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INT Tables of Contents: 030507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-315-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'13: Human-Computer Interaction-1 2013

Fullname:INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I
Editors:Paula Kotzé; Gary Marsden; Gitte Lindgaard; Janet Wesson; Marco Winckler
Location:Cape Town, South Africa
Dates:2013-Sep-02 to 2013-Sep-06
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8117
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40483-2 hcibib: INT13-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-40482-5 (print), 978-3-642-40483-2 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2013 Volume 1
    1. 3D Navigation
    2. 3D Technologies -- 3D Object Manipulation
    3. Augmented Reality
    4. Cognitive Workload
    5. Cognitive Workload and Decision Support
    6. Creating Effective 3D Displays
    7. Cross-Cultural, Intercultural and Social Issues
    8. Data Entry Mechanisms and Devices
    9. Design and Evaluation
    10. Design and Evaluation of Prototypes
    11. Design to Support Creativity
    12. Designing for Inclusiveness I
    13. Designing for Inclusiveness II
    14. Designing with- and for People with Special Needs
    15. Display Manipulations
    16. Diversity/ICT in Social Development

INT 2013 Volume 1

3D Navigation

Assessing the Impact of Automatic vs. Controlled Rotations on Spatial Transfer with a Joystick and a Walking Interface in VR BIBAKFull-Text 1-18
  Florian Larrue; Hélène Sauzéon; Déborah Foloppe; Grégory Wallet; Jean-René Cazalets; Christian Gross; Martin Hachet; Bernard N'Kaoua
We present a user study assessing spatial transfer in a 3D navigation task, with two different motor activities: a minimal (joystick) and an extensive motor activity (walking Interface), with rotations of the viewpoint either controlled by the user, or automatically managed by the system. The task consisted in learning a virtual path of a 3D model of a real city, with either one of these four conditions: Joystick / Treadmill Vs Manual Rotation / Automatic Rotation. We assessed spatial knowledge with six spatial restitution tasks. To assess the interfaces used, we analyzed also the interaction data acquired during the learning path. Our results show that the direct control of rotations has different effects, depending on the motor activity required by the input modality. The quality of spatial representation increases with the Treadmill when rotations are enabled. With the Joystick, controlling the rotations affect spatial representations. We discuss our findings in terms of cognitive, sensorimotor processes and human computer interaction issues.
Keywords: Interfaces; Navigation; Virtual Reality; Spatial Cognition; Joystick; Treadmill; Rotation; Body-based Information; Vestibular Information; Human Machine Interaction; Human Factors; User Study; Motor Activity
Designing Intuitive Multi-touch 3D Navigation Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 19-36
  Damien Marchal; Clément Moerman; Géry Casiez; Nicolas Roussel
Multi-touch displays have become commonplace over recent years. Numerous applications take advantage of this to support interactions that build on users' knowledge and correspond to daily practices within the real world. 3D applications are also becoming more common on these platforms, but the multi-touch techniques for 3D operations often lag behind 2D ones in terms of intuitiveness and ease of use. Intuitive navigation techniques are particularly needed to make multi-touch 3D applications more useful, and systematic approaches are direly needed to inform their design: existing techniques are still too often designed in ad-hoc ways. In this paper, we propose a methodology based on cognitive principles to address this problem. The methodology combines standard user-centered design practices with optical flow analysis to determine the mappings between navigation controls and multi-touch input. It was used to design the navigation technique of a specific application. This technique proved to be more efficient and preferred by users when compared to existing ones, which provides a first validation of the approach.
Keywords: 3D navigation; multi-touch; interaction technique; design rationale
Truly Useful 3D Drawing System for Professional Designer by "Life-Sized and Operable" Feature and New Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 37-55
  Shun'ichi Tano; Shinya Yamamoto; Junko Ichino; Tomonori Hashiyama; Mitsuru Iwata
"Media" is an artifact that expands our creativity and intelligence. We have been studying the use of "Rich Media" to support creative and intelligent human activities. Specifically, for over ten years we have focused on the 3D space as one of "Rich Media" and developed many 3D sketch systems that support the design of 3D objects. However, their long-term evaluation has revealed that they are not used by designers in real fields. Even worse, they are treated as if they were just mere attractions in an amusement park. The fundamental problem is the lack of the indispensable function for 3D space. In this paper, we propose new design principles, "life-size and operability", which make the 3D sketch system truly valuable for the designer. The new 3D sketch system is designed on the basis of "life-size and operability", developed, and evaluated successfully.
Keywords: 3D Sketch; Life-size; Operability; Professional Designer; Mixed reality

3D Technologies -- 3D Object Manipulation

A One-Handed Multi-touch Method for 3D Rotations BIBAKFull-Text 56-69
  Douglas Scheurich; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Rotating 3D objects is a difficult task. We present a new rotation technique based on collision-free "mating" to expedite 3D rotations. It is specifically designed for one-handed interaction on tablets or touchscreens. A user study found that our new technique decreased the time to rotate objects in 3D by more than 60% in situations where objects align. We found similar results when users translated and rotated objects in a 3D scene. Also, angle errors were 35% less with mating. In essence, our new rotation technique improves both the speed and accuracy of common 3D rotation tasks.
Keywords: 3D rotations; 3D user interfaces; multi-touch; tablets
HandsIn3D: Supporting Remote Guidance with Immersive Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 70-77
  Weidong Huang; Leila Alem; Franco Tecchia
A collaboration scenario involving a remote helper guiding in real time a local worker in performing a task on physical objects is common in a wide range of industries including health, mining and manufacturing. An established ICT approach to supporting this type of collaboration is to provide a shared visual space and some form of remote gesture. The shared space and remote gesture are generally presented in a 2D video form. Recent research in tele-presence has indicated that technologies that support co-presence and immersion not only improve the process of collaboration but also improve spatial awareness of the remote participant. We therefore propose a novel approach to developing a 3D system based on a 3D shared space and 3D hand gestures. A proof of concept system for remote guidance called HandsIn3D has been developed. This system uses a head tracked stereoscopic HMD that allows the helper to be immersed in the virtual 3D space of the worker's workspace. The system captures in 3D the hands of the helper and fuses the hands into the shared workspace. This paper introduces HandsIn3D and presents a user study to demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.
Keywords: remote collaboration; co-presence; mixed reality; hand gesture; shared visual space
MotionBender: A Gesture-Based Interaction Technique for Editing Motion Paths BIBAKFull-Text 78-85
  Frederic Raber; Quan Nguyen; Michael Kipp
Precision tasks in 3D like object manipulation or character animation call for new gestural interfaces that utilize many input degrees of freedom. We present MotionBender, a sensor-based interaction technique for post-editing the motion of e.g. the hands in character animation data. For the visualization of motion we use motion paths, often used for showing e.g. the movement of the hand through space over time, and allow the user to directly "bend" the 3D motion path with his/her hands and twist it into the right shape. In a comparative evaluation with a mouse-based interface we found that subjects using our technique were significantly faster. Moreover, with our technique, subject movement was more coordinated, i.e. movement was done in all three dimensions in parallel, and the participants preferred our technique in a post-experiment questionnaire. We also found a gender effect: male users both like the gesture interaction better and achieve better performance.
Keywords: coordination; character animation; motion trajectory; Kinect; 3D user interfaces
RelicPad: A Hands-On, Mobile Approach to Collaborative Exploration of Virtual Museum Artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 86-103
  Steven Neale; Winyu Chinthammit; Christopher Lueg; Paddy Nixon
In an ideal world, physical museum artefacts could be touched, handled, examined and passed between interested viewers by hand. Unfortunately, this is not always possible -- artefacts may be too fragile to handle or pass around, or groups of people with mutual interests in objects may not be in the same location. This can be problematic when attempting to explain or make sense of the physical properties of artefacts.
   To address these problems, we propose that direct manipulation of 3D content based on real-world interaction metaphors can help collaborators (both co and remotely located) to construct personal and mutual physical and spatial awareness of artefacts, while networked communication and collaboration allow for ideas and knowledge to be exchanged and shared.
   We present our interpretations from two studies of RelicPad, a tablet-based application that allows users to manually manipulate museum artefacts and to 'point out' areas of interest to each other using 3D annotations, facilitating a mutual awareness of spatial properties and referencing during discussion.
Keywords: Museum artefacts; remote collaboration; tablet interfaces; 3D interaction techniques; virtual reality

Augmented Reality

Funneling and Saltation Effects for Tactile Interaction with "Detached" Out of the Body Virtual Objects BIBAKFull-Text 104-121
  Jaedong Lee; Sangyong Lee; Gerard J. Kim
In a previous work, we confirmed the existing effects of "Out of the Body" tactile illusion for virtual and augmented objects through funneling and saltation. However, it required a virtual imagery to be attached to the user for directly extending one's body. This paper aims at investigating similar phantom tactile sensations exist when the virtual object is visually detached from the user's body. Two usability experiments were conducted to verify the hypothesized phantom tactile effects: one for funneling and the other, saltation. Our results have shown that in addition to the perception of the phantom sensations with the "detached" visual feedback, the interaction experience was significantly enriched (vs. when without explicit visual feedback). We also discovered for the first time that for funneling, phantom sensations can be elicited without any visual feedback at all. The findings can be applied to the tactile interaction design using minimal number of actuators on a variety of media platforms including the mobile, holography and augmented reality.
Keywords: Phantom sensation; Illusory feedback; Funneling; Saltation; Vibro-tactile feedback; Multimodal feedback
Precise Pointing Techniques for Handheld Augmented Reality BIBAKFull-Text 122-139
  Thomas Vincent; Laurence Nigay; Takeshi Kurata
We propose two techniques that improve accuracy of pointing at physical objects for handheld Augmented Reality (AR). In handheld AR, pointing accuracy is limited by both touch input and camera viewpoint instability due to hand jitter. The design of our techniques is based on the relationship between the touch input space and two visual reference frames for on-screen content, namely the screen and the physical object that one is pointing at. The first technique is based on Shift, a touch-based pointing technique, and video freeze, in order to combine the two reference frames for precise pointing. Contrastingly -- without freezing the video, -- the second technique offers a precise mode with a cursor that is stabilized on the physical object and controlled with relative touch inputs on the screen. Our experimental results show that our techniques are more accurate than the baseline techniques, namely direct touch on the video and screen-centered crosshair pointing.
Keywords: Handheld Augmented Reality; Interaction Techniques; Pointing
The Unadorned Desk: Exploiting the Physical Space around a Display as an Input Canvas BIBAKFull-Text 140-158
  Doris Hausen; Sebastian Boring; Saul Greenberg
In everyday office work, people smoothly use the space on their physical desks to work with documents of interest, and to keep tools and materials nearby for easy use. In contrast, the limited screen space of computer displays imposes interface constraints. Associated material is placed off-screen (i.e., temporarily hidden) and requires extra work to access (window switching, menu selection) or crowds and competes with the work area (e.g., palettes and icons). This problem is worsened by the increasing popularity of small displays such as tablets and laptops. To mitigate this problem, we investigate how we can exploit an unadorned physical desk space as an additional input canvas. With minimal augmentation, our Unadorned Desk detects coarse hovering over and touching of discrete areas ('items') within a given area on an otherwise regular desk, which is used as input to the desktop computer. We hypothesize that people's spatial memory will let them touch particular desk locations without looking. In contrast to other augmented desks, our system provides optional feedback of touches directly on the computer's screen. We conducted a user study to understand how people make use of this input space. Participants freely placed and retrieved items onto/from the desk. We found that participants organize items in a grid-like fashion for easier access later on. In a second experiment, participants had to retrieve items from a predefined grid. When only few (large) items are located in the area, participants were faster without feedback and there was (surprisingly) no difference in error rates with or without feedback. As the item number grew (i.e., items shrank to fit the area), participants increasingly relied on feedback to minimize errors -- at the cost of speed.
Keywords: Augmented desks; digital desks; peripheral interaction

Cognitive Workload

GSR and Blink Features for Cognitive Load Classification BIBAKFull-Text 159-166
  Nargess Nourbakhsh; Yang Wang; Fang Chen
A system capable of monitoring its user's mental workload can evaluate the suitability of its interface and interactions for user's current cognitive status and properly change them when necessary. Galvanic skin response (GSR) and eye blinks are cognitive load measures which can be captured conveniently and at low cost. The present study has assessed multiple features of these two signals in classification of cognitive workload level. The experiment included arithmetic tasks with four difficulty levels and two types of machine learning algorithms have been applied for classification. Obtained results show that the studied features of blink and GSR can reasonably discriminate workload levels and combining features of the two modalities improves the accuracy of cognitive load classification. We have achieved around 75% for binary classification and more than 50% for four-class classification.
Keywords: Cognitive load; galvanic skin response; eye blink; machine learning
Information Holodeck: Thinking in Technology Ecologies BIBAKFull-Text 167-184
  Sharon Lynn Chu; Francis Quek
Information can be persistently represented on a multitude of devices beyond a single screen and session. This paper explores how technological display and device ecosystems (DDEs) may support human thinking, learning and sensemaking. We propose a theoretical foundation that extends Vygotsky's sign mediation triangle to include digital information. Through a process we call objectification, perceivable objects, e.g. interface objects, tangible technologies, can be associated with signs to support thinking. We present a qualitative study of learning in a testbed DDE with 12 graduate students. We developed a method that traces digital objects within 'thinking episodes' to help us evaluate how technology configurations support objectification. Our findings relate two storylines of how DDE technologies may afford objectification. Our work advances a method informed by psychological theory to examine device ecologies for their potential for learning, and articulates affordances for the design of technology that can help to support higher thought.
Keywords: Ecology; technology; devices; displays; thinking; sensemaking; objectification; embodied interaction; design
Managing Personal Information across Multiple Devices: Challenges and Opportunities BIBAKFull-Text 185-192
  Simone Beets; Janet Wesson
Due to the constantly increasing volume of personal information (PI) and the current trend towards mobile devices, there is a growing need to provide access to PI across multiple devices. It has become difficult for a user to manage his/her PI across these devices. The current hierarchical systems used to organize PI do not support accessing PI across multiple devices. The aim of this paper is to discuss the outcomes of an interview study that was conducted to determine how users currently manage PI across multiple devices and to identify what problems are experienced using these devices. Results showed that participants found it difficult to access PI across their devices and do not know beforehand what information they need to access. These problems could be solved by providing an information visualization tool installed on their devices which provides a single user interface to facilitate an overall view of their PI.
Keywords: Personal Information Management; Multiple Devices; Interview Study
Mobility Matters: Identifying Cognitive Demands That Are Sensitive to Orientation BIBAKFull-Text 193-210
  G. Michael Poor; Guy Zimmerman; Dale S. Klopfer; Samuel D. Jaffee; Laura Marie Leventhal; Julie Barnes
Prior studies have shown benefits of interactions on mobile devices. Device mobility itself changes the nature of the user experience; interactions on mobile devices may present better support for cognition. To better understand cognitive demands related to mobility, the current study investigated presentations on a mobile device for a three-dimensional construction task. The task imposed considerable cognitive load, particularly in demands for mental rotation; individual differences in spatial ability are known to interact with these demands. This study specifically investigated mobile device orientations and participants' spatial ability. Subjects with low spatial ability were able to complete the task more effectively when shown the presentation in a favorable orientation. Individuals who saw the presentation in an unfavorable orientation and those of low spatial ability, were differentially disadvantaged. We conclude that mobility can reduce cognitive load by limiting demands for spatial processing relating to reorientation.
Keywords: Mobility; Mental Rotation; Presentation Orientation; Spatial Ability

Cognitive Workload and Decision Support

Ambient Timer -- Unobtrusively Reminding Users of Upcoming Tasks with Ambient Light BIBAKFull-Text 211-228
  Heiko Müller; Anastasia Kazakova; Martin Pielot; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Daily office work is often a mix of concentrated desktop work and scheduled meetings and appointments. However, constantly checking the clock and alarming popups interrupt the flow of creative work as they require the user's focused attention. We present Ambient Timer, an ambient light display designed to unobtrusively remind users of upcoming events. The light display -- mounted around the monitor -- is designed to slowly catch the user's attention and raise awareness for an upcoming event while not distracting her from the primary creative task such as writing a paper. Our experiment compared established reminder techniques such as checking the clock or using popups against Ambient Timer in two different designs. One of these designs produced a reminder in which the participants felt well informed on the progress of time and experienced a better "flow" of work than with traditional reminders.
Keywords: Ambient Light Display; Reminder; Interruptions; User Studies
Novel Modalities for Bimanual Scrolling on Tablet Devices BIBAKFull-Text 229-246
  Ross McLachlan; Stephen A. Brewster
This paper presents two studies investigating the use of novel modalities for bimanual vertical scrolling on tablet devices. Several bimanual interaction techniques are presented, using a combination of physical dial, touch and pressure input, which split the control of scrolling speed and scrolling direction across two hands. The new interaction techniques are compared to equivalent unimanual techniques in a controlled linear targeting task. The results suggest that participants can select targets significantly faster and with a lower subjective workload using the bimanual techniques.
Keywords: Bimanual interaction; scrolling; tablets
Public Information System Interface Design Research BIBAKFull-Text 247-259
  Ning Zhang; Junliang Chen; Zhengjie Liu; Jun Zhang
The diversity of users' cognitive skills remains the challenge of public information system interface design. In this paper, we focus on the universal interaction design method for public information systems like kiosks. We have developed a method with six steps based on the resources model. The method we proposed aims at reducing users' cognitive load and enabling designers to optimize interface information. To validate this method, two prototypes were designed based on the method and a usability test was conducted to compare users' cognitive load, performance and satisfaction between the designed prototypes and the current referencing system. Results show that, in contrast with the current reference system, prototypes we designed based on the proposed method can reduce user's cognitive load, and enhance user's performance and satisfaction.
Keywords: Universal usability; Cognitive load; Public information system

Creating Effective 3D Displays

Comparison of User Performance in Mixed 2D-3D Multi-Display Environments BIBAKFull-Text 260-277
  Abhijit Karnik; Tovi Grossman; Sriram Subramanian
Stereoscopic displays and volumetric 3D displays capable of delivering 3D views have in use for many years. These standalone displays have been investigated in detail for their impact on users' viewing experiences. Effects like aesthenopia and nausea are well-known for flat-screen based stereoscopic displays. However, these devices have not been tested in the context of multi-display environments (MDEs). The performance cost of repetitive switching between a 3D (stereo or volumetric) display and a standard 2D display are not known. In this paper, we perform a thorough user study where we investigate the effects of using such 3D displays within the context of a MDE. We report on our findings and discuss the implications of the same on designs involving such hybrid setups. Our experiments show that in the condition involving two 2D displays which allow for motion parallax and perspective correction, the participants performed the task the fastest.
Keywords: stereoscopic display; autostereoscopic display; volumetric display; zone of comfort; multi-display environment; performance; mental load
Touching the Void Revisited: Analyses of Touch Behavior on and above Tabletop Surfaces BIBAKFull-Text 278-296
  Gerd Bruder; Frank Steinicke; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Recent developments in touch and display technologies made it possible to integrate touch-sensitive surfaces into stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) displays. Although this combination provides a compelling user experience, interaction with stereoscopically displayed objects poses some fundamental challenges. If a user aims to select a 3D object, each eye sees a different perspective of the same scene. This results in two distinct projections on the display surface, which raises the question where users would touch in 3D or on the two-dimensional (2D) surface to indicate the selection. In this paper we analyze the relation between the 3D positions of stereoscopically displayed objects and the on- as well as off-surface touch areas. The results show that 2D touch interaction works better close to the screen but also that 3D interaction is more suitable beyond 10cm from the screen. Finally, we discuss implications for the development of future touch-sensitive interfaces with stereoscopic display.
Keywords: Touch-sensitive systems; stereoscopic displays; 3D interaction
Understanding Hand Degrees of Freedom and Natural Gestures for 3D Interaction on Tabletop BIBAKFull-Text 297-314
  Rémi Brouet; Renaud Blanch; Marie-Paule Cani
Interactively creating and editing 3D content requires the manipulation of many degrees of freedom (DoF). For instance, docking a virtual object involves 6 DoF (position and orientation). Multi-touch surfaces are good candidates as input devices for those interactions: they provide a direct manipulation where each finger contact on the table controls 2 DoF. This leads to a theoretical upper bound of 10 DoF for a single-handed interaction. With a new hand parameterization, we investigate the number of DoF that one hand can effectively control on a multi-touch surface. A first experiment shows that the dominant hand is able to perform movements that can be parameterized by 4 to 6 DoF, and no more (i.e., at most 3 fingers can be controlled independently). Through another experiment, we analyze how gestures and tasks are associated, which enable us to discover some principles for designing 3D interactions on tabletop.
Keywords: 3D manipulation; multi-touch interaction; tabletop interaction; gesture-based interaction

Cross-Cultural, Intercultural and Social Issues

Considering Communities, Diversity and the Production of Locality in the Design of Networked Urban Screens BIBAKFull-Text 315-322
  Wallis Motta; Ava Fatah gen Schieck; Holger Schnädelbach; Efstathia Kostopoulou; Moritz Behrens; Steve North; Lei Ye
Highly diverse settings such as London (with people from 179 countries speaking 300 languages) are unique in that ethnic or socio-cultural backgrounds are no longer sufficient to generate a sense of place, belonging and community. Instead, residents actively perform place building activities on an ongoing basis, which we believe is of great importance when deploying interactive situated technologies in public spaces.
   This paper investigates community and place building within a complex multicultural context. We approached this using ethnography, complemented with workshops in the wild. By studying the relationships arising between different segments of the community and two networked screen nodes, we examine the place building activities of residents, and how screen nodes are incorporated into them. Our research suggests that urban screens will be framed (and eventually used) as part of this continuing process of social, spatial and cultural construction. This highlights the importance of enabling socially meaningful relations between the people mediated by these technologies.
Keywords: Diversity; communities; ethnography; workshops; in the wild; urban screens
Growing Existing Aboriginal Designs to Guide a Cross-Cultural Design Project BIBAKFull-Text 323-330
  Margot Brereton; Paul Roe; Thomas Amagula; Serena Bara; Judy Lalara; Anita Lee Hong
Designing across cultures requires considerable attention to inter-relational design methods that facilitate mutual exploration, learning and trust. Many Western design practices have been borne of a different model, utilizing approaches for the design team to rapidly gain insight into "users" in order to deliver concepts and prototypes, with little attention paid to different cultural understandings about being, knowledge, participation and life beyond the design project. This paper describes a project that intends to create and grow a sustainable set of technology assisted communication practices for the Warnindilyakwa people of Groote Eylandt in the form of digital noticeboards. Rather than academic practices of workshops, interviews, probes or theoretical discourses that emphasize an outside-in perspective, we emphasize building upon the local designs and practices. Our team combines bilingual members from the local Land Council in collaboration with academics from a remote urban university two thousand kilometers away. We contribute an approach of growing existing local practices and materials digitally in order to explore viable, innovative and sustainable technical solutions from this perspective.
Keywords: Cross-cultural; Aboriginal; slow design; sustainable design; digital noticeboards; urban screens; interface design; Human-computer interaction
Web Accessibility in Africa: A Study of Three African Domains BIBAKFull-Text 331-338
  Daniel Costa; Nádia Fernandes; Sofia Neves; Carlos Duarte; Raquel Hijón-Neira; Luís Carriço
Being the most used method for dissemination of information, especially for public services, it is of paramount importance that the Web is made accessible as to allow all its users to access the content of its pages.
   In this paper, we evaluated 2250 Governmental Web pages from each one of three different African countries (i.e., Angola, Mozambique and South Africa). This report compares the accessibility quality and the level of structural complexity of these African countries government's Web pages. We found that hand coded pages tend to have larger number of HTML elements and also to present higher number of accessibility problems. Finally, it suggests some recommendations to repair the most common problems in these pages.
Keywords: Web Science; Web accessibility; automated evaluation
Webpage Designs for Diverse Cultures: An Exploratory Study of User Preferences in China BIBAKFull-Text 339-346
  Yin Su; David Liu; Xiaomeng Yuan; Justin Ting; Jingguo Jiang; Li Wang; Lin Gao
A wealth of studies has revealed a cross-cultural difference in the user preference on webpage designs. Users from other cultures often criticize a widely accepted webpage design in one culture. Designs for diverse cultures are thus expected to be specific to address diverse user preferences. This study investigated the preferences of Chinese users on four essential design elements related to the readability of texts of the result pages of search engines. The results suggested that the search result pages of the Bing search engine designed for typical 'US users' did not satisfy Chinese users. Chinese users, in general, preferred huge-sized texts for titles, a more compact layout of the search result pages, and keywords to be highlighted in red. The findings of the study contributed to webpage design guidelines for Chinese users, and may serve as a catalyst in exploring user preferences in designing for diverse cultures.
Keywords: webpage design; cross-culture; diversity; Chinese users
Your Phone Has Internet -- Why Are You at a Library PC? Re-imagining Public Access in the Mobile Internet Era BIBAKFull-Text 347-364
  Jonathan Donner; Marion Walton
This study focuses on teenage users of public internet access venues (PAVs) in low-income neighborhoods of Cape Town. It documents their cultivation of detailed ICT repertoires to make the most of available ICTs. It highlights the continuing importance of PAVs as supplements for poorly equipped schools and reveals the incompleteness of any supposed transition to mobile-only internet use. While the mobile internet is opening up opportunities for young people, its current form still conflicts with the easy (global) rhetoric of a closing digital divide and the end of the PAV. We recommend policy and design actions (effecting rules, training, messaging, functionality, and Wi-Fi) to reconfigure PAVs to be more useful "in the age of the mobile internet". Though some actions require support from policymakers, this is fruitful ground for designers and technologists. We identify steps that can be undertaken immediately, rather than waiting for future device convergence or lower tariffs.
Keywords: Libraries; ICT4D; Shared Access; South Africa; Developing Regions; Human Factors; Mobile Phones

Data Entry Mechanisms and Devices

A Performance Review of Number Entry Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 365-382
  Patrick Oladimeji; Harold Thimbleby; Anna L. Cox
Number entry is ubiquitous and there are several ways a number entry interface can be designed. Until recently, research has been focused mainly on one type of number entry interface: the numeric keypad. Various factors such as the range of values, and the space available for the design allows for several alternative interfaces to be used for number entry. In the design of medical devices such as those used for controlled drug delivery, accurate and timely entry of numbers are required in order to reduce any risk of harm to patients. This paper reviews five number entry interface styles and reports the result of an experiment conducted to evaluate the performance differences of the interfaces based on numbers used in infusion therapy in a hospital. The result shows a significant effect of interface style on speed and accuracy.
Keywords: Number entry interfaces; number entry error; user interface performance; safety critical devices
Predictive Input Interface of Mathematical Formulas BIBAKFull-Text 383-400
  Yoshinori Hijikata; Keisuke Horie; Shogo Nishida
Currently, inputting mathematical formulas into a document using a PC requires more effort by users than inputting normal text. This fact inhibits the spreading of mathematical formulas as internet contents. We propose a method for predicting user's inputs of mathematical formulas using an N-gram model: a popular probabilistic language model in natural language processing. Mathematical formulas are usually presented in hierarchical structure. Therefore, our method incorporates hierarchical information of mathematical formulas to create a prediction model. We try to achieve high prediction accuracy of inputting characters for mathematical formulas.
Keywords: mathematical input; probabilistic language model; predictive input; N-gram model
Selection-Based Mid-Air Text Entry on Large Displays BIBAKFull-Text 401-418
  Anders Markussen; Mikkel R. Jakobsen; Kasper Hornbæk
Most text entry methods require users to have physical devices within reach. In many contexts of use, such as around large displays where users need to move freely, device-dependent methods are ill suited. We explore how selection-based text entry methods may be adapted for use in mid-air. Initially, we analyze the design space for text entry in mid-air, focusing on single-character input with one hand. We propose three text entry methods: H4 Mid-Air (an adaptation of a game controller-based method by MacKenzie et al. [21]), MultiTap (a mid-air variant of a mobile phone text entry method), and Projected QWERTY (a mid-air variant of the QWERTY keyboard). After six sessions, participants reached an average of 13.2 words per minute (WPM) with the most successful method, Projected QWERTY. Users rated this method highest on satisfaction and it resulted in the least physical movement.
Keywords: Text entry; mid-air interaction techniques; large high-resolution displays; Huffman coding; multitap

Design and Evaluation

Evaluating Multivariate Visualizations as Multi-objective Decision Aids BIBAKFull-Text 419-436
  Meirav Taieb-Maimon; Lior Limonad; David Amid; David Boaz; Ateret Anaby-Tavor
When choosing a solution, decision makers are often required to account for multiple conflicting objectives. This is a situation that can result in a potentially huge number of candidate solutions. Despite the wide selection of multivariate visualizations that can potentially help decide between various candidates, no designated means exist to assess the effectiveness of these visualizations under different circumstances. As a first contribution in this work, we developed a method to evaluate different types of multivariate visualization. The method focuses on the visualization's ability to facilitate a better understanding of inter-objective trade-offs as a proxy to more sensible decision making. We used the method to evaluate two existing visualization aids: Parallel-Coordinates and an adaptation of Self Organizing Maps (SOM). Both visualizations were compared with tabular data presentation. Our results show that the first visualization is more effective than a plain tabular visualization for the purpose of multi-objective decision making.
Keywords: Multi-criterion decision making; Multivariate visualizations; Information Visualization; Usage experience evaluation
Homestead Creator: Using Card Sorting in Search for Culture-Aware Categorizations of Interface Objects BIBAKFull-Text 437-444
  Kasper Rodil; Matthias Rehm; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus
Designing intuitive interfaces for rural African users requires us to understand the users' conceptual model. We acknowledge differences in categorization approaches based on cultural factors, among others. In the absence of comprehensive literature and theories, we explore card sorting as a means to derive a local categorization of interface objects for one of our prototypes. Results indicate a locational-relational categorization scheme among Herero elders in Namibia.
Keywords: categorization; indigenous knowledge; 3D visualization; card sorting; HCI; interface design
The Influence of Website Category on Aesthetic Preferences BIBAKFull-Text 445-452
  Eleftherios Papachristos; Nikolaos Avouris
This paper investigates whether users' aesthetic impressions about websites vary considerably across different domains. The assumption that aesthetic judgments about websites that belong to diverse domains are based on different visual design aspects has been investigated in three distinct studies in healthcare, tourism, and web design business. In these studies participants expressed their overall preference as well as their judgments on the constructs of visual appeal, perceived usability and novelty. In addition, descriptions about the test websites were obtained by expert panel and objective measures. Preference Mapping (PM), which is a data summarization and visualization technique, has been performed in each study. Attribute projection into the preference maps allowed for the identification of important driver of preference for each individual domain. Even though, visual appeal was the most important predictor of overall preference in all studies, appealing websites had different visual characteristics in each domain. Furthermore the importance of the evaluation constructs varied considerably among studies, indicating that aesthetic perceptions differed considerably across domains. These findings emphasize the need for flexible evaluation methods that can be used to identify important visual design factors within a specific website domain.
Keywords: Website design; aesthetic evaluation; website categories; visual appeal; preference mapping
WATTSBurning: Design and Evaluation of an Innovative Eco-Feedback System BIBAKFull-Text 453-470
  Filipe Quintal; Lucas Pereira; Nuno Nunes; Valentina Nisi; Mary Barreto
This paper reports a 15 weeks study of artistic eco-feedback deployed in six houses with an innovative sensing infrastructure and visualization strategy. The paper builds on previous work that showed a significant decrease in user awareness after a short period with a relapse in consumption. In this study we aimed to investigate if new forms of feedback could overcome this issue, maintaining the users awareness for longer periods of time. The study presented here aims at understanding if people are more aware of their energy consumption after the installation of a new, art inspired eco-feedback. The research question was then: does artistic eco-feedback provide an increased awareness over normal informative feedback? And does that awareness last longer? To answer this questions participants were interviewed and their consumption patterns analyzed. The main contribution of the paper is to advance our knowledge about the effectiveness of eco-feedback and provide guidelines for implementation of novel eco-feedback visualizations that overcome the relapse behavior pattern.
Keywords: Sustainability; Aesthetics; Eco-feedback; User Interfaces; Prototyping

Design and Evaluation of Prototypes

Finding-NEVO: Toward Radical Design in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 471-478
  Sharon Lynn Chu; Francis Quek; Yao Wang; Rex Hartson
We address the methodology of design-oriented research in HCI, whereby researchers design and implement technology to test concepts. The task is to produce a testable prototype (that we call NEVO, Non-Embarrassing Version One) that faithfully embodies the concept. We probed leading HCI researchers and CHI authors about the challenge of Finding NEVO. We found uncertainty on how to design prototypes that allow for both design and scientific contributions. We propose the Finding-NEVO model that articulates a process yielding prototypes that are faithful to the rationale and idea being studied. We conclude by discussing our theoretical and methodological contributions.
Keywords: Radical design; design method; innovation; HCI
Method Card Design Dimensions: A Survey of Card-Based Design Tools BIBAKFull-Text 479-486
  Christiane Wölfel; Timothy Merritt
There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers. The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design.
Keywords: method cards; creativity cards; design methods; design tools
The Design and Usability Testing of DACADE -- A Tool Supporting Systematic Data Collection and Analysis for Design Students BIBAKFull-Text 487-494
  Madihah Sheikh Abdul Aziz; Gitte Lindgaard; T. W. Allan Whitfield
Norman claims that designers are bereft of statistical knowledge to perform effectively [10], stating that designers must understand technology, business and psychology to support design decisions. For designers to acquire the necessary statistical skills, design curricula should incorporate statistical courses teaching systematic data collection and data analysis. This paper presents the development and formative usability tests of the prototypes of a software tool called DACADE intended to support design students collecting and analyzing data systematically early in the design phase. It uses a 2D map and a Napping® technique to support effective and efficient communication between designers and target audiences in the design decision process by providing visual data and descriptive statistics without needing statistical knowledge.
Keywords: Software Engineering (Usability Testing); Human Factors in Software Design (User Interfaces); user-centered design; human-centered design
The Effect of Physicality on Low Fidelity Interactive Prototyping for Design Practice BIBAKFull-Text 495-510
  Joanna Hare; Steve Gill; Gareth Loudon; Alan Lewis
In this paper we propose the concept of 'active' and 'passive' physicality as mental models to help in understanding the role of low fidelity prototypes in the design process for computer embedded products. We define 'active physicality' as how the prototype and its software react to users and 'passive physicality' as how the prototype looks and feels offline. User trials of four different types of 'low fidelity' prototypes were undertaken using an existing product as the datum. Each prototype was analysed in terms of active and passive physicality and user responses were collated and compared qualitatively and quantitatively. The results suggest that prototypes that balance both active and passive physicality produce data closer to the final device than those that are strong in one at the expense of the other.
Keywords: Physicality; interactive prototypes; computer embedded products; design; product design; iterative product development; information appliances

Design to Support Creativity

CapTUI: Geometric Drawing with Tangibles on a Capacitive Multi-touch Display BIBAKFull-Text 511-528
  Rachel Blagojevic; Beryl Plimmer
We present CapTUI, an innovative drawing tool that detects tangible drawing instruments on a capacitive multi-touch tablet. There are three core components to the system: the tangible hardware, the recognizer used to identify the tangibles and the drawing software that works in tandem with the tangibles to provide intelligent visual drawing guides. Our recognizable tangible drawing instruments are a ruler, protractor and set square. Users employ these familiar physical instruments to construct digital ink drawings on a tablet in an intuitive and engaging manner. The visual drawing guides enhance the experience by offering the user helpful cues and functionalities to assist them to draw more accurately. A user evaluation comparing CapTUI to an application with passive tools showed that users significantly preferred CapTUI and found that the visual guides provide greater accuracy when drawing.
Keywords: TUI; tangible; multi-touch; physical interaction; capacitive; drawing tools
Evocative Computing -- Creating Meaningful Lasting Experiences in Connecting with the Past BIBAKFull-Text 529-546
  Janet van der Linden; Yvonne Rogers; Tim Coughlan; Anne Adams; Caroline Wilson; Pablo Haya; Estefanía Martín; Trevor Collins
We present an approach -- evocative computing -- that demonstrates how 'at hand' technologies can be 'picked up' and used by people to create meaningful and lasting experiences, through connecting and interacting with the past. The approach is instantiated here through a suite of interactive technologies configured for an indoor-outdoor setting that enables groups to explore, discover and research the history and background of a public cemetery. We report on a two-part study where different groups visited the cemetery and interacted with the digital tools and resources. During their activities serendipitous uses of the technology led to connections being made between personal memories and ongoing activities. Furthermore, these experiences were found to be long-lasting; a follow-up study, one year later, showed them to be highly memorable, and in some cases leading participants to take up new directions in their work. We discuss the value of evocative computing for enriching user experiences and engagement with heritage practices.
Keywords: pervasive computing; user experience; heritage practice; memories; evocative computing
Systematic Integration of Solution Elements: How Does Digital Creativity Support Change Group Dynamics? BIBAKFull-Text 547-565
  Florian Perteneder; Susann Hahnwald; Michael Haller; Kurt Gaubinger
In practice, most creativity techniques are still performed with traditional tools, such as pen and paper, whiteboards, and flipcharts. When transforming these techniques into a digital environment, the reduction of organizational overhead is the main goal to foster accessibility. Still, we do not know if overhead reduction fosters creativity or if it eliminates an important part of the creative process. To get a deeper understanding of these effects, we compare the performance of the creativity technique SIS (Systematic Integration of Solution Elements) in a traditional setting with a setup based on multiple interactive surfaces. By using a mix of diverse evaluation methods, we show how the use of a digital interactive creativity room can really foster creativity and produce better results.
Keywords: Creativity; Design; Creativity Techniques; Interactive Environment; Systematic Integration of Solution Elements; Collaboration

Designing for Inclusiveness I

Accessibility of Public Web Services: A Distant Dream? BIBAKFull-Text 566-578
  Kristiina Nurmela; Antti Pirhonen; Airi Salminen
Today, many public services are available online through Web sites. The accessibility of the sites, also to people with disabilities, is important because the accessibility concerns equality of citizens, a cornerstone of democracy. In the current study we carried out a meta-analysis of 17 studies concerning the accessibility of the Web sites of public administration. Furthermore, we assessed the accessibility of Web pages of 12 ministries of the Finnish government. The assessments were based on the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG). The results showed that in terms of the WCAG guidelines, the average accessibility of public Web sites is poor. Moreover, there was no improvement in the accessibility in the 2000's and many of the accessibility failures were so simple that they could have been easily avoided. This may indicate that the building of information society is driven by technology, rather than principles of democracy and well-being.
Keywords: Accessibility; public administration; WCAG
Augmenting Accessibility Guidelines with User Ability Rationales BIBAKFull-Text 579-586
  Christophe Ponsard; Pascal Beaujeant; Jean Vanderdonckt
Designing accessible web sites and more generally Internet-connected devices remains a challenging task nowadays. A number of guidelines (such as the WCAG2) are now widely available and recognised. To better cope with the quickly evolving technological landscape, these guidelines are also being formulated in technology-neutral terms. However this is still leaving the user dimension largely implicit, which makes it difficult to understand exactly which kind of user a given website is hindering.
   This paper describes how to capture and use rational links between guidelines and user capabilities/impairments by combining a set of complementary models (user, task, user interface, guidelines). The process of building those accessibility rationales relies upon available user and guidelines ontologies and also on obstacle identification and resolution techniques borrowed from the requirements engineering domain. This resulting enriched guidance enables a number of interesting new scenarios to better help web developers, analyse guidelines or make comparisons between guidelines.
Keywords: Accessibility; Assessment; Web; User-Model; Task Model; Ontology; Guidelines; WCAG
Lessons Learned from Crowd Accessibility Services BIBAKFull-Text 587-604
  Hironobu Takagi; Susumu Harada; Daisuke Sato; Chieko Asakawa
Crowd accessibility services for people with disabilities, driven by crowd-sourcing methods, are gaining traction as a viable means of realizing innovative services by leveraging both human and machine intelligence. As the approach matures, researchers and practitioners are seeking to build various types of services. However, many of them encounter similar challenges, such as variations in quality and sustaining contributor participation for durable services. There are growing needs to share tangible knowledge about the best practices to help build and maintain successful services. Towards this end, we are sharing our experiences with crowd accessibility services that we have deployed and studied. Initially, we developed a method to analyze the dynamics of contributor participation. We then analyzed the actual data from three service deployments spanning several years. The service types included Web accessibility improvement, text digitization, and video captioning. We then summarize the lessons learned and future research directions for sustainable services.
Keywords: Crowd-sourcing; accessibility; digital book; captioning; Web accessibility

Designing for Inclusiveness II

Designing for Different Users and Multiple Devices: A Roadmap towards Inclusive Environments BIBAKFull-Text 605-622
  Ig Ibert Bittencourt; Maria Cecília Baranauskas; Diego Dermeval; Juliana Braga; Roberto Pereira
The Web can be understood as an ecosystem of interconnected technological resources organized by rules, strategies, organizational structures, and mainly people. Such ecosystem is improving the potential to access knowledge everywhere and at any time. However, for different reasons, this technological extension is not reaching everybody yet. Those without access to knowledge are mainly people with disabilities or living in underserved communities. Nevertheless, the extension of Web technologies to different types of devices (such as mobile phones, tablets, TV) and their connections have the potential to increase the solutions to reach people with different needs through different devices. For this reason, several research and industrial studies have been proposed to design interfaces for multiple devices considering differences among users. In this paper, we present results of a systematic review on literature to build a roadmap towards inclusive environments. Additionally, the study also suggests existing tools to support the design of accessible applications for multiple devices. A significant result of this review is the lack of studies addressing underserved communities.
Keywords: Inclusive Environments; Portability; User Interface Design; Inclusiveness; Diversity; Multiple Devices
User Control in Adaptive User Interfaces for Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 623-640
  Matthias Peissner; Rob Edlin-White
Adaptive user interfaces offer great potential for improving the accessibility of interactive systems. At the same time, adaptations can cause usability problems, including disorientation and the feeling of losing control. Adaptations are therefore often discussed in terms of costs and benefits for the users. However, design strategies to overcome the drawbacks of adaptations have received little attention in the literature. We have designed different adaptation patterns to increase the transparency and controllability of run time adaptations in our MyUI system. This paper presents an experimental user study to investigate the effectiveness and acceptability of the proposed patterns in different cost-benefit situations and for different users. The patterns turn out to increase the transparency and controllability of adaptations during the interaction. They help users to optimize the subjective utility of the system's adaptation behavior. Moreover, the results suggest that preference and acceptance of the different patterns depend on the cost-benefit condition.
Keywords: Adaptive user interfaces; design patterns; accessibility; user study; controllability
Vibro-Tactile Enrichment Improves Blind User Interaction with Mobile Touchscreens BIBAKFull-Text 641-648
  Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini; Maria Teresa Paratore
Interaction via mobile devices is a challenge for blind users, who often encounter severe accessibility and usability problems. The main issues are due to the lack of hardware keys, making it difficult to quickly reach an area or activate functions, and to the new way of interacting via touchscreen. A touchscreen has no specific reference points detectable by feel, so a blind user cannot easily understand exactly where (s)he is positioned on the interface nor readily find a specific item/function. Alternative ways to provide content are mainly vocal and may be inadequate in some situations, e.g., noisy environments. In this study we investigate enriching the user interfaces of touchscreen mobile devices to facilitate blind users' orientation. We propose a possible solution for improving interaction based on the vibro-tactile channel. After introducing the idea behind our approach, two implemented Android Apps including the enriched user interfaces are shown and discussed.
Keywords: Accessibility; usability; mobile accessibility; haptic UIs; blind

Designing with- and for People with Special Needs

Designing with Dementia: Guidelines for Participatory Design together with Persons with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 649-666
  Niels Hendriks; Frederik Truyen; Erik Duval
Involving all stakeholders in the design process is often seen as a necessity from both a pragmatic and a moral point of view [1]. This is always a challenging task for designers and stakeholders and therefore many participatory design methods have been developed to facilitate such a design process. The traditional participatory design methods, however, are not fully appropriate to incorporate persons with dementia [2], [3]. They create issues as they assume that the participants are cognitively able; can make use of visual and hands-on techniques; or require a high level of abstraction ability of the person with dementia.
   The aim of this paper is to present a number of guidelines which can be used as a starting point to set up participatory design projects with persons with dementia. This overarching set of guidelines provides for practical advice focusing on the role of the moderator, the preparation of a participatory session, the choice and adaptation of the method, the tools used, the role of each participant and the subsequent analysis. The basis for these guidelines stems from similar participatory projects with senior participants, persons with dementia and participants with aphasia or amnesia, two symptoms frequently co-occurring with dementia. All guidelines were evaluated and refined during four sessions with persons with dementia and a trusted family member. These participatory design sessions occurred in the course of the AToM project, a research and design project that tries to design an intelligent network of objects and people to ameliorate the life of persons with dementia.
Keywords: participatory design; persons with dementia; method; guidelines
Navigating, Discovering and Exploring the Web: Strategies Used by People with Print Disabilities on Interactive Websites BIBAKFull-Text 667-684
  Christopher Power; Helen Petrie; David Swallow; Emma Murphy; Bláithín Gallagher; Carlos A. Velasco
The majority of research into web accessibility has focused on identifying and eliminating the problems that people with disabilities encounter when interacting with the Web. In this paper we argue that we need to move away from studying user problems to studying how people with disabilities apply interaction strategies while browsing the Web. In this paper we present a study of 19 print disabled users, including blind, partially sighted and dyslexic people, interacting with a variety of interactive Web 2.0 web applications. The participants undertook tasks using concurrent and retrospective protocols to elicit information about how they interact with web content. The result of this study was a collection of 586 strategic action sequences that were classified into seven different types of strategy. Differences in the application of strategies between the user groups are presented, as well as the most frequent strategies used by each user group. We close the paper by discussing some implications for the design of websites and assistive technologies as well as the future directions for empirical research in accessibility.
Keywords: Web accessibility; user study; user strategy; print disabled Web users; blind Web users; partially sighted Web users; dyslexic Web users
Participatory Design with Blind Users: A Scenario-Based Approach BIBAKFull-Text 685-701
  Nuzhah Gooda Sahib; Tony Stockman; Anastasios Tombros; Oussama Metatla
Through out the design process, designers have to consider the needs of potential users. This is particularly important, but rather harder, when the designers interact with the artefact to-be-designed using different senses or devices than the users, for example, when sighted designers are designing an artefact for use by blind users. In such cases, designers have to ensure that the methods used to engage users in the design process and to communicate design ideas are accessible. In this paper, we describe a participatory approach with blind users based on the use of a scenario and the use of dialogue-simulated interaction during the development of a search interface. We achieved user engagement in two ways: firstly, we involved a blind user with knowledge of assistive technologies in the design team and secondly, we used a scenario as the basis of a dialogue between the designers and blind users to simulate interaction with the proposed search interface. Through this approach, we were able to verify requirements for the proposed search interface and blind searchers were able to provide formative feedback, to critique design plans and to propose new design ideas based on their experience and expertise with assistive technologies. In this paper, we describe the proposed scenario-based approach and examine the types of feedback gathered from its evaluation with blind users. We also critically reflect on the benefits and limitations of the approach, and discuss practical considerations in its application.
Keywords: scenario; participatory design; visually impaired users

Display Manipulations

An Evaluation of Stacking and Tiling Features within the Traditional Desktop Metaphor BIBAKFull-Text 702-719
  Clemens Zeidler; Christof Lutteroth; Gerald Weber
Having many open windows on the desktop can lead to various usability problems. Window content may get occluded by other windows and working with multiple windows may get cumbersome. In this paper, we evaluate the idea to integrate stacking and tiling features into the traditional desktop metaphor. For this purpose we introduce the Stack & Tile window manager, which allows users to stack and tile arbitrary windows into groups that can be moved and resized similar to single windows. To evaluate if stacking and tiling can improve productivity, we conducted an experimental evaluation. We found that participants were able to perform various multi-window tasks and switch between tasks significantly faster using Stack & Tile. Furthermore, we found that the time to set up a Stack & Tile window group is reasonably low. Stack & Tile is open-source and has been used for over two years now. To evaluate its usefulness in practice, we conducted a web-based survey that reveals how people are actually using the new stacking and tiling features.
Keywords: window manager; tabbing; usability; evaluation
Investigating Pointing Tasks across Angularly Coupled Display Areas BIBAKFull-Text 720-727
  Fabian Hennecke; Alexander De Luca; Ngo Dieu Huong Nguyen; Sebastian Boring; Andreas Butz
Pointing tasks are a crucial part of today's graphical user interfaces. They are well understood for flat displays and most prominently are modeled through Fitts' Law. For novel displays (e.g., curved displays with multi-purpose areas), however, it remains unclear whether such models for predicting user performance still hold -- in particular when pointing is performed across differently oriented areas. To answer this question, we conducted an experiment on an angularly coupled display -- the Curve -- with two input conditions: direct touch and indirect mouse pointer. Our findings show that the target position affects overall pointing speed and offset in both conditions. However, we also found that Fitts' Law can in fact still be used to predict performance as on flat displays. Our results help designers to optimize user interfaces on angularly coupled displays when pointing tasks are involved.
Keywords: Pointing; Fitts' law; display orientation; curved surface
Semi-supervised Learning Based Aesthetic Classifier for Short Animations Embedded in Web Pages BIBAKFull-Text 728-745
  Dipak Bansal; Samit Bhattacharya
We propose a semi-supervised learning based computational model for aesthetic classification of short animation videos, which are nowadays part of many web pages. The proposed model is expected to be useful in developing an overall aesthetic model of web pages, leading to better evaluation of web page usability. We identified two feature sets describing aesthetics of an animated video. Based on the feature sets, we developed a Naïve-Bayes classifier by applying Co-training, a semi-supervised machine learning technique. The model classifies the videos as good, average or bad in terms of their aesthetic quality. We designed 18 videos and got those rated by 17 participants for use as the initial training set. Another set of 24 videos were designed and labeled using Co-training. We conducted an empirical study with 16 videos and 23 participants to ascertain the efficacy of the proposed model. The study results show 75% model accuracy.
Keywords: Aesthetics; web page; short video; classification; semi-supervised learning; Co-training
Switchback Cursor: Mouse Cursor Operation for Overlapped Windowing BIBAKFull-Text 746-753
  Shota Yamanaka; Homei Miyashita
When we perform a task that involves opening a number of windows, we cannot access the objects behind them. Thus, we are forced to switch the foreground window frequently or to move it temporarily. In this paper, we propose a Switchback Cursor technique where the cursor can move underneath windows when the user presses both the left and right mouse buttons. We also discuss some of the advantages of our method and effective situations that may be suited to the Switchback Cursor.
Keywords: Cursor; Graphical user interfaces (GUIs); Mouse; Pointer; WIMP

Diversity/ICT in Social Development

A Scandinavian Approach to Designing with Children in a Developing Country -- Exploring the Applicability of Participatory Methods BIBAKFull-Text 754-761
  Nahid Wakil; Peter Dalsgaard
Participatory Design (PD) offers a democratic approach to design by creating a platform for active end-user participation in the design process. Since its emergence, the field of PD has been shaped by the Scandinavian context, in which many early PD projects took place. In this paper we discuss the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings.
Keywords: Participatory Design; Developing Countries; Interaction Design; Future Workshop; Inspiration Card Workshop; Mock-ups
Availability4D: Refining the Link between Availability and Adoption in Marginalised Communities BIBAKFull-Text 762-779
  Fritz Meissner; Edwin Blake
We present a comparative study of mobile and conventional computing technologies applied to providing access to career guidance information to high school students from marginalised communities. Reported high availability of mobile technology amongst these users would be beneficial, but our NGO partner questioned feature phones' applicability for consuming large quantities of information. We created two systems: a text interface exposed through a mobile instant messaging service, and a website targeting conventional computers. Despite positive usability tests for the website and fears of social stigma related to mobile instant messaging, system logging over eight months of parallel deployment showed convincing advantage in engagement for the mobile system. Interviews revealed that computer infrastructure was tied to institutions where access was limited; but greater access to mobile phones (owned or borrowed) made use and advertisement to peers of the mobile system easier. Social stigma was a problem only for a minority.
Keywords: availability; adoption; marginalised communities; feature phones; mobile Internet; M4D; NGOs
Communication Choices to Engage Participation of Rural Indonesian Craftspeople in Development Projects BIBAKFull-Text 780-787
  Ellya Zulaikha; Margot Brereton
In participatory design projects, maintaining effective communication between facilitator and participant is essential. This paper describes the consideration given to the choice of communication modes to engage participation of rural Indonesian craftspeople over the course of a significant 3 year project that aims to grow their self-determination, design and business skill. We demonstrate the variety and subtlety of oral and written forms of communication used by the facilitator during the project. The culture, the communication skill and the influence of tacit knowledge affect the effectiveness of some modes of communication over the others, as well as the available infrastructure. Considerations are specific to the case of rural Indonesian craftspeople, but general lessons can be drawn.
Keywords: Communication Mode; Rural Craftspeople; Participatory Design; Participatory Development
Content Prototyping -- An Approach for Engaging Non-technical Users in Participatory Design BIBAKFull-Text 788-795
  Maletsabisa Molapo; Gary Marsden
Many in the developing world have little to no experience with computers -- they have never used software as part of their daily lives and jobs, so there is always a challenge for how this class of users can be engaged in Participatory Design in a manner that the value of their participation is not limited by their computing experience. This paper looks at previous work that addressed this challenge, and introduces an approach called content prototyping, which is an adaptation of existing practices to fit the needs of non-technical users. We also discuss the lessons learned from using this approach, and give recommendations for related projects in the developing world.
Keywords: HCI4D; Prototyping; Low-Literacy
Designing a Platform for Participatory Urbanism: Transforming Dialogue into Action in Underserved Communities BIBAKFull-Text 796-803
  Leonardo Giusti; Amelia Schladow; Amar Boghani; Steve Pomeroy; Nicholas Wallen; Federico Casalegno
Participatory urbanism platforms must balance stakeholder needs to both empower citizens and exact change from the local authority. While many platforms can trigger discussion, changes will only be achieved through successful collaborative efforts. This paper outlines the challenges and opportunities of designing for participatory urbanism, drawing on a case study completed with UNICEF and underserved communities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Our design approach helped to generate physical changes in the community infrastructure, and the beginnings of behavioral changes for community residents.
Keywords: Participatory urbanism; civic media; location-based platforms