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DOC Tables of Contents: 959697989900010203040506070809101112131415

ACM 23rd International Conference on Computer Documentation

Fullname:23rd International Conference on Computer Documentation
Note:Documenting & Designing for Pervasive Information
Editors:Scott Tilley; Robert Newman
Location:Coventry, United Kingdom
Dates:2005-Sep-21 to 2005-Sep-23
Standard No:ISBN: 1-59593-175-9; ACM Order Number: 613050; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DOC05
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Workshop Sessions
  2. Graphical and visual information I
  3. Information design principles and methods I
  4. Pervasive Documentation Systems I
  5. Document authoring, production and management
  6. Pervasive documentation systems II
  7. Graphical and visual information II
  8. Information design principles and methods II
  9. Usability

Workshop Sessions

Aspect-oriented documentation BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  John W., Jr. Stamey; Bryan T. Saunders
This workshop will demonstrate and explain the creation of documentation for Aspect-Oriented programs written in Java and PHP. Fundamentals of Aspect-Oriented Programming, separation of concerns, motivation for Aspect-Oriented Programming, and principles of documenting Aspect-Oriented Programming will be presented.
DITA authoring BIBAFull-Text 3
  Michael Priestley
DITA 1.0 is an OASIS standard for creating topic-oriented, information-typed content that can be reused and single-sourced in a variety of ways. It is also an architecture for creating new information types and describing new information domains based on existing types and domains. This allows groups to create very specific, targeted document type definitions using a process called specialization, while still sharing common output transforms and design rules developed for more general types and domains.
5th international workshop on graphical documentation: determining the barriers to adoption of UML diagrams BIBAFull-Text 4-5
  Scott Tilley; Steve Murphy; Shihong Huang
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the de facto standard for graphically documenting modern software systems. Unfortunately, learning how to properly construct high-quality UML diagrams so that they are an effective means of communication is a challenging task. This workshop will focus on the refinement of an assessment instrument to determine the barriers to increased adoption of UML diagrams by professional software engineers, technical writers, and other project stakeholders. The ultimate goal is to develop a series of recommendations on how to improve UML diagramming practice, and how those practices can be codified in existing methodologies and supported by common tools to foster widespread use.

Graphical and visual information I

Co-generation of text and graphics BIBAFull-Text 6-11
  David G. Novick; Brian Lowe
To reduce potential discrepancies between textual and graphical content in documentation, it is possible to produce both text and graphics from a single common source. One approach to co-generation of text and graphics uses a single logical specification; a second approach starts with CAD-based representation and produces a corresponding textual account. This paper explores these two different approaches, reports the results of using prototypes embodying the approaches to represent simple figures, and discusses issues that were identified through use of the prototypes. While it appears feasible to co-generate text and graphics automatically, the process raises deep issues of design of communications, including the intent of the producer of the documentation.
Accessibility of graphics in technical documentation for the cognitive and visually impaired BIBAFull-Text 12-17
  Steve Murphy
With the U.S. government's new requirement for accessibility, companies such as IBM, are revising their method of selling products and solutions to ensure compliance. The delivery mechanism for information must be accessible to all users, including users with vision, hearing, motor, or cognitive disabilities.
   Users consume information from many different sources. An increasingly popular method of distributing information is using computers and the Internet. The Web houses volumes of documents and graphics available to anyone at any time. Paired with assistive technology such as Home Page Reader, the Internet makes information that would otherwise be restrictive accessible.
   However, as approachable as the Internet may be with its sheer volume of information, it does have limitations. The old saying about a chain, that it is only as good as its weakest link, aptly describes the Internet. Beside problems with retrievability and searchability, many other issues plague this vehicle of information. No matter how sophisticated HTML, DHTML, XHTML, and XML present information, the graphics within the body text are the weakest link, from the viewpoint of users with visual or cognitive impairments.
   This presentation is divided into two sections and explores how a method of creating and exporting graphics can improve the experiences of users with visual or cognitive impairments when viewing technical documentation:
  • Clear, concise, and well-structured diagrams enable better comprehension for
       the cognitively impaired suffering from dyslexia and
       Attention-Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD).
  • The Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) solution addresses many challenges for
       visually impaired people.
  • Information design principles and methods I

    Edward Tufte meets Christopher Alexander BIBAFull-Text 18-24
      John W., Jr. Stamey; Thomas L. Honeycutt; Simon Blanchard
    This paper examines the relationships between Christopher Alexander's Fifteen Properties of living structures, found in The Nature of Order, and Edward Tufte's Principles of Information Design, found in Envisioning Information. In the examination of examples of Tufte's Principles, we find commonality between the Principles and Alexander's Fifteen Properties.
    A stakeholders centered approach for conceptual modeling of communication-intensive applications BIBAFull-Text 25-33
      Vito Perrone; Davide Bolchini; Paolo Paolini
    To be successful, any engineering product should accomplish the needs and expectations of its potential stakeholders. Similarly, design models should be defined taking into account goals and requirements of their users, i.e. the practitioners who daily conceive, develop and deploy applications. Neglecting stakeholders' needs can bring to lack of attention towards these engineering products (design models) while fitness to requirements can drastically increase their acceptability in the real world. This paper focuses on the domain of Communication and Interaction Intensive applications (C&II applications) by presenting a suite of two conceptual models (namely IDM and E-WOOD) belonging to a more comprehensive methodological framework addressing the analysis and design of such a kind of applications. The focus of the paper is not on the presentation of the methods but on highlighting their fitness to the requirements of the potential adopters of such methods. To this end, the overall framework has been defined on the basis of an accurate analysis of potential stakeholders' goals and requirements gained from our training experience to professional designers and from adoption of our previous conceptual methods in several real-life projects.
    A general approach to ethnographic analysis for systems design BIBAFull-Text 34-40
      Rahat Iqbal; Richard Gatward; Anne James
    An important aspect of designing for ubiquitous collaborating systems is addressing the needs of the culture in which the system is to be applied. The value of ethnographic analysis in this respect is gaining increasing acceptance. Such analysis provides a 'rich' and 'concrete' portrayal of the situation and thus helps systematic design of any system where collaboration and communication between actors is paramount. A discussion of these issues has recently been presented in [1]. This paper takes these issues further by considering 'EthnoModel' as an approach to generalisation of the method to any system demonstrating these features.

    Pervasive Documentation Systems I

    Concept and architecture of an pervasive document editing and managing system BIBAFull-Text 41-47
      Stefania Leone; Thomas B. Hodel; Harald Gall
    Collaborative document processing has been addressed by many approaches so far, most of which focus on document versioning and collaborative editing. We address this issue from a different angle and describe the concept and architecture of a pervasive document editing and managing system. It exploits database techniques and real-time updating for sophisticated collaboration scenarios on multiple devices. Each user is always served with up-to-date documents and can organize his work based on document meta data. For this, we present our conceptual architecture for such a system and discuss it with an example.
    Information fragments for a pervasive world BIBAFull-Text 48-53
      Russell Beale
    Is the second paragraph dead? Technology and users are tending to create and consume information in ever decreasing chunks, forcing content creators to create shorter fragments of text and other media. This paper examines this phenomenon, and provides examples of where and why this is happening. It examines the role of metadata, and how this can be used to provide effective, personalized communication in a fragmented digital world.
    Integrating meaningful words, biologically inspired vision and Darwinian knowledge: towards a distributed and mediated design studio BIBAFull-Text 54-59
      Amiram Moshaiov
    This paper discusses issues concerning the turning of pervasive computing into mediated spaces. The motivation involves a scenario of internationally distributed design teams. A distributed intelligent system is proposed to support such a team. The approach is based on past research results and current efforts in three different areas including: computational vision, evolutionary computation, and text analysis. Following their description, an integrative paradigm for the development of a distributed system is suggested and described. While motivated by a particular scenario, this work contains generic elements that might prove valuable for the creation of future mediated systems at-large.

    Document authoring, production and management

    Metadata based authoring for technical documentation BIBAFull-Text 60-67
      Ingo Stock; Michael Weber; Eckhard Steinmeier
    The creation process of technical documentation is an expensive and time-consuming task especially for complex products. To make this process more cost-efficient computerized support is required. Furthermore new technologies like Virtual and Augmented Reality will be increasingly used to visualize repair manuals or operating instructions in the future adding even more to the authoring process. The availability of a suitable authoring environment will be a precondition for the deployment of technical documentations based on these new technologies. Reusing data from the engineering process in an adequate way seems to be a viable means to augment technical authoring. However, the available CAD data lacks necessary information being obligatory for the authoring process. E.g. there is no dismantling information on screws or other peripheral equipment around the CAD-components. This gap can be filled by specific metadata which augments the engineering data. This paper provides a model for such metadata and gives an overview of the possibilities this approach for the authoring of technical documentations.
    A study of the documentation essential to software maintenance BIBAFull-Text 68-75
      Sergio Cozzetti B. de Souza; Nicolas Anquetil; Kathia M. de Oliveira
    Software engineering has been striving for years to improve the practice of software development and maintenance. Documentation has long been prominent on the list of recommended practices to improve development and help maintenance. Recently however, agile methods started to shake this view, arguing that the goal of the game is to produce software and that documentation is only useful as long as it helps to reach this goal.
       On the other hand, in the re-engineering field, people wish they could re-document useful legacy software so that they may continue maintain them or migrate them to new platform.
       In these two case, a crucial question arises: "How much documentation is enough?" In this article, we present the results of a survey of software maintainers to try to establish what documentation artifacts are the most useful to them.
    Checking marked-up documentation for adherance to site-specific standards BIBAFull-Text 76-79
      S. N. I. Mount; R. M. Newman; R. J. Low
    Marked-up text (e.g. HTML and XML) is the format of choice for the delivery of end-user information in pervasive environments. Consistent style and structure of a set of pages can greatly aid their usability and this paper presents a tool called Exstatic to automatically check that a hyperdocument follows site-specific conventions. We describe an example of such an analysis for a live document written in HTML 4.01.
    Developing a pyramid structure for managing web-centric documents BIBAFull-Text 80-84
      Tayfun Karadeniz; Jean-Louis Lassez; Stephen Sheel
    Because of technological advances, scholars suffer from information overload when dealing with the vast quantity of online documents found on the Web. No more clearly is this the case then when educators search the Web for scholarly lectures, namely, PowerPoint presentations which are growing in numbers on the Web at an exponential rate. This paper describes the implementation of an information management model taking the shape of a layered pyramid that streamlines dissemination of this invaluable source of electronic lecture materials. Using the Pyramid Model, the authors implement the Journal of Electronic Lectures (JEL).

    Pervasive documentation systems II

    Developing documentation systems for pervasive network environments BIBAFull-Text 85-88
      DeAnna Steiner
    This paper provides lessons learned from the experience of creating an information system for a large pervasive solution provided by IBM. Designing an information system for IBM WebSphere Everyplace Access presented unique challenges and required creative solutions.
    The aspect-oriented web BIBAFull-Text 89-95
      John Stamey; Bryan Saunders; Simon Blanchard
    We examine Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) as it applies to web development. XHTML was designed to separate form from content, a fundamental principle of separation of concerns in AOP. Cascading Stylesheets and Javascript naturally provide support for AOP. The release of AOPHP (Aspect-Oriented PHP) provides a more traditional way to implement AOP in the LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) web development environment, weaving advice code into PHP source code prior to the PHP pre-processing step.
    Developing a theory and practise of pervasive information capture, processing, visualization and documentation BIBAFull-Text 96-102
      Colin Price; Elizabeth Coulter-Smith
    Developing a theoretical framework for pervasive information environments is an enormous goal. This paper aims to provide a small step towards such a goal. The following pages report on our initial investigations to devise a framework that will continue to support locative, experiential and evaluative data from 'user feedback' in an increasingly pervasive information environment. We loosely attempt to outline this framework by developing a methodology capable of moving from rapid-deployment of software and hardware technologies, towards a goal of realistic immersive experience of pervasive information. We propose various technical solutions and address a range of problems such as; information capture through a novel model of sensing, processing, visualization and cognition.

    Graphical and visual information II

    Visualization of balanced scorecard on PDAs BIBAFull-Text 103-107
      Carlos J. Costa; Manuela Aparcio
    Recognizing some of the weaknesses and ambiguity of previous management approaches, the balanced scorecard approach provides a clear prescription as to what companies should measure in order to balance the financial perspective. The problem here is to display all this information in a small display device. In this paper it is presented a categorization of the different attempts to address the problem of displaying web information on small devices. In this paper it is proposed system architecture to support balanced scorecard. Preliminary results are also discussed.
    The use of eBooks and interactive multimedia as alternative forms of technical documentation BIBAFull-Text 108-115
      Gord Davison; Steve Murphy; Rebecca Wong
    The use of eBooks and interactive multimedia in technical documentation is an emerging and important trend for delivering abstract and complex technical information that is enticing, engaging, and -- most important of all -- effective. With the substantial (and growing) number of documents available electronically, it is a non-trivial task for technical writers to even reach their target audience, let alone engage them. Both eBooks and interactive multimedia feature unique characteristics that serve two important functions: piquing the interest in the user, and aiding in the transmittal of complex technical information. Further, the use of eBooks and interactive multimedia in technical documentation helps to differentiate from the myriad other technical documents. At the IBM Toronto Software Laboratory, the Media Design Studio (MDS) works collaboratively with the information development community to produce graphics and diagrams for technical documentation. This paper explores alternative forms of IBM technical documentation in the form of two case studies-one an eBook and the other a Macromedia Flash-based interactive multimedia presentation. Both projects were co-developed by the writers and graphic designers, with a mandate to create a rich, graphical approach to entice and engage users to read and understand complex technical concepts.
    Animating pervasive computing BIBAFull-Text 116-122
      Andree Woodcock; John Burns; Sarah Mount; Robert Newman; Elena Gaura
    It is difficult to present new, complex ideas in ways that are informative and interesting in situations where a vast amount of information has to be delivered and understood quickly. Given short attention spans, boredom thresholds and limited capacity to assimilate new information, it is essential to use an effective conveyor of the message, which presents the content in a clear and unambiguous manner whilst helping the receiver to remain alert and focused and integrate the information with existing knowledge. This paper introduces a collaboration between computer scientists and artists to develop an effective, animation based information communication tool, in the form of an application scenario, to be used for communicating to students (and wider audiences) dry technical aspects of Pervasive Computing.

    Information design principles and methods II

    Leveraging technology affinity: applying a common set of tools and practices to information development BIBAFull-Text 123-130
      Robert Pierce
    The six best practices of software development can be applied to the development of each component of a finished product or project. Each organization within an enterprise can design and implement a process that encompasses these best practices. And there are software development tools that enable each best practice.
       This paper describes the six best practices, the tools that enable them, and demonstrates how they can be applied to information development, as well as other all components of software development.
       This paper also provides an example that illustrates how documentation groups or organizations can benefit by following these best practices to ensure success for information development projects.
    Capturing visions and goals to inform communication design BIBAFull-Text 131-137
      Davide Bolchini; Giovanni Randazzo
    Current requirements analysis methodologies for web applications fail to capture important elements of the requirements picture. On the one hand, there is the need for modelling the assumptions of a stakeholder which dictate her "weltanschauung" on the design (we call these "visions"). From properly eliciting stakeholder visions, important goals and requirements for the design may arise. On the other hand, we also need to better understand the emotional, psychological, social or individual elements which can trigger a person to use an interactive application (we call these "user motivations"). User motivations - properly combined with stakeholder visions - are key to derive a sound set of user requirements. This paper extends existing achievements in goal-based requirements analysis for communication-intensive web applications by introducing the concepts of vision and user motivation. These new elements provide web analysts and designers with a methodological support to interpret and carry out requirements analysis in complex situations. A case study excerpted from a real web design project is used to show possible uses of the concepts discussed.


    User-centred design and evaluation of ubiquitous services BIBAFull-Text 138-145
      Rahat Iqbal; Janienke Sturm; Olga Kulyk; Jimmy Wang; Jacques Terken
    Theoretical and technological progress has revived the interest in the design of services for the support of co-located human-human communication and collaboration, witnessing the start of several large-scale projects over the last few years. Most of these projects focus on meetings and/or lecture situations. However, user-centred design and evaluation frameworks for co-located communication and collaboration are a major concern. In this paper, we summarise the prevalent approaches towards user-centred design and evaluation, and we develop two different services. In one service, participants in a small-group meeting receive real-time feedback about observable properties of the meeting that are directly related to the social dynamics, such as individual amount of speaking time or eye-gaze patterns. In the other service, teachers in a classroom receive real-time feedback about the activities and attention level of participants in the lecture. We also propose ways to address the different dimensions that are relevant to the design and evaluation of these services (the individual, the social and the organisational dimension), bringing together methods from different disciplines.
    Sensorium games: usability considerations for pervasive gaming BIBAFull-Text 146-150
      S. N. I. Mount; E. I. Gaura; R. M. Newman
    The Sensorium family of games provides a platform and environment for multiplayer games in a pervasive environment. Each player is equipped with a mote, which (along with those of other players) is an element in a wireless sensor network. Sensorium games are pervasive in the truest sense: that is, sensory events in the environment trigger events in the game. For example, walking under a light may cause a loss of game lives.
       In this paper, we describe the Sensorium game platform and Trove, an implemented game which is a member of the Sensorium family. We describe our experiences of player Trove and heuristic evaluations of its usability.
    Usability over time BIBAFull-Text 151-158
      Valerie Mendoza; David G. Novick
    Testing of usability could perhaps be more accurately described as testing of learnability. We know more about the problems of novice users than we know of the problems of experienced users. To understand how these problems differ, and to understand how usability problems change as users change from novice to experienced, we conducted a longitudinal study of usability among middle-school teachers creating Web sites. The study looked at the use both the use of documentation and the underlying software, tracking the causes and extent of user frustration over eight weeks. We validated a categorization scheme for frustration episodes. We found that over the eight weeks the level of frustration dropped, the distribution of causes of frustration changed, and the users' responses to frustration episodes changed. These results suggest that the sorts of errors that are most prominently featured in conventional usability testing are likely of little consequence over longer periods of time.
    Towards a hypertext reading/comprehension model BIBAFull-Text 159-166
      Aristidis Protopsaltis; Vassiliki Bouki
    This paper reports on a study that is concerned with the cognitive aspects of reading in a hypertext environment. The study focuses on text based electronic documents. A cognitive model for hypertext document reading proposed in an earlier work is here developed and validated with the use of think aloud protocols. Navigational strategies that readers employ in hypertext reading and hypertext links' selection are also under study. The results indicate that 100% of the task related data correspond to the components of the cognitive model, allowing us to conclude that the proposed model sufficiently describes the cognitive processes involved in hypertext reading. In addition, three navigational strategies are revealed, linear, mixed, and mixed review. The quantitative data show no significant differences between different reading goals on comprehension and on the amount of text read.