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DOC Tables of Contents: 040506070809101112131415

ACM 2014 International Conference on Design of Communication

Fullname:Proceedings of the 32nd ACM International Conference on Design of Communication
Editors:Kathie Gossett; Brian McNely; Dave Jones
Location:Colorado Springs, Colorado
Dates:2014-Sep-27 to 2014-Sep-28
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3183-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: DOC14
Links:Conference Website
  1. Rigo Award Keynote Paper
  2. Research Papers
  3. Experience Reports
  4. Posters

Rigo Award Keynote Paper

User Experience and the Spectacles of the Small: On Mundane Change and Encounters BIBAFull-Text 1
  Patricia Sullivan
My interest in this talk is in exploration of small change and the study of user experience. How can small, mundane and usually hidden change(s) interact with the study of user experience to gain the visible force needed to propel both into deeper understandings of users (and more canny products)?

Research Papers

Business process modeling: Vocabulary problem and requirements specification BIBAFull-Text 2
  Jonas Bulegon Gassen; Jan Mendling; Lucinéia Heloisa Thom; José Palazzo M. de Oliveira
Process models are composed of graphical elements and words. However, words used to name elements during process design have potentially ambiguous meanings, which might result in quality problems. We believe that ontologies might serve as a means to address this problem. This paper discusses aspects related to words used to represent concepts in labels and why ontologies can improve this representation. Also, we analyze how the requirements specifications can influence the terms used during modeling. The discussion regarding ontologies is conceptual. We performed an experiment to analyze empirically the vocabulary problem in the context of process models. In the experiment the selection of terms represented with different levels of explicitness in requirements specifications is evaluated. Our findings suggest that the vocabulary problem occurs in process models. Also, different levels of explicitness affect the labels but are not sufficient to solve the vocabulary problem.
A Mobile Banking Model in the Cloud for Financial Inclusion in India BIBAFull-Text 3
  Amitava Ghosh; Sourya Joyee De; Ambuj Mahanti
This paper discusses the role of Financial Inclusion in a country like India and mobile banking as a means to attain it. The paper discusses the increasing penetration of mobile phones and the key considerations of use of mobile banking. The paper proposes an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) based mobile banking model in the cloud suitable for a developing country like India. The World Development Indicators show increasing penetration of mobile phones in both the developed and the developing world. This model can perform the basic formal banking operations with less dependence on external agents or business correspondents. The model assumes the availability of Internet facility in the mobile phones. IVR based models in the cloud are very rare. Most of the existing models use mobile Short Messaging Service (SMS).
An Analysis of Twitter Conversations at Academic Conferences BIBAFull-Text 4
  Laura Gonzales
Academic conference organizers encourage tweeting during presentations to promote access and engagement. In this paper, I provide a methodological framework for analyzing Twitter conversations during academic conferences. An analysis of tweets archived during the 2014 Conference on College Composition and Communication is included as an example. Tweets using the #4C14 hashtag (N=12,522) were analyzed to determine 1) when people tweet during conferences, 2) what sessions they tweet about most, 3) how often participants tweet during sessions, and 4) what people tweet about at conferences during times of high Twitter activity. Results suggest conference attendees tweet most frequently during the middle of each day during the conference, presentations related to technology yield high Twitter activity, and retweeting particular sessions extended presentations far beyond the designated time blocks of each conference panel. These results provide valuable information for conference organizers and experience architects interested in promoting participatory digital spaces during academic conferences.
Identifying how U.S. nonprofit organizations operate within the Information Process Maturity Model BIBAFull-Text 5
  Sarah K. Gunning
In this paper, the researcher investigates grant writers' perspectives on knowledge management practices within nonprofit organizations. The researcher uses survey data (n = 448) to assess where organizations fall within JoAnn Hackos's Information Process Maturity Model (IPMM) [1]. The paper asks, how do proposal writers perceive current documentation efforts within their organizations? Is there a relationship between an organization's annual operating budget and employees' satisfaction with documentation efforts? Results indicate that most nonprofit organizations fall within the Ad hoc or Rudimentary stage of the IPMM. However, this classification may be due to grant writers' preferences to create individual rather than organizational documentation systems. Organizational documentation practices have both short- and long-term economic implications for the nonprofit industry, particularly fundraising, where employee turnover is a problem.
Characterizing Web-Based Tutorials: Exploring Quality, Community, and Showcasing Strategies BIBAFull-Text 6
  Matthew Lount; Andrea Bunt
End-user authored tutorials found on the Web are increasingly becoming the norm for assisting users with learning software applications, but little is known about the quality of these tutorials. Using quality metrics derived from previous work, we perform a usability expert review on a sample of Photoshop tutorials, a popular image-manipulation program with one of the largest showings of web-based tutorials. We also explore how the characteristics of these tutorials differ across four tutorial sources, representing those that are, i) written by a close-knit online community; ii) written by expert users; iii) most likely to be found; and iv) representative of the general population of tutorials. Our analysis reveals that expert users generally write higher quality tutorials, and that many of the tutorials in our sample suffer from some important limitations, such as lacking attempts to help users avoid common errors. We also find that a single five-star rating system did not sufficiently distinguish quality between the tutorials. Building on this later finding, we propose and evaluate a rating approach based on multiple criteria, finding strong initial support for such an approach.
All of the Things: Engaging Complex Assemblages in Communication Design BIBAFull-Text 7
  Brian J. McNely; Nathaniel A. Rivers
In this paper, we compare sociocultural theories of communication and user experience design to scholarship from associative and new materialist approaches. We argue for a more expansive and symmetrical perspective on communication design -- one that broadens the scope of potential actors that affect user experiences, and that more strongly considers their effects on communicative activities. We posit three ways in which this perspective may be operationalized: (a) accounting for the missing masses, (b) designing for flat ontologies and radical symmetry, and (c) designing for interagentivity. Finally, we offer an initial heuristic for deploying such approaches and discuss scenarios in which they may prove fruitful.
Social Justice in Technologies of Prenatal Care: Toward a User Centered Approach to Technical Communication in Home Pregnancy Testing BIBAFull-Text 8
  Dawn Opel
This article explores two questions increasingly posed by technical communications scholars: "What implicit moral or ethical assumptions exist in the contexts of health and medical communication? If we are aware of these assumptions, what practices can technical communicators engage in to promote social justice in these contexts?". In the specific instance of home pregnancy test packaging and instructions, the lack of attention to social justice concerns is evidenced when comparing this system-centered technical communication to user-centered online health forums wherein users discuss their lived experiences with the tests, expressing frustration to outright fear. Here, a case study of three brands of home pregnancy tests' packaging offers findings that the technical communication of home pregnancy tests violates an ethic of care to the user. This article proposes that the health and medical communication be brought into alignment with the user-centered, participatory models of online health forums in order to promote social justice in the context of the home pregnancy test.
Women, Religion, and Professional Communication: Communication Design for the Female Relief Society, 1842-1920 BIBAFull-Text 9
  Emily January Petersen
My archival research internship experience with a women's discourses project suggests that professional documentation is a vital part of building and maintaining organizations. The historical sources I examined from a religious institution's women's organization displayed a variety of professional communication genres, all of them working to make the larger organization successful and functional. Organizational communication worked to simultaneously promote women's industrial independence while tying women to the larger organization by promoting identities for participating women. These forms of communication ultimately united and disciplined the women of the organization, allowing them to share religious best practices, domestic techniques, and community values with one another. There is much work to be done on the history of professional communication in archives, including how it has been used to design religious organizations.
Genre Cycling: The Infrastructural Function of an Operational Assessment Review and Reporting Process at a Federal Scientific Supercomputing User Facility BIBAFull-Text 10
  Sarah Read; Michael E. Papka
This paper reports on the first phase of a study of technical documentation and reporting at a scientific supercomputing user facility. This paper proposes a new conceptualization of how multiple genres interrelate to coordinate and mediate the functioning of an organization. Based on the case of the operational assessment review and reporting process, this paper strives to differentiate the function of organizational genres to maintain the infrastructural operations of an organization from the function of genres to mediate the production of an organization's mission-based output. The theory-informed analytical tool proposed by this case study, the genre cycle, proposes parameters for further inquiry into the generalizability of the concept.

Experience Reports

Translating Art Installation into ICT: Lessons Learned from an Experience at Workspace BIBAFull-Text 11
  Vinicius Ferreira; Junia Anacleto; Andre Bueno
Interactive digital art can create innovative ways to stimulate and engage audience, what could benefit the space where the installation is done. Aiming at promoting the adoption of non-used places through pleasant experiences, we considered an art project that promotes people engagement to make them become the community's wishes expression. We focus on understanding the process to translate the essence of an artistic expression using Information and Communications Technology (ICT). We translated this artistic expression into digital art installation within a socially 'abandoned' space at a workplace. The biggest challenge is to understand how people interact with the dynamic art-system, that, potentially, it leads audience to experience a highly intimate relationship with the installation and the space. Preliminary results reveal a similar behavior in the audience at both installations, which highlights the potential of ICT to translate the essence of an artistic expression and promote the adoption of a space.
Brokering ISUComm Sites: Toward the Creation of a Large Scale ePortfolio Platform for Multimodal Composition BIBAFull-Text 12
  Bryan Lutz; Rebecca O'Connell; Eric York
This report outlines the authors' experiences developing and piloting ISUComm Sites, an electronic portfolio platform currently in development for ISUComm foundation courses at Iowa State University. Since 2007, ISUComm has sought to better teach students the electronic mode of communication through such a platform, but for some time the project had stalled. This changed in the spring of 2014, when the authors of this article negotiated the resources necessary to build a WordPress installation created both for and by teachers of ISUComm courses. This platform affords students the capability to build online portfolios that showcase their developing identities as scholars and professionals. But to be successful, our project needed "boundary brokers," or graduate students who use their experience as system developers and teachers to negotiate between stakeholders and users at all levels of implementation and development.
Unifying the Shift and Narrow Strategies in Focus+Context Exploratory Search BIBAFull-Text 13
  Krystian Samp; Cédric Beuzit; Jodi Schneider
In this paper we discuss two existing exploration strategies -- Shift and Narrow -- employed by Focus+Context techniques, and how they are supported in the user interface of Saffron, a web-based system enabling exploration of academic topics, authors, and publications. The Shift strategy enables the user to shift focus between different resources while the Narrow strategy enables the user to narrow the focus. Current systems typically support only one of these approaches or include them as separate interaction modes. Saffron supports both strategies in a unified user interface. An initial user study indicates that participants use and appreciate both strategies being supported simultaneously.
An Exploratory Look at Online Instruction Delivery Across Electronic Devices BIBAFull-Text 14
  Jack T. Labriola; Michael McCarthy; Chinwe Obi
We present the results from a usability pilot study to determine if students will perform better accessing and synthesizing course materials between laptops and mobile devices, and also to determine whether or not the students' satisfaction will be higher on mobile devices than laptops. From the results of the study, we highlight some potential gaps in online instruction delivery across devices.


Stories from the Workplace: Using Mini-Modules Online to Increase Student Motivation and Learning BIBAFull-Text 15
  Jon Balzotti; Janet Roberts
In this article, we describe the incorporation of video modules into three professional communication classrooms. These modules were designed to give both teachers and students access to professional practitioners and their views about the changing role of communication in the 21st century workplace. We incorporated these modules into professional communication courses (junior/senior level technical communication course) and courses in the disciplines (freshman and senior engineering design courses). The article discusses how content designed to simulate the language conventions of friendly conversation can impact student motivation and foster greater participation in the professional communication classroom.
Rhetorical Functions of Hashtag Forms Across Social Media Applications BIBAFull-Text 16
  Alice R. Daer; Rebecca Hoffman; Seth Goodman
This study analyzes the complex rhetorical practice of hashtag use across social media platforms and emphasizes the implications for UX designers and technical communicators working with social media. Specifically, we document and analyze the ways that users extend the function of hashtagging beyond findability toward meta-communication, effectively co-designing the hashtagging feature and helping social media designers develop new possibilities for hashtags as communicative tools. Qualitatively-collected data from five popular social media applications (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Tumblr, and Pinterest) are used to investigate how users implement hashtags in different contexts in order to achieve particular rhetorical purposes. Using a grounded approach, we identify 5 primary categories of "metacommunicative" hashtags and suggest how experience architects might incorporate them into future social media designs.
Doing UX: A Workflow for Teaching and Training BIBAFull-Text 17
  Guiseppe Getto
In this interactive poster, I describe methods for introducing professionals from any background to key UX knowledge-making practices (ways); deliverables and concepts that professionals new to UX should be able to create (things); and means of sustaining this work within organizations (impact). This workflow has been developed through my own work teaching classes in UX within higher education, and through collaboration with UX training programs in industry.
Evidence of Things Not Seen: Mapping Sentiment in Unstructured Texts about the Herbicide 'Agent Orange' BIBAFull-Text 18
  Sarah Beth Hopton
Sentiment analysis is a new, relatively unexplored, but potentially helpful method technical communicators can measure shifts in feeling, values, attitudes and beliefs, which drive behavior. Sentiment analysis is a relatively new method so there is little research in technical communications that address best practices. This poster demonstrates the process by which I mined sentiment from a corpus of unstructured text using a dictionary, categorization model and co-location algorithms. Preliminary results are consistent with empirical and historical observations, showing an uptick in negative emotion during moments of greatest political and scientific controversy. The implications of this research suggest new programs and greater access to digitized texts offer the practitioner and scholar new sites and tools with which to conduct research wider in scale and scope, but that the disambiguation of texts continues to prevent total automation of such processes.
Architect, Developer, Designer: The Anatomy of UX in Industry Job Postings BIBAFull-Text 19
  Claire Lauer; Eva Brumberger
User Experience is a quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field that combines psychology, communication, social science, design, technology, and other specialized knowledge areas in an attempt to better understand how users interact with information products and how practitioners can better design such products. However, User Experience/Information Architect jobs commonly ask for applicants whose degrees are in technical disciplines, such as computer science, rather than technical communication. Industry isn't always aware of the unique qualifications that non-computer science majors can bring to these often technology-intensive jobs. This poster will present the results of an investigation of over 1000 "user experience" job ads, collected in the fall of 2013, to identify the job titles, educational and experience requirements, technological competencies, and soft qualifications sought by user experience/information architect jobs. The data can help us better understand the anatomy of this emerging field and, in turn, articulate the value -- added of graduates from technical communication and related programs.
Institutional Review Boards: Human Subjects and Their Texts BIBAFull-Text 20
  Johanna Phelps-Hillen
This interactive poster serves to showcase the evolving roles Institutional Review Boards (IRB) have in research on texts, both physical and digital. Over time, the awareness of and adherence to IRB has grown in technical and professional communication research and scholarship. Part of this growth can be attributed to need (research is more and more being conducted in places such as hospitals, where privacy is vital). However, recent cases, such as the PANS article regarding Facebook and emotion manipulation, indicate that the user experience (UX) of certain products call traditional IRB policies in to question. In particular, questions about text production, dissemination, and subsequent research on texts indicate that IRB policies have not evolved to meet the demands of present research culture. This poster suggests that the narratives and extensions of IRBs preclude and exclude serious consideration of texts by their very design and representation to researchers. This poster examines how IRBs communicate policies to technical and professional communication researchers, and, in light of new research methodologies, researchers can develop extensions to IRB protocol internal to the field. In doing so, this poster aims to ensure ethical treatment of human subjects both as participants, and as authors of texts, in research.
Capturing the Ephemeral: Using Digital Tools to Record Sites of Participatory Memory BIBAFull-Text 21
  Christine Scales; Liza Potts
Throughout the world, every day people are participating in sanctioned and unsanctioned memory making activities in public spaces. Due to their ever-changing status, sites of public memory are difficult to capture and archive. This poster brief focuses on determining methods for successfully recording the changes in these spaces using various digital platforms. By exploring and testing these platforms, we hope to discover which space offers the best way to discuss and record a site. The findings of this research will offer insight on how best to capture and discuss spaces that undergo frequent change.
Porn Architecture: User Tagging and Filtering in Two Online Pornography Communities BIBAFull-Text 22
  Allegra W. Smith
This poster brief describes ongoing research on user taxonomies in free internet pornography, examining tagging and filtering systems in two digital porn bulletin boards on the social network Reddit. These two communities -- r/PornVids, a board for mainstream porn, and r/ChickFlixxx, a board for woman-friendly or feminist porn -- offer unique insight into not only porn consumption patterns, but also ways of sorting pornography according to distinctly gendered preferences. The researcher concludes by describing future directions for empirical inquiry into internet pornography, making a case for the importance of affective considerations in user research and interface design.
Social norms influence student journalists' perception of wearable technologies BIBAFull-Text 23
  Jennifer Ware
In this poster presentation, the author presents results of a study about student journalist perceptions of the wearable technology Google Glass (Glass). This poster presents the first set of results of an ongoing research project designed to determine what factors play the largest roles in student decision making processes about whether or not to use a new technology. Survey results of students in a semester-long capstone journalism course are presented. Results indicate that students' perceptions of social norms related to the new technology shaped early use of the wearable device. After becoming more familiar with Glass and using the device in training sessions, student social norm apprehensions did not decrease. This printed poster will include video footage related to the project through augmented reality technology accessible via smartphones.
Applying the Cognitive Dimensions of API Usability to Improve API Documentation Planning BIBAFull-Text 24
  Robert Watson
This interactive poster explores the application of the 12 cognitive dimensions of API usability to API documentation planning by using the dimensions to identify and characterize the factors that influence the documentation that the users of an API require. Many factors can complicate estimating and planning the documentation an API requires. Even when an API's documentation requirements can be estimated, it can be difficult to present to stakeholders an objective basis for the estimate. The cognitive dimensions of API usability have characterized APIs and their users successfully and they have been used to communicate these characterizations to stakeholders. It follows that the same dimensions could also help identify the documentation that an API requires to provide a satisfactory and successful experience for the software developers who use the API.