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INT Tables of Contents: 09-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-315-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'15: Human-Computer Interaction, Part II 2015-09-14

Fullname:INTERACT 2015: 15th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II
Editors:Julio Abascal; Simone Barbosa; Mirko Fetter; Tom Gross; Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler
Location:Bamberg, Germany
Dates:2015-Sep-14 to 2015-Sep-18
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9297
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-22668-2 hcibib: INT15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-22667-5 (print), 978-3-319-22668-2 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2015-09-14 Volume 2
    1. Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing
    2. End-User Development
    3. Evaluation Methods/Usability Evaluation
    4. Eye Tracking
    5. Gesture Interaction
    6. HCI and Security
    7. HCI for Developing Regions and Social Development
    8. HCI for Education
    9. HCI for Education: Empowered Children's Robotic Product Ideas
    10. HCI for Education

INT 2015-09-14 Volume 2

Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing

EmbodiNet: Enriching Distributed Musical Collaboration Through Embodied Interactions BIBAFull-Text 1-19
  Dalia El-Shimy; Jeremy R. Cooperstock
This paper presents EmbodiNet, a novel system that augments distributed performance with dynamic, real-time, hands-free control over several aspects of the musicians' sound, enabling them to seamlessly change volume, affect reverb and adjust their mix. Musical performance is a demanding activity necessitating multiple levels of communication among its participants, as well as a certain degree of creativity, playfulness and spontaneity. As a result, distributed musical performance presents a challenging application area for the "same time/different place" category of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). In fact, musicians wishing to play together over a network are typically limited by tools that differ little from standard videoconferencing. Instead, we propose leveraging the technology inherent to the distributed context towards meaningfully augmenting collaborative performance. In order to do so without introducing new paradigms that may require learning or that may distract musicians from their primary task, we have designed and evaluated embodied controls that capitalize on existing interpersonal interactions. Further designed to restore the spatial properties of sound that are typically absent in the distributed context, and apply the notion of "shared space" found in CSCW research, EmbodiNet also helps confer a greater level of co-presence than standard distributed performance systems. This paper describes the implementation of EmbodiNet, along with the results of a long-term collaboration and experiment with a three-piece band. The long-term collaboration helped illustrate the benefits of augmenting an artistic form of distributed collaboration, and resulted in a system that not only helped enhance our users' sense of enjoyment and self-expression, but one that they would also likely use in the future.
Preference Elicitation and Negotiation in a Group Recommender System BIBAKFull-Text 20-37
  Jesús Omar Álvarez Márquez; Jürgen Ziegler
We present a novel approach to group recommender systems that better takes into account the social interaction in a group when formulating, discussing and negotiating the features of the item to be jointly selected. Our approach provides discussion support in a collaborative preference elicitation and negotiation process. Individual preferences are continuously aggregated and immediate feedback of the resulting recommendations is provided. We also support the last stage in the decision process when users collectively select the final item from the recommendation set. The prototype hotel recommender Hootle is developed following these concepts and tested in a user study. The results indicate a higher overall satisfaction with the system as well as a higher perceived recommendation quality when compared against a system version where no negotiation was possible. However, they also indicate that the negotiation-based approach may be more suitable for smaller groups, an aspect that will require further research.
Keywords: Group recommender system; Group preference elicitation; Negotiation; Decision making
The #selfiestation: Design and Use of a Kiosk for Taking Selfies in the Enterprise BIBAKFull-Text 38-46
  Casey Dugan; Sven Laumer; Thomas Erickson; Wendy Kellogg; Werner Geyer
This paper describes the design and use of the #selfiestation, a kiosk for taking selfies. Deployed in an office of a large enterprise, its use was studied through analysis of 821 photos taken by 336 users over 24 weeks and interviews with 10 users. The findings show high adoption amongst residents (81.5%); describe selfie usage patterns (funatics, communicators, check-ins, doppelgangers, and groupies); illustrate social photo-taking behavior (78.6% of users posed as part of groups, and those who did took almost four times as many photos); and raises questions for future investigations into flexibility in self-representation over time. Office residents seeing social and community-building value in selfies suggests that they have a place in the enterprise.
Keywords: Selfies; Faces; Social media; Enterprise; Self-representation
The LuminUs: Providing Musicians with Visual Feedback on the Gaze and Body Motion of Their Co-performers BIBAKFull-Text 47-54
  Evan Morgan; Hatice Gunes; Nick Bryan-Kinns
This paper describes the LuminUs -- a device that we designed in order to explore how new technologies could influence the inter-personal aspects of co-present musical collaborations. The LuminUs uses eye-tracking headsets and small wireless accelerometers to measure the gaze and body motion of each musician. A small light display then provides visual feedback to each musician, based either on the gaze or the body motion of their co-performer. We carried out an experiment with 15 pairs of music students in order to investigate how the LuminUs would influence their musical interactions. Preliminary results suggest that visual feedback provided by the LuminUs led to significantly increased glancing between the two musicians, whilst motion based feedback appeared to lead to a decrease in body motion for both participants.
Keywords: Musical interaction; Computer-supported cooperative work; Groupware; Eye-tracking; Social signals; Non-verbal communication
An Artifact Ecology in a Nutshell: A Distributed Cognition Perspective for Collaboration and Coordination BIBAKFull-Text 55-72
  Christina Vasiliou; Andri Ioannou; Panayiotis Zaphiris
An artifact ecology is an environment where multiple heterogeneous technologies co-exist and are interlinked as a unified system. To construct effective ecologies of artifacts for collaborative activities we need to acquire deep understanding of the complex interactions and interdependencies between users and tools. Researchers have identified Distributed Cognition (DC) as a powerful tool for understanding these interdependencies. In this study, DC, and particularly the DiCoT framework, were considered ideal for constructing this understanding for four student-groups during collaborative activities in an artifact ecology. Using DiCoT we analysed learners' behaviour and how the artifact ecology supported collaboration and cooperation. The cognitive system was described from three different perspectives -- physical layout, information flow and artifacts -- which (i) allowed an in-depth understanding of the interactions among learners and tools during collaborative activities and (ii) provided insights on how the affordances of the artifact ecology supported collaboration and coordination.
Keywords: Distributed cognition; DiCoT framework; Artifact ecology; Technology-rich workspace; HCI education; Collaboration; Coordination
Assessing a Collaborative Application for Comic Strips Composition BIBAKFull-Text 73-80
  Eleonora Mencarini; Gianluca Schiavo; Alessandro Cappelletti; Oliviero Stock; Massimo Zancanaro
In this paper we present the evaluation of an application for the collaborative composition of comics using a pre-defined set of images and sentences. This study is an intermediate step to guide the design of a tablet application for supporting collaborative storytelling between two authors from different cultures and speaking different languages. For this purpose, we assessed the effectiveness of a constrained-text approach for comic composition in which sentences are selected from a library rather than written by the authors. Our results show that the constrained-text approach provides a satisfying form of co-narration, stimulating the authors to stay on topic, while using the available narrative material. The findings of this study have implications for the future design of collaborative storytelling applications for multilingual and cross-cultural scenarios.
Keywords: Collaborative storytelling; Teenagers; Creativity support index; Multilingual communication
Augmenting Collaborative MOOC Video Viewing with Synchronized Textbook BIBAKFull-Text 81-88
  Nan Li; Lukasz Kidzinski; Pierre Dillenbourg
We designed BOOC, an application that synchronizes textbook content with MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses) videos. The application leverages a tablet display split into two views to present lecture videos and textbook content simultaneously. The display of the book serves as peripheral contextual help for video viewing activities. A five-week user study with 6 groups of MOOC students in a blended on-campus course was conducted. Our study in this paper reports how textbooks are used in authentic MOOC study groups and further explores the effects of the book-mapping feature of the BOOC player in enhancing the collaborative MOOC learning experiences.
Keywords: MOOC; Peripheral display; Contextual help; Collaborative learning
EXCITE: EXploring Collaborative Interaction in Tracked Environments BIBAKFull-Text 89-97
  Nicolai Marquardt; Frederico Schardong; Anthony Tang
A central issue in designing collaborative multi-surface environments is evaluating the interaction techniques, tools, and applications that we design. We often analyse data from studies using inductive video analysis, but the volume of data makes this a time-consuming process. We designed EXCITE, which gives analysts the ability to analyse studies by quickly querying aspects of people's interactions with applications and devices around them using a declarative programmatic syntax. These queries provide simple, immediate visual access to matching incidents in the interaction stream, video data, and motion-capture data. The query language filters the volume of data that needs to be reviewed based on criteria such as application events, and proxemics events, such as distance or orientation between people and devices. This general approach allows analysts to provisionally develop theories about the use of multi-surface environments, and to evaluate them rapidly through video-based evidence.
Keywords: Interaction analysis; Collaborative interaction; Tracked environments
The Usefulness of Method-Resources for Evaluating a Collaborative Training Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 98-105
  Ebba Thora Hvannberg; Gyda Halldorsdottir; Jan Rudinsky
Voice communication is vital for collaboration between first responders and commanders during crisis management. To decrease cost, training can take place in a virtual environment instead of in a real one. It is non-trivial to build and evaluate a virtual environment for training complex command. To understand the method-resources required for evaluating a training simulator for crisis response, this paper presents a case study of applying several resources. Method-resources were analysed for usability problems and Mechanics of Collaboration (MOC). The results show that the Group Observational Technique and the MOC analysis are appropriate for analysing factors of collaboration and communication. The think-aloud technique, observers, experts in the domain and advanced task scenario were important resources. In only a few cases sound and video were necessary to analyse issues.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Collaboration; Evaluation; Crisis management; Verbal communication; Method-resources; Mechanics of collaboration

End-User Development

Flat Design vs Traditional Design: Comparative Experimental Study BIBAKFull-Text 106-114
  Ivan Burmistrov; Tatiana Zlokazova; Anna Izmalkova; Anna Leonova
In the past few years flat user interface design has become the predominating visual style of operating systems, websites and mobile apps. Although flat design has been widely criticized by HCI and usability experts, empirical research on flat design is still scarce. We present the results of an experimental comparative study of visual search effectiveness on traditional and flat designs. The following types of visual search tasks were examined: (1) search for a target word in text; (2) search for a target icon in a matrix of icons; (3) search for clickable objects on webpages. Time and accuracy parameters of the visual search, as well as oculomotor activity, were measured. The results show that a search in flat text mode (compared with the traditional mode) is associated with higher cognitive load. A search for flat icons takes twice as long as for realistic icons and is also characterized by higher cognitive load. Identifying clickable objects on flat web pages requires more time and is characterised by a significantly greater number of errors. Our results suggest replacing the flat style user interfaces with interfaces based on the design principles developed over decades of research and practice of HCI and usability engineering.
Keywords: Flat design; Usability; Visual search; Cognitive load; Eye-tracking
How to Organize the Annotation Systems in Human-Computer Environment: Study, Classification and Observations BIBAKFull-Text 115-133
  Anis Kalboussi; Nizar Omheni; Omar Mazhoud; Ahmed Hadj Kacem
The practice of annotation is a secular and omnipresent activity. We find the annotation in several areas such as learning, semantic web, social networks, digital library, bioinformatics, etc. Thus, since the year 1989 and with the emergence of information technology, several annotation systems have been developed in human-computer environment adapted for various contexts and for various roles. These ubiquitous annotation systems allow users to annotate with digital information several electronic resources such as: web pages, text files, databases, images, videos, etc. Even though this topic has already been partially studied by other researchers, the previous works have left some open issues. It concern essentially the lack of how to organize all the developed annotation systems according to formal criteria in order to facilitate to the users the choice of an annotation system in a well-defined context and according to unified requirements. This problem is mainly due to the fact that annotation systems have only been developed for specific purposes. As a result, there is only a fragmentary picture of these annotation tools in the literature. The aim of this article is to provide a unified and integrated picture of all the annotation systems in human-computer environment. Therefore, we present a classification of sixty annotation tools developed by industry and academia during the last twenty-five years. This organization of annotation tools is built on the basis of five generic criteria. Observations and discussion of open issues conclude this survey.
Keywords: Annotation system; Metadata; Annotation; Tag; Human-computer environment; Classification; Survey
Mini-Orb: A Personal Indoor Climate Preference Feedback Interface BIBAKFull-Text 134-149
  Markus Rittenbruch; Jared Donovan; Yasuhiro Santo
The control of environmental factors in open-office environments, such as lighting and temperature is becoming increasingly automated. This development means that office inhabitants are losing the ability to manually adjust environmental conditions according to their needs. In this paper we describe the design, use and evaluation of MiniOrb, a system that employs ambient and tangible interaction mechanisms to allow inhabitants of office environments to maintain awareness of environmental factors, report on their own subjectively perceived office comfort levels and see how these compare to group average preferences. The system is complemented by a mobile application, which enables users to see and set the same sensor values and preferences, but using a screen-based interface. We give an account of the system's design and outline the results of an in situ trial and user study. Our results show that devices that combine ambient and tangible interaction approaches are well suited to the task of recording indoor climate preferences and afford a rich set of possible interactions that can complement those enabled by more conventional screen-based interfaces.
Keywords: Ambient interface; Tangible interaction; Indoor climate; Individual control; Peripheral awareness
Prototyping the Self-Authored Video Interview: Challenges and Opportunities BIBAKFull-Text 150-158
  Stephen Snow; Markus Rittenbruch; Margot Brereton
Self-authored video -- where participants are in control of the creation of their own footage -- is a means of creating innovative design material and including all members of a family in design activities. This paper describes our adaptation to this process called Self Authored Video Interviews (SAVIs) that we created and prototyped to better understand how families engage with situated technology in the home. We find the methodology produces unique insights into family dynamics in the home, uncovering assumptions and tensions unlikely to be discovered using more conventional methods. The paper outlines a number of challenges and opportunities associated with the methodology, specifically, maximising the value of the insights gathered by appealing to children to champion the cause, and how to counter perceptions of the lingering presence of researchers.
Keywords: Self-Authored video; Electricity; Eco-feedback; Family dynamics

Evaluation Methods/Usability Evaluation

An Empirical Study of the Effects of Three Think-Aloud Protocols on Identification of Usability Problems BIBAKFull-Text 159-176
  Anders Bruun; Jan Stage
Think-aloud is a de facto standard in user-based usability evaluation to verbalize what a user is experiencing. Despite its qualities, it has been argued that thinking aloud affects the task solving process. This paper reports from an empirical study of the effect of three think-aloud protocols on the identified usability problems. The three protocols were traditional, active listening and coaching. The study involved 43 test subjects distributed on the three think-aloud conditions and a silent control condition in a between-subject design. The results show that the three think-aloud protocols facilitated identification of the double number of usability problems compared to the silent condition, while the problems identified by the three think-aloud protocol were comparable. Our results do not support the common emphasis on the Coaching protocol, while we have seen that the Traditional protocol performs surprisingly well.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Thinking aloud; Verbalization; Think-aloud protocols; Empirical study
An Observational Study of How Experienced Programmers Annotate Program Code BIBAKFull-Text 177-194
  Craig J. Sutherland; Andrew Luxton-Reilly; Beryl Plimmer
This study investigates how and why experienced programmers annotate program code. Research has shown that marking up prose with a pen is an invaluable aid to reading for understanding. However program code is very different from prose: there are no studies on how programmers annotate code while reading. We asked experienced programmers to read code printed on paper and observed their annotation practices. We found the main reasons for annotating code are to assist with navigation and to record information for later use. Furthermore, we found annotation practices that are hard to replicate in current standard Integrated Development Environments. This suggests that support for digital ink annotations in programming tools may be useful for comprehending program code.
Keywords: Freeform annotation; Reading code; Understanding code; Observational study
Around-Device Interactions: A Usability Study of Frame Markers in Acquisition Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 195-202
  Fernando Garcia-Sanjuan; Alejandro Catala; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Javier Jaen
Digital tabletops present numerous benefits in face-to-face collaboration environments. However, their integration in real settings is complicated by cost and fixed location. In this respect, building table-like environments using several handheld devices such as tablets or smartphones provides a promising alternative but is limited to touch interaction only. We propose instead another kind of "around-device" interaction (ADI) technique using the built-in front camera of these devices and fiducial frame markers, which presents advantages including better awareness and less interference. This paper contributes a first step in exploring the potential of this interaction technique by conducting a usability test comparing several ergonomic factors that may have an effect on the very first operation of the interaction: the acquisition of the marker.
Keywords: Around-Device Interaction (ADI); Tablets; Fiducial markers; Frame markers; Multi-Display Environments (MDE); Usability study
On Applying Experience Sampling Method to A/B Testing of Mobile Applications: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 203-210
  Myunghee Lee; Gerard J. Kim
With the advent of mobile devices, the experience sampling method (ESM) is increasingly used as a convenient and effective way to capture user behaviors of, and evaluate mobile and environment-context dependent applications. Like any field based in situ testing methods, ESM is prone to biases from unreliable and unbalanced data, especially for A/B testing situations. Mitigating such effects can in turn incur significant costs in terms of the number of participants and sessions, and prolonged experimental time. In fact, ESM has rarely been applied to A/B testing nor do existing literatures reveal its operational details and difficulties. In this paper, as a step toward establishing concrete guidelines, we describe a case study of applying ESM to evaluating two competing interfaces for a mobile application. Based on the gathered data and direct interviews with the participants, we highlight the difficulties experienced and lessons learned. In addition, we make a proposal for a new ESM in which the experimental parameters are dynamically reconfigured based on the intermediate experimental results to overcome the aforementioned difficulties.
Keywords: Experience sampling method (ESM); A/B testing; Usability
Usability Aspects of the Inside-in Approach for Ancillary Search Tasks on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 211-230
  Marco Winckler; Ricardo Cava; Eric Barboni; Philippe Palanque; Carla Freitas
Given the huge amount of data available over the Web nowadays, search engines become essential tools helping users to find the information they are looking for. Nonetheless, search engines often return large sets of results which must be filtered by the users to find the suitable information items. However, in many cases, filtering is not enough, as the results returned by the engine require users to perform a secondary search to complement the current information thus featuring ancillary search tasks. Such ancillary search tasks create a nested context for user tasks that increases the articulatory distance between the users and their ultimate goal. In this paper, we analyze the interplay between such ancillary searches and other primary search tasks on the Web. Moreover, we describe the inside-in approach, which aims at reducing the articulatory distance between interleaved tasks by allowing users to perform ancillary search tasks without losing the context. The inside-in approach is illustrated by means of a case study based on ancillary searches of coauthors in a digital library, using an information visualization technique.
Keywords: Interaction gulfs; Web search; Ancillary queries; Nested user tasks
Using Affinity Diagrams to Evaluate Interactive Prototypes BIBAKFull-Text 231-248
  Andrés Lucero
Affinity diagramming is a technique used to externalize, make sense of, and organize large amounts of unstructured, far-ranging, and seemingly dissimilar qualitative data. HCI and interaction design practitioners have adopted and used affinity diagrams for different purposes. This paper discusses our particular use of affinity diagramming in prototype evaluations. We reflect on a decade's experience using affinity diagramming across a number of projects, both in industry and academia. Our affinity diagramming process in interaction design has been tailored and consists of four stages: creating notes, clustering notes, walking the wall, and documentation. We draw examples from eight projects to illustrate our particular practices along these four stages, as well as to ground the discussion.
Keywords: Interaction design; KJ method; Evaluation; Analysis
What Users Prefer and Why: A User Study on Effective Presentation Styles of Opinion Summarization BIBAKFull-Text 249-264
  Xiaojun Yuan; Ning Sa; Grace Begany; Huahai Yang
Opinion Summarization research addresses how to help people in making appropriate decisions in an effective way. This paper aims to help users in their decision-making by providing them effective opinion presentation styles. We carried out two phases of experiments to systematically compare usefulness of different types of opinion summarization techniques. In the first crowd-sourced study, we recruited 46 turkers to generate high quality summary information. This first phase generated four styles of summaries: Tag Clouds, Aspect Oriented Sentiments, Paragraph Summary and Group Sample. In the follow-up second phase, 34 participants tested the four styles in a card sorting experiment. Each participant was given 32 cards with 8 per presentation styles and completed the task of grouping the cards into five categories in terms of the usefulness of the cards. Results indicated that participants preferred Aspect Oriented Sentiments the most and Tag cloud the least. Implications and hypotheses are discussed.
Keywords: Text summarization; Consumer decision making; User studies; User interface design
A Comparison of Five HSV Color Selection Interfaces for Mobile Painting Search BIBAKFull-Text 265-273
  Min Zhang; Guoping Qiu; Natasha Alechina; Sarah Atkinson
Color selection is a common task in a plethora of mobile applications. Although a variety of color palettes emerge, there are no design guidelines or studies of the use of color palette interfaces for drawing on touch-screen phone. We are particularly interested in drawing queries to search for paintings on mobile phone. In this paper, we classified the color palette interfaces into several categories. We report results of a systematic experiment with 41 participants using five different types of HSV color palettes for the task of drawing a painting to search on a mobile phone. We investigate which color palette(s) enable users to complete task faster, how good these resulting drawings were for searching, and what were user experiences. Users' drawing behavior is also discussed.
Keywords: Color palette interface; User study; Painting search; User interface design; Drawing-to-search; Mobile application
Computer-Related Attribution Styles: Typology and Data Collection Methods BIBAKFull-Text 274-291
  Adelka Niels; Monique Janneck
Attribution, i.e. the systematic ascription of causes to effects in situations of failure or success, has so far received little attention in HCI research. Based on a preliminary typology developed in pilot work, we conducted four empirical studies with a total of N=146 participants using different methods for data collection, including laboratory studies, a mobile diary study, and an online survey. Results show that several typical styles of attributing computer-related failure or success could be identified. Therefore, we propose a typology of six main attribution styles, which are depicted as personas to make them applicable for HCI practice. Methodical issues in computer-related attribution research and implication for research and practice are discussed.
Keywords: Attribution; Computer-related attitudes; Computer mastery; Computer failure; User types; Personas
Reciprocity in Rapid Ethnography BIBAKFull-Text 292-299
  Pieter Duysburgh; Karin Slegers
This paper responds to the discussion of a possible lack of reciprocity in applying ethnography in HCI research, sometimes referred to as 'rapid ethnography'. It contributes to the discussion by describing examples of how reciprocity can be achieved when applying rapid forms of ethnography. The paper suggests five approaches for HCI researchers to aim for reciprocity while doing research: (1) making participation fun for informants, (2) giving informants a voice, (3) allowing informants to exhibit their skills or strengths, (4) offering practical help and (5) providing self-knowledge. Each of these approaches comes with some risks, which are also explained in the paper. Reciprocity should be taken into consideration from the initial start of the research projects.
Keywords: Ethnography; Rapid ethnography; Reciprocity
Testing the Unknown -- Value of Usability Testing for Complex Professional Systems Development BIBAKFull-Text 300-314
  Kimmo Tarkkanen; Ville Harkke; Pekka Reijonen
To make an impact on the design in usability testing, the test tasks are essential ingredients for the early system development process. Complex design problems are not solved by focusing on the details of a prototype and setting the scope on what is already known by the design team. Instead, the design value of usability testing is increased by deliberately relinquishing the assumptions made and implemented into a design. In the development of complex systems, usability testing with extended scope and open-ended structure, as presented in this paper with three empirical cases, delivers not only specific knowledge about the user interactions with the system, but reveals issues that, despite rigorous user research efforts, have been overlooked in the preceding phases of system development. Therefore, we suggest applying open-ended usability test tasks for testing systems in complex settings such as in the development of health care systems.
Keywords: Usability testing; Test task; Design; Complex systems; Health care

Eye Tracking

An Empirical Investigation of Gaze Selection in Mid-Air Gestural 3D Manipulation BIBAKFull-Text 315-330
  Eduardo Velloso; Jayson Turner; Jason Alexander; Andreas Bulling; Hans Gellersen
In this work, we investigate gaze selection in the context of mid-air hand gestural manipulation of 3D rigid bodies on monoscopic displays. We present the results of a user study with 12 participants in which we compared the performance of Gaze, a Raycasting technique (2D Cursor) and a Virtual Hand technique (3D Cursor) to select objects in two 3D mid-air interaction tasks. Also, we compared selection confirmation times for Gaze selection when selection is followed by manipulation to when it is not. Our results show that gaze selection is faster and more preferred than 2D and 3D mid-air-controlled cursors, and is particularly well suited for tasks in which users constantly switch between several objects during the manipulation. Further, selection confirmation times are longer when selection is followed by manipulation than when it is not.
Keywords: 3D user interfaces; Eye tracking; Mid-air gestures
Four Eyes See More Than Two: Shared Gaze in the Car BIBAKFull-Text 331-348
  Sandra Trösterer; Magdalena Gärtner; Martin Wuchse; Bernhard Maurer; Axel Baumgartner; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Manfred Tscheligi
Purposeful collaboration of driver and front-seat passenger can help in demanding driving situations and therefore increase safety. The characteristics of the car, as a context, limit the collaboration possibilities of the driver and front-seat passenger, though. In this paper, we present an approach that supports successful collaboration of the driver and front-seat passenger with regard to the contextual specifics. By capturing the front-seat passenger's gaze and visualizing it for the driver, we create a collaborative space for information sharing in the car. We present the results from a study investigating the potentials of the co-driver's gaze as means to support the driver during a navigational task. Our results confirm that the co-driver's gaze can serve as helpful means to support the collaboration of driver and front-seat passenger in terms of perceived distraction and workload of the driver.
Keywords: Driving; Navigation; Collaboration; Shared gaze; Eye-tracking
Gaze+touch vs. Touch: What's the Trade-off When Using Gaze to Extend Touch to Remote Displays? BIBAKFull-Text 349-367
  Ken Pfeuffer; Jason Alexander; Hans Gellersen
Direct touch input is employed on many devices, but it is inherently restricted to displays that are reachable by the user. Gaze input as a mediator can extend touch to remote displays -- using gaze for remote selection, and touch for local manipulation -- but at what cost and benefit? In this paper, we investigate the potential trade-off with four experiments that empirically compare remote Gaze+touch to standard touch. Our experiments investigate dragging, rotation, and scaling tasks. Results indicate that Gaze+touch is, compared to touch, (1) equally fast and more accurate for rotation and scaling, (2) slower and less accurate for dragging, and (3) enables selection of smaller targets. Our participants confirm this trend, and are positive about the relaxed finger placement of Gaze+touch. Our experiments provide detailed performance characteristics to consider for the design of Gaze+touch interaction of remote displays. We further discuss insights into strengths and drawbacks in contrast to direct touch.
Keywords: Gaze interaction; Eye-tracking; Multitouch; Multimodal UI

Gesture Interaction

Gestu-Wan -- An Intelligible Mid-Air Gesture Guidance System for Walk-up-and-Use Displays BIBAKFull-Text 368-386
  Gustavo Rovelo; Donald Degraen; Davy Vanacken; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
We present Gestu-Wan, an intelligible gesture guidance system designed to support mid-air gesture-based interaction for walk-up-and-use displays. Although gesture-based interfaces have become more prevalent, there is currently very little uniformity with regard to gesture sets and the way gestures can be executed. This leads to confusion, bad user experiences and users who rather avoid than engage in interaction using mid-air gesturing. Our approach improves the visibility of gesture-based interfaces and facilitates execution of mid-air gestures without prior training. We compare Gestu-Wan with a static gesture guide, which shows that it can help users with both performing complex gestures as well as understanding how the gesture recognizer works.
Keywords: Gesture guide; Mid-air gestures; Walk-up-and-use
Natural Interaction with Video Environments Using Gestures and a Mirror Image Avatar BIBAKFull-Text 387-394
  Christian Kray; Dennis Wilhelm; Thore Fechner; Morin Ostkmap
Video environments are a promising option for a variety of applications such as training, gaming, entertainment, remote collaboration, or user studies. Being able to interact with these environments enables further applications and extends existing application scenarios. In this paper, we propose a novel interaction technique that combines natural gestures with mirror images of the user to allow for immersive interaction with video environments. The technique enables movement inside the 3D space depicted by the video as well as the placement and manipulation of virtual objects within the 3D space. We describe a potential application scenario, where interactive public displays are placed inside a scene by one user and then experienced by another user. We also briefly report on a user study evaluating the gesture set we defined for controlling movement within the video.
Keywords: Gestural interaction; Mirror image; Avatar; Video
Sci-Fi Gestures Catalog BIBAKFull-Text 395-411
  Lucas S. Figueiredo; Mariana Pinheiro; Edvar Vilar Neto; Thiago Chaves; Veronica Teichrieb
In Science Fiction (Sci-Fi) movies, filmmakers try to anticipate trends and new forms of interaction. Metaphors are created allowing their characters to interact with futuristic devices and environments. These devices and metaphors should be target of research considering they have proven to be useful before. Moreover, the impact of the new interfaces on the audience may indicate their expectations regarding future gesture interactions. Thus, the first goal of this work is to collect and expose a compilation of gestural interactions in Sci-Fi movies, providing a catalog to researchers as resource to future discussions. The second goal is to classify the collected data according to a series of criteria. The catalog is also open to new content contribution, and fellow researchers are invited to provide additional entries of hand gesture scenes from any Sci-Fi title as well as suggestions about new classification criteria and amendments on the already provided content.
Keywords: Sci-Fi movies; Hand gestures; Gesture interaction; User experience
TV Interaction Beyond the Button Press BIBAKFull-Text 412-419
  Regina Bernhaupt; Antoine Desnos; Michael Pirker; Daniel Schwaiger
In order to enhance users' interactions with TV user interfaces we developed a prototypical multimodal interaction mechanism that combines tilting, pressing and puffing as input modalities for a novel interface. The interaction mechanism has been evaluated in an exploratory user experience and usability study that used a within subjects design investigating tilt as input mechanism to navigate through the 3D interface compared to tilt combined with pressure and breath input. Results of this first exploratory study indicate that while this uncommon and unfamiliar way to interact with a novel TV user interface impacts usability scores which were below average compared to traditional remote controls, the user interface approach in combination with the new interaction modalities resulted in above-average scores for the user experience dimension of hedonic quality. The findings are subsequently reflected and implications of using alternative input modalities for TV user interfaces are discussed.
Keywords: Remote control; Breath; 3D position; Gesture; TV; User interface; UI; User experience; Usability

HCI and Security

"I Agree": The Effects of Embedding Terms of Service Key Points in Online User Registration Form BIBAKFull-Text 420-427
  Matjaz Kljun; Jernej Vicic; Klen Copic Pucihar; Branko Kavšek
Terms of service (ToS) are becoming an ubiquitous part of online account creation. There is a general understanding that users rarely read them and do not particularly care about binding themselves into legally enforceable contracts with online service providers. Some services are trying to change this trend with presenting ToS section as key points on a ToS dedicated page. However, little is known how would such presentation of key points affect the continuation of user registration at the time of account creation. This paper provides an exploratory study in this area. We have offered users to participate in a draft for a prize in exchange for their names and email addresses. For this purpose we have created three registration forms: a standard form with ToS hiding behind a hyperlink and two with ToS key points presented at the time of account creation with different engagement requirements. Initial results suggest that ToS key points presented just as a list at the time of account creation is no more engaging than a form with ToS hidden behind a link. More text even made several users to complete the registration quicker than the users with the standard form. Moreover, different designs of the ToS key points list requiring different user engagement affect the interaction and reading of ToS key points, but the actual time spent on ToS is very low.
Keywords: Terms of service; Terms and condition; Privacy policy
Automatic Privacy Classification of Personal Photos BIBAKFull-Text 428-435
  Daniel Buschek; Moritz Bader; Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Alexander De Luca
Tagging photos with privacy-related labels, such as "myself", "friends" or "public", allows users to selectively display pictures appropriate in the current situation (e.g. on the bus) or for specific groups (e.g. in a social network). However, manual labelling is time-consuming or not feasible for large collections. Therefore, we present an approach to automatically assign photos to privacy classes. We further demonstrate a study method to gather relevant image data without violating participants' privacy. In a field study with 16 participants, each user assigned 150 personal photos to self-defined privacy classes. Based on this data, we show that a machine learning approach extracting easily available metadata and visual features can assign photos to user-defined privacy classes with a mean accuracy of 79.38%.
Keywords: Photos; Privacy; Classification; Images; Metadata
CipherCard: A Token-Based Approach Against Camera-Based Shoulder Surfing Attacks on Common Touchscreen Devices BIBAKFull-Text 436-454
  Teddy Seyed; Xing-Dong Yang; Anthony Tang; Saul Greenberg; Jiawei Gu; Bin Zhu; Xiang Cao
We present CipherCard, a physical token that defends against shoulder-surfing attacks on user authentication on capacitive touchscreen devices. When CipherCard is placed over a touchscreen's pin-pad, it remaps a user's touch point on the physical token to a different location on the pin-pad. It hence translates a visible user password into a different system password received by a touchscreen, but is hidden from observers as well as the user. CipherCard enhances authentication security through Two-Factor Authentication (TFA), in that both the correct user password and a specific card are needed for successful authentication. We explore the design space of CipherCard, and describe three implemented variations each with unique capabilities. Based on user feedback, we discuss the security and usability implications of CipherCard, and describe several avenues for continued exploration.
Keywords: Shoulder-surfing attack; Capacitive touchscreen; PIN entry; Security
Digital Signage Effectiveness in Retail Stores BIBAKFull-Text 455-462
  Mari Ervasti; Juha Häikiö; Minna Isomursu; Pekka Isomursu; Tiina Liuska
This paper presents results from a study on the effectiveness of digital signage in the retail environment. The goal of the study was to examine design parameters relevant to digital signage content design which could be used to create guidelines and templates for designing effective digital signage content. In this study, we focused on how video and animation affect the effectiveness of digital signage. When comparing still content with content enhanced with video or animation, no significant difference in effectiveness could be observed. This observation contradicts with earlier studies. Our study supports the views that the digital displays are currently most useful and effective to the younger generation, and that male customers consider digital displays in a store more useful than females do.
Keywords: Digital signage; User study; Retail store; Media management; Digital content design; User interfaces; User experience
Toward a Deeper Understanding of Data Analysis, Sensemaking, and Signature Discovery BIBAKFull-Text 463-478
  Sheriff Jolaoso; Russ Burtner; Alex Endert
Data analysts are tasked with the challenge of transforming an abundance of data into knowledge and insights. This complex cognitive process has been studied, and models created to describe how the process works in specific domains. Two popular models used for this generalization are the sensemaking and signature discovery models, which apply a cognitive and computational focus to describe the analytic process, respectively. This work seeks to deepen our understanding of the data analysis process in light of these two models. We present the results of interviews and observations of analysts and scientists in four domains (Biology, Cyber Security, Intelligence Analysis, and Data Science). Our results indicate that specific aspects of both models are exhibited in the analysts from our study, but neither describe the holistic analysis process.
Keywords: Analytic process; Sensemaking; Signature discovery; Visual analytics; Data analysis

HCI for Developing Regions and Social Development

HCI Practices in the Nigerian Software Industry BIBAKFull-Text 479-488
  Abiodun Ogunyemi; David Lamas; Emmanuel Rotimi Adagunodo; Isaias Barreto da Rosa
In this paper we explore the state of HCI practices in the Nigerian software industry. Our societies have evolved quickly into an information age, and the criticality of software and humans as components of socio-technical systems becomes more worthy to address. In Nigeria, the level of HCI practices is not yet known. We understand clearly, the role of software systems and services to strengthen information societies, and we decided to run a survey of the local software organizations. The results from the survey indicate some level of HCI awareness. Therefore, we conducted some semi-structured interviews in order to deepen our understanding of HCI practices in the industry. The results show there is a knowledge limit regarding HCI practices in the industry. We present a preliminary report of the results obtained from our studies of software organizations in Nigeria.
Keywords: HCI; Human-Centred design; Human-Centred software engineering; Usability; HCI education
Penan's Oroo' Short Message Signs (PO-SMS): Co-design of a Digital Jungle Sign Language Application BIBAKFull-Text 489-504
  Tariq Zaman; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus
Oroo', a very peculiar jungle sign language of the semi-nomadic Penan in Malaysia, Borneo Island, is at the virtue of extinction with recent changes in lifestyle. The youth inhabiting the rainforest are more drawn to technology than traditional forest activities needing cognizance of Oroo'. In partnership with community members of Long Lamai, as part of a long term collaboration, we launched into revitalizing Oroo' through digitalization. Complementing previous efforts of database, tangible and game developments, we postulate that a language can only be revitalized if integrated in daily use. Thus in this paper we present the co-design of the Penan's Oroo' Short Message Signs (PO-SMS) application, which extends current technology driven communication means. Following a community-based co-design approach, a group of local youth and elders have led the unique design of their own digital indigenous communication tool. Our research contributes directly to the INTERACT 2015 theme of "Connection.Tradition.Innovation".
Keywords: Indigenous language; Community-based Co-design; Oroo'; Local content creation
The Whodunit Challenge: Mobilizing the Crowd in India BIBAKFull-Text 505-521
  Aditya Vashistha; Rajan Vaish; Edward Cutrell; William Thies
While there has been a surge of interest in mobilizing the crowd to solve large-scale time-critical challenges, to date such work has focused on high-income countries and Internet-based solutions. In developing countries, approaches for crowd mobilization are often broader and more diverse, utilizing not only the Internet but also face-to-face and mobile communications. In this paper, we describe the Whodunit Challenge, the first social mobilization contest to be launched in India. The contest enabled participation via basic mobile phones and required rapid formation of large teams in order to solve a fictional mystery case. The challenge encompassed 7,700 participants in a single day and was won by a university team in about 5 h. To understand teams' strategies and experiences, we conducted 84 phone interviews. While the Internet was an important tool for most teams, in contrast to prior challenges we also found heavy reliance on personal networks and offline communication channels. We synthesize these findings and offer recommendations for future crowd mobilization challenges targeting low-income environments in developing countries.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; Crowd mobilization; HCI4D; ICT4D; India
Wayfinding Behavior in India BIBAKFull-Text 522-530
  Naveed Ahmed
India is highly heterogeneous in the way cities are laid out; the way people use landmarks and how certain cultural aspects affect wayfinding. These factors influence the design of maps and navigation systems.
   Users from Mumbai and Rajasthan were interviewed to explore such implications and find design opportunities. These users had low education levels and needed to find addresses on a regular basis. The study was centered on the Indian context.
   People in India rarely use maps for navigation. They rely primarily on asking around and navigate using landmarks. The landmarks people use during this are prominent but sometimes highly volatile and ad hoc like cows and people sitting on street corners. Some of these landmarks may not necessarily always be popular. While inquiring about the route, people repeatedly seek reliable sources en route, to validate the information they have. Other findings during the study include people's preferences in using maps and concerns while seeking directions. Mental models of people also affect the way people navigate and exchange the wayfinding information. Some of these are very specific to the Indian context.
   In the end, we also discuss how these findings will affect the design of navigation and (culture-centric) wayfinding systems.
Keywords: Navigation; Wayfinding; India; Culture; Behavior

HCI for Education

Evaluating Digital Tabletop Collaborative Writing in the Classroom BIBAKFull-Text 531-548
  Philip Heslop; Anne Preston; Ahmed Kharrufa; Madeline Balaam; David Leat; Patrick Olivier
We present an evaluation of an "in the wild" classroom deployment of Co-located Collaborative Writing (CCW), an application for digital tabletops. CCW was adapted to the classroom setting across 8 SMART tables. Here, we describe the outcomes of the 6 week deployment with students aged 13-14, focussing on how CCW operated as a tool for learning within a classroom environment. We analyse video data and interaction logs to provide a group specific analysis in the classroom context. Using the group as the unit of analysis allows detailed tracking of the group's development over time as part of scheme of work planned by a teacher for the classroom. Through successful integration of multiple tabletops into the classroom, we show how the design of CCW supports students in learning how to collaboratively plan a piece of persuasive writing, and allows teachers to monitor progress and process of students. The study shows how the nature and quality of collaborative interactions changed over time, with decision points bringing students together to collaborate, and how the role of CCW matured from a scaffolding mechanism for planning, to a tool for implementing planning. The study also showed how the teacher's relationship with CCW changed, due to the designed visibility of groups' activities, and how lesson plans became more integrated utilizing the flexibility of the technology. These are key aspects that can enhance the adoption of such technologies by both students and teachers in the classroom.
Keywords: Digital tabletops; Collaborative learning; Multi-touch
Evaluating the Accuracy of Pre-kindergarten Children Multi-touch Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 549-556
  Vicente Nacher; Javier Jaen
The direct manipulation interaction style of multi-touch technology makes it ideal for pre-kindergarten children. Recent studies have shown that these challenging users are able to perform a set of basic multi-touch gestures. However, little is known about the accuracy that they can achieve. This paper evaluates the performance of pre-kindergarten children when accuracy is required in the termination phase of these gestures and points out that a mechanism for dynamically adapting the accuracy level could help children in their motor skills development.
Keywords: Multi-touch interaction; Gestures; Usability evaluation; Pre-kindergarten; Accuracy

HCI for Education: Empowered Children's Robotic Product Ideas

The 5-Step Plan BIBAKFull-Text 557-564
  Lara Lammer; Astrid Weiss; Markus Vincze
When children and adults work together as partners throughout the design process in a collaborative and elaborative manner, children come up with a wide range of creative and innovative ideas. The 5-step plan is a holistic approach that empowers children as robotic product designers. Researchers as well as educators can use the approach to introduce children with different interests to robotics and explore their interests, desires and needs regarding interactive technology like robots. In this paper, we describe the 5-step plan and present our findings on children's robotic product ideas from three case studies.
Keywords: Educational robotics; Robot design; Child-robot interaction

HCI for Education

Using IMUs to Identify Supervisors on Touch Devices BIBAKFull-Text 565-583
  Ahmed Kharrufa; James Nicholson; Paul Dunphy; Steve Hodges; Pam Briggs; Patrick Olivier
In addition to their popularity as personal devices, tablets, are becoming increasingly prevalent in work and public settings. In many of these application domains a supervisor user -- such as the teacher in a classroom -- oversees the function of one or more devices. Access to supervisory functions is typically controlled through the use of a passcode, but experience shows that keeping this passcode secret can be problematic. We introduce SwipeID, a method of identifying supervisor users across a set of touch-based devices by correlating data from a wrist-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a corresponding touchscreen interaction. This approach naturally supports access at the time and point of contact and does not require any additional hardware on the client devices. We describe the design of our system and the challenge-response protocols we have considered. We then present an evaluation study to demonstrate feasibility. Finally we highlight the potential for our scheme to extend to different application domains and input devices.
Keywords: IMU; Association; Authentication; Touch interaction; UI design
Design and Usability Evaluation of Adaptive e-learning Systems Based on Learner Knowledge and Learning Style BIBAKFull-Text 584-591
  Mohammad Alshammari; Rachid Anane; Robert J. Hendley
Designing effective adaptive e-learning systems, from a usability perspective, represents a challenge because of the complexity of adaptivity in order to meet the diverse requirements of learners. Furthermore, there is a lack of well-designed experimental evaluation of adaptive e-learning systems in general, and of their usability in particular. The aim of this paper is the presentation of an adaptive e-learning system based on learner knowledge and learning style, and of the results of an initial experimental evaluation of the usability of its two modes of operation. This involves comparing the usability of an adaptive version of the system with the usability of a non-adaptive version, in a learning environment with 75 participants. The experiment produced significant results; they indicate that an adaptive e-learning system based on learner knowledge and learning style has a higher level of perceived usability than a non-adaptive e-learning system. This may also increase the level of satisfaction, engagement and motivation of learners and therefore enhance their learning.
Keywords: Usability; Adaptivity; Learning style; e-learning; Experimentation
How Does HCI Research Affect Education Programs? A Study in the Brazilian Context BIBAKFull-Text 592-610
  Isabela Gasparini; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa; Milene Selbach Silveira; Sílvia Amélia Bim; Clodis Boscarioli
This paper presents a comparative analysis based on two independent studies of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) education and research in Brazil. The first study was conducted to understand how HCI has been taught in Brazil, via a survey responded by 114 educators and researchers in the country. The second study analyzed the scientific production of HCI in Brazil from a fifteen-year analysis of full papers published on the Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems (IHC). Our analysis is based on data-driven visual exploration, and it can help to get insights from the data and to identify how HCI research in Brazil relates to our education programs. We believe this kind of analysis can shed some light in the evolution of HCI in other countries.
Keywords: HCI education in Brazil; HCI research in Brazil
MindMiner: A Mixed-Initiative Interface for Interactive Distance Metric Learning BIBAKFull-Text 611-628
  Xiangmin Fan; Youming Liu; Nan Cao; Jason Hong; Jingtao Wang
We present MindMiner, a mixed-initiative interface for capturing subjective similarity measurements via a combination of new interaction techniques and machine learning algorithms. MindMiner collects qualitative, hard to express similarity measurements from users via active polling with uncertainty and example based visual constraint creation. MindMiner also formulates human prior knowledge into a set of inequalities and learns a quantitative similarity distance metric via convex optimization. In a 12-subject peer-review understanding task, we found MindMiner was easy to learn and use, and could capture users' implicit knowledge about writing performance and cluster target entities into groups that match subjects' mental models. We also found that MindMiner's constraint suggestions and uncertainty polling functions could improve both efficiency and the quality of clustering.
Keywords: Mixed-Initiative interface; Clustering; Visualization; Convex optimization; Intelligent user interfaces; Machine learning