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DOC Tables of Contents: 010203040506070809101112131415

ACM 29th International Conference on Design of Communication

Fullname:29th International Conference on Design of Communication
Editors:Aristidis Protopsaltis; Nicolas Spyratos; Carlos J. Costa; Carlo Meghini
Location:Pisa, Italy
Dates:2011-Oct-03 to 2011-Oct-05
Standard No:ISBN: 1-4503-0936-4, 978-1-4503-0936-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DOC11
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Accessibility, user interface and design of communication I
  2. Serious games and design of communication I
  3. Serious games and design of communication II
  4. Social media I
  5. Workshop
  6. Accessibility, user interface and design of communication I
  7. Keynote address
  8. New frontiers in documentation I
  9. New frontiers in documentation II
  10. Social media II
  11. Keynote address 2
  12. Social media and learning
  13. Poster session

Accessibility, user interface and design of communication I

The communicative functions of animation in user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1-8
  David Novick; Joseph Rhodes; Wervyn Wert
To develop a model that relates the purpose of the communication to the nature of the animation, we surveyed existing user interfaces that use animation, analyzed these uses with respect to type of animation and communicative function, and considered ambiguous or otherwise difficult cases. From this analysis, we constructed a matrix with appropriateness/inappropriateness values for all combinations of communicative functions and animation types covered by our survey. To illustrate how the model could be applied to graphical user interfaces and to assess the model's plausibility, we used the model to develop two versions of a user interface for an MP3 player.
Usability evaluation of acoustic interfaces for the blind BIBAFull-Text 9-16
  Mexhid Ferati; Steve Mannheimer; Davide Bolchini
With the rapid advent of touchscreen devices, opportunities are increasing to develop innovative interfaces, including applications that combine touch input with auditory feedback to serve the blind and visually impaired (BVI) community. Targeted to blind high-school children, our innovative design, AEDIN (Acoustic EDutainment INterface), uses non-speech sounds simultaneously as navigational prompts and content icons/signifiers for recorded text-to-speech educational essays, which are the main content of this application. A study of two versions of AEDIN was conducted with 20 participants from a K-12 school for the BVI to evaluate its usability and identify ways to improve it. Through the collection of quantitative and qualitative data, we discovered key design improvements that made AEDIN a highly usable and enjoyable interface for these users. The paper highlights good design practices for acoustic interfaces.
AccessibilityUtil: a tool for sharing experiences about accessibility of web artifacts BIBAFull-Text 17-24
  Thiago Jabur Bittar; Leandro Agostini do Amaral; Renata Pontin de Mattos Fortes
Existing guidelines on how to develop web applications with accessibility are currently not applied in many organizations. The lack of "closeness" of these guidelines to the developers is one of the most significant reasons for this scenario, as developers often do not know them or find it difficult to apply them. As a proposed solution to increase the use of guidelines in development practices, we present a proposal of a collaborative tool for sharing and disseminating experiences. The proposal is based on capturing and disseminating Design Rationale (DR) related to experiences with developing web artifacts, following the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0.
Tapping as a measure of cognitive load and website usability BIBAFull-Text 25-32
  Michael J. Albers
This article examines how cognitive load theory applies to website design and then considers using a tapping test as a practical method of measuring cognitive load. By identifying the design elements causing cognitive overload, the designer can potentially redesign the website to reduce it. The results of a pilot tapping test study are discussed which respect to its ability to determine if it can identify points of cognitive overload in a design. The results showed that the tapping test was an acceptable method, which could be easily integrated into current usability testing procedures.
Context sensitive accessibility aid to middle-aged adults and elderly users in web systems BIBAFull-Text 33-36
  Silvana M. A. de Lara; Denis Oliveira; Renata P. M. Fortes
This paper describes an interaction mechanism aimed at enhancing the accessibility of Web pages to middle-aged adults and seniors. The proposed approach builds on previous research on problems commonly encountered by these users. The presented solution encompasses the customization of Web page layouts and the use of automatically-generated voice prompts to users. One of the main contributions of this work is the use of contextualized aids according to the genre of Web pages and the types of features they contain. An automatic page categorization scheme has been developed, alongside with a tool to collect knowledge from users about the nature of pages. The preliminary results from a usability inspection of the tool are discussed, and proposals for future investigations on the impact of this technology on the accessibility of websites for middle-aged adults and senior users are also outlined.

Serious games and design of communication I

Scenario-based serious games repurposing BIBAFull-Text 37-44
  Aristidis Protopsaltis; Laurent Auneau; Ian Dunwell; Sara de Freitas; Panagiotis Petridis; Sylvester Arnab; Simon Scarle; Maurice Hendrix
Serious games are very content-rich forms of educational media, often combining high fidelity visual and audio content with diverse pedagogic approaches. This paper introduces scenario-based serious games repurposing and demonstrates repurposing a serious game into new learning objects. The process uses the scenario editor called "mEditor". Two case studies based on the Happy Night Club serious game are presented. The article describes exploratory work which continues the work that started within the mEducator project regarding repurposing serious games in order to enable their use and reuse in the same or different educational contexts.
On the design and player satisfaction evaluation of an immersive gestural game: the case of tortellino x-perience at the Shanghai world expo BIBAFull-Text 45-50
  Marco Roccetti; Angelo Semeraro; Gustavo Marfia
The role of human-computer interaction technologies has become a prominent factor that most can determine the successful introduction of new computer games. Players, in fact, wish to experience playful exchanges with the objects and characters that compose games. To reach this aim, new technologies have come into the play that comprise the use of video cameras and gesture recognition software. The great news is that such types of technologies could be exploited not only while playing at home on a console, but also in public spaces, thus broadening the use of games to new segments of customers. Nonetheless, to the best of our knowledge, neither relevant exemplars of such specific type of games (that can be played in public spaces) have yet emerged, nor extensive measurement studies exist regarding how players enjoy games in public immersive environments (e.g., fairs, museums and exhibits), the motivation being that those technologies that support completely hands-free gaming have been commercialized only very recently. Hence, our contribution with this article is twofold: on one side we want to illustrate the main design principles we have devised to design a gestural game to be played in a public space, based on novel hand following and gesture recognition techniques. On the other side we wish to report on real measurements we took when over one hundred players enjoyed our gestural game at the Shanghai 2010 World Expo.
Player agents for Langrid gaming BIBAFull-Text 51-58
  Akihiro Yamaguchi; Keisuke Tsunoda; Reiko Hishiyama
Gathering players is unavoidably costly when we run large-scale "Langrid Gaming", which is a Language Grid-linked multilingual and multinational gaming simulation. If people can be replaced in the gaming simulations, the cost decreases. Thus, a player agent has been introduced. First, game experiments were conducted in natural language, and parallel texts and player agents were developed by analyzing the experiments. Second, experiments were conducted in Japanese Experiment 1) and in Japanese and Chinese (Experiment 2). Negotiation protocols were analyzed, and new parallel texts were developed from Experiments 1 and 2. Third, experiments were conducted in Japanese (Experiment 3) once again, and Experiments 1, 2, and 3 were compared and analyzed. The following results were obtained. (1) Using parallel texts enables a player agent to be introduced. (2) Various negotiation protocols can be extracted by repeating an experiment with a greater variety of participants. (3) Valid parallel texts can be extracted by analyzing negotiation protocols and functions of utterances. (4) Adding new parallel texts reduces fruitless utterances and changes the negotiations protocol.

Serious games and design of communication II

3D environments with games characteristics for teaching history: the VRLerna case study BIBAFull-Text 59-66
  Kostas Barbatsis; Daphne Economou; Ioanna Papamagkana; Dimos Loukas
The latest rapid advancement of technology of informatics and communication brought new prospective to education. However, the potential of those technologies could have been exploited further in order to transform students from passive data receivers, to active actors in the learning process. The scope of this paper is the presentation of a theoretical educational framework for the use of interactive three dimensional virtual environments with game characteristics that aims at the initiation of motivation and enhancement of learning. To evaluate the effectiveness of the theoretical framework a prototype educational application called "VRLerna" has been implemented and evaluated with real users. VRLerna is an interactive reconstruction of the central building of a prehistoric population at Lerna of Argolis which is used to teach history at Key stage 5. The paper describes the methodology used to evaluate the prototype and via this the theoretical educational framework and presents the evaluation results that portray the success of the prototype to attract the students interest and keep them engaged and motivated.
Game description language and frameworks for Langrid gaming BIBAFull-Text 67-74
  Itaru Suzuki; Keisuke Tsunoda; Reiko Hishiyama
Langrid Gaming, which provides multilingual communication for gaming simulations using translation services provided on the Language Grid, is a useful educational tool and can contribute to the resolution of international social conflicts. This tool has been enhanced on the basis of the experience and know-how obtained from the participants' comments and suggestions.
   However, the object and the model object of the gaming tool are usually defined as Java or PHP objects, which makes it difficult for non-programmers to develop a new game. In this study, we propose a framework to implement various types of Langrid Gaming easily. In particular, we designed a new domain specific language (DSL) called 'Karina' to describe targeted games, and implemented a translator to convert Karina script into CGI programs. This script development environment makes game building easy and simplifies the development procedures, regardless of whether the gaming developer is a programmer or not.
Conceptual model for web games with application in local promotion BIBAFull-Text 75-78
  Carlos Manuel Jorge Costa; Pedro Manuel Jorge Costa
In this paper, we propose guidelines to a conceptual model for Web game design in the context of local promotion. First, supported in the literature review, we discuss the importance of the artistic point of view in game design. Then, an empirical study was performed to identify the main dimensions of a game. The importance of games dimension on the global evaluation of the game was also analyzed.
Simulation game for training new teachers in class management BIBAFull-Text 79-82
  Vassiliki Bouki; Markos Mentzelopoulos; Aristidis Protopsaltis
Games are used in education at all levels for quite long time. Most educational games intend to introduce trainees to a new subject and present them with new knowledge when others allow then to acquire and improve certain skills. This paper presents the "Teaching Game", an implementation that explores the possibility to create a simulation of a classroom event in the format of a game. It is offered as a training tool for new teachers who want to get prepared for the class. The educational aim of the game is to put players in the place of a teacher who comes across some unforeseen circumstances and to allow them to test and improve their skills in class management.
   The 'teaching game' has been implemented in Game Maker 7 and it is a tool developed for the needs of the "Virtual Training Environment (VTE) for Teachers" at the University of Westminster.

Social media I

Model-based customizable adaptation of web applications for vocal browsing BIBAFull-Text 83-90
  Fabio Paternò; Christian Sisti
In this paper we describe a solution to make Web pages more suitable for vocal browsing by analyzing and modifying their logical structure. The solution exploits intermediate logical descriptions that are automatically created by reverse engineering techniques. The adaptation engine aims to identify the main logical structure of the Web page components and remove the aspects specific to the graphical modality. Then, a vocal implementation is generated to support browsing, which begins by the user's selecting from the main components. It is possible to customize some parameters of the adaptation transformation in order to better control its results.
Comic computing: creation and communication with comic BIBAFull-Text 91-98
  Hiroaki Tobita
We describe a "Comic Computing" method that integrates comics with a user interface for a creation and communication environment. Comics are used to tell stories by combining visual elements and sentences in a way that makes the story visually fun and interesting, and for this reason they are a popular and familiar medium for many people. Our Comic Computing method uses the classical features of comics to create a unique user interface that enhances communication. We first analyzed the comic medium from the viewpoint of a user interface by focusing on information visualization, and then we developed several systems on the basis of the analysis results. Our goal was twofold: comic creation and application, both of which can be used to foster creative and visual communication. In this paper, we describe our method with a focus on the concept itself and its practical applications.
Hierarchical task instance mining in interaction histories BIBAFull-Text 99-106
  Benedikt Schmidt; Johannes Kastl; Todor Stoitsev; Max Mühlhäuser
Knowledge work at computer workplaces involves execution of multiple concurrent tasks with frequent task interruptions. The complexity of the resulting work processes makes task externalization a desired goal towards facilitating analysis and support of knowledge work, e.g. by extracting and disseminating best practices.
   In this paper, we present a task mining method that identifies tasks based on interaction histories. The method generates instances of a semantic hierarchical task model which captures an abstraction of the work processes. A specific characteristic of the method is that it mines tasks based on a combination of semantic and temporal features, extracted from enriched interaction histories. The use of semantic similarity results in a high robustness of the system with respect to task interruption and concurrent task execution. An evaluation of our task mining method based on a study with users executing frequently interrupted tasks is presented. One element of the evaluation is the assessment of different algorithms for semantic similarity computing, namely Term Matching (TM), Vector Space Model (VSM) and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). For an approach using VSM a precision of 0.83, a recall of 0.76 and a F1-measure of 0.79 is reached.
Information organization on the internet based on heterogeneous social networks BIBAFull-Text 107-114
  Eleni Kaldoudi; Nikolas Dovrolis; Stefan Dietze
The social Web has become an important trend during the last few years with a thriving number of social networking sites that currently address a variety of information needs. Following a first generation of human-centered social networks, the notion of object-centered sociality has been introduced to describe the fact that strong social relationships are built mainly when individuals are grouped together around a shared object. In this paper we attempt to further enhance the notion of the social object and present the concept of heterogeneous social network, where humans and social objects are uniformly treated as equal actors. The paper discusses how this notion can be exploited in different application domains and presents in more detail a particular example from the field of medical education.
On the effect of visual refinement upon user feedback in the context of video prototyping BIBAFull-Text 115-118
  Miroslav Bojic; Areti Goulati; Dalila Szostak; Panos Markopoulos
There has been extensive discussion and research surrounding fidelity or refinement of prototypes in paper and software form, especially focusing on how the nature of prototypes influences the feedback that this prototype can help elicit during user testing. We extend this debate to the domain of video prototypes, where use scenarios are acted out on video. This study examines how the visual refinement (a.k.a. visual fidelity) of design representations presented in such videos impacts user feedback. An experiment was performed where two video prototypes were compared, one where the product is portrayed with high visual refinement and the other looking rough and sketchy. Our results could not identify any significant effects upon the number or type of comments returned by users. This finding contrasts widely held contentions relating to fidelity of software and paper prototypes, though it agrees with similar experiments done with non video prototypes. In practice our results support the validity of testing with low fidelity videos and suggest that the choice of visual fidelity in video prototypes should be based on pragmatic project concerns, e.g., whether the video should be used also for communication and the resources that are available for prototyping.


Augmenting the learning experience with virtual simulation systems BIBAFull-Text 119-120
  Lucia Pannese; Sonia Hetzner; Roland Hallmeier
The described half day workshop introduces all participants in a very interactive way into the activities of the ImREAL FP7 project which wants to augment the learning experience with the use of highly adaptive simulators. Real world activities will be integrated with the simulation environment by means of intelligent semantic services and a novel approach to digital and interactive storytelling. Researchers as well as practitioners are invited to interact with the simulation under development, discuss and participate to the definition of potential further development.

Accessibility, user interface and design of communication I

Work through the web: a typology of web 2.0 services BIBAFull-Text 121-128
  Doug Divine; Toni Ferro; Mark Zachry
To better understand how publicly available online services (PAOSs) are used by knowledge workers on the web, we devised and tested a classification scheme for Web 2.0 services. This classification scheme focuses on genres of services and types of interactions associated with PAOSs. Our experiment, which involved a double-coded assessment of 238 unique sites, demonstrates that our definition of Web 2.0 and our defined genres and associated user interaction types are recognizable. In addition, this study suggests that genres of services can be a valuable instrument in the analysis, discussion, and design of sites used by knowledge workers.
Support for remote usability evaluation of web mobile applications BIBAFull-Text 129-136
  Tonio Carta; Fabio Paternò; Vagner Santana
Usability evaluation of Web sites is still a difficult and time-consuming task, often performed manually. This paper presents a tool that supports remote usability evaluation of Web sites accessed through mobile devices. The tool considers client-side data on user interactions and JavaScript events. In addition, it allows the definition of custom events, giving evaluators the flexibility to add specific events to detect and consider in the evaluation. The tool supports evaluation of any Web site by exploiting a proxy-based architecture and enables the evaluator to perform a comparison between actual user behaviour and an optimal sequence of actions.
Cognitive load and usability analysis of R-MAP for the people who are blind or visual impaired BIBAFull-Text 137-144
  Gahangir Hossain; Akbar S. Shaik; Mohammed Yeasin
The ultimate goal of this work is to understand the confluence of cognitive load and usability studies in evaluating the performance of fully integrated assistive technology solutions. The platform used for this study is called, Reconfigured Mobile Android Phone (R-MAP). The focus of this study is to measure the cognitive load and perform usability analysis and use them as a guide to refine the design and improve the usability of the R-MAP. A "secondary task performance" based procedure for measuring the cognitive load was used to study the R-MAP. The score of the secondary task performance was found to have strong relationship with the cognitive load, usability of the R-MAP and also the differences in performances among various categories of users.
Usability evaluation of horizontal navigation bar with drop-down menus by middle aged adults BIBAFull-Text 145-150
  Eduardo P. B. dos Santos; Silvana M. A. de Lara; Willian M. Watanabe; Mario C. A. Filho; Renata P. M. Fortes
The Web has become an extremely important source of information and services that have been made widely available. Navigation is an important aspect in designing a Web site in order to make the information easy to find, however the task of organizing and structuring information from a website can become complex as the set of information and services provided increases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of eight different types of menus while performing two tasks for each menu. The target for the experiment was of people aged over 40 and some experience in using the Internet. The experiment revealed that menus which presented properties more commonly found in web applications, the task completion time and number of errors was lower, during the sessions.
Effects of self-conscious emotions on affective and behavioral responses in HCI and CMC BIBAFull-Text 151-156
  Jinghui Hou; Kwan Min Lee
It remains unsettled whether the design of humanlike interfaces is the gold standard in HCI. This study tested how the degree of humanness of the interfaces and the perceived interactants (HCI vs. CMC) might impact individuals' affective and behavioral responses in text-based interactions of a trivia game. The results showed that although users liked the computer agent more than the "other person," human-like representation, as manipulated by self-conscious emotions, only affected likability in the CMC context. And the "machine-like" interface actually appeared more expert. Our findings suggest humanlike interfaces should be applied with caution and within the right context. Important implications for user experience, as well as design for including emotions in HCI are discussed.

Keynote address

Natural interaction in ambient intelligent environments BIBAFull-Text 157-158
  Constantine Stephanidis
Ambient Intelligence (AmI) constitutes an evolution of Information and Communication Technologies which responds to the current increasing demand for anytime anywhere availability of information and electronic services. AmI technologies integrate sensing capabilities, processing power, reasoning mechanisms, networking facilities, applications and services, digital content, and actuating capabilities distributed in the environment. While a wide variety of different technologies is involved, the goal of AmI is to either entirely hide their presence from users or to smoothly integrate them within the surrounding context as enhanced environment artifacts, rather than as technological gadgets. The pervasiveness of interaction in AmI environments requires the elaboration of new interaction concepts that extend beyond the current user interface concepts like the desktop metaphor and menu driven interfaces. AmI will therefore bring about new interaction techniques, as well as novel uses and multimodal combinations of existing advanced techniques, such as, for example, gestures and localisation. Additionally, interaction is embedded in everyday objects and smart artifacts. This concept refers to interfaces that use physical artifacts as objects for representation and interaction, seamlessly integrating the physical and digital worlds. Interaction in AmI environments inherently relies on multimodal input, implying that it combines various user input modes, such as speech, pen, touch, manual gestures, gaze and head and body movements, as well as more than one output modes, primarily in the form of visual and auditory feedback. In this context, adaptive multimodality is prominent to support natural input in a dynamically changing context-of-use, adaptively offering to users the most appropriate and effective input forms at the current interaction context.
   The ICS-FORTH Ambient Intelligence Programme is an on-going horizontal interdisciplinary RTD Programme aiming to develop and apply pioneering human-centric AmI technologies and Smart Environments, capable of "understanding" and fulfilling individual human needs. This Programme constitutes a systematic effort towards addressing the challenges which arise in the context of AmI, by providing natural forms of interaction and access to information and communication. In this context, a wide variety of AmI applications and services have been developed for various environments and domains, including home and everyday living, office work, culture and museums, exhibitions and public spaces, education, and health. These developments constitute showcases for demonstrating in practice AmI technologies and their potential and benefits in different aspects of everyday life and activities. Some of them have been deployed "in vivo" and are available and used in real environments, such as, for example, the exhibition of AmI artifacts "Macedonia from fragments to pixels" deployed at the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki. The new ICSFORTH AmI Research Facility, due to be completed by the end of 2011, will comprise simulated AmI-augmented environments and their support spaces, laboratory spaces for developing and testing related technologies, and will provide an appropriate environment for the pilot deployment and user-based evaluation of the developed AmI technologies under conditions very similar to real life.

New frontiers in documentation I

Necessary and neglected?: an empirical study of internal documentation in agile software development teams BIBAFull-Text 159-166
  Christoph Johann Stettina; Werner Heijstek
When compared to traditional development methods, agile development practices are associated with more direct communication and less documentation. However, few empirical studies exist that investigate the role of documentation in agile development teams. We thus employed a questionnaire to measure the perceptions of a group of agile practitioners with regard to the documentation in their projects. We obtained responses from 79 agile software development professionals and 8 teams in 13 different countries. Our findings include that over half of developers in our data set find documentation important or even very important but that too little documentation is available in their projects. Agile practitioners do not seem to agree with the agile principle that "The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation." We were able to validate this result for a set of dissimilar agile teams in various domains.
Maintaining islands of consistency via versioned links BIBAFull-Text 167-174
  Andrea Kohlhase; Michael Kohlhase
One of the core tasks of technical communication and knowledge management is maintaining the internal and external consistency of document collections. The design of (technical) communication infrastructures has to take this into account from the start. Consistency of static collections is enforced by format constraints (e.g. specified in a schema and validated grammatically). Recently, consistency in mutable knowledge collections can be supported by change management systems, that draw on specified semantics for knowledge objects and their relations. But even with machine support a seemingly minor change can easily cascade into a major adaptation task. In this paper we argue that the practice of maintaining "islands of consistency" in mutable knowledge collections can be supported by versioned links: Links as first-class elements defined by a triple of versioned elements (subject/predicate/object). The main idea explored here is that changes need not be propagated to linked elements, if those still reference the originally linked object. With this concept a major adaptation task can be put under user-friendly impact management. We give a model for versioned links that is easy to embed in existing systems and show how this concept supports impact management workflows.
Lost in transition: issues in designing crossmedia applications and services BIBAFull-Text 175-180
  Gert Pasman
Crossmedia communication, in which content is spread over multiple platforms and the user is required to cross over from one medium to another to acquire the full experience, has until now been mainly the domain of the marketing, game and entertainment industry. However, now that more and more 'serious' applications and services, such as online banking or multichannel shopping, are becoming distributed through multiple platforms as well as used at various times and locations, its specific characteristics are becoming increasingly relevant for other design domains as well. This paper will reflect on the process of designing crossmedia applications and services by describing experiences from teaching a course in crossmedia interaction design to industrial design students. It is argued that, in order to create seamless, interactive experiences, real crossmedia design should go beyond a pragmatic mix of the principles and characteristics of the design disciplines that constitute the individual platforms.
Towards a flexible notion of document context BIBAFull-Text 181-188
  Andrea Kohlhase; Michael Kohlhase
Much of the scientific, technical, engineering, and mathematical knowledge that enables modern society is laid down and communicated in technical documents. Due to their static presentation of the complex issues involved, they remain inaccessible to most readers and pose formidable barriers even for experts. To enable advanced interactions which would support understanding, software systems will have to incorporate machine-understandable (formal) information, while retaining the informal nature of the documents, which allows efficient communication of ideas and methods between humans. The simplistic dichotomy between "formal" (as expressed in a logic) and "informal" (everything else) is not helpful as a guide for designing representation formats for context. As a step towards a remedy we propose the notion of flexibly formal representations (flexiforms) based on the analysis of document content and its context in the Software Engineering project SAMSDocs where we elicited a formal context for an informal document collection.
Assisting users in a cross-cultural communication by providing culturally contextualized translations BIBAFull-Text 189-194
  Bruno Akio Sugiyama; Junia Coutinho Anacleto; Helena Medeiros Caseli
In this paper, we present a web-chat application called Culture-to-Chat (C2C). The purpose of this chat is to help users to produce messages in a English as a Second Language -- ESL. Regarding this task, C2C has two resources that we named Cultural Translator and Machine Translator. The Cultural Translator uses a Brazilian Portuguese cultural knowledge base (from the Open Mind Common Sense -- Br Project in collaboration to Media Lab -- MIT) that works with the sender's vocabulary expression in order to provide alternative suggestions that can have the same colloquial meaning. The Machine Translation converts texts from a source language to a target language. The process that we used to combine these features and develop the application was based on an user-centered design approach with a focus on prototyping. We used different types of fidelity-levels (low, mid, high) before developing the functional web prototype version of C2C. User tests were then applied to evaluate usability issues. After collecting data from questionnaires and observation, problems were corrected and now we are heading to a larger user study regarding the C2C functionality. We have been performing a study case involving Brazilian and Canadian users. There are some initial results available from this study that will be discussed further. These data show that users appreciate the resources that help them design messages for cross-cultural communication.

New frontiers in documentation II

An approach and tool support for assisting users to fill-in web forms with personal information BIBAFull-Text 195-202
  Marco Winckler; Vicent Gaits; Dong-Bach Vo; Firmenich Sergio; Gustavo Rossi
Web forms are massively used as a very effective way for user interaction with information systems. Notwithstanding, filling in forms with personal data can be tedious and repetitive. Due to legal and technical constraints, full interoperability of information systems is not a straightforward solution. So that several client-side techniques have been developed in the last years to automate the task of filling in forms; for example, auto-filling and auto-complete are very well-known techniques that employ contextual information to fill in automatically Web forms. However, the accuracy of these techniques is limited by the contextual information available on the Web browser. Some information systems can record users' personal information on the server side and use them to provide pre-filled forms to returning users. The problem with such as an approach is that users must keep updated records of personal information in remote servers; legal and technical issues prevent from sharing personal data among different applications, thus users must maintain multiple accounts. Interestingly enough, the analysis of data requested in forms reveal a pattern in the set of pieces of personal information that are often required (e.g. names, affiliations, billing address, home address, bank account, etc). In this paper we propose a new approach for automating filling in form that relies on these patterns of personal information. Our ultimate goal is to provide means for supporting the exchange of data between user's Personal Information Management Systems (PIMS) and Web forms. The approach is supported by a tool called PIAFF (which stands for Personal Information Assistant for Filling Forms) and illustrated by a case study concerning forms used for student applications.
Usage of and satisfaction with online help vs. search engines for aid in software use BIBAFull-Text 203-210
  Charles J. Welty
Computer users have long been frustrated by software problems. It is unusual that the Help menu actually helps with the software problems they have. At the same time, computer science students and professionals have been using search engines to get help with the complex software they use. The use of search engines to get help with software by both computer scientists and students in other disciplines is investigated. Students from all disciplines tested were found to use and be more satisfied by search engines than Help. Further investigation showed that, generally, students went to other people more than Help or search engines but found search engines and people to be the most satisfactory sources of help. Recommendations are made to improve Help systems by incorporating aspects of search engines.
A cognitive perspective on developer comprehension of software design documentation BIBAFull-Text 211-218
  Hugo H. Schoonewille; Werner Heijstek; Michel R. V. Chaudron; Thomas Kühne
Software design documentation is an important aid for communication during software development and maintenance. Nevertheless, little empirical evidence exists regarding the use of software documentation, and effective software design representation in particular. In an experimental setting, we used documentation from industry in which aspects of a software design were modeled in both a (UML) diagram and text. We recorded and analysed how participants used these media to answer various design-related questions and collected additional information in various questionnaires. By having participants think aloud, we set out to understand the underlying cognitive processes of developer design comprehension by applying the grounded theory method. We validated the results with concepts from the cognitive theory of multimedia learning. Results show a positive correlation between developer certainty and correctness of answers, whereas the opposite was not found. Also, self-rated experience and self-rated skill coincide with higher levels of certainty. We found that participants rated information based on perceived importance and that their "common sense" plays a significant role. Surprisingly, more than 60 percent of the answers were based on the consultation of a single medium. These results clearly ask for further investigation. We propose corresponding future work.
Why use screen captures?: an experience report BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Katherine Haramundanis
Why do users want or need screen captures in documents? Is there a different need for screen captures if the document is accessed by the user as an online pdf or as online help? Are there ways to improve the user experience with high quality screen captures? Is there a benefit to using screen captures? Are there things to avoid when using screen captures? This paper addresses these questions and provides some examples of the use of screen captures.
Working from home in a globally distributed environment BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Robert Pierce; Kirk St. Amant
This experience report provides an overview of working in globally distributed teams and the role communication technologies and protocols play in the successes of such teams. It describes technical and social aspects for interacting in such teams.

Social media II

Explosive ordinance disposal: motion sensor simulator in Nintendo Wii BIBAFull-Text 227-234
  Markos Mentzelopoulos; Mihai Tanasa; Aristidis Protopsaltis; Daphne Economou
Simulation based games attempt to replicate real life or fiction scenarios for the purposes of learning, training, investigating or predicting results. This paper presents a case study of a simulation based on terrestrial which are primarily used by Explosive Ordinance Disposal Units (E.O.D.) in the investigation and disposal of bomb threats in Nintendo Wii, to examine different methods and techniques of player immersion, adaptation and learning. The paper presents background research that has been conducted for the design and implementation of the E.O.D. simulator. The simulated environment demonstrates its usefulness over a number of real bomb scenarios where player has to actively inspect the environment to locate and dispose of any potential bomb threats in an efficient manner.
Tweeting disaster: hashtag constructions and collisions BIBAFull-Text 235-240
  Liza Potts; Joyce Seitzinger; Dave Jones; Angela Harrison
In this paper, we describe the issues surrounding the use of various hashtags by Twitter users who are attempting to exchange information about recent natural disasters. During these disasters, hashtag usage was somewhat mired by inconsistent formats, spellings, and word ordering. This paper argues for systems that can help bridge this issue by creating participant-centered data streams that can collect and re-route these conversations.
Google news: how user-friendly is it for the blind? BIBAFull-Text 241-248
  Barbara Leporini
Being able to read text, find out information and know about the latest news has always been a challenge for those who cannot access the printed version, such as the visually-impaired. The advent of the Web has been a big step in the right direction for blind people to obtain up-to-date information on the internet. Many portals and Web sites offer online services for up-to-date news. In this paper our aim is to evaluate how easy and rewarding it is for blind people to access this. For this purpose, we are focusing on the well-known online service provided by Google, i.e. Google News as a case study. In order to truly benefit from access to the information available on the Web, the page interface must be simple and easy to use by everyone, including people who have to use assistive technologies. In this work we analyze not only the accessibility of the service offered by Google for its News, but also in particular the usability when interacting via screen reader.
The evolution of communication design: a brief history of the acm sigdoc BIBAFull-Text 249-256
  Brad Mehlenbacher
This paper provides an abbreviated history of the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group for the Design of Communication (ACM SIGDOC). The ACM SIGDOC has a relatively short history as special interest groups go (1975 to the present), but not in terms of the brief history and explosive growth of computer science, interface design, and the design of systems that support computer users. Indeed, interest in forming a special group focusing on systems documentation began to develop in the early 1970s. At the time, few technical writers (or few computer professionals who recognized themselves as technical writers) existed. Most systems documentation was being developed for military applications and large mainframe computer systems (such as those developed by IBM Corporation). Similar to the history of ACM SIGDOC, the field of communication design has burgeoned while simultaneously allowing increased fragmentation and distributed research initiatives across other developing fields.
A humanistic approach to the study of social media: combining social network analysis & case study research BIBAFull-Text 257-260
  Ashley Rose Kelly; Meagan Kittle Autry
Humanistic research into social media is presently diverse in approach, but rich in theoretical underpinnings. It is unsurprising that there is some difficulty in translating often text-based approaches to multi-media rich, rapidly-evolving social networking environments. We explore theoretical issues for studying social media with respect to one popular research methodology: case study research (CSR). Here we examine the challenges that social media pose to CSR in the humanities and then advance an approach using social network analysis (SNA) to assist in selecting case studies. This approach, we argue, improves selection of case studies by considering the network structures of social media.

Keynote address 2

Using serious games to improve communication: talking about a revolution BIBAFull-Text 261-262
  Pamela Machiko Kato
Serious games engage users with through video game technology and gameplay mechanics to educate and train. There is promising evidence that serious games can be used as a tool to improve communication. I will present evidence of the impact of serious games on communication especially in the area of games for health for young patients. I will also discuss a recent serious game aimed to improve patient safety skills among young medical doctors. Because communication failure has been shown to be a root cause in a majority of medical errors that result in unintended deaths and injuries in hospitals, improving communication skills was a key aim of the project. I will discuss my insights in why serious games can have an impact on improving communication among difficult-to-reach groups and how that can be done.

Social media and learning

CATS: using scenario dramatization to rapidly design public displays for stimulating community interaction BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Eelisa Rubegni; Nemanja Memarovic; Marc Langheinrich
The falling cost of display technology has led to a proliferation of large public displays. However, to move beyond simple advertising kiosks and use public displays as a community tool typically requires a lengthy ethnographic approach. In this paper we describe CATS, a rapid UI design methodology that we developed and used to create a public display system for stimulating community interaction during a large university alumni event. The CATS methodology relies on the co-evolutionary process between (C)oncept design, (A)ctivity design, and (T)echnology design through (S)cenario dramatization. Each of the three design strands occurs simultaneously and is connected through a central scenario dramatization process, in which study participants selectively enact various aspects of the interaction in order to verify and explore different design issues. In this article, we briefly describe the CATS methodology and report on our use experiences.
Come and join us!!!: towards the formation of homophilous online communities to potentialize diffusion of innovations BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  Fernando C. Balbino; Vanessa M. A. Magalhães; Junia C. Anacleto
We describe a computational environment which aims the formation of homophilous online communities based on the interest in a same topic, having people's cultural knowledge regarded. Homophily is the degree to which a pair of individuals who communicate are similar; so, it tends to promote more effective communication. The computational environment is the result of: a) a cultural knowledge-based method to identify people who "talks" about the same topic in social media; b) a method to generate culturally contextualized hyperdocuments, adapted and made available according to the level of literacy of a community. Thus, while the goal of method (a) is to improve the chances of "homophilous people" to come together and join the same community, the goal of method (b) is to make "innovative ideas" accessible to them, so that innovation can be seeded and spread among the online community's members. This research is partially supported by FAPESP-MSR (proc.2010/52135-9).
Cognitive theory of multimedia learning and learning videos design: the redundancy principle BIBAFull-Text 271-278
  Vassiliki Bouki; Daphne Economou; Anastassia Angelopoulou
This paper presents an ongoing research project regarding the design of learning videos in relation to Mayer's Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) and more specifically to the Redundancy Principle (RP). Learning videos have been proved an efficient teaching tool. However poorly designed videos could easily fail if they trigger the RP. The RP is activated when the information parsed through the visual channel consists of animation and on-screen text. This paper presents an experiment that explores the way the RP is related to learning videos and how the type of on-screen visual aid (text, call-outs) affects learners' comprehension. It also discusses preliminary results that derived from a pilot study. The presented work is part of a bigger project that explores several aspects of CTML in relation to learning videos design.
Role of feedback in uniform learning situation BIBAFull-Text 279-284
  Hanna M. Olsson; Lena-Maria Öberg
In this paper, we explore feedback in a Digital Learning Environment (DLE), based on a study performed in a Swedish military training context. DLEs make uniform learning possible, while allowing interaction (as opposed to a text book). However, it is unclear how interaction should be designed to be beneficial in a uniform learning situation. Feedback is needed in DLE, both for the learning itself, and for the functionality of the system. Through an evaluation framework the uniform learning situation is evaluated and feedback is mapped onto interaction lanes. Balanced feedback has the potential to offer a beneficial DLE for uniform learning. Although the importance of feedback is known in theory, our study shows that practical implementations lack complete feedback. Hence, we propose a design guideline to implement balanced (relative to the framework) feedback in general, and to pay specific attention to Feed-Forward when designing DLEs.
Acquiring ethical communicative tools for an online ethics training BIBAFull-Text 285-288
  Montse Serra; David Bañeres; Eugènia Santamaria; Josep M. Basart
Nowadays, one of the most dynamic areas in applied ethics is professional ethics (e.g. in the areas of medicine, business and engineering). In this paper, we will focus on the online teaching of professional ethics to undergraduate engineering students, mainly in the specialty of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). More specifically, the pedagogical structure for the ethical training of future engineers will be designed, within an online context, based on a set of ethical communicative tools. Besides, our proposal will analyze which technological resources are suitable to develop the appropriate ethical communicative competences required by the engineering students, when confronting moral conflicts in their daily professional exercise.

Poster session

Designing a system to create a community: the GEMviz project BIBAFull-Text 289-290
  Peter Abrahamsen; Anna Delamerced; Dong Divine; Christopher Nguyen; Mark Zachry
In this poster, we describe the development of GEMviz, a web-based visualization generator with supporting user interaction tools intended to create a sense of community among a loosely connected group of researchers and educators.
ImREAL: immersive reflective experience-based adaptive learning BIBAFull-Text 291-292
  Lucia Pannese
The poster describes the vision of the ImREAL FP7 project about the design of immersive, simulated environments for experience-based adaptive learning in the scenario of multicultural dialogues and pinpoints the differences to current practice in learning. Real world modeling linked to semantic content augmentation will guarantee a constant alignment of the virtual with the real world for an effective experience-based training.
Applying cultural knowledge to multimedia resources to enrich contextualized applications BIBAFull-Text 293-294
  Rafael Luiz Pereira Silva; Fernando Cesar Balbino; Junia Coutinho Anacleto
This work aims to enlarge the OMCS-Br Project's potential. Contextualized applications have been developed to take advantage from the cultural knowledge base provided by it, but we had not considered multimedia resources yet. Thus, we have developed a new engine which allows people to store images and "add" cultural knowledge to them, enriching the possibilities to design contextualized applications where multimedia resources can be used according to users' cultural background.
Kairos-OJS plugin project: tools for scholarly multimedia BIBAFull-Text 295-296
  Kathie Gossett; Cheryl Ball; Douglas Eyman
This poster presents the plugin developed for PKP's Open Journal System (OJS) to facilitate editing and publishing scholarly multimedia.
Browsing as a learning practice in the information management work of technical communicators BIBAFull-Text 297-298
  Stewart Whittemore
This poster reports data from a case study of the information management practices technical communicators at a software company in the U.S. Midwest. The study found that the technical communicators preferred location-based file folder browsing for their information finding and retrieval activities. Building on situated cognition theories of learning, the researcher speculates that file folder browsing may serve a learning purpose for the technical communicators by helping them internalize technical information about their products and social information about their work teams and processes.