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INT Tables of Contents: 84879095979901030507-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'07: Human-Computer Interaction 2007-09-10

Fullname:Proceedings of INTERACT'07: IFIP TC13 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part II
Note:Socially Responsible Interaction
Editors:Cécilia Baranauskas; Philippe Palanque; Julio Abascal; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Location:Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Dates:2007-Sep-10 to 2007-Sep-14
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Volume 4663
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-74799-4 (Print) 978-3-540-74800-7 (Online); hcibib: INT07-2
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. INT 2007-09-10 Volume 2
    1. Tangible User Interfaces and Interaction 1
    2. Tangible User Interfaces and Interaction 2
    3. Cultural Issues in HCI
    4. Safety, Security, Privacy and Usability
    5. User and Usability Studies
    6. Focus + Context Visualization Techniques, and Tagging
    7. Visualizing Social Information
    8. Online Communities and e-Learning
    9. Children, Games, and the Elderly
    10. Usability Studies on Collaborative Systems
    11. Interaction for Selection
    12. Software Engineering and HCI
    13. Doctoral Consortium
    14. HCI Societies Worldwide
    15. Interactive Experience
    16. Interactive Posters and Student Posters
    17. Organizational Overviews
    18. Panels
    19. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
    20. Tutorials
    21. Video Papers

INT 2007-09-10 Volume 2

Tangible User Interfaces and Interaction 1

Interfacing Video Capture, Editing and Publication in a Tangible Environment BIBAKFull-Text 1-14
  Cati Vaucelle; Hiroshi Ishii
The paper presents a novel approach to collecting, editing and performing visual and sound clips in real time. The cumbersome process of capturing and editing becomes fluid in the improvisation of a story, and accessible as a way to create a final movie. It is shown how a graphical interface created for video production informs the design of a tangible environment that provides a spontaneous and collaborative approach to video creation, selection and sequencing. Iterative design process, participatory design sessions and workshop observations with 10-12 year old users from Sweden and Ireland are discussed. The limitations of interfacing video capture, editing and publication in a self-contained platform are addressed.
Keywords: Tangible User Interface; Video; Authorship; Mobile Technology; Digital Media; Video Jockey; Learning; Children; Collaboration
PaperCP: Exploring the Integration of Physical and Digital Affordances for Active Learning BIBAKFull-Text 15-28
  Chunyuan Liao; François Guimbretière; Richard J. Anderson; Natalie Linnell; Craig Prince; Valentin Razmov
Active Learning in the classroom domain presents an interesting case for integrating physical and digital affordances. Traditional physical handouts and transparencies are giving way to new digital slides and PCs, but the fully digital systems still lag behind the physical artifacts in many aspects such as readability and tangibility. To better understand the interplay between physical and digital affordances in this domain, we developed PaperCP, a paper-based interface for a Tablet PC-based classroom interaction system (Classroom Presenter), and deployed it in an actual university course. This paper reports on an exploratory experiment studying the use of the system in a real-world scenario. The experiment confirms the feasibility of the paper interface in supporting student-instructor communication for Active Learning. We also discuss the challenges associated with creating a physical interface such as print layout, the use of pen gestures, and logistical issues.
Keywords: Active Learning; Affordances; Paper-based Interface; Physical Interface; Tablet PC
Seeing More: Visualizing Audio Cues BIBAFull-Text 29-42
  Tony Bergstrom; Karrie Karahalios
Using audio visualization, we seek to demonstrate how natural interaction is augmented with the addition of interaction history. Our Conversation Clock visualization captures and represents audio in a persistent and meaningful representation to provide social cues not available in an otherwise ephemeral conversation. In this paper we present user study evaluation of the Conversation Clock as utilized by familiar groups and demonstrate how individuals use the salient cues to evaluate their own interaction.

Tangible User Interfaces and Interaction 2

CubeExplorer: An Evaluation of Interaction Techniques in Architectural Education BIBAKFull-Text 43-56
  Hyunyoung Song; François Guimbretière; Michael A. Ambrose; Carl Lostritto
During the early stages of architectural training, tangibility plays an important role in developing spatial awareness. In such contexts, tangible user interfaces are believed to provide a significant advantage as they combine the affordances of both the physical and the digital world. We introduce CubeExplorer, a hybrid 3D conceptual aid that combines physical interaction and digital modeling in an effort to complement conventional architectural space-training tools (such as physical materials and digital CAD programs). Using a digital pen as an input mechanism, CubeExplorer lets users perform subtractive 3D geometric operations on a simple paper based cube model while observing the resulting model on a display. The tangibility of the model simplifies navigation and command execution, while the digital interface makes it easy for users to explore multiple alternative designs. To evaluate the potential of such an approach, we conducted a user study in a normal classroom environment where students were provided with physical (wooden block), hybrid (CubeExplorer), and virtual (FormZ) interfaces to complete the same assignment. Our evaluation showed that CubeExplorer combined the advantages of both digital and tangible media. The advantages of CubeExplorer over digital media were substantiated in a follow-up study comparing CubeExplorer and SketchUp in a similar building task.
Keywords: Education; 3D modeling; pen-based interface; tangible user interface
InterCUBE: A Study into Merging Action and Interaction Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 57-70
  Benjamin Salem; Harold Peeters
We describe the development of a novel tangible interface we call the InterCUBE, a cube-shaped device with no external buttons or widgets. We study the implications of such a shape in terms of interactions, notably the degrees of freedom available and the manipulations possible. We also explain and investigate the merging of the action, perception and interaction spaces, and we design the InterCUBE interaction accordingly. To investigate the system we have implemented a demonstration application: a shopping menu, in which users can navigate through a menu simply by turning the cube in either one of the four possible directions. We have evaluated the InterCUBE in comparison to an equivalent mouse based interface and discuss the results.
Keywords: Tangible User Interface; Usability; action and interaction spaces
EMA-Tactons: Vibrotactile External Memory Aids in an Auditory Display BIBAKFull-Text 71-84
  Johan Kildal; Stephen A. Brewster
Exploring any new data set always starts with gathering overview information. When this process is done non-visually, interactive sonification techniques have proved to be effective and efficient ways of getting overview information, particularly for users who are blind or visually impaired. Under certain conditions, however, the process of data analysis cannot be completed due to saturation of the user's working memory. This paper introduces EMA-Tactons, vibrotactile external memory aids that are intended to support working memory during the process of data analysis, combining vibrotactile and audio stimuli in a multimodal interface. An iterative process led to a design that significantly improves the performance (in terms of effectiveness) of users solving complex data explorations. The results provide information about the convenience of using EMA-Tactons with other auditory displays, and the iterative design process illustrates the challenges of designing multimodal interaction techniques.
Keywords: vibrotactile; external memory aid; overview; visual impairment; high-density sonification

Cultural Issues in HCI

Institutionalizing HCI in Asia BIBAKFull-Text 85-99
  Andy Smith; Anirudha Joshi; Zhengjie Liu; Liam J. Bannon; Jan Gulliksen; Christina Li
In this paper we investigate the problems and potential solutions to the effective establishment of HCI and usability in India and China. Our discussion is motivated by five years of collaboration with relevant bodies in both countries through EU-funded projects encouraging the development of a usability culture in academic and industrial sectors. In order to contribute to socially-responsible interaction in these countries the 'institutionalization' of HCI is necessary. For us, this involves three elements: firstly an appropriation of HCI concepts and methods to suit the local country / culture, secondly the forming of a national organization around the reshaped discipline that can actively promote HCI in industry and academia and establish links with local national organizations, and thirdly the roll-out of effective usability practice in industry. Some efforts made in this regard are briefly outlined.
Keywords: cross-cultural usability; India; China; institutionalization
Cultural Mobilities: Diversity and Agency in Urban Computing BIBAFull-Text 100-113
  Paul Dourish; Ken Anderson; Dawn Nafus
The rise of wireless networks and portable computing devices has been accompanied by an increasing interest in technology and mobility, and in the urban environment as a site of interaction. However, most investigations have taken a relatively narrow view of urban mobility. In consequence, design practice runs the risk of privileging particular viewpoints, forms of mobility, and social groups. We are interested in a view of mobility that reaches beyond traditional assumptions about the who, when, why, and what of mobility. Based on analytic perspectives from the social sciences and on empirical fieldwork in a range of settings, we outline an alternative view of technology and mobility with both analytic and design implications.

Safety, Security, Privacy and Usability

Designing a Trade-Off Between Usability and Security: A Metrics Based-Model BIBAKFull-Text 114-126
  Christina Braz; Ahmed Seffah; David M'Raïhi
The design of usable yet secure systems raises crucial questions when it comes to balancing properly security and usability. Finding the right tradeoff between these two quality attributes is not an easy endeavor. In this paper, we introduce an original design model based on a novel usability inspection method. This new method, named Security Usability Symmetry (SUS), exploits automata machines theory and introduces the concept of an advanced Multifunction Teller Machine (MTM). We demonstrate, via case study, how to use this model during the design of secure, usable interactive systems.
Keywords: Usability; Security; User-Centered Design; Critical Systems; Automata Machines; Metrics
Recognising Erroneous and Exploratory Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 127-140
  Jonathan Back; Ann Blandford; Paul Curzon
A better understanding of "human error" is needed to help overcome problems of people assuming they are to blame for their inability to use poorly designed technology. In order to investigate people's ability to recognize, and reflect on the causes of, particular types of errors, a problem solving environment was designed that allowed participants to verbally self-report erroneous and exploratory interactions. It was found that the pervasiveness of errors was recognizable but underlying cognitive and attentional causes of errors were not. Participants found that providing a causal account of device-specific errors during interaction was especially difficult. A striking feature of device-specific errors is that they involve actions that do not move an individual towards a goal state, but remain critical to performing a task correctly. Successfully identifying why an error has occurred requires an understanding of environmental cues and salience. Findings imply that HCI practitioners need to develop techniques to adjust the visual salience of cues, making it is possible to recognize and recover from error.
Keywords: Human error; self-report; HCI
Usability Challenges in Security and Privacy Policy-Authoring Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 141-155
  Robert W. Reeder; Clare-Marie Karat; John Karat; Carolyn Brodie
Policies, sets of rules that govern permission to access resources, have long been used in computer security and online privacy management; however, the usability of authoring methods has received limited treatment from usability experts. With the rise in networked applications, distributed data storage, and pervasive computing, authoring comprehensive and accurate policies is increasingly important, and is increasingly performed by relatively novice and occasional users. Thus, the need for highly usable policy-authoring interfaces across a variety of policy domains is growing. This paper presents a definition of the security and privacy policy-authoring task in general and presents the results of a user study intended to discover some usability challenges that policy authoring presents. The user study employed SPARCLE, an enterprise privacy policy-authoring application. The usability challenges found include supporting object grouping, enforcing consistent terminology, making default policy rules clear, communicating and enforcing rule structure, and preventing rule conflicts. Implications for the design of SPARCLE and of user interfaces in other policy-authoring domains are discussed.
Keywords: Policy; policy-authoring; privacy; security; usability
Understanding Compliance to Privacy Guidelines Using Text-and Video-Based Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 156-168
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Maurits Kaptein; Oliver Moran; Evelien van de Garde-Perik; Panos Markopoulos
Privacy is a major concern for the design and user acceptance of pervasive technology. Investigating privacy poses several methodological challenges. A popular approach involves surveying reactions of people to scenarios that highlight privacy issues. This paper examines the validity of this approach. It reports an experiment that compared people's ability to correctly judge compliance to privacy principles when scenarios are presented in video versus textual form. It was found that such privacy-related concepts are hard to understand, leading to a large number of erroneous judgments regardless of medium and that interpretation varied across media. Comprehension in such studies can be improved, if a text scenario is preceded by a video-based version.

User and Usability Studies

Strategic Tabletop Negotiations BIBAKFull-Text 169-182
  Tokuo Yamaguchi; Sriram Subramanian; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino
Strategic negotiations in digital tabletop displays have not been well understood. There is little reported in the literature on how users strategize when group priorities and individual priorities conflict and need to be balanced for a successful collaboration. We conducted an observational study on three digital tabletop systems and a real-world setup to investigate similarities and differences in real-world and digital tabletop strategic collaborations. Our results show that in the real world, strategic negotiation involves three phases: identifying the right timing, using epistemic actions to consider a task plan and evaluating the value of the negotiation. We repeated the real-world experiments with different digital tabletops and found several differences in the way users initiate and perform strategic negotiations.
Keywords: Face-to-Face Collaboration; Digital Tabletops; Strategic Negotiations; Collaborative Tables; Single Display Groupware
A Fundamental Study for Participating in Multiple Teleconferences BIBAKFull-Text 183-196
  Hironori Egi; Hisashi Anzai; Itaru Takata; Ken-ichi Okada
The purpose of this research is to support office workers to participate in multiple teleconferences simultaneously. In order to achieve this goal, we have investigated how people understand multiple voices that differ in conditions of overlapping rates. We have evaluated comprehension of the context and the keywords in multiple voices, which is necessary for the users to participate in multiple teleconferences. In addition, we have described the psychological load of the users by using NASA-TLX as the workload index and the physiological load by examining the brain waves of the users. From the experiment, we can show three factors. First, we found more than half of the examinees understand the context when the voices are overlapped completely. Second, little of no difference is observed in the level of comprehension of keywords, between when the voices are half overlapped and overlapped completely. Third, it can also be suggested that examinees are more uncertain of their answers when the voices are overlapped completely compared to when they are only half overlapped. As for the load of the users, our results suggested that imperfect overlap amplifies the psychological load. Based on these results, we will discuss the necessity of selecting appropriate overlap rates and design the environment of multiple teleconferences.
Keywords: multitask; multiple voices; multiple teleconferences; overlap rate
ICEbox: Toward Easy-to-Use Home Networking BIBAKFull-Text 197-210
  Jeonghwa Yang; W. Keith Edwards
Home networking is becoming an essential part of everyday life. However, empirical studies and consumer reports indicate that the complexities of configuring and maintaining the home network impose a high barrier for most householders. In this paper, we explore the sources of the complexity of the home network, and describe a solution we have built to address this complexity. We have developed a prototype network appliance that acts as a centralized point of control for the home network, providing device provisioning and reprovisioning, security, discovery, and monitoring. Our solution provides a simple physical UI for network control, using pointing to introduce new devices onto the network, and a physical lock to secure network access. Results of our user studies indicate that users found this appliance both useful and usable as a network configuration and management tool.
Keywords: Home networking; usability; user interface; ICEbox
Selective Analysis of Linguistic Features Used in Video Mediated Collaboration: An Indicator of Users Sense of Co-presence BIBAKFull-Text 211-214
  Paulo Melo; Leila Alem
Studies in video mediated collaboration are going beyond traditional measures of time on task and task accuracy by attempting to qualify specific aspect of users' experience. This paper explores users' sense of co-presence as the extent to which they feel co-present with their partner when building collaboratively a toy over a video conferencing system. A linguistic analysis of the way users are referring to remote objects and places has been conducted in order to investigate the correlation between co-presence score and the frequency of local and remote deixis. Our results indicate that co-presence score is positively correlated to the frequency of local deixis as reported previously [1] and negatively correlated to remote deixis. We conclude that the words used by users when referring to remote objects and places may indicate aspects of user's experience while engaged in remote collaboration.
Keywords: Co-presence; CMC; linguistic analysis; Video mediated collaboration
Gender Talk: Differences in Interaction Style in CMC BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Xiaoning Sun; Susan Wiedenbeck; Thippaya Chintakovid; Qiping Zhang
Qualitative analysis was used to investigate the nature of the interactions of different gender pairings doing a negotiation task via computer-mediated communication (CMC). Preliminary results indicate that female pairs used more language of fairness, saving face, and acknowledgement in their conversation than did male pairs. Male pairs made more procedural statements about meeting management and actions than female pairs. The study provides a preliminary understanding of how gender interactions may affect performance in CMC tasks.

Focus + Context Visualization Techniques, and Tagging

Focus+Context Visualization Techniques for Displaying Large Lists with Multiple Points of Interest on Small Tactile Screens BIBAKFull-Text 219-233
  Stéphane Huot; Eric Lecolinet
This paper presents a focus+context visualization and interaction technique for displaying large lists on handheld devices. This technique has been specifically designed to fit the constraints of small tactile screens. Thanks to its spiral layout, it provides a global view of large lists on a limited amount of screen real-estate. It has also been designed to allow direct interaction with fingers. This technique proposes an alternative to multi-focus visualization, called "augmented context", where several objects of interest can be pointed up simultaneously. We propose two implementations of this approach that either use spatial or temporal composition. We conducted a controlled experiment that compares our approach to standard scrollable lists for a search task on a PDA phone. Results show that our technique significantly reduces the error rate (about 3.7 times lower) without loss of performance.
Keywords: Mobile interfaces; focus+context visualization; spiral layout; finger interaction; one-handed interaction
Techniques for Interacting with Off-Screen Content BIBAKFull-Text 234-249
  Pourang Irani; Carl Gutwin; Grant Partridge; Mahtab Nezhadasl
Many systems -- such as map viewers or visual editors -- provide a limited viewport onto a larger graphical workspace. The limited viewport means that users often have to navigate to objects and locations that are off screen. Although techniques such as zooming, panning, or overview+detail views allow users to navigate off-screen, little is known about how different techniques perform for different types of off-screen tasks, and whether one technique works well for all tasks. We carried out two studies to explore these issues. The first study compared the performance of three classes of techniques (zoom, overview+detail, and proxy) in six types of off-screen tasks. We found that the techniques show substantial differences across different tasks and that no one technique is suitable for all types of off-screen navigation. This study led to the design of two novel hybrid navigation techniques -- WinHop and Multiscale Zoom -- that combine properties of multiple simpler approaches in an attempt to broaden support for off-screen navigation. We carried out a second study to assess the hybrid techniques, and found that they do provide reliable performance on a wide range of tasks. Our results suggest that integrating complimentary properties from different approaches can significantly improve performance in off-screen navigation tasks.
Keywords: Navigation techniques; offscreen navigation; small displays
CandidTree: Visualizing Structural Uncertainty in Similar Hierarchies BIBAKFull-Text 250-263
  Bongshin Lee; George G. Robertson; Mary Czerwinski; Cynthia Sims Parr
Most visualization systems fail to convey uncertainty within data. To provide a way to show uncertainty in similar hierarchies, we interpreted the differences between two tree structures as uncertainty. We developed a new interactive visualization system called CandidTree that merges two trees into one and visualizes two types of structural uncertainty: location and sub-tree structure uncertainty. We conducted a usability study to identify major usability issues and evaluate how our system works. Another qualitative user study was conducted to see if biologists, who regularly work with hierarchically organized names, are able to use CandidTree to complete tree-comparison tasks. We also assessed the "uncertainty" metric we used.
Keywords: Uncertainty visualization; Structural uncertainty; Tree comparison; Graphical user interfaces
Tagscape: Navigating the Tag Landscape BIBAFull-Text 264-267
  Lauren Haynes; Aylin Selcukoglu; Sunah Suh; Karrie Karahalios
Recent years have seen an explosion in online collaborative tagging, the most prevalent visualization of which are tag clouds. Despite their popularity, tag clouds suffer from limitations of separation from tagged items, lack of relational information between tags and a less-than-fully interactive experience. In this paper we introduce Tagscape, a tag system interface that attempts to address these issues. Tagscape uses a magnet analogy to represent relationships between tags and tagged items as attractions and repulsions. Preliminary informal evaluations of the interface were positive and revealed avenues for future work.
Visual Tagging Through Social Collaboration: A Concept Paper BIBAFull-Text 268-271
  Andrea Bellucci; Stefano Levialdi; Alessio Malizia
Collaborative tagging has grown on the Internet as a new paradigm for web information discovering, filtering and retrieval. In the physical world, we use visual tags: labels readable by smartphones with cameras. While visual tags are usually related to a web site address, collaborative tagging, instead, provides updated, recommended information contributed and shared by users. In this paper we investigate the combination of collaborative tagging systems with visual tags. We present a prototype of a semiautomatic system generating visual tags which gather information from collaborative tagging. The user can interact with a list of relevant tags (built by clustering closely related tags) that can be further encoded in a visual tag, according to user's preferences. The user experience is enriched by retrieving multimedia content linked to the selected tags, present on the web. We finally show a case study illustrating our approach.

Visualizing Social Information

Visualizing Activity on Wikipedia with Chromograms BIBAKFull-Text 272-287
  Martin Wattenberg; Fernanda B. Viégas; Katherine J. Hollenbach
To investigate how participants in peer production systems allocate their time, we examine editing activity on Wikipedia, the well-known online encyclopedia. To analyze the huge edit histories of the site's administrators we introduce a visualization technique, the chromogram, that can display very long textual sequences through a simple color coding scheme. Using chromograms we describe a set of characteristic editing patterns. In addition to confirming known patterns, such reacting to vandalism events, we identify a distinct class of organized systematic activities. We discuss how both reactive and systematic strategies shed light on self-allocation of effort in Wikipedia, and how they may pertain to other peer-production systems.
Keywords: Wikipedia; Visualization; Peer Production; Visualization
MatLink: Enhanced Matrix Visualization for Analyzing Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 288-302
  Nathalie Henry; Jean-Daniel Fekete
Visualizing social networks presents challenges for both node-link and adjacency matrix representations. Social networks are locally dense, which makes node-link displays unreadable. Yet, main analysis tasks require following paths, which is difficult on matrices. This article presents MatLink, a hybrid representation with links overlaid on the borders of a matrix and dynamic topological feedback as the pointer moves. We evaluated MatLink by an experiment comparing its readability, in term of errors and time, for social network-related tasks to the other conventional representations on graphs varying in size (small and medium) and density. It showed significant advantages for most tasks, especially path-related ones where standard matrices are weak.
Keywords: Node-Link Diagram; Matrix Visualization; Social Network
CodeSaw: A Social Visualization of Distributed Software Development BIBAFull-Text 303-316
  Eric Gilbert; Karrie Karahalios
We present CodeSaw, a social visualization of distributed software development. CodeSaw visualizes a distributed software community from two important and independent perspectives: code repositories and project communication. By bringing together both shared artifacts (code) and the talk surrounding those artifacts (project mail), CodeSaw reveals group dynamics that lie buried in existing technologies. This paper describes the visualization and its design process. We apply CodeSaw to a popular open source project, showing how the visualization reveals group dynamics and individual roles. The paper ends with a discussion of the results of an online field study with prominent open source developers. The field study suggests that CodeSaw positively affects communities and provides incentives to distributed developers. Furthermore, an important design lesson from the field study leads us to introduce a novel interaction technique for social visualization called spatial messaging.
The Use of Information Visualization to Support Software Configuration Management BIBAKFull-Text 317-331
  Roberto Therón; Antonio González Torres; Francisco José García Peñalvo; Pablo Santos
This paper addresses the visualization of the collaboration history in the development of software items using a simple interactive representation called Revision Tree. The visualization presents detailed information on a single software item with the intention of supporting the awareness of the project managers and developers about the item evolution and the collaboration taking place on its development. We considered that repositories of Software Configuration Management tools are the best information source to extract relevant information dealing with the relationships between the programmers and software items, as well as information regarding the creation of baselines, branches and revisions, and useful date and time details for the arrangement of the development timeline and collaboration representation.
Keywords: Software Configuration Management (SCM); Information visualization; Focus + context; Time line; Polyfocal display; Interaction; Revision Tree

Online Communities and e-Learning

Enhancing Interactivity in an Online Learning Environment BIBAKFull-Text 332-344
  Luciane Maria Fadel; Mary C. Dyson
This study focuses on of the use of animation to alert students to incoming messages and system updates in an online environment. It describes an experiment which compares an animation- and a text-based interface in terms of how the students perceived the alerting system. Relationships between the number of interactions, performance, and perceived social presence are examined. The results indicate that the animation-based interface group interact more than the text-based interface group and perceptions of social presence might be stronger for those students who post more messages. In addition, the results suggest that those students who perceived a stronger social presence also performed better. These findings have implications for designing online course environments where the design of the interface should be considered as a variable that enhances social presence.
Keywords: interactivity; social presence; animation; online environment
Reading Companion: A Interactive Web-Based Tutor for Increasing Literacy Skills BIBAKFull-Text 345-348
  Keith Grueneberg; Amy Katriel; Jennifer Lai; Jing Feng
This paper discusses learnings from the development of Reading Companion, a web-based system that uses speech recognition technology to help children and adults increase their literacy skills. An animated tutor character both 'speaks' and 'listens' to the reader, guiding them as they read e-books selected by their teacher from a virtual library. The system creates detailed performance reports for each student and because it is available on the internet, the learners can continue reading where they left off once they get home to share their progress with their family. We discuss implementation challenges that were overcome, as well as feedback from users and teachers. To our knowledge this is the first successful implementation of real-time interactive speech recognition using Flash on the internet. We believe this presents a valuable model of how speech can be used on the web as part of interactive applications.
Keywords: Literacy; web; speech recognition; animated tutor character
PASTEL: Pattern-Driven Adaptive Simulations BIBAKFull-Text 349-352
  Mark K. Singley; Peter G. Fairweather; Tracee Wolf; Dick Lam
We propose a new kind of learning environment called an adaptive simulation that more deeply explores and exploits the potential of simulations as pedagogical and explanatory tools. In an adaptive simulation, the simulation configuration is not fixed but rather can be modified by an instructional agent for optimal pedagogical effect. Types of adaptations include manipulations of simulation time and state, changes in representation to facilitate explanations and/or task performance, and adjustments in simulation complexity by the addition and/or removal of components. We briefly describe a system we are developing called PASTEL that is designed to enable these kinds of adaptations. Open research issues include precisely how to perform these adaptations and when to employ them for optimal effect.
Keywords: adaptive user interface; simulation; HCI patterns; systems thinking
Online Communities Administration: Defining Tools for Different Profiles BIBAKFull-Text 353-356
  Elton José da Silva; Silas Sallaume
There occur a great number of breakdowns in online communities caused by the natural gap between face-to-face and virtual relationships. In addition to this shortcoming, creating, managing and promoting participative online communities is frequently arduous work, and there usually are few tools to help the administrators through this endeavor. So, in this paper we present some results of a research carried out for the implementation of a tool for managing online communities called OriOnGroups, which aims to help in the administrator's decision-making when creating and managing communities. We introduce a categorization for communities profiles and make use of personas, which helped us to select different tools for each one of these profiles.
Keywords: Online Community Administration; User/Group Profiles; Personas
Building Communities with People-Tags BIBAFull-Text 357-360
  Stephen Farrell; Tessa A. Lau; Stefan Nusser
Social tagging has been applied to many applications including image sharing, bookmarking and music recommendations. We have developed a application for the social tagging of people to support contact management and browsing profiles in an enterprise directory. As we expected, we found that users tag people for personal organization and for "social" motivations just as in other systems. However, an unexpected result is that users tag other users in order to create communities. By tagging, encouraging others to tag, and sharing links to tags, an active minority of users is using people-tagging to bring people together.

Children, Games, and the Elderly

Interactive Floor Support for Kinesthetic Interaction in Children Learning Environments BIBAFull-Text 361-375
  Kaj Grønbæk; Ole Sejer Iversen; Karen Johanne Kortbek; Kaspar Rosengreen Nielsen; Louise Aagaard
This paper introduces a novel kinesthetic interaction technique for interactive floors. The interaction techniques utilize vision-based limb tracking on an interactive floor -- a 12 m2 glass surface with bottom projection. The kinesthetic interaction technique has been developed for an interactive floor implemented in a school square. The paper discusses the kinesthetic interaction technique and its potentials in the domain of learning applications: Kinesthetic interaction supports body-kinesthetic learning as argued in the learning literature. Kinesthetic interaction is fun and motivating thus encourages children to explore and learn. Kinesthetic interaction on large display surfaces supports collaborative, co-located play and learning through communication and negotiation among the participants. Finally, the paper discusses prospects and challenges in development of kinesthetic interaction for interactive floors.
Was Vygotsky Right? Evaluating Learning Effects of Social Interaction in Children Internet Games BIBAKFull-Text 376-389
  Franca Garzotto
The social basis for learning, particularly in childhood, has been acknowledged since the seminal research of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky. Although his theory is very often cited in HCI literature as a theoretical basis for the design of multi-user interactive artefacts, little empirical data is available that assess Vygotsky's thesis in this domain. This paper presents an empirical study that investigated the learning impact of social interaction in the context of children
    edutainment. We developed "multiplayer" and "individual" configurations of an educational internet game and measured the learning benefits of "playing together" and "playing alone" in 54 children from a local elementary school. Not surprisingly, our findings confirm that Vygotsky was right. They provide some empirical evidence that in contexts of online gaming, the presence of interpersonal communication, collective goals, and social activities has measurable beneficial effects on children learning.
Keywords: edutainment; social interaction; multiuser online game; children; learning; evaluation
Daily Activities Diarist: Supporting Aging in Place with Semantically Enriched Narratives BIBAKFull-Text 390-403
  Georgios Metaxas; Barbaros Metin; Jutta Schneider; Panos Markopoulos; Boris E. R. de Ruyter
The Daily Activities Diarist is an awareness system that supports social connectedness between seniors living alone and their social intimates. The Daily Activities Diarist extracts automatically an Activity-of-Daily-Life (ADL)-journal from data collected through a wireless sensor network installed at the home of the seniors. We describe the design of the system, its implementation and the lessons from two trials lasting 2 weeks each. The paper makes the case for narrative presentation of awareness information and for seamful design of awareness systems of this ilk.
Keywords: Computer-mediated communication; awareness systems; assisted living; ubiquitous computing
Head Up Games: The Games of the Future Will Look More Like the Games of the Past BIBAKFull-Text 404-407
  Iris Soute; Panos Markopoulos
With the emergence of pervasive technology, pervasive games came into existence. Most are location-aware applications, played with a PDA or mobile phone. We argue that the interaction paradigm these games support, limits outdoor play that often involves spontaneous social interaction. This paper introduces a new genre of pervasive games we call Head Up Games. The paper describes these games and how they differ from current research prototypes of pervasive games. Also, it outlines their characteristics and illustrates our vision with Camelot, an outdoor game for children.
Keywords: Pervasive games; Children; Social gaming
MarkerClock: A Communicating Augmented Clock for Elderly BIBAFull-Text 408-411
  Yann Riche; Wendy E. Mackay
This paper presents markerClock, a communication appliance embedded into a clock and designed for seniors as a simple and intuitive device. MarkerClock enhances seniors' connectedness to their social networks, particularly friends, neighbors and relatives, therefore increasing the potential of human communication for providing and receiving care. In doing so, markerClock supports reciprocal care behaviors observed during our initial user study, which could be used to leverage the need for institutionalized care. This paper describes markerClock and its implementation of both passive and active communications.

Usability Studies on Collaborative Systems

Usability Study of Multi-modal Interfaces Using Eye-Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 412-424
  Regina Bernhaupt; Philippe A. Palanque; Marco Winckler; David Navarre
The promises of multimodal interaction to make interaction more natural, less error-prone and more enjoyable have been controversially discussed in the HCI community. On the one hand multimodal interaction is being adopted in fields ranging from entertainment to safety-critical applications, on the other hand new forms of interaction techniques (including two-handed interaction and speech) are still not in widespread use. In this paper we present results from a usability evaluation study including eye-tracking on how two mice and speech interaction is adopted by the users. Our results show evidence that two mice and speech can be adopted naturally by the users. In addition, we discuss how eye-tracking data helps to understand advantages of two-handed interaction and speech.
Keywords: Multimodal interfaces; usability evaluation method; two mice; speech
Investigating Effective ECAs: An Experiment on Modality and Initiative BIBAFull-Text 425-438
  Alistair G. Sutcliffe; Faisal Al-Qaed
This paper investigates the effectiveness of conversational agent-based delivery of task strategy and operational help for an interactive search tool. The study tested three modalities of advice (text-only, text-and-audio, and text-audio-and-agent) in addition to a control group with no advice. User- and system- initiated advice modes were also compared. Subjects in the text-only group outperformed other modality groups in usability errors, search performance, advice uptake and in their positive comments in the debriefing interview and post-test questionnaire. User-initiated advice was preferred and was more effective. Users criticized speech advice for being too long and difficult to control. The results suggested that the computer as social actor paradigm might not be effective for advisory applications.
Towards a Physiological Model of User Interruptability BIBAKFull-Text 439-451
  Daniel Chen; Jamie Hart; Roel Vertegaal
User interruptability has become an important topic of study in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). However, automatically determining the availability of users is still problematic. In this paper, we present a preliminary study of the use of physiological measurements for predicting user interruptability status. We measured Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and Electromyogram (EMG) signals whilst users performed a variety of tasks; including reading, solving word puzzles, mental arithmetic, typing, and playing a racing game. Results show high correlations for both HRV (r = 0.96) and EMG (r = 0.85) with user self-reports of interruptability. We combined these two measures into a single linear model, which predicted user interruptability with a combined r
    2 of 0.95, or 95% of the variance. Please note that our model, at this stage, describes interruptability across users rather than per individual. We describe an application of our findings in the Physiological Weblog, or 'Plog, a system that uses our model for automating online messaging status.
Keywords: Interruptions; Blogs; Attentive User Interfaces (AUIs)
Evaluation of a Multi-user System of Voice Interaction Using Grammars BIBAKFull-Text 452-455
  Elizabete Munzlinger; Fabricio da Silva Soares; Carlos Henrique Quartucci Forster
This paper shows an experimental study about the design of grammars for a voice interface system. The influence of the grammar design on the behavior of the voice recognition system regarding accuracy and computational cost is assessed through tests. With the redesign of a grammar we show that those characteristics can be expressively improved.
Keywords: Grammar; multi-user interface; automatic speech recognition
An Eye Tracking Study of How Pictures Influence Online Reading BIBAKFull-Text 456-460
  David Beymer; Peter Z. Orton; Daniel M. Russell
We present an eye tracking study to measure if and how including pictures -- relevant or irrelevant to the text -- affects online reading. In a between-subjects design, 82 subjects read a story on a computer screen. The text was accompanied by either: (a) pictures related to the text, (b) pictures unrelated to the text (advertisements), or (c) no pictures. Reading statistics such as reading speed and regressions were computed, as well as measures of picture gazes. When pictures related to the text were replaced with advertisements, we observed a number of significant differences, including speed, regressions, and re-reading.
Keywords: Eye tracking; viewing pictures; online reading

Interaction for Selection

Quantifying the Performance Effect of Window Snipping in Multiple-Monitor Environments BIBAKFull-Text 461-474
  Dugald Ralph Hutchings; John T. Stasko
Snip is a tool that allows a user to constrict the view onto any window. We report on a controlled study of the snip tool in the context of a multiple-monitor environment. The study was designed based on observed user behavior in a field study of multiple-monitor users' snipping habits. Analysis provided results that indicate that users can expect to reference information approximately 15% to 30% faster from snipped windows than from non-snipped windows. Further, users need to pay only a small overhead cost to perform the snip operation. The result extends to other recently presented region-based interface tools that aim to assist multiple-monitor users interact effectively and employ additional monitor space for information-referencing activities.
Keywords: multiple monitors; window management; evaluation; snip
Interacting with the Computer Using Gaze Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 475-488
  Heiko Drewes; Albrecht Schmidt
This paper investigates novel ways to direct computers by eye gaze. Instead of using fixations and dwell times, this work focuses on eye motion, in particular gaze gestures. Gaze gestures are insensitive to accuracy problems and immune against calibration shift. A user study indicates that users are able to perform complex gaze gestures intentionally and investigates which gestures occur unintentionally during normal interaction with the computer. Further experiments show how gaze gestures can be integrated into working with standard desktop applications and controlling media devices.
Keywords: eye-tracker; gaze gestures
A Comparative Longitudinal Study of Non-verbal Mouse Pointer BIBAKFull-Text 489-502
  Murni Mahmud; Adam J. Sporka; Sri Hastuti Kurniawan; Pavel Slavík
A longitudinal study of two non-speech continuous cursor control systems is presented in this paper: Whistling User Interface (U3I) and Vocal Joystick (VJ). This study combines the quantitative and qualitative methods to get a better understanding of novice users' experience over time. Three hypotheses were tested in this study. The quantitative data show that U3I performed better in error rate and in simulating a mouse click; VJ was better on other measures. The qualitative data indicate that the participants' opinions regarding both tools improved day-by-day. U3I was perceived as less fatiguing than VJ. U3I approached the performance of VJ at the end of the study period, indicating that these two systems can achieve similar performances as users get more experienced in using them. This study supports two hypotheses but does not provide enough evidence to support one hypothesis.
Keywords: Voice-based interface; non-verbal vocal input; speech recognition; cursor control; continuous input; mouse cursor; acoustic gestures
ZWPS: A Hybrid Selection Technique for Small Target Acquisition in Pen-Based Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 503-506
  Jibin Yin; Xiangshi Ren
In this paper a novel zoom-based technique with pressure (hereafter referred to as "ZWPS") is proposed to improve small target selection in pen-based interfaces. In this technique pressure is used as a switch mode to couple a standard pointing technique and a zoomable technique together. ZWPS allows both precise and normal selections. We conducted an experiment to examine the effectiveness of ZWPS. The experimental results indicate that ZWPS significantly enhance small target selections.
Keywords: pen-based interface; pressure; zoom-based; small target acquisition
Investigation to Line-Based Techniques for Multi-target Selection BIBAKFull-Text 507-510
  Jibin Yin; Xiangshi Ren
This paper presents three selection techniques (called Rubber-ling-sweep, Line-string and Coupling-with-pressure) to enhance multi-target acquisition in GUIs and to overcome the drawback of the standard rubber-band box technique, i.e., the limitation of not being able to select an irregular layout of targets. Rubber-line-sweep utilizes a rubber-band line to select targets by "sweeping" them. Line-string employs a line stroke to "string" targets together and select them. Coupling-with-pressure couples these two techniques with pressure as a switch mode. Experiments were conducted to compare these techniques with the standard Rubber-band box, which used a two-dimensional grid which could include varied target sizes, distances and target layouts, and which is applied by using pens as input devices. Experimental results indicate that Rubber-line-sweep, Line-string and Coupling-with-pressure show significant advantages for targets with irregular layouts. Taking performance and subjective ratings together, Coupling-with-pressure outperforms the other three techniques.
Keywords: multi-target selection; pen-based interface; pressure

Software Engineering and HCI

Usability Cost-Benefit Analysis: How Usability Became a Curse Word? BIBAFull-Text 511-524
  Mikko Rajanen; Netta Iivari
Usability is an important quality characteristic of software (SW) products and systems. Usability cost-benefit analysis models outline the potential benefits and costs of usability. This paper contrasts usability cost-benefit analysis literature with an empirical case in industrial setting, in which usability cost-benefit considerations (along with other usability activities) resulted in usability becoming a curse word. An interpretive case study was carried out in a SW development organization. Empirical analysis reveals that clearly divergent meanings and motives were attached to usability and its cost-benefit analysis in the organization. Increased sales and reduced development costs were strongly emphasized as benefits of better usability. However, very surprising meanings were attached to them both. Furthermore, the increased development costs associated with better usability were the main failure factor of the whole usability improvement effort. Implications both for theory and practice are discussed.
DREAM & TEAM: A Tool and a Notation Supporting Exploration of Options and Traceability of Choices for Safety Critical Interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 525-540
  Xavier Lacaze; Philippe A. Palanque
Justification of choices made throughout the design process of systems is a recurrent desire and quite often a formal request from certification authorities in the safety critical domain. However, even though some work has already been done in the early phases of the development processes, justifying choices in the later phases such as detailed design or implementation remain a cumbersome activity left (without any support) in the hands of the developers. This paper presents a notation called TEAM (Traceability, Exploration and Analysis Model) and its associated tool called DREAM (Design Rationale Environment for Argumentation and Modelling). The paper presents first the notation and its specificities with respect to other Design Rationale notations. Both the notation and the tools are presented on a case study showing how they can support design of interaction techniques for Air Traffic Control workstations. We also present the rationale that we have gathered while designing the graphical representation of the notation.
A Glass Box Design: Making the Impact of Usability on Software Development Visible BIBAKFull-Text 541-554
  Natalia Juristo Juzgado; Ana María Moreno; Maria Isabel Sánchez Segura; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
User-centered design is not just about building nice-looking and usable interfaces, and software development is not just about implementing functionality that supports user tasks. This paper aims to build a tighter fit between human-computer interaction and software engineering practices and research by addressing what software and usability engineering practitioners can learn from each other regarding the impact of usability on software development. More specifically we aim to support usability people in helping developers to elicit requirements that can incorporate usability functions into software development. The paper shows what type of impact usability has on software models and suggests how this impact can be dealt with at the requirements elicitation and specification stages of the development cycle.
Keywords: usability features; software development
Are Engineers Condemned to Design? A Survey on Software Engineering and UI Design in Switzerland BIBAKFull-Text 555-568
  Ljiljana Vukelja; Lothar Müller; Klaus Opwis
In this paper we present the results of a descriptive online survey conducted among Swiss software developers regarding their engineering practices with a special focus on the design and development of user interfaces. This enables an insight into the everyday life of a software engineer and can lead usability practitioners, project managers and clients to a better level of cooperation in designing user interfaces through understanding how software engineers work. While software is developed and tested in a professional way, several problem areas were detected: firstly, software engineers frequently develop user interfaces alone, without the help of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) professionals. Secondly, they have a limited knowledge of HCI. Thirdly, whilst they have contact to end users, they do not make use of this for user interface design. Finally, usability tests are rare and seldom result in big changes.
Keywords: Software engineering; user interface design; user-centered design; survey

Doctoral Consortium

Awareness Solutions for Informal Communication Negotiation Support at Work BIBAFull-Text 569-570
  Agnieszka Matysiak Szóstek
The goal of our project is to design and evaluate an awareness system that supports handling interruptions for both interruption actors: interruptees and interruptors.
Sensemaking and Knowledge Building in System Development BIBAFull-Text 571-572
  Elina Eriksson
One major goal of research within the HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) community is to develop or refine theories and methods that can be used in practice, in the system development process. However usability methods are not always with ease adopted in the system development process or in organizations [1,2].
Just Email It to Me! Why Things Get Lost in Shared File Repositories BIBAKFull-Text 573-576
  Emilee J. Rader
Shared file repositories are a type of information technology application used by workgroups to store and share files online. Their use in organizations is becoming more frequent; however, repository users are not always able to effectively find and access information, especially when files in the repository have been created and maintained by others. Through field studies involving current users of shared file repositories, I will document and analyze the scope and consequences of the problem. In addition, I will test hypotheses about possible remedies through a series of experiments exploring the effects of common ground on folder hierarchy and naming structure, and the ability of users to find and access files.
Keywords: Shared file repositories; social computing; information management; common ground
Crossmodal Interaction: Using Audio or Tactile Displays in Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 577-579
  Eve E. Hoggan
Mobile device users can be in a variety of different situations where visual, audio, or tactile feedback is not appropriate. This research aims to investigate the design of auditory/tactile crossmodal icons which can provide an alternative form of output using the most appropriate modality to communicate information. The results of this research will aid designers of mobile displays in creating effective crossmodal cues which require minimal training and provide alternative presentation modalities through which information may be presented if the context requires.
The Impacts of Hyperlinks and Writer Information on the Credibility of Stories on a Participatory Journalism Web Site BIBAKFull-Text 580-585
  Kirsten A. Johnson
Credibility in mainstream media continues to wane, giving rise to new forms of journalism supported by the Internet. One of these new forms of journalism is participatory journalism. This is a form of journalism in which content is produced by ordinary citizens, usually on web sites. One of the most popular participatory journalism web sites at this time is ohmynews.com. Like mainstream media, this site, as well as ones like it, have credibility obstacles to overcome. This paper outlines a proposed study in which the researcher will test whether or not the presence of information about a writer and sources used to write a story on a participatory journalism web site affects the perceived credibility of the story.
Keywords: Participatory journalism; Citizen journalism; weblogs; blogs; computer mediated communication; CMC; credibility; Participatory journalism; blogging; user created content; computer mediated communication; Participatory journalism and markers of credibility; Does providing information about the writer of a story and sources used to write the story affect its credibility?
Understanding the Evolution of Users' Personal Information Management Practices BIBAFull-Text 586-591
  Manas Tungare
Information is being disseminated much faster than we can assimilate it, leading to information overload. In addition to desktop computers, users use a vast array of other devices to manage their information, which leads to information fragmentation. It has not yet been studied how users adapt their information management practices in response to the introduction of new devices into their personal information ecosystem. As part of my doctoral research, I plan to study this evolution, which is important for the design of next-generation devices and to establish future research directions in personal information management.
Multimodal Interaction in a Ubiquitous Environment BIBAKFull-Text 592-597
  Mayuree Srikulwong
Result of my literature review shows the important characteristics of three distinct modalities and the factors influencing interaction in a ubiquitous computing context. Research aim is to develop the principles for the design of multimodal interactive systems in a ubiquitous environment.
Keywords: Multimodality; Multimodal Interaction; Ubiquitous Computing
Interaction and Visualization Techniques for Programming BIBAFull-Text 598-603
  Mikkel Rønne Jakobsen
Programmers spend much of their time investigating the source code of a program, which often involves navigating and understanding delocalized code fragments. This Ph.D. project explores the use of information visualizations that are designed to support programmers in these activities. I use controlled experiments to provide precise measurements of the usability of visualizations and detailed insight into users' interaction with visualizations. Also, case studies are used to understand how professional programmers use visualizations in realistic work activity. Overall, this research will contribute empirically founded insight into the design and use of visualizations in programming.
Visually Exploring Large Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 604-610
  Nathalie Henry
Vast new datasets are available for social scientists to analyze with the increasing use of internet technologies. Email clients, instant messenger and chat; photo sharing and peer-to-peer file exchange; open-source programming platforms and online editable encyclopedias such as wikipedia -- all give social scientists ready-to-analyze data about how people communicate and collaborate.
Keywords: Information Visualization and Human Computer Interaction; This PhD focuses on visualization and interaction to navigate; explore and present large social networks
Cultural Usability: The Effects of Culture on Usability Testing BIBAKFull-Text 611-616
  Qingxin Shi
Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive relationship and communicate effectively with the user in order to find relevant usability problems in culturally localized applications. It includes three parts, pilot study, field study and experiments, to get both qualitative data and quantitative data. From this project, we hope to find an effective way to structure our TA UEM methodology to capture or be sensitive towards the mental models and ways of thinking in different cultural groups.
Keywords: Thinking Aloud Usability Testing; Culture; Localization; Evaluator Effect
Consistency on Multi-device Design BIBAKFull-Text 617-623
  Rodrigo de Oliveira; Heloisa Vieira da Rocha
We propose consistency priorities to support multi-device interface design minimizing the user's cognitive effort while performing the same task on different interfaces. The methodology is being evaluated through a framework that generates Pocket PC interfaces from desktop web pages. Initial results point to the acceptance of the approach.
Keywords: design methods; mobile computing; web design
A Critical Analysis of the Semiotic Engineering Evaluation Methods BIBAKFull-Text 624-625
  Silvia Amelia Bim
Semiotic Engineering is a semiotic theory of HCI that views human-computer interaction as a contingent process of designer-to-user metacommunication. The theory currently has two evaluation methods, Communicability Evaluation and Semiotic Inspection. The aim of our research is to do a critical analysis of both methods in order to align them with each other, especially in ontological and epistemic terms, and to position them more clearly in the Semiotic Engineering territory.
Keywords: Semiotic Engineering; Evaluation Methods; Communicability Evaluation Method; Semiotic Inspection Method
Why Gender Matters in CMC? Supporting Remote Trust and Performance in Diverse Gender Composition Groups Via IM BIBAFull-Text 626-627
  Xiaoning Sun
An important yet largely unexplored area in HCI is how gender affects trust development and performance in virtual settings. This proposed study aims to investigate whether providing social chat activities to collaborators in a social dilemma game before they collaborate via remote text chat can support trust development and performance among remote team members. This study will provide an understanding of how communication media as well as initial social activities affect male, female and mixed gender pairs' trust development and performance in a virtual environment from a simulated longitudinal perspective. Ultimately, the results of this study may provide insights into ways of improving performance of teams made up of diverse individuals in real world virtual collaborations.
PeerCare: Challenging the Monitoring Approach to Eldercare BIBAFull-Text 628-630
  Yann Riche
This Ph.D. is jointly advised by Wendy Mackay (INRIA) and Stephen Viller (Univ. of Queensland). It takes place in the Human Computer Interaction and Computer Mediated Communications research areas, and focuses on the design and evaluation of communication appliances for seniors to better "age in place".

HCI Societies Worldwide

HCI Brazilian Community -- After 10 Years BIBAKFull-Text 631-632
  Raquel Oliveira Prates
The Brazilian HCI community first started organizing itself in 1997 and after 10 years has grown and consolidated itself nationally and internationally.
Keywords: Brazil; HCI community; Brazilian Computer Society; SBC; CEIHC; Brazil-CHI; BR-CHI; SIGCHI; IFIP
uiGarden, -- An Online HCI Society in Two Languages BIBAKFull-Text 633-634
  Christina Li
uiGarden, -- a bilingual webzine, gives an opportunity between practitioners and researches working in user experience designer field from the Chinese and English speaking part of the world to exchange opinions and gain further knowledge within the field.
Keywords: Online HCI Society; bilingual webzine; China
The AIPO Society: Present and Future Trends BIBAFull-Text 635-636
  María Paula González; Toni Granollers; César A. Collazos; Julio Abascal
This paper presents an overview of the international Asociación Interacción Persona-Ordenador (AIPO), a growing society related to HCI and focused on the Spanish-speaking community. AIPO is aimed to support HCI related activities both in the academia and the industry, connecting hundreds of millions of potential members.

Interactive Experience

A Multimodal Medical Sculptor BIBAKFull-Text 637-640
  Roberto Silveira da, Jr. Rosa; Marcus A. C. Farias; Daniela Gorski Trevisan; Luciana Porcher Nedel; Carla M. D. S. Freitas
This work introduces the design of a multimodal application allowing the user to sculpt 3D medical data. We are considering interaction modalities such as blowing and gesture to segment the 3D data visualized. Besides we present a multimodal platform for the rapid development of multimodal interactive systems as a central tool for an iterative user-centered design process.
Keywords: multimodal interaction; medical application; 3D interaction; OpenInterface
I-Candies: Supporting Semi-formal Communication in a Coffee Corner BIBAKFull-Text 641-644
  Khairun Fachry; Ingrid Mulder; Henk Eertink; Hans Zandbelt
This paper describes the development of a multi-user interactive display in the coffee corner that makes the office workers aware of events happening within the company aiming to stimulate social interaction. New input devices, i-Candies (fake candies integrated with RFID tags) are used as multi-user input devices for explicit interactions with the display. The interactive display and i-Candies have been deployed and tested within the office environment.
Keywords: Design; Tangible User Interface; Context-aware System
Multi-modal Search Interaction: Helping Users Make Connections Between Conceptual and Spatial Maps BIBAKFull-Text 645-648
  Christian Beck; Craig Birchler
In this paper we describe an interface for searching and conceptualizing related information. We describe a specific application of this interface for searching traditional artists in the state of Indiana. The interface employs multi-modal interaction by allowing the user to search for artists using a map of the state of Indiana alongside a conceptual hierarchical map of crafts and sub-crafts. The two interfaces work in parallel with each other so that as a user interacts with one interface, it affects what is displayed on the opposing map. The goal of this application is twofold. One goal is to provide users with a better and simpler means for searching a specific set of information using only relevant and related data. The second goal is to provide companies, organizations or institutions with an interface that will allow them to provide clients or targeted users with a more effective way to search their database.
Keywords: Conceptual map; spatial map; interactive searching
Podcast Generator and Pluriversiradio: An Educational Interactive Experience BIBAKFull-Text 649-652
  Alberto Betella; Marco Lazzari
This paper presents an open source podcast publishing application which has been implemented to create an educational podcasting service at the University of Bergamo (Italy) and has subsequently been adopted by several universities and other podcasters in Italy and abroad.
Keywords: educational podcasting; free software; open source; podcast publishing; distance education; distance learning; mobile learning

Interactive Posters and Student Posters

A New Performance Measure Taking into Account the Mental Load in Mobile Text Entry Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 653-656
  Franck Poirier; Hamed H. Sad
Text entry research has received a lot of attention in recent years because of the need for more effective and usable entry methods on mobile devices. Technical limitations such as screen size have led to the design of entry interfaces that mentally load the user in order to obtain better performances. Current evaluation methodologies of these interfaces focus on text entry speed and error rate but don't pay enough attention to the mental load. In this paper, we concentrate on the evaluation of the load's effect on text entry process and we present a comparative evaluation of three mobile text entry methods with and without the application of a secondary task. We also define a performance measure that takes into account the mental load characteristic for a given text entry interface.
Keywords: Mobile text entry; mental load; evaluation; secondary task
Collabohab: A Technology Probe into Peer Involvement in Cardiac Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 657-660
  Julie Maitland
Mobile and ubiquitous systems designed to promote an increase in physical activity by harnessing social influence have so far had variable success. Taking a cardiac rehabilitation program as a specific health domain, in which physical inactivity is one of several targeted behaviours, the research described in this paper aims to elicit understanding of peer-involvement in health-related behavioural change and explore the potential for effective technological support. This paper introduces the technology probe Collabohab and discusses the accompanying methodological approach being adopted to establish insight into the important but so far little understood phenomenon of social support within health-related behavioural change.
Keywords: health; cardiac rehabilitation; social support; technology probe
Envisioning Probe Kit: Creativity and Storytelling to Capture the Inner Thoughts of People BIBAKFull-Text 661-664
  Patrizia Andronico; Patrizia Marti; Maurizio Martinelli
During the last few years the interest in Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) fields has spread towards wireless and mobile devices which can support activities in everyday life. Designing for play, learning and awareness is becoming more and more a factual aspects of research willing to meet users' needs. In such a broaden range of possible applications for the new ubiquitous and pervasive technologies, classical HCI methods for revealing efficiency and effectiveness of an innovative product are no more adequate. Taking into consideration human experience during the interaction with ICT devices needs a more creative and multidisciplinary design approach. This work was developed within a European project called MobileMAN whose aim was to develop a self-organizing and infrastructure-less network with the potentiality of the well-known MANET (Mobile Ad hoc NETwork) paradigm. Our goal in the MobileMAN project was to investigate with potential end users, the possible applications useful for everyday activities that could work with this emerging technology. We then tried to adopt a more creative and multidisciplinary approach, inspired by the "Probe Kit" developed at the Royal College of London.
Keywords: ubiquitous computing; probe kit; creativity; storytelling; UCD; Cultural Psychology
Initial Development of a PDA Mobility Aid for Visually Impaired People BIBAFull-Text 665-668
  David K. McGookin; Maya Gibbs; Annu-Maaria Nivala; Stephen A. Brewster
We discuss requirements surrounding a mobile navigation system for visually impaired people. We describe an initial prototype based on a PDA using GPS location tracking. This prototype has so far failed to provide reliable location detection, due to the use of GPS in built up environments. We discuss how our system may improve detection by switching between a range of different location tracking technologies. However, we conclude that there may still be times when these technologies fail, and more work is needed on how to support the user in such circumstances.
Voice Interfaces in Art -- An Experimentation with Web Open Standards as a Model to Increase Web Accessibility and Digital Inclusion BIBAKFull-Text 669-672
  Martha Carrer Cruz Gabriel
The web has been largely mute and deaf but since the beginning of the 21st century this scenario is changing with the possibility of using intelligent voice interfaces on web systems. In this paper we present the Voice Mosaic -- a system that allows voice interactions on the web through the telephone. Its voice interface uses speech recognition and synthesis solutions developed with VoiceXML, an open-standard in voice technologies adopted by the W3C. Voice Mosaic is an artwork that allows people to get in touch with the possibility of talking to the web, intending to cause awareness about it. Since the technology used in Voice Mosaic can be used to improve accessibility (for visual impaired people) and digital inclusion (since the telephone is one of the cheapest devices in the world), dissolving borders and amplifying the pervasiveness, we believe that the concepts presented here can be useful to other developers.
Keywords: voice; web; interface; hybridization; telephone; accessibility; digital inclusion

Organizational Overviews

Evangelizing Usability to 700 People: Strategies for Building a User-Centered Organizational Culture BIBAKFull-Text 673-674
  Filipe Levi; Paulo Melo; Ubirajara de Lucena; Cynthia Belleza; José Arcoverde
For the last three years, CESAR's user experience team has endeavored to build a user-centered organizational culture. In this report, we present some succeeding empirical strategies for evangelizing usability, in the hope that professionals in similar contexts might benefit from them.
Keywords: Usability evangelism; user-centered culture; ICT organizations
HxI: An Australian Initiative in ICT-Augmented Human Interactivity BIBAFull-Text 675-676
  Christian Müller-Tomfelde; Belinda Kellar; Peter Eades
The nature of global business today means people often need to work as part of geographically dispersed teams. As such, organisations around the globe are looking to improve the way employees collaborate and share knowledge, even if they are collaborating across large distances. The complexity of dealing with distributed knowledge workers is heightened by the increasing struggle by individuals to extract and make sense of the huge amounts of data that needs to be processed in order to extract meaningful insights within their work context. The HxI Initiative is a new national initiative in Australia, which is driven by these overarching business drivers. Research is planned and conducted to improve the ability of humans to interact with information, their colleagues and their environments in the modern organization.
Introducing HCI in Corporate IT Department in a Large Company in Brazil BIBAKFull-Text 677-679
  Andre Vinicius Fontes Dantas; Carlos Freud Alves Batista; Cassiano Ebert; Maíra Greco de Paula; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
This paper describes the introduction of human-computer interaction activities in the Corporate IT Department in a large energy company in Brazil. It is certified by ISO 9001:2000, and thus has a set of norms that IT employees must follow during the software development process. We discuss the introduction of HCI activities into these norms.
Keywords: software development process norms; human-computer interaction
São Paulo State e-gov: LabIHC and e-Poupatempo's Experience BIBAKFull-Text 680-681
  Renato Facis; Carlos Alberto Neves Torres; Jair Barreto de Vasconcelos
This document describes the experience of São Paulo state government in its initiatives to develop an e-gov standard, focusing on the importance of centralization of access efforts from the citizen's perspective and the role of human-computer interaction and social and digital inclusion in this process.
Keywords: Electronic government (e-gov); social inclusion; digital inclusion; human-computer interaction (HCI); usability; accessibility
The Challenges of Creating Connections and Raising Awareness: Experience from UCLIC BIBAKFull-Text 682-683
  Ann Blandford; Rachel Benedyk; Nadia Berthouze; Anna Louise Cox; John Dowell
With current disciplinary structures and academic priorities, Human-Computer Interaction faces ongoing challenges: is it a discipline in its own right, or simply a sub-discipline of computer science, psychology or design? Is it a science or engineering discipline? Should it concern itself with developing theory or improving practice? UCLIC aims to find appropriate middle ways on such questions: it conducts scientifically-based HCI research with a view to improving practice, and thus have an impact on society. It is based in the disciplines of Psychology and Computer Science and promotes participation across the disciplines. Research and teaching cover cognitive, affective, physical, social and technical aspects of interactive system design and use.
Keywords: human error; digital libraries; design practice; formal models; affect; cognition; social and organisational impacts of technology
Usability, from a Bigger Picture BIBAKFull-Text 684-685
  Mercedes Sanchez; José Luis Adán Gil
This paper presents the strategy of Mercedes Sanchez Usabilidade, a Brazilian consultancy firm, to spread the usability concept among consumers and companies in a way that no other company has ever done in Brazil. The strategy made usability news in the media and it is benefiting consumers, companies and professionals of user experience all over the country.
Keywords: usability; communication strategy; blog; Brazil
User Experience Research at Tech Mahindra BIBAKFull-Text 686-687
  Sanjay Tripathi
In this overview we describe how user experience research and design has been established in Tech Mahindra Ltd. (TechM), and how it is organised to support both short term development programs and long term research. While focusing on research activities at TechM, the challenges of assessing real user experience issues critical to business success, user experience measurement methodology and future research focus are discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Social computing; user experience metrics; index of integration; Telecom; Interaction design; HCI
User System Interaction Program BIBAKFull-Text 688-689
  Panos Markopoulos; Maddy Janse; Sanjin Pajo; Paula Deisz; Annemieke van Ruiten; Vanessa Sawirjo; Albertine Visser
The User System Interaction program (USI) is a post-master program at the Technical University Eindhoven (TU/e), the Netherlands. The program is designed to provide students with skills and capabilities for conceptualizing, designing, implementing and evaluating new products, services and applications. The students, working in multidisciplinary and multicultural teams, exploit new technologies for the benefit of users in the domain of communication and information technology.
Keywords: User-System Interaction; Human-Computer Interaction; research; design; education; professional development


Human Centric E-Learning and the Challenge of Cultural Localization BIBAFull-Text 690-691
  Albert N. Badre; Stefano Levialdi; Jim Foley; John Thomas; Carol Strohecker; Antonella De Angeli; Preetha Ram; Ashwin Ram; Jaime Sánchez
The cutting edge of designing for the user experience today is found in the arena of designing for the user's cultural context {1}, {2}, {3}. This is primarily true because of global expansion of the Internet and Web usage. Brick and mortar businesses have learned to adapt their products to be culturally sensitive. For example, car manufacturers build the same basic platform with different styling and amenities depending on where the vehicle will be sold. To convey an appealing image to potential buyers and readers, publishers translating popular works into many languages usually have different covers designed for different countries: for this reason they aim towards the perception of an object and of its functions. We often differ in the way we experience the world around us. Our experiences differ relative to our primary language, educational practices, work habits, and what makes for an enjoyable experience, whether in what and how we like to play, what sounds that we appreciate, or colors that appeal to us {4}, {5}.
Meta-design and Social Creativity: Making All Voices Heard BIBAFull-Text 692-693
  Gerhard Fischer
This panel will explore the two innovative and interrelated HCI themes "meta-design" (design for designer) and "social creativity" (transcending the individual human mind). It will focus on the contribution of these two themes to socially-responsible interaction by bringing together researchers from different backgrounds to explore the controversial issues associated with this objective.
Socially Responsible Design in the Context of International Development BIBAFull-Text 694-695
  Andrew M. Dearden; Lynne Dunckley; Mike Best; Susan M. Dray; Ann Light; John C. Thomas
Human beings evolved for many millennia; during most of that time, our major social contacts were within small, tightly knit groups who shared a common language, culture and physical context. Now, we find ourselves to be a part of a global community. Though we still have very different cultures, languages, perspectives, and physical contexts, we also share a planet with limited and shrinking resources and we share many interactions in our intellectual, technological and economic spheres. Potentially, technology offers many benefits to the many peoples of the world. Yet, there is also potential for damaging the diversity in the ecology of ideas and cultures that may be indispensable for humankind to survive the next millennium. More immediately, technology developed without sufficient understanding and involvement of those to be most affected by it will probably fail at best and in the worst cases, not only fail to provide anticipated benefits but produce negative side-effects. One such side-effect may well be making future technological usage more difficult.

Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

Sharing Perspectives on Community-Centered Design and International Development BIBAFull-Text 696-697
  Mike Best; Andrew M. Dearden; Susan M. Dray; Ann Light; John C. Thomas; Celeste Buckhalter; Dan Greenblatt; Shanks Krishnan; Nithya Sambasivan
Our work with communities in developing countries suggests that HCI practice is a long way from maturity in these contexts. With this SIG, we are seeking to build on a CHI2007 workshop that brought together 50 people to share experience and plan a more integrated approach to the challenges of supporting international development with ICT. We would like to engage a wider cross-section of the community in considering the demands of researching and delivering meaningful design for countries with very different needs from those in the Global North. Our focus will be on issues of development and participation and the impact of differing values in our work.
Embedding HCI in Developing Countries: Localizing Content, Institutionalizing Education and Practice BIBAFull-Text 698-699
  Andy Smith; Anirudha Joshi; Zhengjie Liu; Liam J. Bannon; Jan Gulliksen; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
This SIG will facilitate a debate concerning how best to support the development of indigenous HCI in developing countries, both as part of education and training systems and within industrial practice.


Collaborative Behavior and Supporting Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 700-701
  Jonathan Grudin; Steven E. Poltrock
Collaboration technologies are emerging rapidly to support groups, organizations, and society. This half-day course includes lectures, video illustrations, and case studies that cover experiences, current possibilities, and future trends, focusing on areas of rapid change. How might organizations use weblogs? Why has digital video taken so long to take hold, and what is happening now? What is the promise and practice with workflow management?
Keywords: collaboration technology; CSCW; adoption; emerging technologies
Designing Multi-device User Interfaces: How to Adapt to the Changing Device BIBAKFull-Text 702-703
  Fabio Paternò
Nowadays, everyday life is becoming a multi-platform environment where people are surrounded by different types of devices through which they can connect to networks in different ways. Most of them are mobile personal devices carried by users moving freely about different environments populated by various other devices. Such environments raise many issues for designers and developers, such as the possibility of obtaining user interfaces able to adapt to the interaction resources of the available devices. The main learning objective is to gain knowledge and skills in methods and tools for the design of multi-device interfaces that can support designers and developers to address a number of issues raised by ubiquitous computing.
Keywords: Multi-device interfaces; Model-based design; Ubiquitous Environment
HCI Themes for the Future: Collaborative Design, Social Creativity, and Meta-design BIBAFull-Text 704-705
  Gerhard Fischer
The participants will be acquainted with HCI themes for the future. These themes will be instantiated with new conceptual frameworks and illustrated with innovative systems. The presentation will be linked as much as possible to the concerns and experiences of the participants. The objective of the tutorial is to provide the participants with opportunities to think differently about the future challenges facing HCI research and practice and to illustrate with concrete examples how these challenges can be addressed.
   The tutorial will focus on three major themes: (1) design, specifically collaborative design and an assessment of different design methodologies (including: user-centered design, learner-centered design, and participatory design); (2) social creativity which is required because complex design problems transcend the unaided, individual human mind; and (3) meta-design which creates environments involving users as active contributors rather than as passive consumers.
   The themes of the tutorial will be illustrated with specific theoretical frameworks and innovative systems developed by the presenter and his colleagues and other research groups working on these topics. The relevance of these themes has been demonstrated by their impact on research, education, and design practices in companies, educational institutions, and research organizations with which we have collaborated.
How to Combine Requirements and Interaction Design Through Usage Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 706-707
  Hermann Kaindl
When the requirements and the interaction design of a system are separated, they will most likely not fit together, and the resulting system will be less than optimal. Even if all the real needs are covered in the requirements and also implemented, errors may be induced by human-computer interaction through a bad interaction design and its resulting user interface. Such a system may even not be used at all. Alternatively, a great user interface of a system with features that are not required will not be very useful as well.
   Therefore, we argue for combined requirements engineering and interaction design, primarily based on usage scenarios. However, scenario-based approaches vary especially with regard to their use, e.g., employing abstract use cases or integrating scenarios with functions and goals in a systematic design process. So, the key issue to be addressed is how to combine different approaches, e.g., in scenario-based development, so that the interaction design as well as the development of the user interface and of the software internally result in an overall useful and useable system. In particular, scenarios are very helpful for purposes of usability as well.
Keywords: Interaction design; usage scenarios; requirements engineering; user interfaces; usability
Introducing HCI into an Organization: Making a Convincing Case for Usability BIBAFull-Text 708-709
  Gitte Lindgaard
The influence of a usability team in a particular organization and its products depends partly on the organizational structure and culture and partly on the skill set in the usability team itself. Once management decides to embrace usability, the integration of a usability team should therefore be considered very carefully in light of the existing organizational structure and culture [1,5] without, of course, neglecting consideration of the skills required to ensure the long-term benefits of usability to the organization's products.
Software Usability Metrics and Methods BIBAKFull-Text 710-711
  Patricia A. Chalmers
Potential customers usually want to know how they will benefit if they hire a usability professional, and they may want numbers to measure those benefits, or calculate a return on investment. However, many professionals become confused when customers ask them to measure the usability of a software application, software program, web site, or other software product. In order to clarify the process of measuring usability, this tutorial first offers a definition of software usability metrics, gives examples of usability metrics, and reviews reasons for usability metrics. Next, the tutorial steps through the process of deciding what metrics and methods to use as well as when, where, and how to use them.
Keywords: usability; metrics; usability metrics; methods; usability methods; stakeholders; usability stakeholders; return on investment; ROI; evaluation; usability evaluation; usability test; usability experiment; usability consultation; usability evaluation; tracking technology
Understanding Users In Context: An In-Depth Introduction to Fieldwork for User Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 712-713
  Susan M. Dray; David A. Siegel
There is increased awareness of the need for design to be driven by deep understanding of users, their activity patterns, processes, needs and external influences -- understanding that can only be gained by studying user behavior in the user's context. This requires that practitioners know how to plan and carry out observational studies of users, which in turn is a new skill for many. In addition, fieldwork is bigger than any one methodology. Therefore, in this tutorial, we will take a fresh and deeper look at fundamental principles, teaches a range of techniques, and examines important issues on which methods differ.
Keywords: Fieldwork; ethnography; user research; naturalistic observation; contextual inquiry; artifact walkthrough; naturalistic usability evaluation
Usability Design: A New Rational Unified Process Discipline BIBAFull-Text 714-715
  Magnus Lif; Bengt Göransson
A new discipline, Usability Design, is introduced as an extension to Rational Unified Process (RUP). The aim is to make RUP more user-centred. The discipline springs out of best practices for user-centred design and contains activities that have been carefully tested. Five new roles are introduced to take responsibility for the different activities. An example is given to show the content of the workflow, the workflow details and the activities. The Usability Design discipline help projects to focus on usability and the users throughout the system development lifecycle. In the tutorial the participants will learn how to work with the new discipline within the RUP framework. It will contain practical examples and there will be room for discussions based on the participants own experience.
   Use-Centered Systems Design, Usability, Systems Development, Software Engineering, Rational Unified Process

Video Papers

A Comparison of Navigation Techniques Across Different Types of Off-Screen Navigation Tasks BIBAFull-Text 716-721
  Grant Partridge; Mahtab Nezhadasl; Pourang Irani; Carl Gutwin
In many systems such as PDAs, users access data through a limited viewport. This means that users have to frequently navigate to regions that are off-screen to view important content. Many techniques exist for moving to off-screen regions; However, none of these have been evaluated across a range of different types of off-screen tasks. In this video, we demonstrate the effectiveness of several major off-screen navigation techniques across a variety of tasks. We also include two newly developed techniques -- WinHop and Multiscale Zoom -- that were based on complementary features of existing systems. Our results suggest that integrating complementary properties from different approaches can significantly improve performance on a wide range of off-screen navigation tasks.
Iztmo: A New and Intuitive Way to Connect People BIBAKFull-Text 722-725
  Danielle Gandarillas; Gil Guigon; Ilana Paterman
Iztmo is a conceptual project of an electronic percussion instrument that works under a network environment to establish communication among multiple users. A new language is then created, based on rhythm, and enriched by each person's cultural background -- with the main purpose of being in harmony. Iztmo emits up to five sounds, divided in different ways of interaction: the user can strike it, rattle it, and scrape it. Some might play well, some might have no rhythm. But everybody will learn sharing this experience. A self-standing video was made to explain the concept and to demonstrate how the experience works.
Keywords: Interaction design; tangible media; conceptual design; digital device; communication; connection; music; experience
Shortcuts: A Visualization of Interactive Processes BIBAKFull-Text 726-729
  Ilana Paterman
Shortcuts is a critical design contribution to suggest us to think about interactive processes, regarding immediateness and automation promoted by digital technologies. A video illustrates this theoretical approach, enabling the visualization of simple interactions of everyday life. The video shows several ordinary interactions, which are, little by little, graphically represented by their duration associated with body movement. The goal is to promote the awareness of physical interaction, duration and sensorial perception when creating new products and technologies.
Keywords: Interaction design; digital technologies; interface design; tangibility; movement; subjectivity; visualization