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DOC Tables of Contents: 03040506070809101112131415

ACM 2013 International Conference on Design of Communication

Fullname:Proceedings of the 31st ACM International Conference on Design of Communication
Note:Simplifying Complexity
Editors:Michael J. Albers; Katherine Gossett
Location:Greenville, North Carolina
Dates:2013-Sep-30 to 2013-Oct-01
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2131-0; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: DOC13
Links:Conference Website
  1. Papers
  2. Posters


Use of 5E models to enhance user experience BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Michael J. Albers
Understanding the terminology used by different user groups as they interact with a system's information is a primary focus of information analysis. User terminology directly reflects audience groups' mental models, how they perceive the overall situation, and how their needs differ from other groups. The web of mappings of terminology between user groups and system interaction goals provides a path to developing a 5E model that can be carried forward into the design process. During the early information analysis, the designers and user experience people have to analyze multiple audiences, create personas, create a 5E model for each persona, and then resolve and merge the differences so that the final design works for all audiences. Building 5E models for multiple audiences provides a method to optimize across those audiences.
A customized mobile application for a cerebral palsy user BIBAFull-Text 7-16
  Luciana Correia Lima de Faria Borges; Lucia Filgueiras; Cristiano Maciel; Vinicius Pereira
Mobile web has created several opportunities for the development of assistive technologies that can support disabled people in the performance of daily life activities. Mobile applications can be developed using participatory design methods which result in customized assistive solutions. In this paper, we describe the development of a mobile application to support M, a man with cerebral palsy in his communication and professional activities, highlighting the use of a participatory design method. We discuss the changes that mobile web can bring to disabled people's lives, in the light of this experience. We conclude that mobile web applications can be configured as interesting solutions for assistive technologies.
Design research methods to understand user needs for an etextile knee sleeve BIBAFull-Text 17-22
  Ceara Ann Byrne; Claudia B. Rebola; Clint Zeagler
Knee replacement surgery is dramatically increasing in the United States for people over the age of 45 and rehabilitation after surgery is a necessary step for the success of the replacement. Rehabilitation requires regular access to a wide variety of resources and personnel. Currently, there are no self-care tools to enable tracking a patient's rehabilitative progress at home. As such, there is an opportunity to design and develop sensing technology tools to help alleviate the healthcare system and empower people in the knee rehabilitation process. The purpose of this paper is to describe the design process for a wearable, home rehabilitation device for knee replacement: an eTextile Knee Sleeve. More specifically, it describes the design research methods undertaken to understand user needs, including expert interviews, rehabilitation observation, and a participatory design workshop, to leverage advancements in technology and the field of eTextiles.
The pragmatic web: addressing complex communication in public administration using tailored delivery BIBAFull-Text 23-32
  Nathalie Colineau; Cecile Paris; Keith VanderLinden
Public administrations must communicate with a diverse citizenry concerning complex programs and initiatives. Because producing individual communications for a large citizenry is expensive, the communications are written generically, carefully discussing all possible contingencies and details. Because the programs are complex, these generic communications are difficult to understand. One way to communicate more effectively in this complex environment is to automatically tailor each communication based on the context of each individual citizen. This paper presents a prototype system that produces web presentations describing the programs offered by a public administration agency to the citizenry it serves. The work is presented as an example of work on the pragmatic web. Particular attention is focused on the system's authoring tool, which allows authors to produce and configure the resources required to drive the tailoring mechanism.
Simplifying business complexity with frameworks BIBAFull-Text 33-38
  Clare Cotugno; Shannon L. Fitzhugh; Raegen Hoeft
How does an interdisciplinary team with professional training in different disciplines document and redesign a complex business process in just a few weeks? How can they persuade a global client that change is understandable and possible? By using a macroergonomic framework to parse and analyze data and educate and empower stakeholders, this team of user experience researchers and designers simplified complexity within their own process and for their client as well.
An approach to improve the accessibility and usability of existing web system BIBAFull-Text 39-48
  Ana Luiza Dias; Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes; Paulo Cesar Masiero; Willian Massami Watanabe; Matheus Edson Ramos
The Web is currently the main way of providing computing services, reaching a larger number of users with different characteristics. As the complexity and interactivity of systems is increased, users become more demanding towards all the requirements associated to their distinct needs. Implementing the interaction requirements in the Web has become the main focus of accessibility and usability studies, describing essential design features which provide users with quality, assured systems. The focus on the users reinforced that as the number of users grows and the system became available to a wide variety of users, accessibility and usability features become even more critical to a Web application's success. In this paper, we present ACCESSA, a practical approach to rapidly improve the accessibility of existing Web systems, acting mainly in the interface design with no changes to the functional requirements of systems. The ACCESSA is based on the WCAG 2.0 guidelines and other patterns, choosing the guidelines that present lower implementation costs and represent higher severity accessibility issues.
Analytics as heuristics: technical considerations for DOC BIBAFull-Text 49-54
  Brenton Faber; Keith Gagnon
Abstract: This paper is an initial effort to articulate the rhetorical work of analytics for technical writers and designers of technical information. We situate analytics as a heuristic process, the intentional creation of forms and events for aggregating and assessing data within and across systems. Using examples from healthcare and library science we highlight: (1) The opportunities and complications of working with comprehensive data sets (100% of population) rather than representative samples; (2) The importance of outliers, and (3) The social dynamics associated with inventing concepts. We suggest that analytics is equally a social, technical, and rhetorical activity. Meaningful queries will invent and aggregate concepts that enable description, assessment, and change throughout a social system. We stress the contextual and social dynamics of analytics noting that like any rhetorical activity, analytics simultaneously construct, reflect, and impose value and meaning on systems under scrutiny.
Simplifying the development of cross-platform web user interfaces by collaborative model-based design BIBAFull-Text 55-64
  Vivian Genaro Motti; Dave Raggett; Sascha Van Cauwelaert; Jean Vanderdonckt
Ensuring responsive design of web applications requires their user interfaces to be able to adapt according to different contexts of use, which subsume the end users, the devices and platforms used to carry out the interactive tasks, and also the environment in which they occur. To address the challenges posed by responsive design, aiming to simplify their development by factoring out the common parts from the specific ones, this paper presents Quill, a web-based development environment that enables various stakeholders of a web application to collaboratively adopt a model-based design of the user interface for cross-platform deployment. The paper establishes a series of requirements for collaborative model-based design of cross-platform web user interfaces motivated by the literature, observational and situational design. It then elaborates on potential solutions that satisfy these requirements and explains the solution selected for Quill. A user survey has been conducted to determine how stakeholders appreciate model-based design user interface and how they estimate the importance of the requirements that lead to Quill.
Teaching UX: designing programs to train the next generation of UX experts BIBAFull-Text 65-70
  Guiseppe Getto; Liza Potts; Michael J. Salvo; Kathie Gossett
This experience report describes core values and approaches to teaching and developing programs in User Experience (UX). What binds these values and approaches together is a deep engagement with ongoing trends and best practices in the field of UX over the past several decades. Examples offered are contextually embedded, yet each expression is consistent with underlying core competencies gleaned from a ten-plus year history of teaching and practicing UX design, information architecture and information design, visual rhetoric, ethics, and usability in the technical communication classroom. The best practices we articulate below are applicable in the context of corporate training, team building and preparation, and consulting, in addition to academic contexts.
Reducing complexity using an interaction room: an experience report BIBAFull-Text 71-76
  Simon Grapenthin; Matthias Book; Volker Gruhn; Christian Schneider; Kai Völker
Large-scale information system evolution projects often place high demands on both business and technical stakeholders' cognitive and communication skills. Especially if the need for evolution is not confined to a particular feature, but affects the whole value chain, finding dependencies and interrelationships between processes and components is challenging as it requires cross-departmental understanding. These issues can be even more challenging for management stakeholders who need to make high-level and far-reaching decisions on implementation strategies despite not being deeply involved in the technical details. One of the main problems in such projects is that the stakeholders who have expert knowledge typically have only little methodical experience, while the method experts lack the business experience. In this paper, we report on experiences and lessons from a large systems evolution project in a German insurance company, where we applied a new approach -- the so-called "Interaction Room" -- to improve stakeholders' understanding of the project's risks and dependencies in a pragmatic way, without overwhelming them with a heavyweight analysis method.
Icon design for user interface of remote patient monitoring mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 77-84
  Ljilja Kascak; Claudia B. Rébola; Richard Braunstein; Jon A. Sanford
The purpose of this paper is to describe the studies undertaken in order to improve and simplify user interface (UI) design of a Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) device, specifically the BL Healthcare Access Tablet. Current icon designs for UIs of the RPM devices are not well designed to reflect the needs, experiences and limitations of the end-user. Complex and unclear UIs and instructions make compliance with self-management schedules often poor. The issue of compliance, with the need for effective communication between chronic disease patients and healthcare professionals emphasize the need for the appropriate UI and communication technology. Improvement is made from the perspective of the user experience (UX) / UI redesign. Usability studies were conducted, followed by the UI redesign and icons design with the aim to address the UX design. A mobile application concept for the RPM is developed, that could be used on existing tablets and smartphones, thus eliminating the need for the current costly hardware.
Towards simplifying learning systems: a critical review BIBAFull-Text 85-90
  Frantzeska Kolyda
The concept of learning itself involves a significant amount of complexity. Therefore there is a need to design and implement learning systems that are not complex, confusing or complicated. This paper discusses, based on a review of the literature, how we could simplify educational technology and learning systems by focusing on one of the most important user centered design principles, i.e. understanding learner's needs and establishing requirements. It is also important to consider the learning context before focusing on the characteristics and system requirements. In conclusion, nowadays, more than ever before, new and emerging technologies could make possible the design of powerful learning systems that could transform the quality of learning as long as they are easy to use, intuitive and provide an engaging user experience.
Enhancing communication and collaboration through integrated internet and intranet architecture BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Ganapathy Mani; Juman Byun; Patrizia Cocca
When it comes to enhancing collaboration and communication in an organization, particular types of technologies with different properties, frameworks and platforms are used to accomplish different types of tasks. These technologies are often disconnected and require separate maintenance and coordination. This system leads to more complex processing and communication that creates confusion in collaboration. It is also time consuming, have little or no flexibility and accumulates data overhead. To address these issues, we propose a new Integrated Internet and Intranet (I3) architecture, information flow models and optimization techniques to streamline the communication and enhance the collaboration. With an efficient Big Data processing design and optimization techniques, we reduce the complexity and enhance the computer-human interaction. Our implementation of this architecture in a non-profit international organization showed significant improvement in communication and collaboration by reducing the number of emails, duplicates of documents, man-hours, and number of steps for each task.
The ethics of agile ethnography BIBAFull-Text 101-106
  Andrew Flood Mara; Liza Potts; Gerianne Bartocci
In this paper, we describe methods for evaluating the ethics of agile ethnographic research. The large variety of how the term ethnography is used and a lack of a clear scope of associated activities limits the capacity for communication design researchers to accurately and ethically conduct ethnographic field research in various settings. This paper discusses possible ways to conduct ethical ethnography by providing a common definition and case studies to support an agile, rich, iterative, contextual research process.
Linked open data for cultural heritage: evolution of an information technology BIBAFull-Text 107-112
  Julia Marden; Carolyn Li-Madeo; Noreen Whysel; Jeffrey Edelstein
Communication design encompasses how information is structured behind the scenes, as much as how the information is shared across networks (Potts & Albers). Information architecture can profoundly alter our perceptions of society and culture (Swarts). Today cultural heritage institutions like libraries, archives, and museums (LAMs) are searching for new ways to engage and educate patrons. This paper examines how linked open data (LOD) can solve the communication design problems that these institutions face and help LAM patrons find new meaning in cultural heritage artifacts.
Simplifying complexity: modeling the process of collaboration between artists and scientists BIBAFull-Text 113-122
  Zoe McDougall; Sidney Fels; Dominic Lopes; Heather L. O'Brien
This paper presents a modal model to describe and facilitate communication design in collaborative settings. This model was conceived of as a tool for understanding the nature of collaboration between artists and scientists in an interdisciplinary case study, but can be used cross-disciplinarily and ultimately prescriptively. The model may reveal shifting patterns of interaction between collaborators over time and through multiple processes. Patterns may be revealed in setting and attaining benchmark goals as well as in general group communication. Different collaborative modes (ontological relationships between collaborators) and modes of being (phenomenological relationship between collaborators) form the basis for sixty collaborative possibilities with two or more collaborators.
Visual research methods and communication design BIBAFull-Text 123-132
  Brian J. McNely
Visual research methods include a variety of empirical approaches to studying social life and social processes, including communication and documentation. Developed largely in anthropology and sociology, visual methods typically involve the use of photography, videography, and drawing in qualitative studies of lived experience. Despite the use of visual methods in related fields such as CSCW, HCI, and computer science education, such approaches are underdeveloped in studies of communication design. In this paper, the author provides a historical and theoretical overview of visual research methods before detailing three interrelated approaches that may be productively applied to work in communication design. The author then illustrates how these approaches were adapted to communication design studies in industry and academe before describing implications for future work in this area.
On signifying the complexity of inter-agent relations in agentsheets games and simulations BIBAFull-Text 133-142
  Marcelle P. Mota; Ingrid T. Monteiro; Juliana J. Ferreira; Cleyton Slaviero; Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza
This paper reports the results of an empirical study about the semiotic engineering of signs of complexity for live documentation of games and simulations built with a visual programming learning environment. The study highlights the essence of the semiotic engineering process and shows how its outcome has been received by a group of users who can speak for a large portion of the live documentation system's user population. It also shows how the communication of complexity is, in and of itself, a major design challenge, especially when mastering complexity is one of the prime purposes of the documented object. Because the study was carried out in the context of a live documentation system, its conclusions can also illustrate how to conduct semiotically-inspired interaction design.
Interfaces as rhetorical constructions: reddit and 4chan during the Boston marathon bombings BIBAFull-Text 143-150
  Liza Potts; Angela Harrison
In this paper, we describe the rhetorical construction of two community sites and analyze how these sites support the information sharing practices of these communities. By examining activity on web-based discussion boards reddit and 4chan, we show how these spaces are developed and shaped over time by participants making rhetorical moves in order to share content within these ecologies. During the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings, we show how these spaces can be altered, disregarding the more typical practices on these sites. When community members embrace or reject these uses, it is as much a reaction to the content as it is to the cultural misuse of the community. In the case of reddit and 4hcan, this acceptance and rejection is especially true when the makers and maintainers of the system are participants themselves. Through this examination, we conclude that it is important to understand the rhetorical construction of these systems as reflections of the cultures they support.
Sympathetic devices: designing technologies for older adults BIBAFull-Text 151-156
  Claudia B. Rebola; Brian Jones
This paper provides an outline of a framework used in a series of interactive product concepts designed for and with older adults. This framework was developed as part of a research focus, entitled "sympathetic devices," which focuses on the design of communication technologies for older adults. The core elements of the framework are outlined providing examples of product concepts where the framework has been applied in order to demonstrate its capabilities. The significance of utilizing the framework is to better design technologies to help older adults age healthy and independently, specially focusing on the utilization of tangible interactions as an extension of the use of touch interfaces.
Understanding the process of learning touch-screen mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 157-164
  Lucia Tokárová; Melius Weideman
Mobile devices, together with touch-screen interfaces, have become part of the everyday usage items of many information consumers across the globe. However, it is clear that the learning curve for touch-screen interfaces is steeper than what was expected. This presents some problems especially along with the current trend towards designing more complex mobile applications. The objective of this research was to determine how users interact with applications on touch-screen mobile devices, and how they progress through the various learning phases. A literature study, two pilot studies and a full survey questionnaire were used to gather data and perceptions about the status quo of learning within mobile touch-screen interfaces. Results indicated the presence of recurring patterns in users' preferences. In particular, associations with personal characteristics, namely age, gender and the length of experience, were observed. These patterns might provide fundamental value as a theoretical ground for designing intuitive mobile applications.
API documentation and software community values: a survey of open-source API documentation BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Robert Watson; Mark Mark Stamnes; Jacob Jeannot-Schroeder; Jan H. Spyridakis
Studies of what software developers need from API documentation have reported consistent findings over the years; however, these studies all used similar methods -- usually a form of observation or survey. Our study looks at API documentation as artifacts of the open-source software communities who produce them to study how documentation produced by the communities who use the software compares to past studies of what software developers want and need from API documentation. We reviewed API documentation from 33 of the most popular open-source software projects, assessed their documentation elements, and evaluated the quality of their visual design and writing. We found that the documentation we studied included most or all the documentation elements reported as desirable in earlier studies and in the process, we found that the design and writing quality of many documentation sets received considerable attention. Our findings reinforce the API requirements identified in the literature and suggest that the design and writing quality of the documentation are also critical API documentation requirements that warrant further study.


An exploration of the professional development potential of living world games BIBAFull-Text 175-176
  Christina Bethel
By creating and modifying a living world game for professional development (PD), community colleges could more effectively acculturate instructors to community college's values, norms, and practices. I will conceptualize how collaborative game development would function to strengthen faculty learning communities by challenging existing faculty to engage in new literacies that will help them connect with students and other faculty, as well as share disciplinary and professional expertise in new ways. In my poster, I will use screen shots of Grand Theft Auto IV to illustrate the potential for living world games as immersive PD that I have collected while conducting a virtual ethnography of the game. I will conclude by exploring potential for building collaborative partnerships between educational institutions, game industry companies, and gamer communities to develop campus-specific living world PD video games.
An analysis of the complex ecological system and usability of selected weather communication products for the National Weather Service-Lubbock BIBAFull-Text 177-178
  Joy Cooney; Heidi Everett; Hilary Graham; Mark Shealy; Ian Weaver; Elaine Wisniewski
Our research team was asked by the National Weather Service-Lubbock (NWS-L) to consider the usability of its weather communication products. We specifically focused our study on two types of evaluations: (1) usability testing of GraphiCasts on the NWS-L Facebook page and Submit a Storm Report features with non-expert users and (2) site visits with expert users who use NWS-L products to make high-stakes decisions. The study occurred during an actual severe weather event, so we were able to study real user in a real scenario conducting real tasks. Our participants in the usability testing of the GraphiCasts were planning an outdoor event and the participants in the site visits were reacting to the impending weather. This poster presents our methods, results, and recommendations to the NWS-L.
Call to action: simplifying voice tree design BIBAFull-Text 179-180
  Rodrigo Davies; Sasha Constanza-Chock
Call to Action is an open-source web platform for creating telephone-based services such as hotlines, voice petitions and phone blogging platforms being developed at MIT's Center for Civic Media. It seeks to simplify the design and deployment process for non-technical users, such as community groups. This poster will illustrate the platform's GUI, methodology, typical use cases and future development prospects.
Redesigning the library e-lending experience to ensure accessibility and patron privacy BIBAFull-Text 181-182
  Kathleen Dobruse
This poster identifies systematic problems with current user experience models that disadvantage consumers in favor of protecting rights holders' interests. Finally, alternative models that balance library, patron, and publisher interests are discussed.
Making complex simple BIBAFull-Text 183-184
  Kent Eisenhuth; Jeanne Adamson; Justin Wear
This poster illustrates our process for transforming an error-inducing, bewildering application into an intuitive workflow designed around user needs.
Evaluating a workflow for authoring multimodal DITA BIBAFull-Text 185-186
  Carlos Evia; Sean Healy; Tim Lockridge
This poster presentation reports on preliminary evaluation of OVID (Online Video), an open source DITA Open Toolkit plug-in that allows insertion of HTML5 video tags in web help topics. OVID converts DITA inline links into multimedia HTML5 tags (video, audio, and canvas). Students in an advanced undergraduate technical communication course participated in a quasi-empirical evaluation of the authoring workflow needed to create OVID-enhanced DITA topics and maps. Findings suggest that the process of identifying, tagging, and coding video elements does not represent a serious burden to authors, and participants described it as being easier and faster than writing DITA topics and maps.
Building a better conference experience through user-centered design BIBAFull-Text 187-188
  Rachael Hodder; Michael McLeod; Donnie Johnson Sackey
In this poster, we present user experience research demonstrating that current tools designed to facilitate conference communication and organization fail to support the needs of attendees and the goals of academia in general. Current conference technologies have failed to support the scholarly exchange of ideas at conferences, both in effectively facilitating dialogue at conferences and preserving those exchanges for later scholarly purposes. We recommend new information models and interfaces that can better support how conferences actually work that, when utilized, can better facilitate the exchange of ideas and can prevent that exchange from being lost in the ether.
Determining optimal caption placement using eye tracking BIBAFull-Text 189-190
  Andrew D. Ouzts; Nicole E. Snell; Prabudh Maini; Andrew T. Duchowski
In this study, the effect of caption placement on information intake is examined. Eye movement data is used to quantitatively analyze the effect of four different captioning methods. Information intake (i.e. Information Assimilation (IA)) is measured via a 4-category comprehension quiz, developed by S.R Gulliver and G. Ghinea, which measures key differing aspects of captioned videos. Results indicate that caption placement can have significant effects on reading time, number of saccadic crossovers, and ratio of fixations on captions.
Social media infrastructure: supporting communication practices from behind the scenes BIBAFull-Text 191-192
  Laura A. Palmer
In this poster, I propose a design for a communication infrastructure to support social media practices in businesses and organizations. Many professional social media efforts are poorly conceived and executed due to a limited understanding of how social media should function for professional purposes. Yet, through a simple model that begins with the development of policies and strategic plans, and includes audit, legal considerations, and style, many of the risks and uncertainties of social media can be mitigated. The poster presented here outlines key areas for this communication infrastructure and seeks input as to how the model could be expanded.
Participatory documentation: a case study & rationale BIBAFull-Text 193-194
  Elizabeth A. Pitts
This poster focuses on how consumers learn to use marketing automation software, what types of documentation they prefer, and why. Interviews with U.S. and U.K. marketers demonstrate that implementing marketing automation software requires users to re-learn their jobs, and requires companies to reconfigure organizational structures and workflows. Accordingly, users are interested in knowing how counterparts apply the software, despite raising concerns about privacy. Based on these findings, the poster illustrates the advantages that software companies -- especially those operating on a Waterfall development model -- can gain by allowing users to participate in creating and refining documentation. In addition to reducing the learning curve for users, participatory documentation enables companies to gather feedback that is critical to making documentation and software more usable.
Remediation in data visualization: two examples of learning in real-time data processing environments BIBAFull-Text 195-196
  Charlie R. Potter; Justin A. Young
Our poster is an exploration of the effects of quantifying physical experiences and refashioning them into new, interactive, live experiences through data visualization; in other words, we are exploring how data visualizations are designed to teach and effect change.
Browsing as a learning practice in the information management work of technical communicators BIBAFull-Text 197-198
  Stewart Whittemore
This poster reports data from a case study of the information management practices technical communicators at a software company in the U.S. Midwest. The study found that the technical communicators preferred location-based file folder browsing for their information finding and retrieval activities. Building on situated cognition theories of learning, the researcher speculates that file folder browsing may serve a learning purpose for the technical communicators by helping them internalize technical information about their products and social information about their work teams and processes.
Building better help before we build it: user characteristics' effect on library help design BIBAFull-Text 199-200
  Tao Zhang; Ilana R. Barnes
The goal of this study is to examine the effect of user help seeking characteristics on their perceptions of library help design principles, formats and tools. Structural equation modeling (SEM) of a questionnaire survey results showed a number of significant regression relationships. Analysis of open-end survey questions revealed existing user behaviors such as preferred help formats and likelihood of using a help system.