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DOC Tables of Contents: 9900010203040506070809101112131415

ACM 27th International Conference on Design of Communication

Fullname:27th International Conference on Design of Communication
Editors:Brad Mehlenbacher; Aristidis Protopsaltis; Ashley Williams; Shaun Slattery
Location:Bloomington, Indiana, USA
Dates:2009-Sep-05 to 2009-Sep-07
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-559-9, 978-1-60558-559-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DOC09
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Designing for users
  2. Accessibility
  3. Teaching & disciplinarity
  4. Web design & analysis
  5. Help systems
  6. Applications & architectures
  7. User assistance & documentation
  8. Document use & reuse
  9. Invited talk
  10. Web design & development
  11. The design of documentation
  12. Analyzing texts
  13. Interactivity in the design of communication
  14. Online information exchange, use, & adoption
  15. Online "fact-building" and meaning-making
  16. Workshop 1
  17. Workshop 2
  18. Workshop 3
  19. Posters

Designing for users

User-centered design, activity-centered design, and goal-directed design: a review of three methods for designing web applications BIBAKFull-Text 1-8
  Ashley Williams
When conducting research with users in order to design web applications, the practitioner has a variety of methods from which to choose. This paper examines three such methods'User-Centered Design (UCD), Goal-Directed Design (GDD), and Activity-Centered Design (ACD)'in terms of their foundations, processes, and deliverables.
Keywords: ACD, GDD, IA, UCD, activity centered design, content strategy, contextual inquiry, goal directed design, information architecture, interaction design, interface design, personas, usability, user centered design, user experience, user interface, web design
Enhancing user interface design patterns with design rationale structures BIBAKFull-Text 9-16
  Jordan Janeiro; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa; Thomas Springer; Alexander Schill
User interface design and development activities are typically costly and, despite many research efforts, still lack adequate support tools to make them more efficient. The use of guidelines and principles have been mostly replaced by the use of user interface design patterns, collected in libraries that aim to encompass both general and domain-specific user interface design knowledge. However, such patterns are represented mostly in natural language and other representations that cannot be easily computed. This paper presents an approach to represent user interface design patterns in a knowledge base which, by bringing together semi-structured user interface design patterns and design rationale models, can help designers to search, compare, and reuse proven design solutions in their projects.
Keywords: argumentation model, design rationale, information retrieval, knowledge base, semantic match, user interface design patterns
<Methods>Experience Design</Methods> BIBAKFull-Text 17-22
  Liza Potts; Gerianne Bartocci
In this paper, we trace and historicize two of the most common contextual research methods: Participant Observation and Contextual Inquiry. In doing so, we describe how these methods have evolved, describe the need for these methods to support Experience Design research, and make the case for interdisciplinary collaboration through clarifying these practices.
Keywords: contextual inquiry, design research, ethnography, experience design, field research methods, methods, participatory observation, usability, user experience


Acoustic interaction design through "audemes": experiences with the blind BIBAKFull-Text 23-28
  Mexhid Ferati; Steve Mannheimer; Davide Bolchini
This paper presents and discusses design decisions for an acoustic edutainment application for blind users called AEDIN (Acoustic EDutainment INterface), comprising audio elements used as navigational and thematic landmarks in touch-screen computers. We tested designs with blind and visually impaired teenagers. Preliminary results demonstrated the efficacy of AEDIN as an easy-to-learn and memorize architecture, and a potentially fun interface. The paper illustrates the lessons learned from the design and evaluation experience and contextually outlines new research directions for aural communication design.
Keywords: acoustic, audeme, aural communication, aural design, blind and visually impaired, children, interface, sound, touch-screen
Facilita: reading assistance for low-literacy readers BIBAKFull-Text 29-36
  Willian Massami Watanabe; Arnaldo Candido Junior; Vinícius Rodriguez Uzêda; Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes; Thiago Alexandre Salgueiro Pardo; Sandra Maria Aluísio
Texts are the media content primarily available on Web sites and applications. However, this heavy use of texts creates an accessibility barrier to those who cannot read fluently in their mother tongue due to both text length and linguistic complexity. To offer an accessible alternative to these readers, shorter and simplified versions of text content should be provided. Taking that into consideration, this paper introduces Facilita, an assistive technology to help lower-literacy users to understand the text content of Web applications. Facilita generates an accessible content from Web pages automatically, using summarization and simplification techniques. It is also important to consider interface design requirements, since Facilita's target audience (the functionally illiterate) is often classified as computer illiterate as well. Thus, interaction and user interface design were developed considering the limitations and skills of the functionally illiterate.
Keywords: summarization, textual simplification, usability, user centered design, web accessibility
The transition from web content accessibility guidelines 1.0 to 2.0: what this means for evaluation and repair BIBAKFull-Text 37-44
  Grace Mbipom; Simon Harper
Recently, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) upgraded its Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) from version 1.0 to 2.0. WCAG 2.0 further encourages the design of accessible Web content, and has been put in place to address the limitations of the earlier version, WCAG 1.0. The new development requires that updates be made accordingly. One of the areas affected by the transition is automated Web content accessibility evaluation and repair. Since most Accessibility Evaluation and Repair Tools (AERTs) depend on guidelines to make suggestions about potential accessibility barriers and proffer repair solutions, existing tools have to be modified to accommodate the changes WCAG 2.0 brings. In particular, more techniques for performing automated Web content accessibility evaluation and repair are desirable. The heterogeneous nature of Web content which AERTs assess, calls for techniques of cross-disciplinary origin. In this paper, we discuss the implications of the transition for automated evaluation and repair. In addition, we present a meta-review of relevant techniques from related disciplines for the purpose of informing research that surrounds testing and repair techniques employed by AERTs.
Keywords: WCAG 1.0 and 2.0, automated testing, evaluation tools

Teaching & disciplinarity

A framework for adaptive communication design BIBAKFull-Text 45-50
  Matthew J. Bell; Colin H. C. Machin
Designers often strive to meet the requirements of the "average user." Unfortunately even if they manage to achieve their goal, this mythical user does not exist resulting in a gap between each actual user and the technology they receive. As technology cannot be designed for every individual it needs to be adaptable for as many people as possible.
   A framework has been developed to identify similarities between user-groups and the assistive technology they use, with the aim of catering for different users with minimum alteration to the technology. The framework takes a holistic view and can be used to describe either a person or a technology, initially focusing on six sections (Cognition, Senses, Output, General Health, Mobility and Context) identified using the model of a human body. The sections are then compared to identify patterns and areas of importance.
   Using each of the sections of the framework separately provides a complete picture of a technology or user allowing better profiling, improving accessibility. Bringing the framework together by comparing the sections against each other allows the design team to better understand the dynamics of the technology or user and the potential for communication using different media and mechanisms.
Keywords: accessibility, adaptability, usability
Outstanding teachers and ICT BIBAKFull-Text 51-58
  Aristidis Protopsaltis; Andy Goodwyn; Carol L. Fuller
This paper presents evidence about expertise in teaching and the use of ICT (Information Communication Technology) to communicate information. Fifty four (54) expert teachers and teaching assistants from infant, primary and secondary schools participated in the study. Participants were nominated by their peers as 'outstanding' in their practice. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, exploring what technology experts have adapted to produce highly effective practice. The current study discusses the results of the demographic data, the technologies expert practitioners use in their teaching and their reasons for using these technologies.
Keywords: ICT, expert teaching, information processing, learning, technology
Multidisciplinarity and 21st century communication design BIBAKFull-Text 59-66
  Brad Mehlenbacher
This paper addresses recent calls for the importance of multidisciplinary research and action in communication design. The impetus for multidisciplinary perspectives toward communication design is technological change, rapid developments in work products and processes, and the perception that emerging issues in the workplace demand additional competencies and knowledge. Terminology related to multidisciplinarity, such as disciplinarity, cross-disciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity, is defined. Since ACM SIGDOC members are distributed across academic and nonacademic fields and institutions, the focus will be on discipline as epistemology and as language with the goal of explicating common frameworks and terminology for better articulating communication design and work.
Keywords: communication, cross-disciplinary, design, education, interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, transdisciplinary, work

Web design & analysis

Developing heuristics for the semiotics inspection of websites BIBAKFull-Text 67-72
  Davide Bolchini; Rupa Chatterji; Marco Speroni
The usability of web communication depends on design decisions made along a number of dimensions. These include content, information architecture, navigation, graphics and the design of the interface signs (e.g. labels, command affordances and icons), that we generally call semiotics. Although there is awareness of the importance of the quality of these specific elements to ensure usability, existing usability evaluation methods fail to provide designers with inspection principles to specifically assess the semiotics aspects for web interfaces. This experience report illustrates and discusses the development of an initial set of heuristics and procedural tools aimed at guiding the semiotics inspection of large, information-intensive websites, as a separate concern from the other design dimensions, extensively covered in the usability literature. The semiotics heuristics defined represent a complementary toolkit to the existing usability methods.
Keywords: evaluation method, heuristics, ontologies, semiotics, signs, usability evaluation, usability inspection, websites
Evaluating the communication design of branded websites: a value-based framework BIBAKFull-Text 73-80
  Davide Bolchini; Tao Yang; Franca Garzotto
The quality of web communication depends on several factors. One of these, besides usability, is the effectiveness by which the intended brand values are actually conveyed to the users. Leveraging existing research in web branding communication, design and requirements engineering, we propose a systematic framework for evaluating the short-term communication impact of large, information-intensive branded websites. The communication impact is empirically investigated by eliciting and modeling the brand values that the website tries to convey and assessing whether and how much they are perceived by the intended target users. Results from two case studies show that simple and readable indicators can be constructed to identify flaws in the communication of the brand values and support designers and stakeholders to devise precise strategies to improve the design accordingly.
Keywords: brand value, communication impact, evaluation, methodological framework, website design
Design of communication in multimodal web interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 81-88
  Americo Talarico Neto; Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes; Alessandro Rubim Assis; Júnia Coutinho Anacleto
In this paper we present our considerations for the design, development and evaluation of Web multimodal interfaces using as example the analysis and the results of three Case Studies. Two usability methods were applied in these Case Studies as part of our approach for Web multimodal interfaces design. The objective is to smooth the progress of the design activities provided by the Multimodal Web Approach (MMWA) recovering Design Rationale from previous projects and improving the usability and user experience in the multimodal interaction. From the experience got performing three case studies with the MMWA, we derive a general framework for design of communication in Web Multimodal Interfaces.
Keywords: multimodal interfaces design, multimodal web approach

Help systems

Semantic transparency in user assistance systems BIBAKFull-Text 89-96
  Andrea E. Kohlhase; Michael Kohlhase
In this paper we analyze the problem of "situating explanations" in user assistance systems. We introduce semantic transparency as a user interface property that enables giving appropriate help. We explicate this notion in document player applications found in office suites, for example. Moreover, we show how semantic transparency can be strengthened when the underlying software is complemented by a semantic ally system. The approach consists in illustrating existing software semantically. We present some semantic extensions of office applications as examples. We also describe how the semantic transparency approach allows the exploitation of new interactions for user assistance systems.
Keywords: interaction, semantic transparency, user assistance, user interface
The micro-structure of use of help BIBAKFull-Text 97-104
  David G. Novick; Oscar D. Andrade; Nathaniel Bean
To see whether, from the user's standpoint, muddling through with trial-and-error exploration of the interface actually works as well as consulting help, we analyzed video recordings of 14 subjects using Microsoft Publisher. We segmented their attempts at accomplishing four tasks into episodes, lasting from a few seconds to a few minutes, using four problem-solving approaches: help, recall, and trial-and-error. The subjects' overall rates of success with trial-and-error were higher than with help. We present trends of use of the approaches across the four tasks, review the apparent causes of success and failure when using the approaches, and develop an affordance-knowledge model that helps to explain people's preference for muddling through over using help. We conclude by discussing the model's implications for developers of systems and writers of help.
Keywords: affordance, documentation, help systems
Synchronous online help support with visual instruction aids for workflow-based MVC web applications BIBAKFull-Text 105-114
  Marcel Karam; Maha Abou Ibrahim
Existing web-based help systems that provide interactive real-time assistance to end-users exhibit considerable limitations. Some of these limitations are related to the presence of invasive features in these systems, the asynchronous activities between the end-user and the technical support staff during a task-related help session, and the application-specific nature of these systems. The latter limitation in particular restricts the portability of these web-based help systems to other web applications. Despite advances in web development paradigms such as the workflow-based Model View Controller (MVC), and key technology ingredients such as synchronous web annotation services, we have not found any work that combines these technologies to address the above mentioned limitations. In this work we have designed and implemented a web-based help system as an abstract layer that can be seamlessly integrated with the architectural layers of any web application that is instantiated using the workflow-based MVC development paradigm. This layer uses the use cases of the instantiated application to ensure that task-related activities are synchronized during a help session. Our web-based help system also includes features to deliver instructive aids to end-users in the form of visual web annotations. In this paper we describe, using an example, the design and implementation of our system, discuss its limitations, and recommend directions for future work.
Keywords: synchronous online help support, visual web annotation

Applications & architectures

Progressional awareness: designing a co-authoring tool to support the planning process BIBAKFull-Text 115-118
  Ilaria Liccardi; Hugh C. Davis; Su White
Effective planning is essential to any collaborative activity. However, in practice, the co-authoring process can become derailed from an initial plan of action due to unforeseen circumstances. To be effective, the process must be capable of adapting in ways that are efficient and avoid conflict.
   We analyze the experiences of users involved in fifteen separate group writing projects, specifically examining the role of planning within the collaborative process, the techniques used and the problems that may arise. From this, we propose the concept of progressional awareness related to the planning process, and propose novel user interface designs that may help to avoid common problems.
Keywords: co-authoring, planning activity, progressional awareness
User's issues in crossmedia applications BIBAKFull-Text 119-126
  João Soares de Oliveira Neto; Nicolas Roussel; Lucia V. L. Filgueiras
Technology allows users to interact with a wide variety of information and services. However, more and more users need to integrate complementary content to previously accessed information. Crossmedia applications combine different information pieces, which are stored in different media, as a continuous story. Our study selects the particular case of combining printed material and internet resources for the purpose of delivering complementary information to users. Our investigation conducts a workshop with users composed of a scenario-driven interview and a talk-aloud protocol. This experiment reveals the behavior and difficulties of users when they are combining digital and non-digital media to gather complementary information. In addition, some recommendation is suggested focused on the improvement of the user's experience in crossmedia application that should be considered by designers.
Keywords: crossmedia application, digital medium, non-digital medium, scenario-driven interview, think-aloud protocol, user's behavior
Using sound to understand software architecture BIBAKFull-Text 127-134
  Lewis I. Berman; Keith B. Gallagher
Use of non-speech sound can facilitate the understanding of a software program. Non-speech sound has been shown to be useful in dynamic program comprehension, that is, understanding the dynamic behavior of a program. We have developed a sonification scheme to describe static software entities in Java programs, and we show that it is useful in static program comprehension, notably concerning low-level architecture. The scheme is implemented via a tool in which an Eclipse IDE is integrated with a CSound synthesis engine. The tool is intended for use by sighted software developers in a static browsing/editing environment.
   A validation study of the concept has been performed via one-on-one sessions with experienced software developers. Preliminary results indicate that software developers are easily able to learn and recognize sonified characteristics of software entities and their relationships by listening to sequences of mapped sound constructs. Identification of specific entities is more problematic. Developers have indicated that they would find the tool useful during both exploration and more focused programming activities. Their additional perceptions have been collected using grounded qualitative means.
Keywords: architecture, auditory display, comprehension, eclipse, multimodal, non-visual representations, program comprehension, software architecture, sonification

User assistance & documentation

Modeling task experience in user assistance systems BIBAKFull-Text 135-142
  Andrea E. Kohlhase; Michael Kohlhase
One of the major issues for user assistance systems consists of "providing help at an appropriate level". In this paper we analyze the problem of modeling task experience -- a prerequisite for provisioning adequate help. In contrast to level-based approaches we propose an ontology-based model, which allows fine-grained modeling of task experience using the concepts of the task domain as granules. The model is semantic in the sense that it allows to take advantage of the relations between concepts to provide novel semantic services and interactions. We present the SACHS (Semantic Annotations for a Controlling Help System, a semantic help system for a spreadsheet-based financial controlling system) software as an exemplary application of the proposed task experience model.
Keywords: spreadsheets, task experience, user assistance
The macro-structure of use of help BIBAKFull-Text 143-150
  Oscar D. Andrade; Nathaniel Bean; David G. Novick
Users of help systems often complain that they do not find them useful; while they still use help at least occasionally, they resort to other problem-solving strategies. In this paper, we analyze audiovisual recordings of people using a computer application, to identify (1) transition patterns among problem-solving approaches, and (2) the frequency of these transitions. Our analysis indicates that people switch frequently between consulting help and exploring the interface. Switching between problem-solving approaches appears to be an effective way of succeeding in tasks. Applications and their help systems can be better designed to support users who switch between help and non-help approaches to solving problems.
Keywords: documentation, help systems, problem-solving
Experience report: modularization -- the new paradigm for the information engineer BIBAKFull-Text 151-154
  Katherine Haramundanis
To improve the accuracy and consistency of customer and support documentation, corporations over the past two decades or more have made a concerted effort to make possible and improve the modularization of corporate source materials. With adequate and up-to-date training, a functional content-management system, and well-supported writing tools, significant cost-reductions can be achieved. The writer, in this new environment, must deal with a completely new mental model and work process to create their deliverable materials, and with a paradigm shift that directly affects their day-to-day work. The writer accustomed to full control and ownership of a document can look forward to a fully team-oriented approach that provides for the ultimate reader the full realization of the best of all possible worlds. Design of any communication is much more a collaborative process than an exercise in creating text to insert in an outline. This author has experienced this change in process at first hand in decades of writing experience in the computer industry.
Keywords: design of communication, development process, information design, technology, translation, writing standards

Document use & reuse

Rhetorical models for computational systems: an interdisciplinary approach to reusable, tailorable medical information BIBAKFull-Text 155-162
  Ashley R. Kelly; Allan McDougall; Nike Abbott
This paper aims to bring rhetorical scholarship to the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and further its inclusion in health communication studies. Much work in NLP relies upon statical machine learning techniques, which, while valuable, are still limited in their abilities. Rhetorical theory, the study of suasions, offers a new paradigm for NLP research and development. In this pilot study, we use rhetorical theory as an analytic approach to modeling discourse patterns in a highly tailor corpus of texts. Along with our findings, we argue that rhetorical theory and analysis can further the creation of both tailored documentation and computationally-generated texts.
Keywords: health communication, rhetorical theory, tailoring
Providing culturally contextualized metadata to promote sharing and reuse of learning object BIBAKFull-Text 163-170
  David Buzatto; Junia Coutinho Anacleto; Ana Luiza Dias
This paper presents some proposals to formalize the creation of Learning Objects (LO) that define rules concerned to the content organization and/or the set of metadata used to describe and to document the LOs. This paper presents Cognitor (COGNItive strategies-based EdiTOR), a common-sense aided framework for a certain Pattern Language that aims to help educators create and contextualize e-Learning content as hyper documents, considering cognitive, pedagogical and cultural issues, packaging the LOs according to SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard, the most known and probably most used standard for LO creation. The LOs created by Cognitor are intended to be easy to share and reuse, mainly because Cognitor helps editors fill out the LO metadata using concepts that are culturally contextualized on the main target learner's culture through suggestions coming from a common sense knowledge base that are used to support filling in specific metadata fields.
Keywords: SCORM, common sense, framework, learning object, metadata, reuse
Information relationships: the source of useful and usable content BIBAKFull-Text 171-178
  Michael J. Albers
Effective communication requires more than what the content says and how it's formatted and instead requires focusing on the interrelationships between information elements and how those interrelationships fit together to help a person understand the situation. The design presented to readers must be an integrated presentation that supports achieving their goals within their situational context. For an integrated presentation to help people find and use content, it must provide the cross-references and interconnections between different information elements to form the highly interconnected structures that typify most complex problems. Unfortunately, this integrated presentation varies between each audience group and normally involves connections between information elements which have little in common with a conventional information hierarchy or architecture.
Keywords: human-centered design, information design, information relationships, technical communication

Invited talk

What's informatics at Indiana University? BIBAKFull-Text 179-180
  James Shea
This Indiana University School of Informatics was the first of its kind in the United States (2000). It includes programs in Bloomington and at IUPUI in Indianapolis. The School has developed a unique undergraduate curriculum that allows students to combine an interest in information technology and computing with another academic discipline of their choice. The School offers the first-ever PhD in Informatics as well as a number of professional masters degree programs. The School's faculty represent a range of disciplines and specialties which provides a wide range of research opportunities.
Keywords: bioinformatics, chemical informatics, computing, human-computer interaction/design, informatics, media arts and science, security

Web design & development

Design charrettes as pedagogical method in a multimedia design course BIBAKFull-Text 181-186
  Richard L. Edwards
Communication design students working in new media or digital media fields require training in the design process to create powerful and professional projects. However, even though collaborative design work is common in media industries, many graduate courses are not structured to allow collaborative work in the classroom. In this paper, I present design charrettes as a pedagogical method that stimulates and supports collaborative student design work. Design charrettes are intense periods of design activity most commonly associated with architectural and environmental studies. I have adapted design charrettes in order to achieve particular learning outcomes in multimedia design courses. This paper is a theoretical reflection on using charrettes to teach the design process. The pedagogy behind my use of charrettes is informed by socio-cognitive learning theories. In my multimedia design courses, graduate students participate in charrette activities to experience the design process, to collaborate in project-based design activities, to seek a range of solutions to design problems, and to gain mastery of design research techniques.
Keywords: charrette, collaboration, creativity, design, design research, learning
A systematic methodology to use LEGO bricks in web communication design BIBAKFull-Text 187-192
  Lorenzo Cantoni; Elena Marchiori; Marco Faré; Luca Botturi; Davide Bolchini
This experience report presents a case study and the lessons learned from using Real Time Web (RTW) in the design of a corporate website. RTW is an innovative methodology to effectively elicit and plastically represent requirements in the design process of a web application. RTW adopts a playful approach to collaboratively elicit requirements and strategic web design issues, and extends the experience of LEGO Serious Play (LSP), a team collaboration methodology. The basic tenet of LSP is that LEGO bricks are simple to use and provide ready-made, powerful and multi-purpose symbolic pieces, known to most people and used in different cultures. RTW exploits this potential to elicit communication requirements, create a share vision for high-level design, and build team commitment.
Keywords: cruise industry, etourism, informal interactions, lego bricks, requirements analysis, web applications
Web communication and interaction modeling using model-driven development BIBAKFull-Text 193-198
  Thiago Jabur Bittar; Renata P. M. Fortes; Luanna Lopes Lobato; Willian M. Watanabe
During the development of web-based applications, communication and interaction issues have become even more important, due to the variety of user types that can work together. In this paper we describe the adoption of Model-Driven Development (MDD) approach to support a feasible way to help developers to take into account the issues, regarding to the Web users variety. In general, a good design of the interactions and communication issues implies in high cost and time consuming tasks, and requires that developers be flexible and rapidly change the conception of the interfaces. The meta-models approach presented in this paper aims to map interaction and communication requirements in a practical and useful way during the web application development.
Keywords: MDD, communication, interaction, model-driven development, web

The design of documentation

Lessons from trying to develop a robust documentation exemplar BIBAKFull-Text 199-204
  Lynn Robert Carter; Andreas Karatsolis
Software system documentation has been an integral part of the development process since the first efforts to design and implement large and robust systems. However, the focus of this documentation typically has been limited to the production of discrete artifacts, despite the richness of data and genres that surround it. Efforts to develop a robust documentation exemplar -- Della -- have not been completely successful, mainly because the provided documentation was largely ignored by many students for simpler but less effective alternate designs. This paper will present, in addition to the lessons learned from the Della project, some insights into the direction software system documentation now should be taking in support of large and long-lived systems.
Keywords: architecture, design, documentation, maintenance, reengineering, representation, requirements, structure, usage
Probing the use of charts and graphs in technical documentation through analysis and pragmatic collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 205-212
  Challen Pride-Thorne; Steve Murphy; Sandra Seenauth
A continuous priority for technical writers is to increase user comprehension of concepts and statistical information in technical documentation. Improvements in the written language such as consistent terminology, use of an established writing style, accurate indexing, advanced search capabilities, and so on, address some of the user pain points. The complexities of certain topics do not always translate well into writing; therefore, there is a need for other aids such as information graphics to assist with visualization and to increase the efficacy of information communication [1]. The benefits of information graphics in documentation and learning modules are well documented by the works of Levin and Pane [2, 3]. The conclusion is simple according to Davison, Pane, and Bertrancourt: if graphics are crafted correctly with the intent to enhance understanding then the quality of the documentation will improve and ultimately enrich the user experience and comprehension [4, 5, 6].
   With this sage advice, one might expect implementation to be straightforward, perhaps even easy. This is unfortunately not the case. Careful consideration is necessary to construct an information graphic. Many questions may arise during the process, such as how many graphics, and which type, are needed, and where best to insert them in order to convey the concept clearly. Some information graphics, such as charts and graphs, require further thought since their visual representation is derived from data. In this case, the challenge lies in shaping the data into what is truly useful for users' comprehension, and in skillfully rendering the graphics with sound design principles. This paper presents the authors' recent experiences in collaborative design of charts and graphs, and demonstrates that the responsibility of communicating effectively should not lie on one person's shoulders alone, but rather on all development and documentation professionals who bring their collective expertise to fruition in a partnership.
Keywords: charts, documentation, globalization, graphic design, graphs, information graphics, technical writer, translation
Practice theory & the foundations of digital document encoding BIBAKFull-Text 213-220
  Paul Scifleet; Susan P. Williams
Designing digital documents in complex, changing information environments presents a number of challenges for both academics and practitioners. In particular, a number of contradictory views about the nature of digital documents raise questions about what factors shape the task of document encoding. To date there have been few studies that explore the relationship between human document encoders and the documents they produce, where the process of documentation embedded in encoding is the focus. In this paper we argue that to support and improve the processes of digital document development it is essential that we gain a clearer understanding of context and the situated, inter-subjective nature of human engagement in documentary practice. We present a methodology for understanding such documentary practices, which considers digital representation through the lens of practice theory and presents a conceptual framework for understanding the complex and changing dimensions of document encoding that are challenging both research and practice.
Keywords: documentary practice, information management, methodology, practice theory

Analyzing texts

Enhancing research into usable privacy and security BIBAKFull-Text 221-226
  Colin Birge
Researchers in technical communication and information design have important contributions to make to the field of usable privacy and security, also called user-centered security or trust user experience (TUX). I give some background on the usable privacy and security research field and literature, and suggest three example problems that may yield interesting results to SIGDOC researchers.
Keywords: privacy, privacy policies, trust, trust user experience, usable privacy and security, usable security, user-centered security
Experience report: issues in comparing gene function annotation in text BIBAKFull-Text 227-232
  Youngik Yang; Sun Kim
Annotating function of genes accurately is one of the most important tasks in molecular biology and medical sciences. The new sequencing technology, called the next generation sequencing technology, made sequencing the whole genomes possible with a fraction of cost of sequencing by using the traditional sequencing technology. As a result, the amount of sequence data has been growing very rapidly, but the computational method for gene function annotation is yet to be fully developed. Thus annotation of gene function is a serious bottleneck to achieving the high-throughput genome projects. The most commonly used gene annotation technique is to transfer annotation of genes based on the sequence similarity; annotation of top-ranked genes in terms of sequence similarity is simply transferred to the function of a target gene. However, this sequence-similarity based gene function annotation is often incorrect. As a result, genome projects still rely on expensive, error-prone, labor-intensive, manual process. Combining annotation and sequence similarity can improve the accuracy of gene function annotation significantly. We have been developing a computational method for comparing gene annotation in text. In this paper, we will discuss issues in comparing genome annotation in a text format. To compute textual similarity, we used cosine similarity. Since cosine similarity is effective only after preprocessing with textual variations, we used commonly used text preprocessing techniques such as removing stop words and stemming as well as gene annotation specific preprocessing such as handling synonyms and gene symbols using databases of biology terminologies such as BioThesaurus and MeSH. In experiments with annotations of a number of bacterial genomes, our method was able to handle many difficult cases (syntactically different but semantically equivalent gene function annotations) correctly.
Keywords: cosine similarity, genome annotation, text comparison
Automatically identifying relations in privacy policies BIBAKFull-Text 233-238
  John W. Stamey; Ryan A. Rossi
E-commerce privacy policies tend to consist of many ambiguities in language that protects companies more than the customers. Types of ambiguities found are currently divided into four patterns: mitigation (downplaying frequency), enhancement (emphasizing nonessential qualities), obfuscation (hedging claims and obscuring causality), and omission (removing agents). A number of phrases have been identified as creating ambiguities within these four categories. When a customer accepts the terms and conditions of a privacy policy, words and phrases (from the category of mitigation) such as "occasionally" or "from time to time" actually give the e-commerce vendor permission to send as many spamming email offers as they deem necessary. Our study uses techniques based on Latent Semantic Analysis to discover the underlying semantic relations between words in privacy policies. Additional potential ambiguities and other word relations are found automatically. Words are clustered according to their topic in privacy policies using principal directions. This provides us with a ranking of the most significant words from each clustered topic as well as a ranking of the privacy policy topics. We also extract a signature that forms the basis of a typical privacy policy. These results lead to the design of a system used to analyze privacy policies called Hermes. Given an arbitrary privacy policy our system provides a list of the potential ambiguities along with a score that represents the similarity to a typical privacy policy.
Keywords: ambiguities, latent relations, privacy policies

Interactivity in the design of communication

Documenting software systems with views VI: lessons learned from 15 years of research & practice BIBAKFull-Text 239-244
  Scott Tilley
A "view" is a form of graphical documentation representing some aspect of a software system. Views can be an important aid in helping to understand large-scale applications, and can be automatically produced through reverse engineering. This paper summarizes our findings and lessons learned related to documenting software systems with views from numerous projects spanning 15 years of research and practice (1992-2007). These findings have continued relevancy for modern software development and technical communication alike.
Keywords: UML, XML, graphical documentation, program understanding, reverse engineering, views, visualization
Confounding definitions: using a continuum to understand interactivity BIBAKFull-Text 245-250
  Katie Retzinger
The term interactivity is used in many disciplines, including communication, professional/technical writing, new media, computer science, and marketing to describe a specific feature of different types of texts. However, little consensus has been achieved as to what interactivity actually is or can be. Using and categorizing definitions of interactivity from the fields of new media, computer science, communication, and advertising in order to begin to conceptualize interactivity, this paper will argue that rather than coming up with a single definition of interactivity that can be used in multiple disciplines, interactivity should be conceptualized along a continuum. By conceptualizing the term interactivity along a continuum, practitioners and instructors can be better able to use the term interactivity more productively, which can help practitioners and instructors who create or who teach others how to create interactive documents have a more generally agreed upon meaning that will further the ability to produce texts appropriate for an audience, purpose, and context.
Keywords: active, continuum, control, interaction, interactivity, passive, time, user-to-documents, user-to-system, user-to-user
Accounting for affective responses in video games BIBAKFull-Text 251-256
  Dave Jones
Recent scholarship in games suggests that communications design can offer a more critical approach to understanding and developing meaningful player experiences. In this paper, I analyze such experiences by examining the usability of The Arcade Wire: Airport Security in relation to its rhetorical aims as a game. Synthesizing two models for games analysis, I can develop a new model to more fully account for affective responses in player experience. Furthermore, the model itself can be reconfigured to examine different gamespaces that configure different relationships among their structural and phenomenlogical elements.
Keywords: affect, experience, game design, proprioception, usability

Online information exchange, use, & adoption

Web 2.0 proclivity: understanding how personal use influences organizational adoption BIBAKFull-Text 257-264
  Jeff Cummings; Anne P. Massey; V. Ramesh
Web 2.0 represents a major shift in how individuals communicate and collaborate with others. While many of these technologies have been used for public, social interactions (e.g., Wikipedia and YouTube), organizations are just beginning to explore their use in day-to-day operations. Due to relatively recent introduction and public popularity, Web 2.0 has led to a resurgent focus on how organizations can once again leverage technology within the organization for virtual and mass collaboration. In this paper, we explore some of the key questions facing organizations with regard to Web 2.0 implementation and adoption. We develop a model of "Web 2.0 Proclivity", defined as an individual's propensity to use Web 2.0 tools within the organization. Our model and set of associated hypotheses focuses on understanding an employee's internal Web 2.0 content behaviors based on non-work, personal use behaviors. To test our model and hypotheses, survey-based data was collected from a global engine design and manufacturing company. Our results show that Web 2.0 Proclivity is positively influenced by an employee's external behaviors and that differences exist across both functional departments and employee work roles. We discuss the research implications of our findings as well as how our findings and model of Web 2.0 Proclivity can be used to help guide organizational practice.
Keywords: survey research, technology adoption, web 2.0, web proclivity
Context information exchange and sharing in a peer-to-peer community: a video annotation scenario BIBAKFull-Text 265-272
  Roberto, Jr. Fagá; Bruno C. Furtado; Felipe Maximino; Renan G. Cattelan; Maria da Graça C. Pimentel
The literature reports many efforts toward supporting video annotation. In this paper, we present a peer-to-peer model for the exchange of context information and user annotations over video. The Context-Aware Peer-to-Peer Architecture (CAPPA) exploits the automatic capture of the user-interaction with personal devices, employs ontologies to store context information, and uses the context information to organize users in P2P groups for the collaborative exchange of information. We present our proposed model by discussing a prototype system, called CAPPA Service (CAPPAS), which allows users to create and to join peer-to-peer groups using Web-based social communities. Using CAPPAS, users are able to create multimodal annotations while watching videos. The service deploys a capture mode which can be adapted according to the context information collected from the P2P network. CAPPAS customization features include the adaptation of its graphical interfaces according to context information, and the automatic suggestion of text completion during annotation.
Keywords: CSCW, P2P, collaborative annotations, context, interactive digital tv
Did you put it on the wiki?: information sharing through wikis in interdisciplinary design collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 273-280
  Ammy Jiranida Phuwanartnurak
Interdisciplinary design is challenging, in large measure, because of the difficulty in communicating and coordinating across disciplines. Team members from different disciplines may view and solve the same problem from different perspectives, with their own unique method and language, which may create barriers to information sharing. Wikis, in particular, have gained popularity as a collaborative tool and have been claimed to support collaboration and information sharing. Despite the increasing use of wikis in design projects, there has been little research attention to how wikis are actually used by design teams. This paper describes a field study of two interdisciplinary design teams, seeking to discover how wikis support information sharing in software development projects. The study provides empirical evidence on the use of wikis in interdisciplinary design work, which will be used to develop guidelines on the effective use of wikis to support interdisciplinary design collaboration.
Keywords: information sharing, interdisciplinary design, wiki, wiki log

Online "fact-building" and meaning-making

The collaborative construction of "fact" on Wikipedia BIBAKFull-Text 281-288
  Jason Swarts
For years Wikipedia has come to symbolize the potential of Web 2.0 for harnessing the power of mass collaboration and collective intelligence. As wikis continue to develop and move into streams of cultural, social, academic, and enterprise work activity, it is appropriate to consider how collective intelligence emerges from mass collaboration. Collective intelligence can take many forms -- this paper examines one, the emergence of stable facts on Wikipedia. More specifically, this paper examines ways of participating that lead to the creation of facts. This research will show how we can be more effective consumers, producers, and managers of wiki information by understanding how collaboration shapes facts.
Keywords: fact creation, participation, power and negotiation, wiki, wikipedia
"edit this page": the socio-technological infrastructure of a wikipedia article BIBAKFull-Text 289-296
  Shaun P. Slattery
Networked environments, such as wikis, are commonly used to support work, including the collaborative authoring of information and "fact-building." In networked environments, the activity of fact-building is mediated not only by the technological features of the interface, but also by the social conventions of the community it supports. This paper examines the social and technological features of a Wikipedia article in order to understand how these features help mediate the activity of fact-building and highlights the need for communication designers to consider the goals and needs of the communities for which they design.
Keywords: activity theory, infrastructure, wiki, wikipedia
Backchannel persistence and collaborative meaning-making BIBAKFull-Text 297-304
  Brian McNely
Digital backchannel communication has become an increasingly important area of study for researchers and practitioners in several fields. From the emergence of wifi-enabled Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to contemporary instances of microblogging and SMS messaging, the role of digital backchannels in enabling collaborative affordances has received much recent attention. As backchannel communication continues to become more prevalent at professional conferences, in educational curricula, and in organizational settings, robust frameworks for understanding the role of backchannel environments in collaborative meaning-making are needed. Drawing upon cultural-historical activity theory and actor network theory, this paper explores the development of backchannel persistence through microblogging platforms, and suggests an approach to studying the collaborative affordances of backchannel communication by focusing on the related concepts of mobilization and recursive writing collaboration.
Keywords: backchannel, microblogging, mobilization, persistence, recursion, twitter

Workshop 1

Visualizing patterns of knowledge work in organizations: a workshop BIBAKFull-Text 305-306
  Mark Zachry; Clay Spinuzzi; William Hart-Davidson
This workshop explores an approach to creating meaningful accounts of knowledge work in organizations. The approach includes data collection, analysis, and visualization techniques.
Keywords: activity networks, activity systems, communicative event models, genre ecologies, knowledge work, sociotechnical graphs

Workshop 2

Mapping genre fields BIBAKFull-Text 307-308
  David M. Christensen; Jennifer deWinter; Ryan M. Moeller; Lee M. Sherlock
This workshop will introduce the components and methodology of genre field analysis and engage participants in mapping genre fields in which they are currently immersed.
Keywords: agent, dialectic, genre field analysis, play theory

Workshop 3

7th international workshop on graphical documentation: documenting SOA-based systems BIBAKFull-Text 309-310
  Scott Tilley; Stephany Bellomo
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a way of designing, developing, deploying, and managing enterprise systems when business needs and technical solutions are closely aligned. SOA-based systems can be so large and complex, so the role of documentation as a means of conveying information about them is very important. Unfortunately, there is currently little concrete guidance available on how to do so effectively. This workshop will explore the current state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice in documenting SOA-based systems. The goal is to learn from past experience in documenting other software-intensive systems, including the use of graphical documentation techniques relying on the Unified Modeling Language (UML), but taking into account the unique features and challenges inherent in SOA-based systems (e.g., properly documenting issues related to governance). This workshop is the 7th in a series of events exploring graphical documentation in the context of aiding system understanding.
Keywords: SOA, UML, graphical documentation


Understanding how people use publicly available online services for work BIBAKFull-Text 311-312
  Toni Ferro; Katie Derthick; Jonathan T. Morgan; Elly Searle; Mark Zachry
How are knowledge workers integrating web-based tools into their work? Where do they spend their time while online at work? Reporting the results of an annual national survey of knowledge workers, this poster offers insight into the current state of distributed knowledge work.
Keywords: collaboration, online services, survey, web 2.0
Using user-centered design to discover motivation and priorities in an established online community BIBAKFull-Text 313-314
  Elly Searle; Katie Derthick; Toni Ferro; Jonathan T. Morgan; Mark Zachry
This poster presents our work using a face-to-face user-centered design method to inform the design of a reputation visualization for an established online community. The benefits of conducting an offline group session with online community members included insights into motivation and priorities, an understanding of community norms, and a member check on previous findings.
Keywords: online communities, user-centered design
Formalization and community investment in wikipedia's regulating texts: the role of essays BIBAKFull-Text 315-316
  Jonathan T. Morgan; Katie Derthick; Toni Ferro; Elly Searle; Mark Zachry; Travis Kriplean
This poster presents ongoing research on how discursive and editing behaviors are regulated on Wikipedia by means of documented rules and practices. Our analysis focuses on three types of collaboratively-created policy document (policies, guidelines and essays), that have been formalized to different degrees and represent different degrees of community investment. We employ a content analysis methodology to explore how these regulating texts differ according to a) the aspects of editor behavior, content standards and community principles that they address, and b) how they are used by Wikipedians engaged in 'talk' page discussions to inform, persuade and coordinate with one another.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication, computer-supported cooperative work, sociotechnical systems, wikis