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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 29

Editors:Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Steven J. Landry
Publisher:Taylor & Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2013-01-01 Volume 29 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2013-01-01 Volume 29 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2013-01-01 Volume 29 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 2013-03-01 Volume 29 Issue 4
  5. IJHCI 2013-04-01 Volume 29 Issue 5
  6. IJHCI 2013-06-03 Volume 29 Issue 6
  7. IJHCI 2013-07-03 Volume 29 Issue 7
  8. IJHCI 2013-08-03 Volume 29 Issue 8
  9. IJHCI 2013-09-02 Volume 29 Issue 9
  10. IJHCI 2013-10-03 Volume 29 Issue 10
  11. IJHCI 2013-11-02 Volume 29 Issue 11
  12. IJHCI 2013-12-02 Volume 29 Issue 12

IJHCI 2013-01-01 Volume 29 Issue 1

Optimal Entry Size of Handwritten Chinese Characters in Touch-Based Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 1-12
  Huawei Tu; Xiangshi Ren
This study quantitatively investigated optimal finger-based entry size in touch-based mobile phones for two commonly used Chinese handwriting input styles: two-handed entry with the nondominant hand holding the device and the index finger of the dominant hand entering characters, and one-handed entry with the dominant hand holding the device and the thumb of the dominant hand being used for character entry. Results were assessed in terms of the number and length of protruding strokes, writing time, stroke writing speed, size ratio, number of writing attempts, and subjective preference. For both one-handed entry and two-handed entry, the optimal entry box size was found to be 2.5×2.5 cm. This size entry box is large enough for fast and accurate handwriting with high-entry-area utilization rate and few, short protruding strokes. The experimental results and methodology of this study can be employed in user interface design for handwriting in touch-based mobile phones.
Personality and Presence in Virtual Reality: Does Their Relationship Depend on the Used Presence Measure? BIBAFull-Text 13-25
  Silvia Erika Kober; Christa Neuper
In virtual reality (VR) applications the user's subjective experiences and responses to the same VR technology, like the presence experience, can differ enormously between people. Such interindividual differences are not well examined yet. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between personality variables and presence in VR. Thirty female participants completed different personality questionnaires before they were exposed to an interactive and immersive virtual environment. Afterward, they completed various presence questionnaires to determine whether correlations between personality and presence depend on the used presence measure, or if different presence questionnaires reveal comparable results. Significant positive correlations were found among the different presence questionnaires. Nevertheless, personality variables like impulsive tendencies, empathy, locus of control, or the Big Five personality traits showed heterogeneous correlations with presence, depending on the presence questionnaire used. Absorption seemed to be the best predictor for the feeling of presence in VR and showed the strongest relationship with presence, independent of the used presence measure. Mental imagination, perspective taking, and immersive tendencies showed significant correlations with presence too, which were comparable between different presence measures. Hence, to find valid and meaningful relationships between personality variables and presence in VR it is beneficial to use different measures to assess presence. This work was partially supported by the Neuro Center Styria (NCS) in Graz, Austria and the European Community Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007 2013), Grant Agreement nr. 258169. We are grateful to M. Pröll, M. Lancelle, V. Settgast, and D. Fellner of the Institute of Computer Graphics and Knowledge Visualization (Graz University of Technology) for technical assistance and to Guilherme Wood for proofreading the manuscript.
Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload: Effects of Time Constraints and Task Success BIBAFull-Text 26-39
  Morten Hertzum; Kristin Due Holmegaard
The mental workload imposed by systems is important to their operation and usability. Consequently, researchers and practitioners need reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods for measuring mental workload. The ratio of perceived time to clock time appears to be such a method, yet mental workload has multiple dimensions of which the perceived time ratio has mainly been linked to the task-related dimension. This study investigates how the perceived time ratio is affected by time constraints, which make time an explicit concern in the execution of tasks, and task success, which is a performance-related rather than task-related dimension of mental workload. A higher perceived time ratio is found for timed than untimed tasks. According to subjective workload ratings and pupil-diameter measurements, the timed tasks impose higher mental workload. This finding contradicts the prospective paradigm, which asserts that perceived time decreases with increasing mental workload. A higher perceived time ratio was also found for solved than unsolved tasks, whereas subjective workload ratings indicate lower mental workload for the solved tasks. This finding shows that the relationship between the perceived time ratio and mental workload is reversed for task success compared to time constraints. Implications for the use of perceived time as a measure of mental workload are discussed.
Reducing Error in Spreadsheets: Example Driven Modeling Versus Traditional Programming BIBAFull-Text 40-53
  S. Thorne; D. Ball; Z. Lawson
This article presents experimental data supporting an alternative approach to developing decision support spreadsheets using a Programming by Demonstration paradigm. This technique is coined "Example Driven Modeling" and uses example data (attribute classifications) in combination with inductive machine learning to create decision support models as an alternative to spreadsheet programming. This experiment examines whether participants can define attribute classifications ("example-giving") satisfactorily and describe benefits and limitations this method offers through statistical analysis of the experimental results. The article then considers the wider implications of this research in traditional programming.

IJHCI 2013-01-01 Volume 29 Issue 2

A Cognitive Modeling Approach to Decision Support Tool Design for Anesthesia Provider Crisis Management BIBAFull-Text 55-66
  Noa Segall; David B. Kaber; Jeffrey M. Taekman; Melanie C. Wright
Prior research has revealed existing operating room (OR) patient monitors to provide limited support for prompt and accurate decision making by anesthesia providers during crises. Decision support tools (DSTs) developed for this purpose typically alert the anesthesia provider to existence of a problem but do not recommend a treatment plan. There is a need for a human-centered approach to the design and development of a crisis management DST. A hierarchical task analysis was conducted to identify anesthesia provider procedures in detecting, diagnosing, and treating a critical incident and a cognitive task analysis to elicit goals, decisions, and information requirements. This information was coded in a computational cognitive model using GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods, Selection rules) Language. An OR monitor interface was prototyped to present output from the cognitive model following ecological interface design principles. A preliminary assessment of the DST was performed with anesthesiology and usability experts. The anesthesiologists indicated they would use the tool in the perioperative environment and would recommend its use by junior anesthesia providers. Future research will focus on formal validation of the DST design approach and comparison of tool output to actual anesthesia provider decisions in real or simulated crises.
Usability Ratings for Everyday Products Measured With the System Usability Scale BIBAFull-Text 67-76
  Philip T. Kortum; Aaron Bangor
This article characterizes the usability of 14 common, everyday products using the System Usability Scale (SUS). More than 1,000 users were queried about the usability of these products using an online survey methodology. The study employed two novel applications of the SUS. First, participants were not asked to perform specific tasks on these products before rating their usability but were rather asked to assess usability based on their overall integrated experience with a given product. Second, some of the evaluated products were assessed as a class of products (e.g., "microwaves") rather than a specific make and model, as is typically done. The results show clear distinctions among different products and will provide practitioners and researchers with important known benchmarks as they seek to characterize and describe results from their own usability studies.
Exploring Data Distributions: Visual Design and Evaluation BIBAFull-TextErratum 77-95
  Awalin Sopan; Manuel Freie; Meirav Taieb-Maimon; Catherine Plaisant; Jennifer Golbeck; Ben Shneiderman
Visual overviews of tables of numerical and categorical data have been proposed for tables with a single value per cell. This article addresses the problem of exploring tables with columns that consist of cells that are distributions, for example, the distributions of movie ratings or trust ratings in recommender systems, age distributions in demographic data, usage distributions in logs of telephone calls, and so on. This article expands on heatmap approaches and proposes a novel way of displaying and interacting with distribution data. The usability study demonstrates the benefits of the heatmap interface in providing an overview of the data and facilitating the discovery of interesting clusters, patterns, outliers and relationships between columns.
Trial Realization of Human-Centered Multimedia Navigation for Video Retrieval BIBAFull-Text 96-109
  Miki Haseyama; Takahiro Ogawa
A trial realization of human-centered navigation for video retrieval is presented in this article. This system consists of the following functions: (a) multimodal analysis for collaborative use of multimedia data, (b) preference extraction for the system to adapt to users' individual demands, and (c) adaptive visualization for users to be guided to their desired contents. By using these functions, users can find their desired video contents more quickly and accurately than with the conventional retrieval schemes since our system can provide new pathways to the desired contents. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Your Way Your Missions: A Location-Aware Pervasive Game Exploiting the Routes of Players BIBAFull-Text 110-128
  Ling Chen; Gencai Chen; Steve Benford
With the development of pervasive computing, location-aware pervasive games have proliferated quickly. To counter the inefficiency of information adaptation based on a location and a radius, this article presents the design and implementation of Your Way Your Missions (YWYM), which is a location-aware pervasive game exploiting the routes of players. YWYM provides a Google Maps-based tool for players to predefine routes, and utilizes self-reporting method to obtain the planned routes of players. By such a design, missions are returned to players in terms of the location properties of missions and the planned routes of players. A field study was conducted to investigate the usage of YWYM, and the results indicate that route predefining and self-reporting methods are an effective approach to obtain the planned routes of players, and information adaptation based on the planned routes of players could help them find missions at any place and any time.
Predicting the Helpfulness of Online Reviews -- A Replication BIBAFull-Text 129-138
  Albert H. Huang; David C. Yen
This article presents the findings of a replication study on the helpfulness of online reviews. The replication study utilized similar data and analysis procedures as the original study. However, the regression model reported in the original study could not be reproduced, forcing us to develop an entirely different model that had only three independent variables that could be verified as significant predictors of review helpfulness. In addition, the R² produced by the replication study was much smaller than the R² reported in the original study. Possible causes for the differences and implications of the new findings are discussed.

IJHCI 2013-01-01 Volume 29 Issue 3

Technology-Based Service Encounters Using Self-Service Technologies in the Healthcare Industry BIBAFull-Text 139-155
  Wei-Tsong Wang; Shih-Yu Cheng; Lin-Yo Huang
Although there have been studies discussing the influence of technology-based services on the overall service efficiency and quality of organizations in various industries, very little effort has been devoted to investigating this issue in the healthcare industry. Hospital image is considered to be a crucial factor influencing patients' choice of hospitals, but few studies specifically examine its association with technology-based services. By consulting the model of the European Customer Satisfaction Index, a research model for evaluating the impact of the use of technology-based services on hospital image, patient satisfaction, and patient loyalty in the healthcare industry is developed and examined in this study using survey data collected from 738 patients at two medical centers with an online appointment system. The research results confirm the importance of providing quality, technology-based services in enhancing hospital image, patient satisfaction, and patient loyalty. The implications of this research and suggestions for future work are also discussed.
Don't Search, Just Show Me What I Did: Visualizing Provenance of Documents and Applications BIBAFull-Text 156-168
  Robert Ball
Computer documents have evolved over time. As a result, this article presents the results from a survey that redefines what a "document" is. The study discovered that people think a document is something that holds information; is manipulated by people (not the system); and is anything that can be seen, heard, or touched. Second, based on the results of the survey, we present a novel, real-time visualization tool that shows the results of nonintrusive tracking of documents and applications for a 6-month period. The tool focuses on document provenance -- the history or genealogy of a document. It shows every document and application used as well as what happened to those documents (e.g., if the documents were moved, renamed, and/or deleted). These evaluations of the visualization tool are promising in that it helped with refinding documents, finding behavior workflow patterns, finding insight into general document usage, and performing forensic-type activities.
A Comparative Study of Two Wayfinding Aids With Simulated Driving Tasks -- GPS and a Dual-Scale Exploration Aid BIBAFull-Text 169-177
  Binfeng Li; Keming Zhu; Wei Zhang; Anna Wu; Xiaolong Zhang
Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the most often used wayfinding aid for driving. Yet GPS is originally designed to provide a driving guide rather than to help users gain spatial knowledge. Accordingly, GPS might be less usable in situations where spatial knowledge is required. This study experimentally compared two wayfinding aids using simulated driving tasks in a virtual environment: a simulated GPS and a dual-scale exploration aid (DSEA). The DSEA, which provides two levels of details -- both detailed and contextual information -- was proposed to support participants in finding and selecting routes by themselves. The results show that although DSEA was less helpful in leading participants to their destination and corresponded to more turning errors in simulated driving, it was more useful for the corresponding participants to establish spatial awareness and a cognitive map. The influence of participants' spatial ability test score on wayfinding performance was measured and discussed. The proposed DSEA design and experimental results show some indications for designing new wayfinding aids aimed at reducing wayfinding errors and constructing cognitive maps while still providing easy navigation.
Augmenting the Instant Messaging Experience Through the Use of Brain-Computer Interface and Gestural Technologies BIBAFull-Text 178-191
  Ravi Kuber; Franklin P. Wright
Interpersonal communication benefits greatly from the emotional information encoded by facial expression, body language, and tone of voice. However, these cues are often lost when sending text-based instant messages. This article describes a novel approach utilizing gestural and brain-computer interface (BCI) input to replace the missing emotional cues, with the aim of augmenting the instant messaging process. A set of exploratory studies were conducted using a commercially available BCI headset. An initial study validated the emotional data automatically captured by the device. Subsequently, an instant messaging application was developed, which detected emotions and facial gestures that are presented to the user's chat partner via progress bars and an avatar. Findings from an evaluation revealed that the novel approach facilitates communication containing a greater percentage of affective terms compared with traditional, text-based instant messaging environments. Strong levels of confidence were expressed when using the system to both convey and infer affective states, contributing to a rich subjective user experience.
Typology and Sociodemographic Characteristics of Massively Multiplayer Online Game Players BIBAFull-Text 192-200
  Katalin Nagygyörgy; Róbert Urbán; Judit Farkas; Mark D. Griffiths; Dalma Zilahy; Gyöngyi Kökönyei; Barbara Mervó; Antónia Reindl; Csilla Ágoston; Andrea Kertész; Eszter Harmath; Attila Oláh; Zsolt Demetrovics
To date, there has been relatively little research comparing different types of online gamers. The main aim of this study was to provide robust benchmark data on different types of Massively Multiplayer Online Game (MMOG) players using a large sample of online gamers. An online survey was used to recruit 4,374 Hungarian online gamers from websites offering different types of MMOGs. In addition to sociodemographic characteristics, the study also collected data on gaming preference, amount of time spent gaming, amount of money spent on the game, and whether they played at an amateur or professional level. A latent profile analysis of gaming preferences differentiated between eight specific gamer types, of which four types emerged as clear categories, indicating clear preference for a specific type of game (role-playing games, first-person shooter games, real-time strategy games, and other games). Overall, 79% of gamers belonged to these four categories. First-person shooter gamers were almost exclusively male, younger aged, lower educated, and of lower socioeconomic status. Real-time strategy gamers were older. Female gamers were most likely to play "Other" games and/or role-playing games. In relation to time spent gaming, role-playing gamers appeared to be the most vulnerable. The results indicated that a significant number of gamers have clear gaming preferences, and these specific gaming types are associated with significant differences regarding sociodemographic and gaming characteristics of gamers.

IJHCI 2013-03-01 Volume 29 Issue 4

Reframing HCI Through Local and Indigenous Perspectives

Reframing HCI Through Local and Indigenous Perspectives BIBFull-Text 201-204
  José Abdelnour-Nocera; Torkil Clemmensen; Masaaki Kurosu
Reflections on a Model of Culturally Influenced Human-Computer Interaction to Cover Cultural Contexts in HCI Design BIBAFull-Text 205-219
  Rüdiger Heimgärtner
This article presents an approach covering cultural contexts in human-computer interaction (HCI) design using a model of culturally influenced HCI. Cultural influence on HCI is described using cultural variables for user interface design. Assumptions regarding the influence of culture on HCI, considering the path of the information processing and the interaction style between Chinese and German users are explained on the basis of cultural models. Subsequent indicators represent the relationship between culture and HCI (culturally imprinted by the user). Correlations adopted theoretically between cultural dimensions and variables for HCI design are investigated. These correlations represent first relevant constituents of a model for culturally influenced HCI. Considerations applying such a model and evidence for the proper application of the method are presented. The proposed analysis of the context of users in general is presented, and some challenges evolving from the intercultural HCI design process from local and indigenous perspectives are addressed. The descriptive intercultural model for HCI design serves to inspire HCI engineers in the requirement analysis phase as well as HCI designers in the design phase. Finally some implications for practitioners are shown, including HCI style scores, to prognosticate the effort and the expenditure for taking into account the cultural context in intercultural user interface design.
Mobile Usability: Experiences From Iran and Turkey BIBAFull-Text 220-242
  Bijan Aryana; Torkil Clemmensen
In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones. In both countries, the music player application was tested, wherein common patterns of accessing and sorting songs emerged. Whereas the Iranian users appeared to be more interested in social networking via use of an SMS service, the Turkish users tended to prefer to apply hierarchies to their own daily personal contacts. The results and analysis establish the existence of country specific issues and concerns, as well as reveal generic usability issues. The article concludes that the source of these issues is most likely due to a combination of certain contextual features endemic to both Iran and Turkey, not only to ethnic, religious, or cultural issues.
Toward an Afro-Centric Indigenous HCI Paradigm BIBAFull-Text 243-255
  Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Nicola J. Bidwell
Current human-computer interaction (HCI) paradigms are deeply rooted in a Western epistemology that attests its partiality and bias of its embedded assumptions, values, definitions, techniques, and derived frameworks and models. Thus tensions created between local cultures and HCI principles require researchers to pursue a more critical research agenda within an indigenous epistemology. In this article an Afro-centric paradigm is presented, as promoted by African scholars, as an alternative perspective to guide interaction design in a situated context in Africa and promote the reframing of HCI. A practical realization of this paradigm shift within our own community-driven design in Southern Africa is illustrated.
Website Usability in Asia "From Within': An Overview of a Decade of Literature BIBAFull-Text 256-273
  Ather Nawaz; Torkil Clemmensen
As the number of website users in Asia grows, there is an increasing need to gain an overview of human-computer interaction (HCI) research about users and websites in that context. This article presents an overview of HCI research on website usability in Asia "from within," which outlines the articles written by researchers with affiliations to universities in that part of the world. Based on a key word approach to major HCI research outlets, 60 articles from 2001 to 2011 were identified and analyzed. Results indicate that academic websites, e-commerce websites, and tourism websites were the most studied website domains in Asia. Typically, university graduates were used as participants in a laboratory setup and asked to navigate and find information on a website. No systematic use of cultural variables or theories to code, analyze, and interpret data and findings was found. The article discusses the results and the need for a greater sensitivity to what is "local" and "from within" in HCI research and what this can add to the existing literature on website usability.
Scaffolding Technology for Low Literacy Groups: From Mobile Phone to Desktop PC? BIBAFull-Text 274-288
  Andrea Kavanaugh; Anita Puckett; Deborah Tatar
The capacity to use information technology at levels required for functioning well in society is important for accessing employment and education opportunities, health information, and civic engagement. Low capacity levels are closely associated with low socioeconomic status (SES), as measured by education, literacy levels, and income. In a world in which many employers of low-skill workers, such as Walmart, require an online application, lack of information technology competence is truly a handicap. Nonetheless, an opening exists that may help to address this problem: A growing number of people with low SES already possess and use simple computing devices in the form of cell (i.e., mobile) phones. This article uses an interpretive frames approach to explain why some U.S. adults, primarily indigenous to Appalachian Virginia, with low SES and low computer literacy might be able to learn basic computing skills and knowledge through the use of their cell phones. The study explored these ideas through short questionnaires and interviews with a small group of low SES Appalachian adults as they participated in a few sessions of traditional-style basic computer training. This exploratory work falls into the area of determining interpretive frames used by local populations and is intended to help design larger studies leading to interface design and computer learning strategies and materials for low SES Appalachian groups that are culturally and cognitively sensitive to frame bridging theoretical approaches.
Revealing the Socio-Technical Context of Design Settings: Toward Participatory IS Design BIBAFull-Text 289-307
  Souleymane Camara; José Abdelnour-Nocera
This research proposes a participatory sociotechnical design approach to making explicit issues in collaborative information system design in a multidisciplinary context. The approach proposes the Socio-Technical Evaluation (STE) Matrix as a conceptual tool to address the lack of a technical and methodological instrument to expose cultural differences, boundaries, and conflicts in multidisciplinary research. STE Matrix was born within the context of the Village eScience for Life (VeSeL) project and adopts an empirical sociotechnical experimentation to initially explore the context of the stakeholders, including that of the end-users. These contexts are then revisited through information system design theories to rationalize the STE Matrix paradigm. Subsequent experiments and exposure to communities of practice provide validity to the approach by revealing the different frames of interpretation within the VeSeL project. Furthermore, STE Matrix provided a platform to truly observe participatory design by equally involving end-users and design partners in the subsequent phases of the VeSeL project.
Decentering Design: Wikipedia and Indigenous Knowledge BIBAFull-Text 308-316
  Maja van der Velden
This article is a reflection on the case of Wikipedia, the largest online reference site with 23 million articles, with 365 million readers, and without a page called Indigenous knowledge. A Postcolonial Computing lens, extended with the notion of decentering, is used to find out what happened with Indigenous knowledge in Wikipedia. Wikipedia's ordering technologies, such as policies and templates, play a central role in producing knowledge. Two designs, developed with and for Indigenous communities, are introduced to explore if another Wikipedia's design is possible.


Editorial Retraction BIBFull-Text 317
  Gavriel Salvendy

IJHCI 2013-04-01 Volume 29 Issue 5

Psychometric Evaluation of the T-CSUQ: The Turkish Version of the Computer System Usability Questionnaire BIBAFull-Text 319-326
  Oguzhan Erdinç; James R. Lewis
This article describes the development of a standardized computer system usability questionnaire for use with speakers of the Turkish language, the Turkish Computer System Usability Questionnaire, Short Version (T-CSUQ-SV). This new questionnaire, based on the English-language CSUQ, underwent careful translation and transformation through comprehensive psychometric evaluation. The results of the psychometric evaluation revealed an acceptable level of reliability, appropriate construct validity, and sensitivity to manipulation, indicating that Turkish usability practitioners should be able to use the T-CSUQ-SV with confidence when conducting user research.
Gender and Personality Trait Measures Impact Degree of Affect Change in a Hedonic Computing Paradigm BIBAFull-Text 327-337
  Jeremy D. Schwark; Igor Dolgov; Daniel Hor; William Graves
To date, affective computing research has acknowledged individual differences with regard to detecting affect, yet little research has explored how these individual differences may determine the degree to which affective computing is successful in manipulating the affect of specific computer users. The current study used individual difference measures to predict how much an individual can be influenced by a hedonic computing paradigm: a simple trivia game. Female participants responded in a greater way to positive affective feedback about their performance than did men. Moreover, several personality traits, including neuroticism, narcissism, self-esteem, and extraversion, augmented the degree to which affect changed as a result of playing the game. The results are consistent with the gender differences hypothesis, and the authors conclude that individual differences, particularly gender and personality traits, play a large role in the potential impact of computing platforms and would be useful in personalizing the affective nature of the human-computer interaction.
The Effect of Target Precuing on Pointing With Mouse and Touchpad BIBAFull-Text 338-350
  Morten Hertzum; Kasper Hornbæk
In point-and-click interfaces the location of targets is sometimes known to the user before visually identifying it, and sometimes not. This experiment investigates how pointing is affected by whether the target location is precued so that users know it in advance or nonprecued so that users learn it only at the onset of pointing trials. The study investigates this for young, adult, and elderly participants pointing with mouse and touchpad. Target precuing affects the trial completion time, the reaction time, the sheer movement time, and multiple movement kinematics. In addition, target precuing interacts with the use of either mouse or touchpad, with target distance, and with target size, but surprisingly little with participant age. Because the target location was always made known to participants no later than at the onset of the pointing trial, the effects of target precuing must be due to the different possibilities for mental and motor preparations.
Thinking Aloud in the Presence of Interruptions and Time Constraints BIBAFull-Text 351-364
  Morten Hertzum; Kristin Due Holmegaard
Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation, and its reactivity is therefore important to the quality of evaluation results. This study investigates whether thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at Levels 1 and 2) affects the behavior of users who perform tasks that involve interruptions and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. The study finds that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants' fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. These results inform practitioners faced with the decision to either restrict verbalizations in usability evaluation to thinking aloud to avoid reactivity or relax the constraints on verbalization to obtain additional information.
Acceptance of Assistive Technology by Special Education Teachers: A Structural Equation Model Approach BIBAFull-Text 365-377
  Chang S. Nam; Sangwoo Bahn; Raney Lee
To investigate the acceptance of assistive technology (AT) by special education teachers, the present study developed and tested hypothesized relationships among key determinants of AT acceptance such as the facilitating condition, perceived ease of use, computer self-efficacy, result demonstrability, perceived usefulness, and behavioral intention. Results from analysis of data collected from a number of special education teachers in schools for the visually and/or auditory impaired confirmed the effects hypothesized in our conceptual model of AT acceptance. In particular, perceived usefulness was a dominant factor affecting AT usage. Facilitating condition was strongly related to perceived ease of use, whereas perceived ease of use had a significant effect on computer self-efficacy. This study also found the importance of result demonstrability factor, which had significant effects on both computer self-efficacy and perceived usefulness. This study expanded and enriched a traditional technology acceptance model by further investigating determinants associated with the acceptance of AT by special education teachers for the blind and/or the deaf. In addition, the results of the present study should provide some insights into the understanding of AT acceptance and the decisions of AT utilization, as well as its distribution and training.

IJHCI 2013-06-03 Volume 29 Issue 6

A Comparative Study of Three Sorting Techniques in Performing Cognitive Tasks on a Tabular Representation BIBAFull-Text 379-390
  Inkyoung Hur; Sung-Hee Kim; Anya Samak; Ji Soo Yi
This study investigated the impacts of three sorting techniques on various cognitive tasks performed on a tabular representation. The tasks under study were a multiattribute object selection task and selected low-level analytic tasks. Three sorting techniques, including sorting by a column (Typical Sort), sorting by all columns simultaneously (SimulSort), and sorting by all columns with faithful vertical locations (ParallelTable), were compared with a static table without the sorting feature (Baseline). An incentivized controlled laboratory study with 80 participants and a preliminary eye-tracker study were conducted to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of the four different approaches. SimulSort and ParallelTable were found to significantly improve the performance of multiattribute object selection. ParallelTable, however, suffers from an occlusion problem, so it is not an appropriate support for some low-level analytic tasks. The findings were used to propose appropriate sorting techniques for specific tasks performed on a table.
Chinese Keyboard Layout Design Based on Polyphone Disambiguation and a Genetic Algorithm BIBAFull-Text 391-403
  Chen Liao; Pilsung Choe
This study suggests a new keyboard layout to efficiently type in Chinese characters. The layout was based on a statistical analysis of Chinese corpus and was derived from a genetic algorithm. In the semantic analysis, 6 million Chinese characters were transcribed into typing script. Macros of polyphone were disambiguated from either the context or the presence probabilities in the training data. Relative frequencies of single letter and letter pair were counted to investigate on tapping workload and sequence. In the genetic algorithm, five ergonomics criteria -- tapping workload distribution, hand alternation, finger alternation, avoidance of big steps, and hit direction -- were applied to evaluate keyboard layout alternatives. The result showed that the proposed layout is 43% better than the QWERTY layout in terms of the weighted sum of the five ergonomic criteria.
Development of a Weighted Heuristic for Website Evaluation for Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 404-418
  Kyle R. Lynch; Diana J. Schwerha; George A. Johanson
Older adults are the fastest growing population of Internet users. As websites acquire a greater number of older visitors, it is vital that they are designed with this demographic in mind. Older users typically have different user characteristics than younger users; they may have changes in perceptual abilities, motor skills, cognitive abilities, mental models, and confidence in the use of technology. This research documents the development of a new weighted heuristic measure for evaluating the usability of websites for older adults and its validation with performance testing. Results from a repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that websites with different heuristic classifications were significantly different with respect to performance metrics and System Usability Scale ratings. Conclusions point to the need for web design that takes into account preferences and abilities of older web users.
Learner Acceptance of a Multimedia-Based Learning System BIBAFull-Text 419-437
  Doo Young Lee; Hokyoung Ryu
The present study applied the technology acceptance model to examine the determinants leading to learners' behavioral intention to use a multimedia-based learning system. Four exogenous constructs -- multimedia self-efficacy, perceived richness of multimedia presentation, perceived learner control, and perceived system responsiveness -- were externally added to the framework to improve its predictive power for the specific behavioral context. In addition, the second-order construct of cognitive engagement was created based upon the dimensions of curiosity, attention focus, and interest and was subsequently incorporated into the framework. The hypothesized conceptual framework was validated using sample data collected from 286 respondents who completed an online survey instrument. Results from structural equation analysis revealed that (a) behavioral intention was jointly determined by attitude and perceived usefulness; (b) attitude was jointly determined by perceived usefulness and cognitive engagement; (c) multimedia self-efficacy, perceived richness of multimedia presentation, and cognitive engagement were immediate antecedents to perceived usefulness; and (d) cognitive engagement was a key intervening variable linking the four exogenous constructs with perceived usefulness.
Editorial Retractions BIBFull-Text 438
  Gavriel Salvendy; Julie Jacko
Erratum BIBFull-Text 439

IJHCI 2013-07-03 Volume 29 Issue 7

How In-Home Technologies Mediate Caregiving Relationships in Later Life BIBAFull-Text 441-455
  Lesa Lorenzen Huber; Kalpana Shankar; Kelly Caine; Kay Connelly; L. Jean Camp; Beth Ann Walker; Lisa Borrero
In-home technologies can support older adults' activities of daily living, provide physical safety and security, and connect elders to family and friends. They facilitate aging in place while reducing caregiver burden. One of older adults' primary concerns about in-home technologies is their potential to reduce human contact, particularly from cherished caregivers. In this exploratory in situ study, we provided an ecosystem of networked monitoring technologies to six older adults and their caregivers. We analyzed the amount and content of communication between them. The amount of noncomputer-mediated communication did not decrease through the 6-week study. The content of communication coalesced into four themes: communication about the technologies, communication facilitated by technologies, intrusiveness of technologies, and fun and playfulness with the technologies. Results suggest that in-home technologies, designed with sensitivity to older adults' primary motivations, have the potential to shape and tailor important relationships in later life.
Development of an Instrument for Studying Flow in Computer Game Play BIBAFull-Text 456-470
  Xiaowen Fang; Jingli Zhang; Susy S. Chan
Flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1993; Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Csikszentmihalyi & LeFevre, 1989) has been widely adopted in research on computer games (e.g., Fu, Su, & Yu, 2009; Sherry, 2004; Sweetser & Wyeth, 2005). According to this theory, flow leads to enjoyment, a central construct in computer games. However, no such instrument, adopting a rigorous process to measure all flow elements in the field of computer games, has been developed and validated to date. An effective measurement of flow experiences during computer game play is essential to study how a flow state can be induced. It will assist game designers in understanding the strength and flaw of the game from a player's perspective. This article reports on the development of an instrument measuring all flow elements in computer game play, based on the flow theory, and following a rigorous method introduced by Moore and Benbasat (1991). The results show that the validity and reliability of the instrument are satisfactory. This instrument will help information systems researchers further investigate how to apply flow theory in computer games to improve enjoyment and thus game design.
The "Conducting Master': An Interactive, Real-Time Gesture Monitoring System Based on Spatiotemporal Motion Templates BIBAFull-Text 471-487
  Pieter-Jan Maes; Denis Amelynck; Micheline Lesaffre; Marc Leman; D. K. Arvind
Research in the field of embodied music cognition has shown the importance of coupled processes of body activity (action) and multimodal representations of these actions (perception) in how music is processed. Technologies in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) provide excellent means to intervene into, and extend, these coupled action-perception processes. In this article this model is applied to a concrete HCI application, called the "Conducting Master." The application facilitates multiple users to interact in real time with the system in order to explore and learn how musical meter can be articulated into body movements (i.e., meter-mimicking gestures). Techniques are provided to model and automatically recognize these gestures in order to provide multimodal feedback streams back to the users. These techniques are based on template-based methods that allow approaching meter-mimicking gestures explicitly from a spatiotemporal account. To conclude, some concrete setups are presented in which the functionality of the Conducting Master was evaluated.
Elicitation of Haptic User Interface Needs of People with Low Vision BIBAFull-Text 488-500
  Hyung Nam Kim; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson; Chang S. Nam
Various assistive technologies such as haptic technology are used to help people with visual impairments comprehend complex information. Yet there is likely to be a misconception that users with the same disability category share the same user interface needs; furthermore, the majority of the literature has been oriented toward total blindness rather than low vision, possibly leading to dissatisfaction with assistive technologies and discontinuation of its use by those with low vision. The aim of this article is to advance the understanding of the needs of those with low vision especially in relation to haptic-incorporated multimodal user interfaces. A scenario-based, participatory design approach was used to explore their needs. A total of 19 user needs were systematically documented under three categories: audition (n=5), touch (n=11), and vision (n=3). This article focuses on qualitatively exploring their needs and theoretically interpreting the needs in the light of previous studies.

IJHCI 2013-08-03 Volume 29 Issue 8

Usability Principles for Augmented Reality Applications in a Smartphone Environment BIBAFull-Text 501-515
  Sang Min Ko; Won Suk Chang; Yong Gu Ji
Through the rapid spread of smartphones, users have access to many types of applications similar to those on desktop computer systems. Smartphone applications using augmented reality (AR) technology make use of users' location information. As AR applications will require new evaluation methods, improved usability and user convenience should be developed. The purpose of the current study is to develop usability principles for the development and evaluation of smartphone applications using AR technology. We develop usability principles for smartphone AR applications by analyzing existing research about heuristic evaluation methods, design principles for AR systems, guidelines for handheld mobile device interfaces, and usability principles for the tangible user interface. We conducted a heuristic evaluation for three popularly used smartphone AR applications to identify usability problems. We suggested new design guidelines to solve the identified problems. Then, we developed an improved AR application prototype of an Android-based smartphone, which later was conducted a usability testing to validate the effects of usability principles.
An Approach to Design Virtual Keyboards for Text Composition in Indian Languages BIBAFull-Text 516-540
  Debasis Samanta; Sayan Sarcar; Soumalya Ghosh
Of late there has been significant development in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which offers interaction with computing systems in a large scale. Text input mechanisms in users' own languages are necessary for bringing the ICT advantages to the English illiterates. QWERTY keyboard, however, which was designed for text entry in English, is not as suitable for text composition in other languages. As an alternative, researchers advocate virtual keyboards in users' mother languages. This article proposes an approach to designing virtual keyboards suitable for text entry in Indian languages. Composition of texts in Indian languages using virtual keyboards needs special attention due to the presence of large character sets, complex characters, inflexions, and so on. First, we examine the suitability of existing design principles in developing virtual keyboards in Indian languages. Then we propose a virtual keyboard layout suitable for efficient text entry in Indian languages. We have tested our approach with the three most spoken languages in India, namely, Bengali, Hindi, and Telugu. Performance of the keyboards have been evaluated, and the evaluation substantiates that proposed design achieves on average higher text entry rather than with conventional virtual keyboards. The proposed approach, in fact, provides a solution to deal with complexity in Indian languages and can be extended to many other languages in the world.
Age-Related Differences in Eye Tracking and Usability Performance: Website Usability for Older Adults BIBAFull-Text 541-548
  Jennifer C. Romano Bergstrom; Erica L. Olmsted-Hawala; Matt E. Jans
Cognitive decline is inherent with age. Despite known cognitive limitations, older adults are generally not taken into account during website design. Understanding age-related differences in website navigation is instructive for website design, especially considering the growing number of older adults who use the Internet. This article presents usability and eye-tracking data from five independent website usability studies that included younger and older participants. Overall results revealed age-dependent differences in eye movement and performance during website navigation on some of the sites. In particular, older participants had lower accuracy in one study and took longer to complete tasks in two studies compared to younger participants, they looked at the central part of the screen more frequently than younger participants in two studies, and they looked at the peripheral left part of the screen less frequently and took longer to first look at the peripheral top part of the screen than younger participants in one study. These data highlight the potential for age-related differences in performance while navigating websites and provide motivation for further exploration. Implications for website design and for usability practitioners are discussed.
Enabling Human-Machine Interaction in Projected Virtual Environments Through Camera Tracking of Imperceptible Markers BIBAFull-Text 549-561
  Cesare Celozzi; Fabrizio Lamberti; Gianluca Paravati; Andrea Sanna
Existing tracking methods designed for interacting with projection-based displays generally require visible artifacts to be introduced in the environment in order to guarantee effective stability and accuracy. For instance, in optical-oriented approaches, either the camera sensor or the reference pattern used for tracking are often located within the user's sight (or interfere with it), thus occluding portions of the scene or altering the perception of the virtual environment. Several ways to tackle these issues have been recently explored. Proposed approaches basically aim at making the presence of tracking references in the virtual space transparent to the user. However, such solutions introduce possibly critical constraints on required hardware or environment configuration. In this work, a novel tracking approach based on imperceptible fiducial markers is proposed. The approach relies on a hiding technique that allows digital images to be embedded in (and retrieved from) a projected scene by exploiting the properties of light polarization and additive color mixing. In particular, the virtual scene is obtained by overlapping the light beams of two projectors and by dealing with markers' hiding via color compensation. A prototype setup has been deployed, where interaction with a flat surface projection environment has been evaluated in terms of tracking accuracy and artifacts avoidance performance by using a consumer camera equipped with a polarizing filter. Although the performed tests presented in this article represent only a preliminary and a partial evaluation of the proposed approach, they provided encouraging results indicating that the proposed technique could be possibly applied in more complex interaction scenarios still with limited hardware requirements.

IJHCI 2013-09-02 Volume 29 Issue 9

Development of a Continuous Usage Model for the Adoption and Continuous Usage of a Smartphone BIBAFull-Text 563-581
  Beom Suk Jin; Sol Hee Yoon; Yong Gu Ji
This research focuses on identifying continuous usage intentions before and after the product adoption phase. A theoretical model was developed, specifying continuous usage intentions and user behavior throughout the product adoption life cycle. The proposed model considers users' characteristics, product quality, sociocultural factors, and continuous usage intention factors, which were obtained from previous studies related to technology acceptance models and continuous usage. The relationship between these factors was analyzed, hypotheses tests to verify the relationships were conducted, and the proposed model was confirmed. Quantitative data were collected using a survey targeted at smart phone users. Data analysis verified the continuous usage model using structural equation modeling. The results from before and after the product adoption phase showed that previous usage experience affects users' characteristics, perceived usefulness, and social factors. The data proved causality between user satisfaction, attachment, commitment, and continuous usage intention after the adoption phase. The relationship between the factors and the model itself was verified statistically, providing insight into the adoption-diffusion-usage perspective with regard to the interaction between user and high-tech product.
A Multimethod Evaluation of Online Trust and Its Interaction with Metacognitive Awareness: An Emotional Design Perspective BIBAFull-Text 582-593
  Supavich Pengnate; Pavlo Antonenko
Despite the rapidly increasing numbers of informational websites and learners using the World Wide Web to research topics, empirical evidence on the relationships between website design elements and website trustworthiness is scarce. This study used self-reported and behavioral screen-capture data to investigate the impact of Don Norman's (2003) emotional design levels and metacognitive awareness on website trustworthiness during an information search learning task. The results suggest that the interaction effects of website visual appeal (visceral level) and website usability (behavioral level) can override the effects of the quality or relevance of the information (reflective level) on website evaluation. In addition, in the context of limited time to find the answers, these effects on the evaluation of website trustworthiness are not moderated by users' metacognitive awareness.
T2 Virtual PTSD Experience: A Virtual Worlds Environment to Educate Service Members and Veterans About Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder BIBAFull-Text 594-603
  Kevin M. Holloway; Greg M. Reger
Deploying Active Duty Service Members face multiple psychological health risks, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite a significant proportion of Service Members with psychological health needs, a number of barriers prevent access to education and treatment services available to them. These barriers include perceived stigma, physical access barriers, and psychological barriers. Web resources provide important information regarding psychological health issues and available resources but have limitations in the learning experience they can provide. Virtual worlds platforms, such as Second Life, offer unique affordances that may reduce some barriers to accessing psychological health education and care. They may allow for a unique immersive and interactive learning experience augmenting current web resources. One such virtual world environment, the T2 Virtual PTSD Experience, is described. The T2 Virtual PTSD Experience aims to educate military service members, veterans, family, and peers about the causes, symptoms, and help available for combat-related PTSD. Reactions from visitors have been positive, with many reporting improved understanding of PTSD and motivation to seek care. Future directions for leveraging virtual worlds in the service of psychological health care are discussed.
A Study of Pointing Performance of Elderly Users on Smartphones BIBAFull-Text 604-618
  Hwan Hwangbo; Sol Hee Yoon; Beom Suk Jin; Young Suk Han; Yong Gu Ji
The number of global smartphone users is rapidly increasing. However, the proportion of elderly persons using smartphones is lower than that of other age groups because they feel it is difficult to use touch screens. There have only been a few studies about usability and elderly smartphone users or designs for them. Based on this background, we studied the pointing action of elderly users, which is a basic skill required to use touch screens on smartphones. We reviewed previous works to determine specific research methods and categorized them into three groups: (a) effect of target size and spacing on touch screen pointing performance, (b) effect of age on pointing performance, and (c) feedback of touch screens. To investigate the touch screen pointing performance of elderly, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, 3 target sizes (5 mm, 8 mm, and 12 mm) and 2 target spacings (1 mm, 3 mm) were evaluated. Adding to that, we analyzed whether touch screen pointing performance is dependent on the location of the target. In the second experiment, 3 types of feedback (auditory, tactile, and audiotactile) were evaluated. The results show that (a) pointing performance of elderly was significantly influenced by size, spacing, and location of target, and (b) the performance was higher in audiotactile feedback condition. We expected that these results can contribute to the design of smartphone applications for elderly users.

IJHCI 2013-10-03 Volume 29 Issue 10

Applying the Technology Acceptance Model to Social Networking Sites (SNS): Impact of Subjective Norm and Social Capital on the Acceptance of SNS BIBAFull-Text 619-628
  Gilok Choi; Hyewon Chung
With their heavy traffic and technological capabilities, social networking sites (SNS) introduced a new means of building and maintaining perceived social capital. This study aims to identify underlying factors and causal relationships that affect behavioral intention to use SNS. For this purpose, this research developed an extended technology acceptance model, incorporating subjective norm and perceived social capital for predicting SNS acceptance and usage. Exploratory correlation and path analyses were conducted to identify the relationships between five constructs: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, subjective norm, perceived social capital, and intention to use. The results showed that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use had robust effects on the user's intention to use SNS. The research findings also demonstrated that subjective norm and perceived social capital were significant predictors of both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use and therefore should be considered as potential variables for extending the technology acceptance model.
A Model-Based Analysis of Semiautomated Data Discovery and Entry Using Automated Content-Extraction BIBAFull-Text 629-646
  Ransom Winder; Craig Haimson; Jade Goldstein-Stewart; Justin Grossman
Content extraction systems can automatically extract entities and relations from raw text and use the information to populate knowledge bases, potentially eliminating the need for manual data discovery and entry. Unfortunately, content extraction is not sufficiently accurate for end users who require high trust in the information uploaded to their databases, creating a need for human validation and correction of extracted content. In this article the potential influence of content extraction errors on a prototype semiautomated system that will allow a human reviewer to correct and validate extracted information before uploading it was examined, focusing on the identification and correction of precision errors. Content extraction was applied to 6 different corpora, and a Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules Language (GOMSL) model was used to simulate the activities of a human using the prototype system to review extraction results, correct precision errors, ignore spurious instances, and validate information. The simulated task completion rate of the semiautomated system model was compared with that of a second GOMSL model that simulates the steps required for finding and entering information manually. Results quantify the efficiency advantage of the semiautomated workflow -- estimated to be roughly 1.5 to 2 times more efficient than a manual workflow -- and illustrate the value of employing multidisciplinary quantitative methods to calculate system-level measures of technology utility.
Dual Verbal Elicitation: The Complementary Use of Concurrent and Retrospective Reporting Within a Usability Test BIBAFull-Text 647-660
  Sharon McDonald; Tingting Zhao; Helen M. Edwards
Verbal protocols are the primary tool for understanding users' task-solving behaviors during usability testing. A qualitative study that examined the utility of combining a concurrent and retrospective think-aloud within the same usability test is described. The results indicate that although there was significant overlap between the types of utterances produced during each think-aloud, the retrospective phase produced more verbalizations that were relevant to usability analysis, for example, helpful self-assessments of performance, yielding insights into the impact of encountered difficulties. However, a small number of less desirable utterance types emerged: hypothesising, rationalizing, and forgetting. When used together, both methods contributed to an understanding of usability issues; the concurrent phase yielded more usability issues overall, and the retrospective data improved the understanding of these by (a) reinforcement: users highlighted the impact of an issue on their experience, (b) elaboration: users would provide causal explanations of encountered difficulties, and (c) context: users provided information about the product's context of use.
A Review of Computer-Generated Simulation in the Pedagogy of Cataract Surgery Training and Assessment BIBAFull-Text 661-669
  Chee Kiang Lam; Kenneth Sundaraj; M. Nazri Sulaiman
Virtual reality simulation is no longer an unusual term due to its application in aviation, industry, medicine, and military. The limitation of animal model in wet-lab training has necessitated the discovery of new training tools. Criteria-based surgical training can be simulated in a protected environment virtually by using computer for medical assessment and evaluation. This article reviews the pedagogical value of various virtual reality cataract surgery simulators developed, in surgical skill education and evaluation. Literature searches were conducted in ACM, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, Taylor & Francis, SciVerse, and Springer Link, covering the period from 1990 to the present. The published literature that presents methodological approach in the creation of simulation and feasibility study on performance evaluation system were examined. Evidence from the study proves that high-fidelity simulation is capable of providing objective surgical training and distinguishing the level of competency between students, residents, and surgeons in cataract surgery. Standardization and classification of training module according to the proficiency of surgical skills are considered necessary in improving validity of simulators as part of curriculum in medical education.
Tweeting to Feel Connected: A Model for Social Connectedness in Online Social Networks BIBAFull-Text 670-687
  Christoph Riedl; Felix Köbler; Suparna Goswami; Helmut Krcmar
Social connectedness is an indicator of the extent to which people can realize various network benefits and is therefore a source of social capital. Using the case of Twitter, a theoretical model of social connectedness based on the functional and structural characteristics of people's communication behavior within an online social network is developed and tested. The study investigates how social presence, social awareness, and social connectedness influence each other, and when and for whom the effects of social presence and social awareness are most strongly related to positive outcomes in social connectedness. Specifically, the study looks at the concurrent direct and moderating effect of two structural constructs characterizing people's online social network: network size and frequency of usage. The research model is tested using data (n=121) collected from two sources: (a) an online survey of Twitter users and (b) their usage data collected directly from Twitter. Results indicate that social awareness, social presence, and usage frequency have a direct effect on social connectedness, whereas network size has a moderating effect. Social presence is found to partially mediate the relationship between social awareness and social connectedness. The findings of the analysis are used to outline design implications for online social networks from a human-computer interaction perspective.

IJHCI 2013-11-02 Volume 29 Issue 11

Understanding User Experience with Computer-Based Applications with Different Use Purposes BIBAFull-Text 689-701
  Sangwon Lee
The concept of user experience emphasizes the importance of understanding users for applications that have various contextual features. To address this issue, this study examines the changes in the relationships among user satisfaction and users' perceptions of usability and aesthetics according to use situations. For data, an experiment was conducted using 15 existing websites with similar levels of usability and aesthetics. Forty-five engineering students participated in the experiment. The results indicated that the relationships among perceived usability, perceived aesthetics, and user satisfaction could be dependent on how users perceived the use purposes and interaction types of the websites. Specifically, the relationship between perceived usability and user satisfaction was stronger for websites requiring users' goal-directed activities, whereas the relationship between perceived aesthetics and user satisfaction was stronger for the websites mainly providing useful information, regardless of the existence of a specific use goal. Also, the strong relationship between perceived usability and perceived aesthetics was more obvious for websites where users mainly wanted to obtain information than for those where users primarily wanted to use the leisure and relaxation content. The findings can be utilized in the design of websites with different contextual features, especially related to use purposes and interaction types.
Accessibility Support for Older Adults with the ACCESS Framework BIBAFull-Text 702-716
  Michael Heron; Vicki L. Hanson; Ian W. Ricketts
Equitable access to the digital economy is predicated on the usability of the devices that are used to access electronic goods and services, with computers being the primary mechanism for many users by which this is currently done. For novice users with special interaction requirements, current arrangements for enabling accessibility support are suboptimal. Older users in particular require special consideration with regards to the design of software support packages to ensure the burden of knowledge required to configure a system is reasonable. This article describes the ACCESS Framework, a novel open-source, plug-in enabled software framework designed to address some of the issues around providing accessibility support on the desktop. The framework employs a system through which corrections are successively adapted to an individual user's preferences. Through empirical work with older adults, the framework has been shown to provide an understandable, appropriate, and effective way to enable accessibility support.
Mobile Web Browsing with Aural Flows: An Exploratory Study BIBAFull-Text 717-742
  Romisa Rohani Ghahari; Jennifer George-Palilonis; Davide Bolchini
Existing web applications force users focus their visual attention on mobile devices while browsing content and services while on the go. To support eyes-free, mobile experiences, designers can minimize interaction with a device by leveraging the auditory channel. Whereas acoustic interfaces have proven to be effective in reducing visual attention, a perplexing challenge is designing aural information architectures for the web. To address this problem, techniques to remodel existing information architectures as linear, aural flows were introduced and evaluated. Mobile web browsing with aural flows is exemplified in ANFORA News, a semiaural mobile site designed to browse large collections of news stories. An exploratory study involving frequent news readers (n=20) investigated the usability and navigation experience with ANFORA News in a mobile setting. Initial evidence suggests that aural flows are a promising paradigm to support eyes-free mobile navigation while on the go, but users still require assistance and additional learning to fully master the aural mechanics of the flows while on the go. Future work will improve on the mechanisms to customize content and control the aural navigation.
How Does Software Visualization Contribute to Software Comprehension? A Grounded Theory Approach BIBAFull-Text 743-763
  Haci Ali Duru; Murat Perit Çakir; Veysi Isler
Despite their ability to synthesize vast amounts of information, software visualization tools are not widely adopted in the software engineering industry. In an effort to investigate the underlying reasons, we conducted a usability study to investigate the affordances of software visualization techniques for the maintenance of complex software systems. Expert programmers were asked to carry out programming tasks with or without using a software visualization tool while their screens and eye gaze patterns were recorded. Statistical analysis of task performance data showed that participants who used the software visualization tool outperformed the control group in terms of task completion time and accuracy. However, quantitative analysis of performance measures did not reveal in what ways software visualizations contributed to this improvement. In an effort to identify the cognitive strategies that underlie this quantitative performance difference, process models grounded in qualitative analysis of eye-tracking data were constructed. The process models indicated that software visualizations guided the subjects in the experiment group toward following specific software comprehension strategies, which account for the difference observed in task performance data.
Experimental Assessment of Agent-Supported Electronic Negotiations BIBAFull-Text 764-774
  Rustam Vahidov; Eva Chen; Gregory Kersten
This article presents the results of experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of agent support in e-negotiations. The agent-enhanced e-negotiation system eAgora has been used in the experiments. The system features an agent that assists the user in generating candidate offers, evaluating and critiquing incoming offers, and critiquing counteroffers. The work investigates the effects of agent support and task complexity on negotiation performance and perceived measures of usefulness, satisfaction, ease of use, and confidence. Overall, the results support the expectation that use of an agent leads to higher level of negotiation effectiveness, in particular for higher complexity tasks.
Psychological Determinants of Using Facebook: A Research Review BIBAFull-Text 775-787
  Agata Blachnio; Aneta Przepiórka; Patrycja Rudnicka
In recent years, Facebook has become the most popular of social networking sites (SNSs). Due to its increasing popularity and rising number of its users, the phenomenon of Facebook has aroused academic interest as well. There has been a growing number of studies on this subject. The aim of this article is to present the main trends in Facebook research and to provide an overview of major empirical findings. Among the most intensively explored topics in Facebook research, studies that concentrate on personality and individual differences among users, the role of self-efficacy, and motivation for using that specific SNS were identified. There is also a growing trend in empirical studies that focuses on testing advanced theoretical models of Facebook usage determinants. Technology acceptance model, presented in this article, is one of the most often used among them. This kind of approach may serve as a suggestion for a methodological conceptualization in the future confirmatory research on Facebook.

IJHCI 2013-12-02 Volume 29 Issue 12

Performance Comparison of a SSVEP BCI Task by Individual Stereoscopic 3D Susceptibility BIBAFull-Text 789-797
  Sungchul Mun; Min-Chul Park; Sumio Yano
This study aimed at investigating the differences in brain-computer interface (BCI) task performance between 2D and 3D displays depending on their individual susceptibility to stereoscopic 3D. Eleven female and 10 male participants attempted a steady-state visually evoked potential BCI navigation task in a virtual home environment with and without 3D views. Participants were categorized into fatigued and unfatigued groups, depending on their individual susceptibility to 3D, which was characterized using a subjective evaluation method for 3D visual fatigue. The task completion time for the fatigued group under the 3D conditions was significantly delayed relative to the 2D mode. In contrast, a significantly decreased completion time was observed in the 3D view relative to the 2D view for the unfatigued group. The averaged positive predictive value significantly increased in the 3D mode relative to the 2D one for the unfatigued group only. These results are expected to provide a practical implication for enhancing BCI task performance in light of individual vulnerability to 3D.
Agency Effects in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 798-813
  John E. McEneaney
The studies presented in this article explore a human-centered conceptualization of agents and agency based on the observation that people attribute agency to sufficiently complex interactive systems. Although agency attribution appears to be an unconscious human response, findings from social psychology, affective computing, and perceptual-motor studies suggest agency attribution influences human-computer interaction (HCI). Three studies are presented that examine whether recent findings on agency attribution in physical environments also apply in the virtual environments characteristic of HCI. Results of the studies indicate that agency effects operate in desktop computing environments. Agency effects, however, appear to be influenced by learning effects that preserve a previously observed relationship between perception and action but alter how this effect is expressed. Results suggest that there are both bottom-up and top-down contributions to agency effects in HCI.
EEG-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces: A Thorough Literature Survey BIBAFull-Text 814-826
  Han-Jeong Hwang; Soyoun Kim; Soobeom Choi; Chang-Hwan Im
Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has been studied with the fundamental goal of helping disabled people communicate with the outside world using brain signals. In particular, a large body of research has been reported in the electroencephalography (EEG)-based BCI research field during recent years. To provide a thorough summary of recent research trends in EEG-based BCIs, the present study reviewed BCI research articles published from 2007 to 2011 and investigated (a) the number of published BCI articles, (b) BCI paradigms, (c) aims of the articles, (d) target applications, (e) feature types, (f) classification algorithms, (g) BCI system types, and (h) nationalities of the author. The detailed survey results are presented and discussed one by one. [Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction to view the free supplemental file: Supplementary Tables.pdf.]
Creation of Interactive Virtual Environments for Exposure Therapy Through Game-Level Editors: Comparison and Tests on Presence and Anxiety BIBAFull-Text 827-837
  Eric Malbos; Ronald M. Rapee; Manolya Kavakli
Virtual reality and video games are becoming a part of everyday life. Computer games are provided with game-level editors (GLE), which allow the user to create customized virtual environments (VE). In a therapeutic framework, GLE's VEs combined with virtual reality have been used in many fields including psychotherapy. The present article comprises two studies. In the first study, criteria for selecting the most relevant GLE for the construction of interactive VEs are outlined. During the second study, the selected GLE was utilized to construct 9 distinct virtual situations in which a sample of 18 agoraphobics were immersed. Within each VE, the participants contended with their least feared situation and their most feared one. Questionnaires and physiological measures demonstrated increased levels of presence and anxiety within the feared VEs. There was a significant correlation between presence and anxiety. These data indicate that GLE's interactive worlds combined with VR offers a viable possibility to establish a therapeutic environment at an affordable cost.
iReminder: An Intuitive Location-Based Reminder That Knows Where You Are Going BIBAFull-Text 838-850
  You Tu; Ling Chen; Mingqi Lv; Youbiao Ye; Weikai Huang; Gencai Chen
This article presents the design of iReminder, an intuitive location-based reminder that delivers reminding messages based on users' future routes. iReminder is implemented on mobile phones, and it can predict users' future routes by collecting their daily trajectory data. Then it delivers a reminding message via the mobile phone when it senses that the user is going to the task location. A field study was conducted on how iReminder extends its potential to help users perform everyday tasks and compared the method adopted by iReminder with the method used by traditional location-based reminders. The experimental results show that iReminder outperforms traditional location-based reminder because it delivers reminding messages more appropriately. A detailed discussion is also given to investigate the ideal message delivery point, and the discussion results show that a location-based reminding message is more useful and more likely to be accepted by the user if it is triggered by considering his or her future route.