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INT Tables of Contents: 07-107-209-109-211-111-211-311-413-113-213-313-415-115-215-315-4

Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT'13: Human-Computer Interaction-3 2013

Fullname:INTERACT 2013: 14th IFIP TC 13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part III
Editors:Paula Kotzé; Gary Marsden; Gitte Lindgaard; Janet Wesson; Marco Winckler
Location:Cape Town, South Africa
Dates:2013-Sep-02 to 2013-Sep-06
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8119
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40477-1 hcibib: INT13-3; ISBN: 978-3-642-40476-4 (print), 978-3-642-40477-1 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. INT 2013 Volume 3
    1. Mobile Usage and Techniques
    2. Mobile UX and Privacy Concerns
    3. Model-Based User Interface Design
    4. Multimodal User Interface Design
    5. Multimodality, Cross-Platform Studies
    6. Narratives in Design
    7. Navigation Aids
    8. Novel User Interfaces
    9. Passwords: e-Authentication
    10. Physical Ergonomics
    11. Road Safety
    12. Seniors and Usability
    13. Social Behaviour, Collaboration and Presence
    14. Social Collaborative Interaction
    15. Social Media
    16. Software Development

INT 2013 Volume 3

Mobile Usage and Techniques

Designing Mobile Phone Interfaces for Age Diversity in South Africa: "One-World" versus Diverse "Islands" BIBAKFull-Text 1-17
  Karen Renaud; Rénette Blignaut; Isabella Venter
Designing for diversity is a laudable aim. How to achieve this, in the context of mobile phone usage by South African seniors, is a moot point. We considered this question from two possible perspectives: universal (one-world) versus focused design (designing for diverse "islands" of users). Each island would be characterised by a measure of relative homogeneity in terms of user interface needs. Our particular focus in this paper is age diversity. The universal approach attempts to deliver a design that can be all things to all people -- meeting the needs of all users within one user interface. The islander approach delivers specific and different designs for islands within a diverse world. To determine which the best approach would be, in the South African context, we dispatched a team of student researchers to interview participants from an older generation, on a one-to-one basis. It was beneficial to deploy aspiring designers to carry out this research because we wanted to confront aspiring researchers with the differences between their own and other generations' usage of, and attitudes towards, mobile phones. Our study found that there were indeed significant age-related differences in mobile phone usage. Our research delivered insights that led to a model of the factors impacting mobile phone usage of the senior generation as a series of filters between the user and their device. We conclude that the island approach is more suitable for age-specific design. This approach might well become less fitting as a more technologically experienced population ages, but at present there is a clear need for an age-sensitive mobile interface design.
Keywords: Mobile Phones; Design; Age
PointerPhone: Using Mobile Phones for Direct Pointing Interactions with Remote Displays BIBAKFull-Text 18-35
  Julian Seifert; Andreas Bayer; Enrico Rukzio
Large screens or projections in public and private settings have become part of our daily lives, as they enable the collaboration and presentation of information in many diverse ways. When discussing the shown information with other persons, we often point to a displayed object with our index finger or a laser pointer in order to talk about it. Although mobile phone-based interactions with remote screens have been investigated intensively in the last decade, none of them considered such direct pointing interactions for application in everyday tasks. In this paper, we present the concept and design space of PointerPhone which enables users to directly point at objects on a remote screen with their mobile phone and interact with them in a natural and seamless way. We detail the design space and distinguish three categories of interactions including low-level interactions using the mobile phone as a precise and fast pointing device, as well as an input and output device. We detail the category of widget-level interactions. Further, we demonstrate versatile high-level interaction techniques and show their application in a collaborative presentation scenario. Based on the results of a qualitative study, we provide design implications for application designs.
Keywords: Mobile phone; pointing; interaction; collaboration
Situating Asynchronous Voice in Rural Africa BIBAKFull-Text 36-53
  Nicola J. Bidwell; Masbulele Jay Siya
Designing for oral users in economically poor places has intensified efforts to develop platforms for asynchronous voice. Often these aim to assist users in rural areas where literacy is lowest, but there are few empirical studies and design tends to be oriented by theory that contrasts the mental functions of oral and literate users, rather than by local practices in social situations. We describe designing an Audio Repository (AR) based on practices, priorities and phone-use in rural Africa. The AR enables users to record, store and share voice files on a shared tablet and via their own cell-phones. We deployed the AR for 10 months in rural Africa and illiterate elders, who have few ways to use free or low-cost phone services, used it to record meetings. Use of, and interactions with, the AR informed the design of a new prototype. They also sensitized us to qualities of collective sense-making that can inspire new interactions but that guidelines for oral users overlook; such as the fusion of meaning and sound and the tuning of speech and bodily movement. Thus, we claim that situating design in local ways of saying enriches the potential for asynchronous voice.
Keywords: Oral users; Rural Africa; Asynchronous voice; Social media

Mobile UX and Privacy Concerns

A Field Trial on Mobile Crowdsourcing of News Content Factors Influencing Participation BIBAKFull-Text 54-73
  Heli Väätäjä; Esa Sirkkunen; Mari Ahvenainen
We conducted a five-week field trial on mobile crowdsourcing of hyperlocal news content to 1) understand the readers' experiences and 2) explore factors affecting their participation. In the end of the study the participants were surveyed with an online questionnaire (17/104 respondents) and five participants were interviewed. Although respondents and interviewees were enthusiastic about the trial, the activity in the trial was low. Results indicate that participant characteristics (age, gender, participation motivations and hobbyist background in photography) and task characteristics in terms of the subjectively perceived task significance (possible impact on important issues in the environment or on community), task relevance (related to the background and participation motivation), and task engagingness have an effect on the participation. In addition, participation was influenced by the estimated needed effort vs. the expected benefit (monetary benefit or having a possibility to influence), vicinity to the assignment location, enjoyment of the activity, and the monetary reward. To plan and manage the crowdsourcing activity the news publishers need information about the characteristics of the participants, participation patterns and motivations that could be provided by the crowdsourcing platform.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; user-generated content; hyperlocal; news; motivation; location; mobile; ubiquitous; reader; photo; Scoopshot
Nudging People Away from Privacy-Invasive Mobile Apps through Visual Framing BIBAKFull-Text 74-91
  Eun Kyoung Choe; Jaeyeon Jung; Bongshin Lee; Kristie Fisher
Smartphone users visit application marketplaces (or app stores) to search and install applications. However, these app stores are not free from privacy-invasive apps, which collect personal information without sufficient disclosure or people's consent. To nudge people away from privacy-invasive apps, we created a visual representation of the mobile app's privacy rating. Inspired by "Framing Effects," we designed semantically equivalent visuals that are framed in either a positive or negative way. We investigated the effect of the visual privacy rating, framing, and user rating on people's perception of an app (e.g., trustworthiness) through two experiments. In Study 1, participants were able to understand the intended meaning of the visual privacy ratings. In Study 2, we found a strong main effect for visual privacy rating on participants' perception of an app, and framing effects in a low privacy rating app. We discuss implications for designing visual privacy ratings, including the use of positive visual framing to nudge people away from privacy-invasive apps.
Keywords: Visual framing; privacy; privacy metrics; rating; nudge; framing effect; valence; positive framing; negative framing; Mechanical Turk
The Impact of Encumbrance on Mobile Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 92-109
  Alexander Ng; Stephen A. Brewster; John Williamson
This paper investigates the effects of encumbrance (holding different types of objects while using mobile devices) to understand the interaction difficulties that it causes. An experiment was conducted where participants performed a target acquisition task on a touchscreen mobile phone while carrying different types of bags and boxes. Mobility was also evaluated since people carry items from one place to another. Motion capture hardware was used to track hand and arm postures to examine how holding the different types of objects caused excessive movement and instability therefore resulting in performance to decline. The results showed encumbrance and mobility caused target accuracy to decrease although input while holding the box under the non-dominant arm was more accurate and exerted quicker targeting times than holding no objects. Encumbrance affected the dominant hand more than the non-dominant hand as targeting error significantly increased and caused greater hand instability. The issues caused by encumbrance suggest the topic requires more attention from researchers and users would benefit greatly if better interaction techniques and applications are developed to counteract the problems.
Keywords: Encumbrance; Mobility; Mobile interactions; Target acquisition

Model-Based User Interface Design

Conception of Ambiguous Mapping and Transformation Models BIBAKFull-Text 110-125
  Christopher Martin; Matthias Freund; Henning Hager; Annerose Braune
Model transformations are the linking element between the different levels of abstraction in the model-based user interface development. They map source elements onto target elements and define rules for the execution of these mappings. Approaches for the reuse of transformation rules use formal transformation models, which only specify the mappings and abstract from the implementation. Current solutions are usually only able to describe unambiguous (1-on-1) mappings. In general, however, there are ambiguous (1-on-n) mappings from which the unambiguous mappings are only chosen during the design process. The knowledge which source element can be mapped onto which target elements is to date not being formalized. This paper therefore presents a proposal for an ambiguous mapping and transformation model and describes its usage in an iterative development process.
Keywords: Model-based User Interface Design; Model Transformations; Mapping Model; Transformation Model; Iterative Development
Model Assisted Creativity Sessions for the Design of Mixed Interactive Systems: A Protocol Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 126-143
  Christophe Bortolaso; Emmanuel Dubois
To help designers face the complexity of mixed interaction and identifying original and adapted solutions, we developed and evaluated an original approach to interaction design. This approach, called Model Assisted Creativity Sessions (MACS), aims to combine the best elements of both a model of mixed interaction, and a collaborative and creative session. The objective is twofold: to support the exploration of the design space, and to establish a common language between participants. To assess the viability of this approach, we relied on a protocol analysis of the verbal recordings of two existing design situations. Results show that the model impacts the generation of ideas and that participants use the model concepts to share their thoughts during the session.
Keywords: Design; Method; Mixed Interaction; Model; Creativity
Model-Based Self-explanatory UIs for Free, but Are They Valuable? BIBAKFull-Text 144-161
  Alfonso García Frey; Gaëlle Calvary; Sophie Dupuy-Chessa; Nadine Mandran
Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) has been extensively used for generating User Interfaces (UIs) from models. As long as these models are kept alive at runtime, the UIs are capable of adapting to variations of the context of use. This paper investigates a potentially powerful side effect: the possibility of enriching the UIs with explanations directly generated from these models. This paper first describes a software infrastructure that supports this generation of explanations. It then reports on a user study that evaluates the added value of such model based self-explanations.
Keywords: Self-Explanatory User Interfaces; Model-Driven Engineering; Models at runtime; Self-Explanation

Multimodal User Interface Design

Comparing Input Modalities for Peripheral Interaction: A Case Study on Peripheral Music Control BIBAKFull-Text 162-179
  Doris Hausen; Hendrik Richter; Adalie Hemme; Andreas Butz
In graphical user interfaces, every application usually asks for the user's full attention during interaction with it. Even marginal side activities often force the user to switch windows, which results in attention shifts and increased cognitive load. Peripheral interaction addresses this problem by providing input facilities in the periphery of the user's attention by relying on divided attention and human capabilities such as proprioception and spatial memory. Recent work shows promising results by shifting tasks to the periphery for parallel task execution. Up to now, most of these interfaces rely on tag-based objects, tokens or wearable devices, which need to be grasped and manipulated, e.g., by turning, moving or pressing the device.
   To explore this design space further, we implemented three modalities for peripheral interaction with a desktop audio player application -- graspable interaction, touch and freehand gestures. In an eight-week in-situ deployment, we compared the three modalities to each other and to media keys (as the state-of-the-art approach). We found that all modalities can be successfully used in the (visual and attentional) periphery and reduce the amount of cognitive load when interacting with an audio player.
   With this work we intend to (1) illustrate the variety of possible modalities beyond graspable interfaces, (2) give insights on manual peripheral interaction in general and the respective modalities in particular and (3) elaborate on paper based prototypes for the evaluation of peripheral interaction.
Keywords: Peripheral Interaction; Input Modalities; Audio Control
Linetic: Technical, Usability and Aesthetic Implications of a Ferrofluid-Based Organic User Interface BIBAKFull-Text 180-195
  Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh; Kasun Karunanayaka; Ryohei Nakatsu
We present an OUI that combines Hall Effect sensing and actuation through electromagnetically-manipulated ferrofluid. The movement of magnets worn on the fingertips, over a surface embedded with a Hall Effect sensor array and electromagnets, gives the user the ability to interact with ferrofluid. This system provides a three-dimensional, physically animated response, as well as three-dimensional, spatial-sensing inputs. The vibration of the magnets worn on the fingertips, produced by the repulsing polarity of the electromagnets, provides the user with haptic feedback. Linetic is a multimodal interface with a visual, audio and haptic experience. In this manuscript we explain the overall system from a technical, usability and aesthetic viewpoint by outlining significant experiments conducted that contribute to the development of the system. Furthermore we discuss the philosophical and aesthetical implications of the Linetic system, as well as characterize Linetic's disposition to Analogness or Digitalness.
Keywords: Electromagnetic; haptic; TUI; OUI; morphable; shape changing
When Paper Meets Multi-touch: A Study of Multi-modal Interactions in Air Traffic Control BIBAKFull-Text 196-213
  Cheryl Savery; Christophe Hurter; Rémi Lesbordes; Maxime Cordeil; T. C. Nicholas Graham
For expert interfaces, it is not obvious whether providing multiple modes of interaction, each tuned to different sub-tasks, leads to a better user experience than providing a more limited set. In this paper, we investigate this question in the context of air traffic control. We present and analyze an augmented flight strip board offering several forms of interaction, including touch, digital pen and physical paper objects. We explore the technical challenges of adding finger detection to such a flight strip board and evaluate how expert air traffic controllers interact with the resulting system. We find that users are able to quickly adapt to the wide range of offered modalities. Users were not overburden by the choice of different modalities, and did not find it difficult to determine the appropriate modality to use for each interaction.
Keywords: Paper computing; augmented paper; digital pen; interactive paper; tangible interfaces; air traffic control

Multimodality, Cross-Platform Studies

3D Visualization and Multimodal Interaction with Temporal Information Using Timelines BIBAKFull-Text 214-231
  Giannis Drossis; Dimitris Grammenos; Ilia Adami; Constantine Stephanidis
This paper reports on the design, development and evaluation of TimeViewer, a system allowing the storing, visualization and multimodal interaction with temporal and semantic information using timelines in 3D environments. We focus on the appliance of 3D interactive timelines for temporal information visualization, extending their capabilities with the novel concept of a time-tunnel. Our work is intended to investigate beyond the current state of the art interaction with 3D environments using a variety of input modes, such as touch and full-body kinesthetic interaction. Qualitative results were elicited through an evaluation with 16 users in order to assess the users' opinion of the system, the efficiency of the offered interactions and direct future research in the area.
Keywords: Interactive timelines; multimodal interaction; 3D information visualization; full-body interaction; virtual environment; usability evaluation
Activity Theory as a Tool for Identifying Design Patterns in Cross-Modal Collaborative Interaction BIBAFull-Text 232-240
  Oussama Metatla; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Tony Stockman; Fiore Martin
This paper examines the question of how to uncover patterns from the process of designing cross-modal collaborative systems. We describe how we use activity patterns as an approach to guide this process and discuss its potential as a practical method for developing design patterns.
Cross-Communicability: Evaluating the Meta-communication of Cross-Platform Applications BIBAKFull-Text 241-258
  Rodrigo de A. Maués; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Evaluating cross-platform systems is challenging due to the different constraints and capabilities of each platform. In this paper we extend the Semiotic Inspection Method (SIM), a Semiotic Engineering evaluation method, to evaluate cross-platform systems. We introduce the term cross-communicability to denote the quality of the meta-communication of the system as whole, taking into account the user traversal between the different platforms. To assess cross-communicability, we describe a novel approach to conduct the SIM, which introduces a contrastive analysis of the designer-to-user meta-communication messages of each platform, based on a semiotic framing of design changes initially proposed for End-User Development. The results from an analytical study indicate that this approach is capable of identifying and classifying several potential communication breakdowns particular to cross-platform systems, which in turn can inform the design or redesign of a cross-platform application.
Keywords: Cross-platform; user interface design; communicability; semiotic inspection method; semiotic engineering
On-Line Sketch Recognition Using Direction Feature BIBAKFull-Text 259-266
  Wei Deng; Lingda Wu; Ronghuan Yu; Jiazhe Lai
Sketch recognition is widely used in pen-based interaction, especially as the increasing popularity of devices with touch screens. It can enhance human-computer interaction by allowing a natural/free form of interaction. The main challenging problem is the variability in hand drawings. This paper presents an on-line sketch recognition method based on the direction feature. We also present two feature representations to train a classifier. We support our case by experimental results obtained from the NicIcon database. A recognition rate of 97.95% is achieved, and average runtime is 97.6ms using a Support Vector Machine classifier.
Keywords: Sketched symbol recognition; NicIcon database; multi-stroke shapes

Narratives in Design

Beyond Rhetoric to Poetics in IT Invention BIBAKFull-Text 267-279
  Annie Gentes; Ted Selker
Two kinds of discourse typically define scientific productions: logical (epistemology of science) and rhetorical (sociology of science). We suggest that research projects can also be analyzed as poetical productions. While rhetorical strategies anticipate controversies and deploy techniques to defend projects and findings, poetical practices deepen the cultural and symbolic dimensions of technologies. Based on use cases that show different ways the poetics come to bear on research and development projects in information technology (IT), we discuss the play on words and images and how they contribute to the definition and creation of a new technology within research projects. Three cases of poetical practices are presented: naming technologies, christening projects, and designing logos. We give examples of naming and project identity formation to underscore how such a poetic stance impacts projects. Images and words help people imagine what the technology is about by giving imaginary traits and cultural substance. This paper's analysis is a call for further work exposing the value of conscious use of poetical approaches to deepen the framing of IT projects.
Keywords: Rhetoric; Poetics; Project Definition; Design; Sociology of Science; Sociology of Technology; Invention
Storytelling in Visual Analytics Tools for Business Intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 280-297
  Micheline Elias; Marie-Aude Aufaure; Anastasia Bezerianos
Stories help us communicate knowledge, share and interpret experiences. In this paper we discuss the use of storytelling in Business Intelligence (BI) analysis. We derive the actual practices in creating and sharing BI stories from in-depth interviews with expert BI analysts (both story "creators" and "readers"). These interviews revealed the need to extend current BI visual analysis applications to enable storytelling, as well as new requirements related to BI visual storytelling. Based on these requirements we designed and implemented a storytelling prototype tool that is integrated in an analysis tool used by our experts, and allows easy transition from analysis to story creation and sharing. We report experts' recommendations and reactions to the use of the prototype to create stories, as well as novices' reactions to reading these stories.
Keywords: Visual Storytelling; Business Intelligence
Using Narrative Research and Portraiture to Inform Design Research BIBAKFull-Text 298-315
  Connie Golsteijn; Serena Wright
Employing an interdisciplinary perspective, this paper addresses how narrative research and portraiture -- methods originating from, and commonly used in social sciences -- can be beneficial for HCI and design research communities. Narrative research takes stories as a basis for data collection and analysis, while portraiture can be used to create written narratives about interview participants. Drawing on this knowledge, we show how a focus on narrative data, and analysis of such data through portraiture, can be adopted for the specific purpose of enhancing design processes. We hope to encourage design and HCI researchers to consider adopting these methods. By drawing on an illustrative example, we show how these methods served to inform design ideas for digital crafting. Based on our experiences, we present guidelines for using narrative research and portraiture for design research, as well as discussing opportunities and strengths, and limitations and risks.
Keywords: Qualitative research; methods; narratives; story-telling; narrative research; portraiture; design research; interaction design; craft

Navigation Aids

Hoptrees: Branching History Navigation for Hierarchies BIBAKFull-Text 316-333
  Michael Brooks; Jevin D. West; Cecilia R. Aragon; Carl T. Bergstrom
Designing software for exploring hierarchical data sets is challenging because users can easily become lost in large hierarchies. We present a novel interface, the hoptree, to assist users with navigating large hierarchies. The hoptree preserves navigational history and context and allows one-click navigation to recently-visited locations. We describe the design of hoptrees and an implementation that we created for a tree exploration application. We discuss the potential for hoptrees to be used in a wide variety of hierarchy navigation scenarios. Through a controlled experiment, we compared the effectiveness of hoptrees to a breadcrumb navigation interface. Study participants overwhelmingly preferred the hoptree, with improved time-on-task with no difference in error rates.
Keywords: Navigation; tree visualization; hierarchy; breadcrumbs; visual interfaces; usability
User-Centric vs. System-Centric Evaluation of Recommender Systems BIBAKFull-Text 334-351
  Paolo Cremonesi; Franca Garzotto; Roberto Turrin
Recommender Systems (RSs) aim at helping users search large amounts of contents and identify more effectively the items (products or services) that are likely to be more useful or attractive. The quality of a RS can be defined from two perspectives: system-centric, in which quality measures (e.g., precision, recall) are evaluated using vast datasets of preferences and opinions on items previously collected from users that are not interacting with the RS under study; user-centric, in which user measures are collected from users interacting with the RS under study. Prior research in e-commerce has provided some empirical evidence that system-centric and user-centric quality methods may lead to inconsistent results, e.g., RSs that were "best" according to system-centric measures were not the top ones according to user-centric measures. The paper investigates if a similar mismatch also exists in the domain of e-tourism. We discuss two studies that have adopted a system-centric approach using data from 210000 users, and a user-centric approach involving 240 users interacting with an online hotel booking service. In both studies, we considered four RSs that employ an implicit user preference elicitation technique and different baseline and state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms. In these four experimental conditions, we compared system-centric quality measures against user-centric evaluation results. System-centric quality measures were consistent with user-centric measures, in contrast with past studies in e-commerce. This pinpoints that the relationship between the two kinds of metrics may depend on the business sector, is more complex that we may expect, and is a challenging issues that deserves further research.
Keywords: Recommender systems; E-tourism; Evaluation; Decision Making
Video Navigation with a Personal Viewing History BIBAKFull-Text 352-369
  Abir Al-Hajri; Gregor Miller; Sidney Fels; Matthew Fong
We describe a new video interface based on a recorded personal navigation history which provides simple mechanisms to quickly find and watch previously viewed intervals, highlight segments of video the user found interesting and support other video tasks such as crowd-sourced video popularity measures and consumer-level video editing. Our novel history interface lets users find previously viewed intervals more quickly and provides a more enjoyable video navigation experience, as demonstrated by the study we performed. The user study tasked participants with viewing a pre-defined history of a subset of the video and answering questions about the video content: 83.9% of questions (average) were answered correctly using the personal navigation history, while 65.5% were answered using the state-of-art method; they took significantly less time to answer a question using our method. The full video navigation interface received an 82% average QUIS rating. The results show that our history interface can be an effective part of video players and browsers.
Keywords: Video Navigation; Navigation History; Video Summarization

Novel User Interfaces

A New Approach to Walking in Place BIBAKFull-Text 370-387
  Luís Bruno; João Pereira; Joaquim Jorge
Walking in Place (WIP) is an important locomotion technique used in virtual environments. This paper proposes a new approach to WIP, called Speed-Amplitude-Supported Walking-in-Place (SAS-WIP), which allows people, when walking along linear paths, to control their virtual speed based on footstep amplitude and speed metrics. We argue that our approach allows users to better control the virtual distance covered by the footsteps, achieve higher average speeds and experience less fatigue than when using state-of-the-art methods based on footstep frequency, called GUD-WIP.
   An in-depth user evaluation with twenty participants compared our approach to GUD-WIP on common travel tasks over a range of short, medium and long distances. We measured task performance using four distinct criteria: effectiveness, precision, efficiency and speed. The results show that SAS-WIP is both more efficient and faster than GUD-WIP when walking long distances while being more effective and precise over short distances. When asked their opinion via a post-test questionnaire, participants preferred SAS-WIP to GUD-WIP and reported experiencing less fatigue, having more fun and having a greater level of control when using our approach.
Keywords: Walking in place; virtual locomotion; virtual speed control; performance; motor control
Disambiguation Canvas: A Precise Selection Technique for Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 388-405
  Henrique G. Debarba; Jerônimo G. Grandi; Anderson Maciel; Luciana Nedel; Ronan Boulic
We present the disambiguation canvas, a technique developed for easy, accurate and fast selection of small objects and objects inside cluttered virtual environments. Disambiguation canvas rely on selection by progressive refinement, it uses a mobile device and consists of two steps. During the first, the user defines a subset of objects by means of the orientation sensors of the device and a volume casting pointing technique. The subsequent step consists of the disambiguation of the desired target among the previously defined subset of objects, and is accomplished using the mobile device touchscreen. By relying on the touchscreen for the last step, the user can disambiguate among hundreds of objects at once. User tests show that our technique performs faster than ray-casting for targets with approximately 0.53 degrees of angular size, and is also much more accurate for all the tested target sizes.
Keywords: Selection techniques; 3D interaction; usability evaluation; progressive refinement
Full Semantic Transparency: Overcoming Boundaries of Applications BIBAKFull-Text 406-423
  Andrea Kohlhase; Michael Kohlhase; Constantin Jucovschi; Alexandru Toader
Complex workflows require intelligent interactions. In this paper we attack the problem of combining user interfaces of specialized applications that support different aspects of objects in scientific/technical workflows with semantic technologies. We analyze the problem in terms of the (new) notion of full semantic transparency, i.e., the property of user interfaces to give full access to an underlying semantic object even beyond application lines. In a multi-application case full semantic transparency is difficult, but can be achieved by representing the semantic objects in a structured ontology and actively supporting the application-specific framings of an object in a semantic interface manager. We evaluate the proposed framework in a situation where aspects of technical constructions are distributed across a CAD system, a spreadsheet application, and a knowledge base.
Keywords: Full semantic transparency; multi-application Semantic Alliance; frame shifts; spreadsheets; CAD systems; semantic services

Passwords: e-Authentication

A Comprehensive Study of the Usability of Multiple Graphical Passwords BIBAKFull-Text 424-441
  Soumyadeb Chowdhury; Ron Poet; Lewis Mackenzie
Recognition-based graphical authentication systems (RBGSs) using images as passwords have been proposed as one potential solution to the need for more usable authentication. The rapid increase in the technologies requiring user authentication has increased the number of passwords that users have to remember. But nearly all prior work with RBGSs has studied the usability of a single password. In this paper, we present the first published comparison of the usability of multiple graphical passwords with four different image types: Mikon, doodle, art and everyday objects (food, buildings, sports etc.). A longitudinal experiment was performed with 100 participants over a period of 8 weeks, to examine the usability performance of each of the image types. The results of the study demonstrate that object images are most usable in the sense of being more memorable and less time-consuming to employ, Mikon images are close behind but doodle and art images are significantly inferior. The results of our study complement cognitive literature on the picture superiority effect, visual search process and nameability of visually complex images.
Keywords: usability; user authentication; multiple image passwords
Security for Diversity: Studying the Effects of Verbal and Imagery Processes on User Authentication Mechanisms BIBAKFull-Text 442-459
  Marios Belk; Christos Fidas; Panagiotis Germanakos; George Samaras
Stimulated by a large number of different theories on human cognition, suggesting that individuals have different habitual approaches in retrieving, recalling, processing and storing verbal and graphical information, this paper investigates the effect of such processes with regard to user performance and preference toward two variations of knowledge-based authentication mechanisms. In particular, a text-based password authentication mechanism and a recognition-based graphical authentication mechanism were deployed in the frame of an ecological valid user study, to investigate the effect of specific cognitive factors of users toward efficiency, effectiveness and preference of authentication tasks. A total of 145 users participated during a five-month period between February and June 2012. This recent study provides interesting insights for the design and deployment of adaptive authentication mechanisms based on cognitive factors of users. The results and implications of this paper are valuable in understanding and modeling user interactions with regard to authentication mechanisms.
Keywords: User Authentication; Cognitive Factors; Efficiency; Effectiveness; Preference; Usable Security; Diversity; User Study
Survival of the Shortest: A Retrospective Analysis of Influencing Factors on Password Composition BIBAKFull-Text 460-467
  Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Alexander De Luca; Heinrich Hussmann
In this paper, we investigate the evolutionary change of user-selected passwords. We conducted one-on-one interviews and analyzed the complexity and the diversity of users' passwords using different analysis tools. By comparing their first-ever created passwords to several of their currently used passwords (e.g. most secure, policy-based), we were able to trace password reuse, password changes and influencing factors on the evolutionary process. Our approach allowed for analyzing security aspects without actually knowing the clear-text passwords. The results reveal that currently used passwords are significantly longer than the participants' first passwords and that most participants are aware of how to compose strong passwords. However, most users are still using significantly weaker passwords for most services. These weak passwords, often with roots in the very first passwords the users have chosen, apparently survive very well, despite password policies and password meters.
Keywords: password; evolution; security; policy; survey; human factor
Travel Routes or Geography Facts? An Evaluation of Voice Authentication User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 468-475
  Alina Hang; Alexander De Luca; Katharina Frison; Emanuel von Zezschwitz; Massimo Tedesco; Marcel Kockmann; Heinrich Hussmann
Fallback authentication based on voice recognition provides several benefits to users. Since it is a biometric method, there are no passwords that have to be remembered. Additionally, the technique can be used remotely without the user having to be physically present. We performed stakeholder interviews and we iteratively designed and evaluated different voice authentication user interfaces with a focus on ease-of-use. The main goal was to keep embarrassment low and to provide an interaction as natural as possible. Our results show that small changes in the interface can significantly influence the users' opinions about the system.

Physical Ergonomics

Exploring the Use of Distributed Multiple Monitors within an Activity-Promoting Sit-and-Stand Office Workspace BIBAKFull-Text 476-493
  Kathrin Probst; David Lindlbauer; Florian Perteneder; Michael Haller; Bernhard Schwartz; Andreas Schrempf
Nowadays sedentary behaviors such as prolonged sitting have become a predominant element of our lives. Particularly in the office environment, many people spend the majority of their working day seated in front of a computer. In this paper, we investigate the adoption of a physically active work process within an activity-promoting office workspace design that is composed of a sitting and a standing workstation. Making use of multiple distributed monitors, this environment introduces diversity into the office workflow through the facilitation of transitions between different work-related tasks, workstations, and work postures. We conducted a background study to get a better understanding of how people are performing their daily work within this novel workspace. Our findings identify different work patterns and basic approaches for physical activity integration, which indicate a number of challenges for software design. Based on the results of the study, we provide design implications and highlight new directions in the field of HCI design to support seamless alternation between different postures while working in such an environment.
Keywords: Multi-Monitor; Distributed Display Environment; User Interaction
Modeless Pointing with Low-Precision Wrist Movements BIBAKFull-Text 494-511
  Theophanis Tsandilas; Emmanuel Dubois; Mathieu Raynal
Wrist movements are physically constrained and take place within a small range around the hand's rest position. We explore pointing techniques that deal with the physical constraints of the wrist and extend the range of its input without making use of explicit mode-switching mechanisms. Taking into account elastic properties of the human joints, we investigate designs based on rate control. In addition to pure rate control, we examine a hybrid technique that combines position and rate-control and a technique that applies non-uniform position-control mappings. Our experimental results suggest that rate control is particularly effective under low-precision input and long target distances. Hybrid and non-uniform position-control mappings, on the other hand, result in higher precision and become more effective as input precision increases.
Keywords: Pointing techniques; constrained wrist movement; elastic devices; rate control; clutching
Wands Are Magic: A Comparison of Devices Used in 3D Pointing Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 512-519
  Martin Henschke; Tom Gedeon; Richard Jones; Sabrina Caldwell; Dingyun Zhu
In our pilot study with 12 participants, we compared three interfaces, 3D mouse, glove and wand in a 3D naturalistic environment. The latter two were controlled by the same absolute pointing method and so are essentially identical except for the selection mechanism, grasp action versus button. We found that the mouse performed worst in terms of both time and errors which is reasonable for a relative pointing device in an absolute pointing setting, with the wand both outperforming and favored by users to the glove. We conclude that the presence of a held object in a pointing interface changes the user's perception of the system and magically leads to a different experience.
Keywords: "magic wand"; "3D mouse"; "hand gesture"; "fatigue"; "user satisfaction"

Road Safety

Assisting the Driver with Distance Estimation: Usability Evaluation of Graphical Presentation Alternatives for Local Traffic Events BIBAKFull-Text 520-537
  Angela Mahr; Sandro Castronovo; Rafael Math; Christian Müller
When integrating numerous in-car information and assistance systems, a consistent way of spatial distance presentation for drivers is required. A common practice is to use discrete textual information (e.g. 500 meters) in combination with a graphical bar representing relative spatial information. Hitherto there exists no design consistency with respect to bars for distance illustration. Contemporary solutions differ in terms of movement direction (upward vs. downward), composition type (decreasing vs. increasing), or alignment (horizontal vs. vertical). We conducted a driving simulator experiment to investigate user preferences, perceived location, and eye gaze data for a meaningful subset of bars in a dynamic scenario. When approaching a traffic event (road works), one out of four vertical bar alternatives indicated the current distance. Subsequently, the associated horizontal bar type (decreasing or increasing) visualized the driver's spatial progress within the road works section. Our results indicate, that drivers prefer upwards-moving approach bars and progress bars decreasing from left to right. Eye-tracking data supports usage of decreasing bars instead of increasing bars. Accordingly, we elaborated an initial version of design guidelines for bars representing relative spatial information for local events. On this basis we implemented approach and progress indicators, which were adopted for numerous use-cases in a large field operational test for Vehicle-2-X Communication.
Keywords: Distance; Assistance; Design; Usability Evaluation; In-car; Driving
Culturally Independent Gestures for In-Car Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 538-545
  Sebastian Loehmann; Martin Knobel; Melanie Lamara; Andreas Butz
In this paper we report on our ongoing work to introduce freehand gestures in cars as an alternative input modality. Contactless gestures have hardly been successful in cars so far, but have received attention in other contexts recently. We propose a way to achieve a better acceptance by both drivers and car manufacturers. Using a four-step process, we developed a small set of culturally independent and therefore easy-to-learn gestures, which can be used universally across different devices. We built a first prototype using distance sensors to detect the stop gesture in front of several devices. We conducted a user study during actual driving situations, testing the pragmatic and hedonic quality of the approach as well as its attractiveness. The results show a high acceptance of our approach and confirm the potential of freehand gestures as an alternative input modality in the car.
Keywords: freehand gestures; automotive user interface; culturally independent
Don't Text While Driving: The Effect of Smartphone Text Messaging on Road Safety during Simulated Driving BIBAKFull-Text 546-563
  Kaspar Lyngsie; Martin S. Pedersen; Jan Stage; Kim F. Vestergaard
Text messaging on smartphones uses a full soft keyboard instead of the numeric buttons on traditional mobile phones. While being more intuitive, the lack of tactile feedback from physical buttons increases the need for user focus, which may compromise safety in certain settings. This paper reports from an empirical study of the effect of text messaging on road safety. We compared the use of a traditional mobile phone and a smartphone for writing text messages during simulated driving. The results confirm that driver performance when texting decreases considerably as there are significant increases in reaction time, car-following distance, lane violation, number of crash/near-crash incidents, perceived task load and the amount of time the driver is looking away from the road. The results also show that smartphones makes this even worse; on key performance parameters they increase the threat from text messaging while driving. These results suggest that drivers should never text while driving, especially not with a smartphone.
Keywords: Driving; mobile phone; smartphone; text messaging; road safety; driver distraction; simulated driving experiment

Seniors and Usability

Ageing, Technology Anxiety and Intuitive Use of Complex Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 564-581
  Raghavendra Reddy Gudur; Alethea Blackler; Vesna Popovic; Doug Mahar
This paper presents the outcome of a study that investigated the relationships between technology prior experience, self-efficacy, technology anxiety, complexity of interface (nested versus flat) and intuitive use in older people. The findings show that, as expected, older people took less time to complete the task on the interface that used a flat structure when compared to the interface that used a complex nested structure. All age groups also used the flat interface more intuitively. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, older age groups did better under anxious conditions. Interestingly, older participants did not make significantly more errors compared with younger age groups on either interface structures.
Keywords: Prior-experience; Technology anxiety; self-efficacy; Intuitive interaction; Ageing; Complex Interfaces
Emerging Technologies and the Contextual and Contingent Experiences of Ageing Well BIBAKFull-Text 582-589
  Toni Robertson; Jeannette Durick; Margot Brereton; Kate Vaisutis; Frank Vetere; Bjorn Nansen; Steve Howard
Based on a series of interviews of Australians between the ages of 55 and 75 this paper explores the relations between our participants' attitudes towards and use of communication, social and tangible technologies and three relevant themes from our data: staying active, friends and families, and cultural selves. While common across our participants' experiences of ageing, these themes were notable for the diverse ways they were experienced and expressed within individual lives and for the different roles technology was used for within each. A brief discussion of how the diversity of our ageing population implicates the design of emerging technologies ends the paper.
Keywords: Ageing population; ageing well; social technologies; tangible technologies; diversity
Question-Answer Cards for an Inclusive Micro-tasking Framework for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 590-607
  Masatomo Kobayashi; Tatsuya Ishihara; Akihiro Kosugi; Hironobu Takagi; Chieko Asakawa
Micro-tasking (e.g., crowdsourcing) has the potential to help "long-tail" senior workers utilize their knowledge and experience to contribute to their communities. However, their limited ICT skills and their concerns about new technologies can prevent them from participating in emerging work scenarios. We have devised a question-answer card interface to allow the elderly to participate in micro-tasks with minimal ICT skills and learning efforts. Our survey identified a need for skill-based task recommendations, so we also added a probabilistic skill assessment model based on the results of the micro-tasks. We also discuss some scenarios to exploit the question-answer card framework to create new work opportunities for senior citizens. Our experiments showed that untrained seniors performed the micro-tasks effectively with our interface in both controlled and realistic conditions, and the differences in their skills were reliably assessed.
Keywords: Micro-Tasks; Gamification; Skill Assessment; Ageing; Elderly; Senior Workforce

Social Behaviour, Collaboration and Presence

An Experimental Study of Chinese Shopping Related Sharing Behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 608-615
  Min Li; Jun Zhang; Zhengjie Liu; Graham I. Johnson
Social media has become an increasingly important venue for social interaction and communication. Most previous research have shown the information sharing on social media platforms, but few focus on shopping related sharing (SRS) information and how these information influence consumer decision-making. Through a combination of interviews with observations in our lab to the users of social media and online shopping sites, we want to find answers to the question: what are the factors that influence Chinese consumers' SRS behaviors? It was discovered that the factors like why, what, whom, where, when etc. have significant influence to Chinese consumers' SRS behaviors. The study offers insights into the relationship between SRS and Chinese consumer decision-making, and design implications are discussed.
Keywords: Social media; shopping; sharing; social influence; consumer decision-making
Perceptions of Facebook Privacy and Career Impression Management BIBAKFull-Text 616-623
  Danielle Pilcer; Andrew Thatcher
Facebook was initially designed as a social tool representing a person's social life, yet today it functions as a platform synthesizing all facets of life, including the work context. Within the frame of the social capital theory, a survey was conducted measuring Facebook users' experience, perceptions of privacy and career impression management. Results found that higher Facebook experience was related to increased levels of trust and career impression management in terms of self-monitoring and work relations. Higher work privacy was related to career impression management in terms of lower work relations and higher perceived workplace outcomes; and career impression management in terms of higher perceived self-monitoring and workplace outcomes were related to lower levels of privacy awareness. It was concluded that how one uses Facebook and one's perceived value in presenting an image of an employable person is influenced by how one views their Facebook privacy.
Keywords: Facebook; privacy; impression management; employability; social capital theory
Simplifying Remote Collaboration through Spatial Mirroring BIBAKFull-Text 624-631
  Fabian Hennecke; Simon Voelker; Maximilian Schenk; Hauke Schaper; Jan Borchers; Andreas Butz
Even though remote collaboration through telepresence is supported by a variety of devices and display environments, it still has some inherent problems. One of these problems is the definition of a unified spatial reference system for the shared workspace in combination with an immersive representation of the collaborator. To mitigate this problem we propose a technique we call spatial mirroring. It is based on a virtual collaboration environment using two curved displays and aims to eliminate possible communication errors due to left/right misunderstandings. We explain the working principle and ideas behind spatial mirroring, and present two consecutive user studies in which we were able to verify its benefits.
Keywords: Remote collaboration; Telepresence; Orientation problem; Spatial reference; Mirroring
Social Influence from Personalized Recommendations to Trusting Beliefs of Websites: Intermediate Role of Social Presence BIBAKFull-Text 632-639
  Yanan Li; Yong Wang
With the increasing prevalence of online shopping, many companies have added "personalized recommendation" modules on their websites to collect customers' click-stream data in real time and conduct relevant analysis, which will both assist the decision-making of the web owners and enrich the interactive experience of the customers. A website with more personalized recommender system allows users to experience others as psychologically present being, conveys a feeling of human warmth and sociability which is believed critical for the formation of consumers' trust towards online stores. In this study, a laboratory experiment was conducted to empirically examine the effects of the level of perceived personalization on consumers' trusting beliefs towards online store. The result also demonstrated that the perception of social presence can partially mediate the effect of perceived personalization on consumer's trusting beliefs.
Keywords: Personalized Recommendation; Personalization; Social Presence; Trusting beliefs
Social Network Users' Religiosity and the Design of Post Mortem Aspects BIBAKFull-Text 640-657
  Cristiano Maciel; Vinicius Carvalho Pereira
Social networks increase the challenges of designing real-world aspects whose computational abstraction is not simple. This includes death and digital legacy, strongly influenced by cultural phenomena, such as religion. Therefore, it is important to analyze youngsters' concepts of death in the web, as the Internet Generation outnumbers other groups of social network users. Besides, due to their age, many of them face other people's death for the first time on the web. This paper analyzes to what extent these users' religion and the belief in afterlife may signal guidelines for a social network project that considers volition towards digital legacy. The data herein analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively come from a survey-based research with Brazilian high school students. The contributions for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) studies comprise design solutions that may consider aspects of religion, death and digital legacy, also improving users' and designers' understanding on these issues in system design.
Keywords: social networks; Internet Generation; post mortem; religion

Social Collaborative Interaction

A Tale of Two Puppets, Two Avatars and Two Countries BIBAKFull-Text 658-665
  Yoram I. Chisik; Monchu Chen; M. Clara Corriea Martins
We describe observations from studies conducted with school children in Nepal and Portugal with the aim of exploring two questions: 1. Can we develop an interactive game that will continue to engage the child in gameplay when the electricity supply fails? 2. What are the discernable differences in the ways children in Nepal and Portugal interact with the game given the huge socio-economic and cultural differences between them? The studies highlight the potential of the design in fostering continued engagement in the game when the electricity supply fails. They also show surprising little difference between the children in Nepal and Portugal. The observations suggest game mechanism and basic interactions can be regarded as universal across cultures and levels of income and can thus be designed and tested in any location and be expected to work and be understood by children from any culture and background.
Keywords: Games; Play; Children; Electricity; Design; Interaction; HCI4D
Avalanche! Reanimating Multiple Roles in Child Computer Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 666-673
  Timo Göttel
This paper values children as design partners in Child Computer Interaction to ensure building environments highly suitable for the target group. However, it appears beneficial to address underlying roles, align design processes on school activities or give considerations to the voluntary nature of such projects. We conducted eight projects with 75 pupils using initial learning environments. We found that starting design processes with pupils as users helps to identify further design steps that can be consequently tackled with the former users as informants and design partners. Thus, we suggest the Avalanche Design Cycle to engage children as fresh users at several stages asking them to become informants and design partners consecutively. The Avalanche Design Cycle is an iterative design process complying with school life allowing pupils to join/leave design teams. Thereby, it is aiming at sustained team sizes and more representative groups.
Keywords: Child-centered design; users; informants; design partners
Likeness and Dealbreakers: Interpreting Interpersonal Compatibility from Online Music Profiles BIBAKFull-Text 674-681
  Mo Kudeki; Karrie Karahalios
How much would a stranger know about you if they knew only the last song you listened to? Quite a bit, at least according to the stranger. Music taste often acts as proxy for our personalities, and we constantly perform this taste perception online. In our study, we find that good first impressions are common, bad first impressions are extreme, and that people pick up on many subtle cues about personality and whether they share common values based on data found in an online music profile. Similar motivations for listening to music and the perception of individuality are more highly valued than similar taste in genres or artists, suggesting that social media applications could benefit from incorporating these motivations in predicting compatibility between users.
Keywords: Music; listening history; taste performance; impression formation; personality; social networking service
Paraplay: Exploring Playfulness Around Physical Console Gaming BIBAKFull-Text 682-699
  John Downs; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard
We present the concept of paraplay: playful activities that take place within the context of an interactive game or other play activity, but outside the activity itself. By critically examining work related to gaming and play goals and motivations we argue that the concept of playfulness should have a stronger role in our understanding of gaming sessions, and particularly social gaming sessions. In order to further understand the role of playfulness in social gaming we conducted an empirical field study of physical console gaming. Six families with a total of 32 participants were provided with an Xbox 360 console, Kinect sensor, and three casual physical video games to play together for a period of approximately two weeks. Participants were instructed to record their social gaming sessions. We conducted video analysis on these recordings as well as interviews with many of the participants. We found numerous types and examples of playfulness within the gaming session even from those who were not actively participating in the game. Drawing on the results of this study we present a taxonomy of paraplay and discuss the ways that playfulness can be exhibited in a social play session. We show that participants in a game situation act within a wider context of playfulness, according to a variety of significant roles ranging from active player through to audience member. We explore these roles and their attributes to provide a rich account of paraplay and its importance in understanding playful activities broadly.
Keywords: Games; context of gaming; metagames; physical console gaming; play; social gaming; videogames

Social Media

Exploring Twitter Interactions through Visualization Techniques: Users Impressions and New Possibilities BIBAKFull-Text 700-707
  Guilherme Coletto Rotta; Vinícius Silva de Lemos; Ana Luiza Moura da Cunha; Isabel Harb Manssour; Milene Selbach Silveira; André Fagundes Pase
Social networking websites have been taking a huge space on the Internet. With millions of members spread across the world, these services connect their users through "friendship" relations, and within a short period of time the information is disseminated in the network. Considering Twitter, we investigated how standard techniques of information visualization can improve the analysis of its users' behavior, i.e. the group of people who most closely relate, and the frequency and type of messages they send. This investigation was done through user's studies with a set of visualization techniques implemented in an interactive system prototype.
Keywords: visualization techniques; social networks; twitter users' behavior
Helping Me Helping You: Designing to Influence Health Behaviour through Social Connections BIBAKFull-Text 708-725
  Noreen Kamal; Sidney Fels; Joanna McGrenere; Kara Nance
Of key importance to avoiding significant health problems such as cardiac disease and stroke is eating nutritious foods and leading an active lifestyle. However, leading a healthy lifestyle remains elusive and obesity continues to increase in North America. We investigate how online social networks (OSN) can change health behaviour by blending theories from health behaviour and participation in OSNs. We designed, prototyped and evaluated an OSN, called VivoSpace, using factors derived from the blend of theoretical models with the intention to change health behaviour. Our results from field studies with 35 participants from two clinical and one non-clinical social network groups revealed that designing these factors into the online social network lead to positive health behaviour change, namely, improved diet for the clinical group. The use of theoretical models in the evaluation provided a means to understand how the design can be improved to see further health behaviour change.
Keywords: Health; behaviour change; social networks; diet; physical activity
Who Would Pay for Facebook? Self Esteem as a Predictor of User Behavior, Identity Construction and Valuation of Virtual Possessions BIBAKFull-Text 726-743
  Jiaqi Nie; S. Shyam Sundar
Self-presentation is a major preoccupation in Facebook. Users carefully construct their online profile and assiduously edit postings on their wall in order to strategically shape their online persona. This study examines some psychological antecedents and consequences of such actions. In particular, we propose that users' self-esteem affects their sense of agency and self-monitoring tendencies, with the former leading to a fuller description of their profile and the latter contributing to more frequent customization of their wall. In turn, these behaviors are hypothesized to contribute to users' personal and social identity respectively, en route to affecting their valuation of Facebook as a virtual possession. Structural equation modeling analysis of survey data (N=221) largely supports this model and reveals that the personal identity reflected in one's Facebook account is a major predictor of the degree to which one values it as a possession. We discuss the implications of "I" vs. "Me" in self-esteem with regard to virtual possessions in social networking environments.
Keywords: self-esteem; Facebook activity; online identity construction; virtual possession; survey; quantitative methods; structural equation modeling (SEM)

Software Development

Authoring Support for Post-WIMP Applications BIBAKFull-Text 744-761
  Katharina Gerken; Sven Frechenhäuser; Ralf Dörner; Johannes Luderschmidt
Employing post-WIMP interfaces, i.e. user interfaces going beyond the traditional WIMP (Windows, Icons, Menu, Pointer) paradigm, often implies a more complex authoring process for applications. We present a novel authoring method and a corresponding tool that aims to enable developers to cope with the added level of complexity. Regarding the development as a process conducted on different layers, we introduce a specific layer for post-WIMP in addition to layers addressing implementation or traditional GUI elements. We discuss the concept of cross layer authoring that supports different author groups in the collaborative creation of post-WIMP applications permitting them working independently on their respective layer and contributing their specific skills. The concept comprises interactive visualization techniques that highlight connections between code, GUI and post-WIMP functionality. It allows for graphical inspection while transitioning smoothly between layers. A cross layer authoring tool has been implemented and was well received by UI developers during evaluation.
Keywords: authoring processes; authoring tools; post-WIMP interfaces; cross layer authoring; collaborative user interface development; combined post-WIMP interactions; visual validation
Existing but Not Explicit -- The User Perspective in Scrum Projects in Practice BIBAKFull-Text 762-779
  Åsa Cajander; Marta Larusdottir; Jan Gulliksen
Agile software development processes are becoming more common, but this does not mean that the user perspective in the development is catered for. It has its challenges to integrate the users' aspects in Scrum projects in practice. In order to better understand these challenges we have interviewed IT professionals using Scrum focusing on four different areas: responsibility for the user perspective, emphasis on usability and user experience through documentation, usability activities with users and the organisational and contextual settings for emphasizing the user perspective. Results show that the responsibility for the user perspective is unclear in Scrum projects, and that often the user perspective is neither discussed nor described in the projects. However, the user perspective is often present through informal feedback used to understand the context of use and inform design for example. Finally the paper presents implications for working with the user perspective in Scrum projects.
Keywords: Usability; user experience; user perspective; responsibility; agile software development; Scrum
Fast Train to DT: A Practical Guide to Coach Design Thinking in Software Industry BIBAKFull-Text 780-787
  Muktha Hiremath; Visvapriya Sathiyam
In this paper, we explain best practices of bringing together diverse teams from business, technology and user experience in a large-scale software development setup and coaching them to use design thinking as a methodology to product definition and innovation, in less than 5 weeks. This paper can serve as a primer for those who are new to design thinking and coaching. It contributes to a better understanding of the importance of a coach in nurturing a design thinking mindset.
Keywords: Design Thinking; Innovation; Human Centered Design; Coaching