating effects
Characterizing Interactions among Members of Deaf Communities in Orkut BIBAKFull-Text 280-287
  Glívia A. R. Barbosa; Ismael S. Silva; Glauber Gonçalves; Raquel O. Prates; Fabrício Benevenuto; Virgílio Almeida
This paper presents a characterization of interaction phenomena among members of communities aimed at deaf people in an online social network system, namely Orkut. The results revealed that members of deaf communities are tighter than members of other communities. However, analysis of the interface indicates that it does not always address their specific needs.
Keywords: Social Networks; Online Communities; Deaf; Orkut; Accessibility

Sound and Smell

The Role of Music in the Design Process with Children BIBAKFull-Text 288-305
  Ruut Tikkanen; Netta Iivari
Music and other art based methods should play a significant role in the HCI field when designing with children, taking the developmental stage of the children into consideration. Music has been neglected in the design process in HCI research, while there is a lot of meaningful research in social and educational studies. HCI research has concentrated more on technological products and technological needs of special education, bringing up music as an important part of media too. In this paper we emphasize the versatile role of music during the design process with preschool children. We describe three different workshops identifying three different roles for music: a contextual role, music as a trigger and music as content. The roles demonstrate numerous possibilities for using music in design workshops and show the usefulness of music in collaborative design with children. HCI research should utilize music in more varied forms during design.
Keywords: Preschool children; music; design process
ToCoPlay: Graphical Multi-touch Interaction for Composing and Playing Music BIBAKFull-Text 306-322
  Sean Lynch; Miguel A. Nacenta; Sheelagh Carpendale
With the advent of electronic music and computers, the human-sound interface is liberated from the specific physical constraints of traditional instruments, which means that we can design musical interfaces that provide arbitrary mappings between human actions and sound generation. This freedom has resulted in a wealth of new tools for electronic music generation that expand the limits of expression, as exemplified by projects such as Reactable and Bricktable. In this paper we present ToCoPlay, an interface that further explores the design space of collaborative, multi-touch music creation systems. ToCoPlay is unique in several respects: it allows creators to dynamically transition between the roles of composer and performer, it takes advantage of a flexible spatial mapping between a musical piece and the graphical interface elements that represent it, and it applies current and traditional interface interaction techniques for the creation of music.
Keywords: Multi-touch; collaboration; composition; music; musical instrument
Presentation Technique of Scents Using Mobile Olfactory Display for Digital Signage BIBAKFull-Text 323-337
  Sayumi Sugimoto; Ryo Segawa; Daisuke Noguchi; Yuichi Bannai; Kenichi Okada
Understanding and attention value of the advertisement will be advanced by adding scents to the digital signage. However, it was difficult to have corresponding one-to-many relationships, movements of users, and precise chronological control of scents. In this study, using mobile olfactory display, we propose the digital signage with scent which takes account of users' movements. The concept of this study is constructing the system having scents, movements, and communication. This system was built by enabling to receive the scent ejection signal from the advertisement, achieve the distance by the image of web-camera, and eject the scents with the strength in accordance with distance, to have the control of scents which accedes to substance of advertisement and positional relationship. As a result of evaluations, the olfactory information was carried down to users with great accuracy. The scents production of the advertisements will be possible with the use of this system.
Keywords: Olfactory Information; Olfactory Display; Pulse Ejection; Olfactory Characteristics; Scented Digital Signage

Touch Interfaces

"Oh Snap" -- Helping Users Align Digital Objects on Touch Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 338-355
  Jennifer Fernquist; Garth Shoemaker; Kellogg S. Booth
We introduce a new snapping technique, Oh Snap, designed specifically for users of direct touch interfaces. Oh Snap allows users to easily align digital objects with lines or other objects using 1-D or 2-D translation or rotation. Our technique addresses two major drawbacks of existing snapping techniques: they either cause objects to "jump" to snap locations, preventing placement very close to those locations, or they "expand" motor space so that on direct-touch interfaces objects lag behind the user's finger. Oh Snap addresses both of these problems using an asymmetric velocity profile similar to a technique for filtering degrees of freedom in multi-touch gestures that was introduced by Nacenta et al. (2009). Oh Snap applies the velocity profile to multiple "snapping" constraints. A user study revealed a 40% performance improvement over no snapping for 1-D translation, 2-D translation, and rotation tasks when snap lines or angles were targeted. We found that Oh Snap performs no worse than traditional snapping, while retaining its important functional benefits. The study also investigated optimal parameter settings and Oh Snap's accuracy in supporting the placement of objects near to, but not at, snap locations, which traditional snapping techniques do not support. Oh Snap was found to be competitive with non-snapping interfaces for these tasks.
The Link-Offset-Scale Mechanism for Improving the Usability of Touch Screen Displays on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 356-372
  Willian Massami Watanabe; Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes; Maria da Graça Campos Pimentel
Touch-screen interfaces have become a widespread-input-device tendency for computer systems. In this context, many studies investigate how to improve general usability for touch-screen devices. These studies consider different interaction design features that improve the usability for touch sensitive surfaces, considering the low accuracy it presents, given obstacles such as the "fat finger problem", low-perception of pointing mechanisms, difficulties in the selection of small objects, among others. This work aims at presenting the link-offset-scale touch interaction mechanism for improving the usability for touch-screen devices. The link-offset-scale mechanism makes use of web-application-structure meta-data (identifying links) to provide feedback information about the selection of links in touch interfaces, while the surface is touched by the user. The link-offset-scale mechanism's primary goal is to reduce the number of errors that users commit while interacting with touch-screen devices in the Web.
Keywords: Touch-screen displays; pervasive computing; ubiquitous computing; usability in touch-screen devices; web usability
The Effects of Personal Displays and Transfer Techniques on Collaboration Strategies in Multi-touch Based Multi-Display Environments BIBAKFull-Text 373-390
  Stefan Bachl; Martin Tomitsch; Karin Kappel; Thomas Grechenig
Multi-touch tabletop systems promise to enhance collaboration in multi-display (MDE) environments. However, little is known about the effects of combining shared multi-touch tabletops with multi-touch tablet computers (tablets) as the collaborators' personal displays. In this paper we present the implementation of a MDE with multi-touch input on both shared and personal displays and its evaluation regarding task performance, user preferences and collaboration strategies compared to a standard multi-touch tabletop setting. Eight participant pairs had to solve a collaborative sorting task using three different transfer techniques. Based on an analysis of video recordings, log files and user feedback we identified task solving and collaboration strategies. The use of tablets enabled participants to follow diverse strategies and participants preferred the collaboration using tablets, while overall task performance and the amount of close collaboration were higher without the tablets.
Keywords: Co-located collaboration; interactive surfaces; multi-display environment; multi-touch; tabletop interaction

Tabletops I

Evaluating Physical/Virtual Occlusion Management Techniques for Horizontal Displays BIBAFull-Text 391-408
  Waqas Javed; KyungTae Kim; Sohaib Ghani; Niklas Elmqvist
We evaluate unguided and guided visual search performance for a set of techniques that mitigate occlusion between physical and virtual objects on a tabletop display. The techniques are derived from a general model of hybrid physical/virtual occlusion, and take increasingly drastic measures to make the user aware of, identify, and access hidden objects -- but with increasingly space-consuming and disruptive impact on the display. Performance is different depending on the visual display, suggesting a tradeoff between management strength and visual space deformation.
Usage and Recognition of Finger Orientation for Multi-Touch Tabletop Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 409-426
  Chi Tai Dang; Elisabeth André
Building on the observation that finger orientation is an inherent part of human's interaction in the real world, exploiting finger orientation for multi-touch tabletop interaction would facilitate more natural interaction techniques. We motivate this by means of examples where the finger orientation improves or enriches interaction. Afterwards, we present a simple and fast approach to detect the finger orientation reliably for multi-touch tabletop interaction. The steps involved are computationally cheap and therefore suit the needs of tracking software operating under time-critical conditions. We show that the presented approach enables the detection of finger orientation also for fingers that touch the tabletop surface only slightly. Further, recognition rates on real data gained from the camera within a multi-touch tabletop are presented in order to give a measure for the precision and reliability of the presented approach.
Keywords: Finger Orientation; Multi-Touch; Tabletop; Tracking; Interaction
Tangoscope: A Tangible Audio Device for Tabletop Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 427-434
  Jörg Edelmann; Yvonne Kammerer; Birgit Imhof; Peter Gerjets; Wolfgang Straßer
Tabletop installations allow multiple users to playback digital media simultaneously. With public speakers, however, simultaneous auditory content gets superimposed, leading to a confusing and disturbing user experience. In this paper, we present Tangoscope, a tangible audio output device for tabletop interaction. As we augmented headphones with a visual marker-based identification mechanism, with the Tangoscope each user is provided with individual auditory content. To allow for an instruction-free and intuitive usage of the audio device we employed the metaphor of a real stethoscope. A first user study indicated the self-explaining use of the Tangoscope.
Keywords: Tabletop interaction; audio interface; individual audio content; natural user interface; multi-user interaction
Supporting Social Protocols in Tabletop Interaction through Visual Cues BIBAFull-Text 435-442
  Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross; Maxi Hucke
Multi-touch tabletops provide new means for co-located people to work together on a task by directly manipulating objects and tools on a single display in unison. Despite their benefits they also entail new challenges. One major concern is how to help users avoid conflicting actions. Previous work discusses if social protocols are sufficient to regulate coordination, and if policies are needed to enforce specific behaviours. Our study on different variants of a tabletop game shows that providing visual cues on ownership can help to follow social protocols and therefore reduce the need for policies.

Tabletops II

Effects of a Tabletop Interface on the Co-construction of Concept Maps BIBAKFull-Text 443-460
  Stefan Oppl; Chris Stary
Concept Mapping is a method for externalizing and reflecting knowledge about real world phenomena. In cooperative settings, concept maps can also be used to aid cooperative learning activities and the development of a common understanding about the mapping subject. This process imposes requirements on tool support that have hardly been addressed in existing concept mapping tools. We present a tabletop interface designed to meet these requirements. In an empirical study, the positive effects on the cooperative mapping process facilitated by the proposed system have been shown in comparison to a traditional, screen-based system.
Keywords: Concept mapping; tangible interface; tabletop; cooperation; alignment of meaning; sense making
The Continuous Interaction Space: Interaction Techniques Unifying Touch and Gesture on and above a Digital Surface BIBAKFull-Text 461-476
  Nicolai Marquardt; Ricardo Jota; Saul Greenberg; Joaquim A. Jorge
The rising popularity of digital table surfaces has spawned considerable interest in new interaction techniques. Most interactions fall into one of two modalities: 1) direct touch and multi-touch (by hand and by tangibles) directly on the surface, and 2) hand gestures above the surface. The limitation is that these two modalities ignore the rich interaction space between them. To move beyond this limitation, we first contribute a unification of these discrete interaction modalities called the continuous interaction space. The idea is that many interaction techniques can be developed that go beyond these two modalities, where they can leverage the space between them. That is, we believe that the underlying system should treat the space on and above the surface as a continuum, where a person can use touch, gestures, and tangibles anywhere in the space and naturally move between them. Our second contribution illustrates this, where we introduce a variety of interaction categories that exploit the space between these modalities. For example, with our Extended Continuous Gestures category, a person can start an interaction with a direct touch and drag, then naturally lift off the surface and continue their drag with a hand gesture over the surface. For each interaction category, we implement an example (or use prior work) that illustrates how that technique can be applied. In summary, our primary contribution is to broaden the design space of interaction techniques for digital surfaces, where we populate the continuous interaction space both with concepts and examples that emerge from considering this space as a continuum.
Keywords: Touch; gestures; surfaces; interactive tabletops; 3D interaction; tangibles; portable devices; continuous interaction space
AffinityTable -- A Hybrid Surface for Supporting Affinity Diagramming BIBAKFull-Text 477-484
  Florian Geyer; Ulrike Pfeil; Jochen Budzinski; Anita Höchtl; Harald Reiterer
Using affinity diagramming as an example, we investigate interaction techniques for supporting collaborative design activities. Based on an observational study, we identified design guidelines that need to be addressed to find a close fit to embodied practice. Using this knowledge, we designed and implemented AffinityTable, a hybrid surface for supporting affinity diagramming. The tool combines digital pen & paper with an interactive table and tangible tokens. An additional vertical display is used to support reflection and group coordination.
Keywords: design tools; collaborative design; affinity diagramming; reality-based interaction; digital pen & paper; hybrid interactive surfaces

Ubiquitous and Context-Aware Computing

Design as Intercultural Dialogue: Coupling Human-Centered Design with Requirement Engineering Methods BIBAKFull-Text 485-502
  Chiara Leonardi; Luca Sabatucci; Angelo Susi; Massimo Zancanaro
In the design of information technologies, the challenge of integrating a human-centered design approach with software engineering methods emerge in different forms. The main challenge is to set the ground for different disciplines and professional cultures communicate and work together. The orchestration of different contributions and the establishment of communication practices that facilitates the integration of the different languages and procedures are crucial steps to take full advantage of different research traditions. This paper presents a case study in which human-centered design and requirement engineering methodologies have been used within a large research projects aiming at developing innovative technologies and services to support professionals in nursing homes. The design process took the form of an intercultural dialogue that required human-centered and requirement-engineering professionals to work across borders. Starting from our case study, the paper presents the boundaries identified between the human-centered and the engineering perspective and proposes a framework to guide the integration process conceived as an intercultural dialogue between disciplines.
Keywords: Human-centered design; Requirement engineering; inter-disciplinarity
Predicting Selective Availability for Instant Messaging BIBAKFull-Text 503-520
  Mirko Fetter; Julian Seifert; Tom Gross
Instant messaging (IM) systems allow users to spontaneously communicate over distance, yet they bear the risk for disruption of the recipient. In order to reduce disruption, novel approaches for detecting and presenting mutual availability are needed. In this paper we show how fine-grained IM availability predictions can be made for nomadic users solely based on sensors installed on a laptop computer. Our approach provides comparable accuracies to previous work, while it eliminates the need for augmenting the offices or the users with further sensors. We performed a user study to collect sensor data. Alongside with labels collected by means of Experience Sampling, the data allow for creating probabilistic models for predicting selective availability. This way, we demonstrate how the required effort involved in proactively managing one's availability selectively towards a variety of recipients can be reduced by automatic adaptation, and give insights in the lessons learned.
Keywords: Instant Messaging; Context Inference; Sensors; Privacy
Testing the Usability of a Platform for Rapid Development of Mobile Context-Aware Applications BIBAKFull-Text 521-536
  Valentim Realinho; A. Eduardo Dias; Teresa Romão
In this paper, we present the usability evaluation of IVO (Integrated Virtual Operator), a platform that supports the rapid development of contextaware applications by users with no programming skills. Using only the tools provided by the platform (IVO Builder and IVO Outlook), users can define temporal and spatial conditions and associate them with workflows of activities available within the platform. This way, whenever the defined conditions occur, the user's smartphone will immediately produce the intended behavior, with no need for user intervention. The applications developed using IVO can easily be made available to other users through a distributed web platform. Moreover, an android client was developed, to run the IVO-developed applications, allowing the smartphone to act as the ubiquitous interaction device. The evaluation of the platform was performed through usability tests at both the end-user level (android client) and the developer-user level (builder tools).
Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing; Context-Awareness; Rapid Application Development; Usability Evaluation; Interaction Design; Mobility

UI Modeling I

Hammering Models: Designing Usable Modeling Tools BIBAKFull-Text 537-554
  Ko-Hsun Huang; Nuno Jardim Nunes; Leonel Nobrega; Larry Constantine; Monchu Chen
A modeling tool not only helps users express their ideas and thoughts but also serves as a communication platform among domain experts, designers, developers, and others practitioners. Existing modeling tools have shortcomings in terms of supported functionality and situated usability or do not meet the needs of users of varying levels of expertise. To facilitate improvement of such modeling tools, this research begins by identifying common problems in existing tools and proceeds by borrowing concepts from grounded theory to develop a framework of redesign guidelines. A case study illustrates how this framework can be used by applying it to MetaSketch, a metamodeling tool. The study employs multiple user experience research methods, including usability tests with paper prototypes, observations, interviews, and contextual inquiries. A set of core tasks and two significant modeling approaches were identified that directly influence interface and interaction design for modeling tools.
Keywords: Model-Based Design; Interactive Systems; Usability and Software; User Experience Design; Metamodels; Metamodeling; Participatory Design
Task Descriptions Using Academic Oriented Modelling Languages: A Survey of Actual Practices across the SIGCHI Community BIBAFull-Text 555-570
  Stanislas Couix; Jean-Marie Burkhardt
There is an extensive literature on task modelling related to the design of computer systems. Task analysis and task modelling have been widely recognized as central components in human-centred approaches. The aim of this paper is to report on some results of a worldwide survey about actual practices of task descriptions languages (TDL) in SIGCHI community. Results suggest that academic TDL are not well known and not used by participants. They prefer using "home-made" TDL. This may be explained by the fact that formal TDL are not adapted to tasks analysts needs and that task modelling is an expert activity, mainly used by skilled analysts. Indeed, this study shows that task models are not only used in a productive way, i.e. to derive useful inputs to the design of man-machine systems. Thus, it seems that formal TDL failed to take this into account.
Selective Modeling to Support Task Migratability of Interactive Artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 571-588
  Anke Dittmar; Peter Forbrig
Selective modeling is suggested as a technique that encourages designers to mix exploratory, analytical, and empirical design activities in interaction design. The co-development of models and prototypes of interactive systems is proposed to support a better balance between formal and explorative design approaches. Models serve to inform design decisions but also to analyze emerging alternatives of prototypical implementations.
   Task migratability is a usability design principle that describes how control for task execution is transferred between system and user. Refined flexible task allocation is rarely achievable through pure top-down decomposition as used in many model-based approaches. The paper shows at the example of HOPS models how selective modeling can be applied to develop prototypes in a deliberated evolutionary way by using models to express different viewpoints and to explore design options at different levels of granularity.
Keywords: User-Centered Design; Model-Based Design of Interactive Systems; Exploratory Design; Tools for Design; Modeling; Prototyping; Design Rationale

UI Modelling II

Structuring and Composition Mechanisms to Address Scalability Issues in Task Models BIBAFull-Text 589-609
  Célia Martinie; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Along tasks analysis and modeling history it has been demonstrated by experience that task modeling activities become cumbersome when performed on large, real-life systems. However, one of the main goals of task models is to provide designers with a structured and complete description of the users tasks especially when these user tasks are numerous and/or complex. Several authors proposed to handle that problem by providing tools aiming at supporting both construction and understanding (usually via simulation) of models. One of the most popular examples is CTTE environment which is dedicated to the engineering of CTT task models. The paper shows how to extend notations for task description with two kinds of mechanisms: composition and refinement/abstraction. Refinement/abstraction mechanisms make it possible to decompose a task model into several models and to interconnect them. Composition mechanisms make it possible to define communication means between task models. The paper proposes a precise definition of these mechanisms, their integration into a notation for describing task models and demonstrates that altogether, these two structuring mechanisms support the effective exploitation of task models for large scale application. The use of the mechanisms is presented on a real-life case study from the space domain describing operators' tasks to monitor a satellite and manage failures.
User Driven Evolution of User Interface Models -- The FLEPR Approach BIBAKFull-Text 610-627
  Stefan Hennig; Jan Van den Bergh; Kris Luyten; Annerose Braune
In model-based user interface development, models at different levels of abstraction are used. While ideas may initially only be expressed in more abstract models, modifications and improvements according to user's feedback will likely be made at the concrete level, which may lead to model inconsistencies that need to be fixed in every iteration. Transformations form the bridge between these models. Because one-to-one mappings between models cannot always be defined, these transformations are completely manual or they require manual post-treatment.
   We propose interactive but automatic transformations to address the mapping problem while still allowing designer's creativity. To manage consistency and semantic correctness within and between models and therefore to foster iterative development processes, we are combining these with techniques to track decisions and modifications and techniques of intra- and inter-model validation. Our approach has been implemented for abstract and concrete user interface models using Eclipse-based frameworks for model-driven engineering. Our approach and tool support is illustrated by a case study.
Keywords: User interface models; model transformations; interactive model transformations; model consistency; model synchronization
Adapting Desktop Web Pages for Vocal Browsing BIBAKFull-Text 628-635
  Fabio Paternò; Christian Sisti
In this paper we describe a solution to make Web pages more suitable for vocal browsing by analyzing and modifying their logical structure. The solution exploits intermediate logical descriptions that are automatically created by reverse engineering techniques. The adaptation engine aims to identify the main logical structure of the Web page components and remove the aspects specific to the graphical modality. Then, a vocal implementation is generated to support browsing, which begins by the user's selecting from the main components.
Keywords: Adaptation; Web sites; Vocal Browsing; User Interface Models; Accessibility
Using the Journalistic Metaphor to Design User Interfaces That Explain Sensor Data BIBAKFull-Text 636-643
  Martin Molina; Enrique Parodi; Amanda Stent
Facilitating general access to data from sensor networks (including traffic, hydrology and other domains) increases their utility. In this paper we argue that the journalistic metaphor can be effectively used to automatically generate multimedia presentations that help non-expert users analyze and understand sensor data. The journalistic layout and style are familiar to most users. Furthermore, the journalistic approach of ordering information from most general to most specific helps users obtain a high-level understanding while providing them the freedom to choose the depth of analysis to which they want to go. We describe the general characteristics and architectural requirements for an interactive intelligent user interface for exploring sensor data that uses the journalistic metaphor. We also describe our experience in developing this interface in real-world domains (e.g., hydrology).
Keywords: Intelligent user interface; multimedia presentation; interactive data exploration; user interface for web applications


Domain Experts Tailoring Interaction to Users -- An Evaluation Study BIBAKFull-Text 644-661
  Helena Lindgren; Patrik J. Winnberg; Peter Winnberg
This paper presents ACKTUS, a modeling tool for developing knowledge-based systems for the health domain, and an evaluation study of the system. The main purpose of the evaluation was to investigate whether the functionality and interaction design of ACKTUS was sufficiently intuitive for the domain experts to contribute with knowledge and to model the interaction design of the three end users' applications. Another purpose was to evaluate the applicability of the activity assessment protocol AAIMA for analysis. The study design was qualitative and formative, using observations and interviews with users to collect data. Three medical experts and two experts in occupational therapy participated, providing expertise in four different domains. The participants increased their understanding and skills during the evaluation period leading to improved knowledge-based applications. The AAIMA protocol proved to be useful and the results are fed into ongoing development work on developing the adaptive functionality of the ACKTUS systems.
Keywords: Formative evaluation; interaction design; end-user development and adaptation; knowledge modeling; e-health
Identifying Relationships between Physiological Measures and Evaluation Metrics for 3D Interaction Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 662-679
  Rafael Rieder; Christian Haag Kristensen; Márcio Sarroglia Pinho
This project aims to present a methodology to study the relationships between physiological measures and evaluation metrics for 3D interaction techniques using methods for multivariate data analysis. Physiological responses, such as heart rate and skin conductance, offer objective data about the user stress during interaction. This could be useful, for instance, to evaluate qualitative aspects of interaction techniques without relying on solely subjective data. Moreover, these data could contribute to improve task performance analysis by measuring different responses to 3D interaction techniques. With this in mind, we propose a methodology that defines a testing protocol, a normalization procedure and statistical techniques, considering the use of physiological measures during the evaluation process. A case study comparison between two 3D interaction techniques (ray-casting and HOMER) shows promising results, pointing to heart rate variability, as measured by the NN50 parameter, as a potential index of task performance. Further studies are needed in order to establish guidelines for evaluation processes based on well-defined associations between human behaviors and human actions realized in 3D user interfaces.
Keywords: usability metrics; physiological measures; interaction techniques
Comparing User Experience and Performance in SecondLife and Blackboard BIBAKFull-Text 680-696
  Alistair G. Sutcliffe; Amal Alrayes
Collaborative problem solving was compared in SecondLife (SL) and Blackboard (BB) and both technologies were compared with a face-to-face (FTF) control condition. There were no performance differences overall, although FTF was quicker and preferred, followed by BB and SL. BB was perceived to be more usable, whereas SL provided better user experience. Worse performance was indicated by dislike of avatar interaction in SL, and poor user experience in BB, whereas better performance was associated with engagement with avatars, and better usability in BB. The affordances for collaboration in each technology are discussed, with reflections on the mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data analysis.
Keywords: Collaborative problem solving and learning; Affordances; Mixed methods evaluation