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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 24

Editors:Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Steven J. Landry
Publisher:Taylor & Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 4
  5. IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 5
  6. IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 6
  7. IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 7
  8. IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 8

IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 1

Human-Centered Computing: Defining a Research Agenda BIBAFull-Text 2-16
  Andrew Sears; Jonathan Lazar; Ant Ozok; Gabriele Meiselwitz
Three National Science Foundation (NSF) programs -- Human-Computer Interaction, Universal Access, and Digital Society and Technologies -- were recently combined into one new cluster called "Human-Centered Computing" (HCC). Two workshops were held to share information about this new cluster with researchers, provide guidance to researchers who are early in their research careers and have yet to receive NSF funding, and provide feedback to NSF from the affected research communities regarding topics that are considered particularly important by this community. Continuing and emerging research opportunities identified included privacy and security issues in HCC context, intelligent user interfaces, universal access including research for different populations such as children and older adults, mobile and ubiquitous computing, and social computing, among others. Various issues concerning interdisciplinary research opportunities were also raised, including understanding the disciplines, promotion and tenure concerns, administrative overhead, and where to publish. Education discussions produced a list of curricular recommendations and a number of opportunities to enhance the education of future HCC practitioners and researchers.
Applying Web Usability Criteria for Vision-Impaired Users: Does It Really Improve Task Performance? BIBAFull-Text 17-47
  Barbara Leporini; Fabio Paternò
Available accessibility guidelines do not necessarily guarantee usable Web sites, particularly when specific groups of users with special needs are considered. We have identified 15 Web design criteria aiming to provide integrated support of accessibility and usability for vision-impaired users. In this article, we present the results of a study investigating whether the application of such guidelines for vision-impaired users can actually improve their task performance when accessing Web applications. We report on two user tests, both involving vision-impaired users, that aim to provide empirical validation of the design criteria. During each test, users had to access and navigate two versions of a Web site, one version supporting the selected design criteria and one obtained with traditional techniques. Our results indicate that the 15 design criteria improved Web site usability both quantitatively and qualitatively by reducing the navigation time needed to perform the assigned tasks and by making the Web sites easier to navigate for blind and low-vision users.
Investigation of the Use of Navigation Tools in Web-Based Learning: A Data Mining Approach BIBAFull-Text 48-67
  Christine G. Minetou; Sherry Y. Chen; Xiaohui Liu
Web-based learning is widespread in educational settings. The popularity of Web-based learning is in great measure because of its flexibility. Multiple navigation tools provided some of this flexibility. Different navigation tools offer different functions. Therefore, it is important to understand how the navigation tools are used by learners with different backgrounds, knowledge, and skills. This article presents two empirical studies in which data-mining approaches were used to analyze learners' navigation behavior. The results indicate that prior knowledge and subject content are two potential factors influencing the use of navigation tools. In addition, the lack of appropriate use of navigation tools may adversely influence learning performance. The results have been integrated into a model that can help designers develop Web-based learning programs and other Web-based applications that can be tailored to learners' needs.
Evaluation of the Efficacy of Affective Education Online Training in Promoting Academic and Professional Learning and Social Capital BIBAFull-Text 68-86
  Minou Mebane; Rita Porcelli; Amalia Iannone; Carlo Attanasio; Donata Francescato
This study aimed to compare the efficacy of face-to-face and online education seminars in the professional training of psychology majors and in promoting the development of social capital. Forty-four university students, balanced by gender, age, and academic achievement were divided in two groups, online and face to face, taught by the same teacher. Individual learning scales were administered and students were tested on group processes tasks to measure professional skills acquisition. A follow-up interview 9 months after the end of the seminar was undertaken to assess whether social bonds, formed during the seminars, had lasted over time. An analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney test were used to analyze the data. Results show that students of both groups increased their academic knowledge and social capital, but Computer Supported Collaborative Learning students acquired more group observation skills.
Effects of Time Lag of Utterances to Communicative Actions on Embodied Interaction With Robot and CG Character BIBAFull-Text 87-107
  Michiya Yamamoto; Tomio Watanabe
The timing involved in generating communicative actions and utterances in a face-to-face greeting interaction for application in robot-human and computer-generated (CG) character-human interaction support systems is analyzed by synthesis. First, an analysis of human greeting clarifies the average pause and the average time delay in the utterance to a communicative action. Then, a synthesis-based analysis is performed by using an embodied robot system. This analysis confirms that the variation in the pause and the lag in the utterance to communicative actions produce different communicative effects, for example, a lag of about 0.3 sec is desirable for a familiar greeting and a longer lag is appropriate for a polite greeting. In addition, the synthesis-based analysis performed on a CG character system confirms the timing control effects. These results demonstrate the importance of timing control in embodied interactions as well as the applicability of such interactions in advanced communications with robots and CG characters.

IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 2

Introduction to Social TV: Enhancing the Shared Experience with Interactive TV BIBAFull-Text 113-120
  Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; George Lekakos
Previous research on the social impact of communication technologies has followed two distinct directions and has considered independently either the interpersonal communication or the mass communication. In this context, the human-computer interaction aspects of integrated media and social communication are examined. The design of "Social TV" systems that support interpersonal communication, which is motivated by mass media consumption and which takes place within colocated groups or over distance, is explored. In terms of the temporal dimension, Social TV might be synchronous, which happens in real time, or asynchronous, which happens with a time difference. This article provides an overview of research findings and outlines evaluation methods and user requirements for usability and sociability in interactive TV.
At the Intersection of Broadband and Broadcasting: How Interactive TV Technologies can Support Human Connectedness BIBAFull-Text 121-135
  Stefan Agamanolis
Broadcasting is all about creating shared experiences. How can new technologies broaden the effects of broadcasting -- enabling new modes of communication, providing an enhanced sense of community, offering opportunities to meet new people, and allowing us to build relationships in new ways? This article surveys several research projects undertaken in the Human Connectedness group at Media Lab Europe that address these themes.
Social TV: Designing for Distributed, Sociable Television Viewing BIBAFull-Text 136-154
  Nicolas Ducheneaut; Robert J. Moore; Lora Oehlberg; James D. Thornton; Eric Nickell
Media research has shown that people enjoy watching television as a part of socializing in groups. However, many constraints in daily life limit the opportunities for doing so. The Social TV project builds on the increasing integration of television and computer technology to support sociable, computer-mediated group viewing experiences. In this article, we describe the initial results from a series of studies illustrating how people interact in front of a television set. Based on these results, we propose guidelines as well as specific features to inform the design of future "social television" prototypes.
Toward Advanced Social TV in a Cooperative Media Space BIBAFull-Text 155-173
  Tom Gross; Mirko Fetter; Thilo Paul-Stueve
Social TV systems provide groups of TV spectators with technical support for colocated and geographically distributed TV watching and social interaction. This article provides a systematic overview of the design space of Social TV and suggests a technical framework for flexible Social TV providing groups of TV spectators with sophisticated yet easy-to-use support for colocated and geographically distributed TV watching and social interaction. It sketches a scenario of advanced Social TV and then reviews previous concepts and systems as well as studies on Social TV to come to an in-depth presentation of design dimensions of Social TV. It introduces the Cooperative Media Space for Social TV as a technical platform for flexible support of advanced Social TV along the identified design dimensions.
Interactive TV for the Home: An Ethnographic Study on Users' Requirements and Experiences BIBAFull-Text 174-196
  Marianna Obrist; Regina Bernhaupt; Manfred Tscheligi
Interactive TV (iTV) will only succeed if user-centered solutions are provided. Despite an increasing focus on the home environment within the human-computer interaction field, there is still a lack of studies of the context home and empirical data on users' domestic activities (Blythe, Overbeeke, Monk, & Wright, 2004; Mateas, Salvador, Scholtz, & Sorensen,, O'Brien, Rodden, Rouncefield, & Hughes, 1999). In this article, the results of an ethnographic study conducted during the summer 2005 as part of a field trial on iTV in the country of Salzburg, Austria, are presented. The research aim was to gain a deeper understanding of selected household types and household members, their daily habits and social background, their TV viewing behavior and experiences, and expectations on iTV. Within the research, patterns of what people do, how existing technologies facilitate their daily activities, what meanings people connect with the TV, and how iTV services can support people at home could be identified. The findings of this study and the lessons learned from the usability study during the first field trial (Bernhaupt, Ploderer, & Tscheligi, 2005) guided the design and development of the iTV services for the second field trial in spring 2006.
Coupling the Users: The Benefits of Paired User Testing for iDTV BIBAFull-Text 197-213
  Tara Shrimpton-Smith; Bieke Zaman; David Geerts
Interactive digital television (iDTV) is a social medium and must therefore be tested in a context as close to real life as possible. This explains why we saw the potential and importance for the involvement of real-life couples in iDTV usability testing. In this article, an experiment that compares single user testing and coparticipation testing with couples for the evaluation of several Flemish iDTV applications is described. The study found that, first, there was less probing needed by the facilitator to think out loud in the think aloud/coparticipation method with couples than in the think aloud/single test user method. Second, couples did not encounter difficulties working together with the iDTV applications. Further, couples did not lose time by discussing irrelevant issues during the test session. A fourth finding is that couples detected more usability hits than single test users. The quality of comments, however, was the same in both conditions. Sixty percent of the comments consisted of intrinsic suggestions and 40% of general problem detections. Another issue was raised through findings during the test. Couples in general were enthusiastic to participate, put in little effort on their part in the test session, and evaluated the test session as easy and fun to do. On the contrary, single test users in general were not sure whether they would like to participate again in future tests, declared that the test session demanded considerable effort, and evaluated the test session less positively.
Viewers' Experiences of a TV Quiz Show with Integrated Interactivity BIBAFull-Text 214-235
  Susanne Sperring; Tommy Strandvall
This article presents the findings of the audience research conducted on the cross media Multimedia Home Platform (MHP) and Mobile Java-based interactive play-along TV game show Enigma. The show was developed as the first Finnish TV game show with fully integrated, synchronized interactivity, allowing the audience to participate in the show either by a Java-based mobile phone or by an MHP set-top box. The results show that the viewers' behavior during the show and involvement in the game varied depending on whether they participated with friends or alone. Furthermore, MHP-based interactivity proved to whet the viewers' appetite the most, whereas interactivity in general was appreciated by the participants. Viewers enjoying the passive version also took an interest in the interactivity. Eighty percent of the viewers, women in particular, found it easy to participate in the quiz show, although the interactivity stole a great deal of time and attention from the video content. The important finding is that the interactivity added value to the viewing experience and made it more exciting, involving the audience. Eighty percent of the interactive viewers were in favor of more interactive programs on television and thus stated their interest in participating in future interactive TV programs.

IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 3

Application of Systemic-Structural Theory of Activity in the Development of Predictive Models of User Performance BIBAFull-Text 239-274
  Gregory Z. Bedny; Waldemar Karwowski; Tirthankar Sengupta
This article introduces the systemic-structural activity (SSA) approach to modeling user performance on human-computer interaction tasks. The human operator's eye and computer mouse movements were analyzed, and their interrelationship was investigated in the framework of the SSA theory. A new method of eye movement interpretation is presented. Procedures for development of predictive design models of human performance are also suggested. These design models can be developed based on either purely analytical procedures or a combination of analytical procedures and abbreviated experimental studies. Developed models are task specific and are described in terms of human actions and operations, rather than in terms of the internal cognitive architecture. The design process is considered in terms of stages of the sequential refinement of designed models.
Effects of Symmetry and Number of Compositional Elements on Interface and Design Aesthetics BIBAFull-Text 275-287
  Michael Bauerly; Yili Liu
This article describes two experiments investigating the effects of manipulating two compositional elements -- symmetry and the number of compositional building blocks -- on subjective appraisals of interface aesthetics. The experiments use stimuli with identical composition but varying subject matter. The first experiment uses abstract black-and-white geometric images, whereas the second uses realistic-looking Web pages as stimuli. Both experiments have three levels for each of the two independent variables, with the dependent measure being subjective ratings of aesthetic appeal. Results from both experiments show that the number of compositional elements influences aesthetic appeal ratings. For the abstract imagery, symmetry also plays a role such that participants find the more symmetric images appealing. Implications of these findings on interface design are discussed.
Understanding Usability and User Experience of Web-Based 3D Graphics Technology BIBAFull-Text 288-306
  So-Yeon Yoon; James Laffey; Hyunjoo Oh
As Web-based interactive 3D graphics (Web 3D), popularly referred to as Virtual Reality, continue to become more affordable, research and development groups in various fields have been adopting Web 3D technology. In addition to simulation of 3D content, the ability to instantly display alternative looks has been recognized as an innovative way to improve communication in such fields as product design, architecture, and e-commerce. Despite substantial adoption of Web 3D, how and how much the technology benefits target users as well as the providers who choose to adapt the Web 3D technology are not well understood. Previous research has established that interactive 3D graphics provide users with unique human-computer interaction (HCI). However, little is known about how users experience the Web 3D graphics technology and how user-system interaction contributes to system usability. The purpose of this study is to build new knowledge of the user experience with interactive-3D graphics systems used for product demonstration. By testing the impact of the technology on the user-system interaction and usability and comparing this impact with that of conventional two-dimensional (2D) graphics, this study tries to better understand the Web 3D technology from an interdisciplinary view of technology acceptance, sense of presence, and HCI. The study investigated how system usability is affected by HCI in the context of a furniture-style preference survey. The results of the study display the clear advantage for Web 3D for usability and show that perceived usefulness and sense of presence both mediate the effect of the technology treatment on the usability outcomes. The contribution of this study is that it includes empirical data to show how Web 3D benefits users when adopted in the context of a product demonstration and how the advantage is obtained through the user's interaction with the Web 3D technology.
Examining Usability of Web Privacy Policies BIBAFull-Text 307-328
  Robert W. Proctor; M. Athar Ali; Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Three studies examined (a) the amount and types of personal information requested by Web sites from seven different categories, (b) the goals and readability of existing privacy policies for four categories of sites, and (c) users' comprehension and perceptions of privacy policies. Study 1 showed that different amounts of personal information were requested by Web sites, even within the same category. Content and readability analyses of 100 privacy policies in Study 2 showed that policies tended to be high on both privacy protection and vulnerability goals or low on both. The policies were also written at a reading level corresponding to 13 years of education. Study 3 showed, though, that even college students have poor comprehension of the content of privacy policies. The students perceived longer policies that included many privacy goals as providing better assurance of privacy than shorter policies that included fewer goals. From a usability perspective, there is considerable room for improvement in the design of organizations' Web sites with respect to the amount and types of person information solicited and the implementation of privacy policies.
A Comparative Study Between Tablet and Laptop PCs: User Satisfaction and Preferences BIBAFull-Text 329-352
  A. Ant Ozok; Dana Benson; Joyram Chakraborty; Anthony F. Norcio
Despite their popularity, usability studies concerning Tablet PCs are lacking. This study aimed at determining user satisfaction and preference aspects of Tablet PCs in comparison to laptop PCs and pen-and-paper environments. Several common computer tasks were examined in an experimental environment on 34 college student participants. User satisfaction and preferences were measured by comprehensive questionnaires. An analysis of variance was used for the empirical comparisons. Participants did not have any difficulty in reading, direct manipulation, and form filling tasks. There was a perception of a high number of errors by the participants for the writing task in Tablet PCs. Overall, participants found the general computing capabilities and portability of Tablet PCs impressive. However, the majority did not prefer Tablet PCs to laptop PCs to meet their everyday computing needs. Results can help designers improve the overall usability of the Tablet PC and help its development as a major computing medium.

IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 4

Introduction: In-Use, In-Situ: Extending Field Research Methods -- Part 2 BIBFull-Text 359-360
  Bob Fields; Paola Amaldi; William Wong; Satinder Gill
Evaluation of Human Interaction with Complex Systems Using a Full-Scope Simulator: Lessons Learned and Methodological Issues BIBAFull-Text 361-384
  Dong-Han Ham; Jinkyun Park; Wondea Jung
Several evaluation methods have been developed in various application domains for studying human interaction with complex systems. Of those, emphasizing the study of human cognitive activities in the context close to real one, researchers have paid much attention to how to use a full-scope simulator in a systematic way. However, studies continue to suffer from methodological problems that could challenge the value of using the simulator. This article describes common methodological issues and principles that have been reported in the literature. Then the article reports three studies using a full-scope simulator of nuclear power plants and explains how the issues were dealt with. Finally, the article describes what has been learned through these studies in methodological perspective, providing recommendations that could be useful for researchers to plan and conduct empirical studies of human interaction with complex systems, particularly using a full-scope simulator.
Challenges of Capturing Natural Web-Based User Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 385-409
  Melanie Kellar; Kirstie Hawkey; Kori M. Inkpen; Carolyn Watters
It can be difficult to properly understand aspects of user behavior on the Web without examining the behaviors in a realistic setting, such as through field studies. In this article, an overview of the experiences in augmenting logged data with contextual information over the course of two separate research projects conducted in the field is presented. One project investigated the privacy sensitivity of normal Web browsing, and the other examined user behavior during Web-based information-seeking tasks. Throughout both projects, the contextual information was collected through participant annotations of their Web usage. Based on experiences in conducting this research, implications of methodological decisions are considered, unanswered questions are highlighted, and considerations for other researchers are provided. These shared experiences and perspectives will assist future researchers planning similar field studies, allowing them to build upon the lessons learned.
Discriminating Conduct: Deploying Systems to Support Awareness in Organizations BIBAFull-Text 410-436
  Paul Luff; Christian Heath; Marcus Sanchez Svensson
Alongside the emergence of the use of fieldwork studies for design there has been a discussion on how best these studies can inform system development. Concerns have been expressed as to whether their most appropriate contribution is a list of requirements or design recommendations. This article explores a recurrent issue that has emerged from fieldwork studies in Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, awareness, and with respect to a particular system development project discusses some of the implications for the development and deployment of one particular kind of technology -- image recognition systems -- in particular, organizational settings. In the setting in question -- surveillance centers or operations rooms -- staff utilize a range of practices to maintain awareness. Rather than extending field studies so that they can better assist design, it may be considered how workplace studies can contribute to a respecification of key concepts, like awareness, that are critical to an understanding of how technologies are used and deployed in everyday environments.

IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 5

Special Issue Introduction: Investigating and Cultivating Creativity BIBFull-Text 441-443
  Linda Candy; Thomas T. Hewett
An Exploration of Constraints and End User Development in Environments for Creative Tasks BIBAFull-Text 444-459
  Tim Coughlan; Peter Johnson
Creative tasks are performed within constraining structures. However, the exploration and development of these structures is central to the creative process. This paper summarizes research on the role of constraint in creative tasks, defines the role of constraint development in a model of the creative process, and classifies types of constraint in order to inform the design of environments for creative tasks. Links between constraint development and end user development in software environments are explored through analysis of the design and use of Music Builder, a prototype for the user development of musical instruments in a collaborative composition environment. Conclusions include the value of scaffolding as a metaphor in design, the utility of collaborative constraint development to negotiation, and coordination and the value of sharing structures in collaborative development.
An Experimental Method for Measuring the Emergence of New Ideas in Information Discovery BIBAFull-Text 460-477
  Andruid Kerne; Steven M. Smith; Eunyee Koh; Hyun Choi; Ross Graeber
Although sometimes the task that motivates searching, browsing, and collecting information resources is finding a particular fact, humans often use information resources in intellectual and creative tasks that can include comparison, understanding, and discovery. Information discovery tasks involve not only finding relevant information but also seeing relationships among collected information resources and developing new ideas. The hypothesis presented here is that how information is represented impacts the magnitude of human creativity in information discovery tasks. How can we measure this creative cognition? Studies of search have focused on time and accuracy, metrics of limited value for measuring creative discovery.
   A new experimental method is developed, which measures the emergence of new ideas in information discovery, to evaluate the efficacy of representations. The efficacy of the typical textual list representation for information collections is compared with an alternative representation, combinFormation's composition of image and text surrogates. Representing collections with such compositions increases emergence in information discovery.
Aspects of Everyday Design: Resourcefulness, Adaptation, and Emergence BIBAFull-Text 478-491
  Ron Wakkary; Leah Maestri
This article discusses how families appropriate artifacts and surroundings that lead to the design of everyday household systems, such as combining a chalkboard, a door frame, and a hanging basket with paper and sticky notes to manage lists and messages. Such systems continually evolve through the catalytic pressures of individual actions and design-in-use. The article reports on a study of four families in which the concept of everyday design in the home was being researched. In-depth descriptions and discussions of the observations and patterns are presented. The design implications of this study are also discussed. The research contributions are an explanation of everyday design as a novel way to understand interactions and routines in the home, descriptions of the key actions and process in everyday design, and the need to reconstruct the user in the sense of an everyday designer.
Group Creativity in Interaction: Collaborative Referencing, Remembering, and Bridging BIBAFull-Text 492-504
  Johann W. Sarmiento; Gerry Stahl
Understanding collective creativity is crucial for advancing the general study of human creativity as well as for guiding the design of creativity support tools for small teams and larger collectivities. In this article, we present a qualitative case study of collective creativity online, derived from an analysis of collaborative interactions of virtual teams of students working in the field of mathematics. We examine group creative activity broadly, ranging from the micro-level co-construction of novel resources for team problem solving to the evolutionary reuse of ideas and solution strategies across teams. Our analysis focuses on describing the relationship between the dynamics of creative work present in a single collaborative episode of an online group and their evolution across time and across collectivities. Our analysis indicates that the synergy between these two types of interactions and the resulting creative engagement of the teams relies on three fundamental processes: (a) indexical referencing, (b) group remembering, and (c) bridging across discontinuities.
Dancing with Words: Using Animated Text for Captioning BIBAFull-Text 505-519
  Raisa Rashid; Quoc Vy; Richard Hunt; Deborah I. Fels
Closed captioning has suffered from a lack of innovation since its inception in the early 1970s. However, television and film technologies and user preferences have changed dramatically. Sound from music, sound effects, and speech prosody are essentially missing from current closed captions. We used animated text to represent emotions contained in music and speech as well as sound effects. Twenty-five hard of hearing and hearing participants watched two short television clips with three different types of captions -- conventional, enhanced, and extreme. Hard of hearing and hearing participants preferred enhanced, animated text captions as they provide improved access to the emotive information contained in the content. Text-based animated sound effects confused participants and animated symbols were recommended as a replacement.
Norman, D. (2007). The Design of Future Things -- New York: Basic Books. 231 pages, US $27.50 (ISBN: 978-0-465-00227-6) BIBFull-Text 520-521
  Esther Jun; Huafei Liao; April Savoy; Liang Zeng; Gavriel Salvendy
Erratum BIBFull-Text 527

IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 6

A Framework and an Environment for Collaborative Analysis of User Experience BIBAFull-Text 529-555
  Youn-kyung Lim; Yvonne Rogers
Pervasive technologies, such as shared interactive surfaces and mobile devices, are beginning to be used to support a diversity of collaborative user experiences. Compared with fixed PC applications, however, they are more difficult to evaluate. Of importance, it requires understanding the context of use through capturing and analyzing different types of data (e.g., conversations, gestures, movements) and re-representing them at different levels of abstraction. This can make the analysis complex and unwieldy, requiring teams of analysts to manage it. A new approach to managing the complexity of collaborative analysis is presented, where an integrated physical and conceptual space have been co-designed to allow design teams to readily share and transfer their interpretations of data through preserving the contextual information. A case study is described showing how a collaborative analysis approach enabled small groups of designers to work together to interpret and further analyze a variety of data.
User Interface Design Principles for Interactive Television Applications BIBAFull-Text 556-573
  Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
Interactive Television (ITV) applications gratify entertainment needs and leisure activities in a relaxed domestic context. Then, the mentality of efficiency and task completion implied by many user interface heuristics may not be suitable for design and expert evaluation of ITV. In line with the contemporary movement towards the design of the user experience of computing systems, a set of design principles for ITV applications has been developed. Instead of information technology, the field of communication science was explored, which has accumulated an extensive theory of TV usage and viewer behavior. For the empirical validation, the principles were employed in the design of an interactive music TV application. The results suggest that a small set of generic principles could support the systematic design of ITV applications and produce a design rationale that is traceable and comparable to alternative solutions, during the process of early product development. In addition, the principles could be refined into specific guidelines and further employed to support expert evaluation techniques.
An Empirical Evaluation of the System Usability Scale BIBAFull-Text 574-594
  Aaron Bangor; Philip T. Kortum; James T. Miller
This article presents nearly 10 year's worth of System Usability Scale (SUS) data collected on numerous products in all phases of the development lifecycle. The SUS, developed by Brooke (1996), reflected a strong need in the usability community for a tool that could quickly and easily collect a user's subjective rating of a product's usability. The data in this study indicate that the SUS fulfills that need. Results from the analysis of this large number of SUS scores show that the SUS is a highly robust and versatile tool for usability professionals. The article presents these results and discusses their implications, describes nontraditional uses of the SUS, explains a proposed modification to the SUS to provide an adjective rating that correlates with a given score, and provides details of what constitutes an acceptable SUS score.
Attributions of Responsibility Toward Computing Technology: The Role of Interface Social Cues and User Gender BIBAFull-Text 595-612
  Richard D. Johnson; Natasha F. Veltri; Steven Hornik
This study examined how social cues in an interface and user gender affected attributions of responsibility for the process and outcomes of interacting with a computer. Using a 2 x 2 between-subjects laboratory design, 391 participants were randomly assigned to work with a computer that utilized either a traditional interface or an interface designed to include higher social cues. The results of this study indicated that those who interacted with the interface with greater social cues made greater attributions of responsibility to the computer. In addition, women were more likely to ascribe responsibility to the computer. Results did not support an interaction between gender and interface design. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Gerry Stahl. Group Cognition: Computer Support for Building Collaborative Knowledge -- MIT Press, 2006. 468 pages, plus notes, references, and name and subject indices. ISBN-13: 978-0-262-19539-3 BIBFull-Text 613-615
  Barrett S. Caldwell
Jonathan Lazar. Web Usability: A User-Centered Design Approach -- Addison Wesley, 2006. 450 pages. ISBN-13: 978-0-321-32135-0 BIBFull-Text 616-618
  A. Ant Ozok

IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 7

Special Issue Introduction: HCI Studies in MIS BIBFull-Text 623-627
  Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Xiaowen Fang; Traci Hess; Weiyin Hong
Two Types of Attitudes in ICT Acceptance and Use BIBAFull-Text 628-648
  Ping Zhang; Shelley N. Aikman; Heshan Sun
Information and communication technology (ICT) acceptance and use is a prolific research stream in the information systems field. Yet studies on attitude have gone through ups and downs yielding inconsistent and inconclusive findings on attitude's role and impact. This article provides clear definitions of two different types of attitudes and details their relationships to each other and to technology use intention. Empirical data confirm the following: (a) At a theoretical level, attitude toward using ITC as a behavior (ATB) is a better predictor of behavioral intention (BI) than attitude toward ICT as an object (ATO) or ICT; ATO has a positive influence on ATB; and ATO's effect on BI is fully mediated by ATB. (b) Attitudes toward a previous version of the ICT and its use have significant impacts on the current attitudes. (c) At the operational level, considering only one aspect of the attitude constructs will lead to different results of the roles of attitudes on intention.
The Relationship Between Mobile Service Quality, Perceived Technology Compatibility, and Users' Perceived Playfulness in the Context of Mobile Information and Entertainment Services BIBAFull-Text 649-671
  Felix B. Tan; Jacky P. C. Chou
There is a growing body of research into mobile information and entertainment services in recent years. Using an extended Technology Acceptance Model perspective, this study explored the effect of mobile service quality and its compatibility to mobile technology on users' perceived playfulness toward these services. Mobile Service Quality and Perceived Technology Compatibility were found to influence users' Perceived Playfulness. Furthermore, Perceived Technology Compatibility significantly mediated the relationship between Mobile Service Quality and Perceived Playfulness. This suggests that service attributes need to be aligned with mobile phone functionalities to enhance user's Perceived Playfulness. In addition, Perceived Usefulness, Ease of Use, and Personalization are the three most important service quality aspects that influenced Perceived Playfulness.
An Experimental Study of Antecedents and Consequences of Online Ad Intrusiveness BIBAFull-Text 672-699
  Scott McCoy; Andrea Everard; Peter Polak; Dennis F. Galletta
Internet advertising has shown signs of continued healthy growth in spite of the burst Internet bubble. Several types of ads have been used, and there are important generic characteristics that can be gleaned from these ads: whether they obscure content and whether users have the control to remove them. These factors were tested in a laboratory study with 258 student participants. It was hypothesized that the factors would predict intrusiveness, which would predict perceived irritation. This, in turn, would predict attitudes about the site and, finally, intentions to return. Intrusiveness was also predicted to directly relate to recognition of the ads. All hypotheses were supported at high levels of statistical significance using analysis of variance and structural equation modeling. Explained variance was very high for intrusiveness (42%) and irritation (63%), but very low explained variance for ad recognition (11%) resulted in an alternative model that doubled explained variance by removing intrusiveness as a mediator between the factors and ad recognition. The interaction between user control and obscuring of the content behaved as hypothesized, and interaction charts illustrate the effects as predicted. Future studies should continue to focus on characteristics rather than on types of ads and generalize the results to other types of participants and settings.
Designing Product Lists for E-commerce: The Effects of Sorting on Consumer Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 700-721
  Shun Cai; Yunjie Xu
One common information display design that appears in nearly all electronic shopping sites is product lists on Web pages. Many electronic shopping sites provide sorting functions for product quality attributes. However, the extant literature has not been particularly insightful on how consumers respond to product lists sorted in different orders (i.e., ascending, descending, and random). Despite the intuitive postulation that products appearing in an early position of a list may draw more attention, it is not evident whether and how different sorting of products in a list affect consumers' purchase decisions. The purpose of this research is to investigate how product sorting influences consumers' decision making. Specifically, the focus is on the effect of sorting by product quality attributes on the importance of quality and price in consumers' product choice and on the formation of their consideration set. Results from the experiment show that, when product quality and price are positively but not perfectly correlated, individuals perceive quality to be more important and they tend to include products with higher quality in their consideration set when they are exposed to a descending list than when they are exposed to a random or ascending list. Therefore, online vendors could apply descending sorting to promote the sales of high-quality products.
Exploring Multidimensional Conceptualization of Social Presence in the Context of Online Communities BIBAFull-Text 722-748
  Kathy Ning Shen; Mohamed Khalifa
Social presence is considered to be a major design principle in computer-mediated communication and an important determinant of online community participation. In this research, a multidimensional conceptualization of social presence that is more specific to online communities was developed and the potential of such a conceptualization to augment motivational theory was investigated to provide a better explanation of online community participation. More specifically, motivational theory and social presence theory are integrated to develop a model explaining online community participation. Different from prior research where social presence was assumed to be fully mediated through motivation, a direct effect of social presence on participation is hypothesized over and above those effects that are mediated by motivational variables. Three social presence dimensions of particular relevance to online communities (i.e., awareness, affective social presence, and cognitive social presence) are identified and investigated. The results of an online survey provide strong support for the appropriateness of the multidimensional conceptualization of social presence and the research model. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

IJHCI 2008 Volume 24 Issue 8

Experiences with the Implementation of Computerized Tools in Health Care Units: A Review Article BIBAFull-Text 753-775
  Beate André; Gerd Inger Ringdal; Jon H. Loge; Toril Rannestad; Hallvard Laerum; Stein Kaasa
Demands for improved patient care as well as improved efficiency in the delivery of health care have increased dramatically in recent years. New technologies, including computers, are expected to play an important role in meeting these demands. The aim of this review is to identify the main challenges to the introduction of computer technology in health care and to identify what kinds of factors may promote or hamper the implementation process. A systematic search of relevant databases resulted in 299 hits related to implementation of computer technology in health care, of which 17 met all criteria for inclusion in this review. The following barriers to the adoption of computer technology were identified: negative attitudes, lack of knowledge, role adjustment related to the disruption of traditional work habits, and changes in established work roles. The dual needs to both assess and change attitudes were identified as crucial factors in allowing for the successful implementation of these new technologies. The challenges for future clinical work and research will be to influence the behavior and intentions of health care personnel, to focus on the benefits of introducing computer technology (CT) in health care units, and to make certain that the institution's leadership is fully supportive of the change. Furthermore, this review showed that if the introduction of computerized tools is going to succeed, an adequate training program is imperative.
Development of a Dual-Modal Presentation of Texts for Small Screens BIBAFull-Text 776-793
  Shuang Xu; Xiaowen Fang; Jacek Brzezinski; Susy Chan
Baddeley's (1986) working memory model suggests that imagery spatial information and verbal information can be concurrently held in different subsystems. This research proposed a method to present textual information with network relationships in a "graphics + voice" format, especially for small screens. It was hypothesized that this dual-modal presentation would result in superior comprehension performance and higher acceptance than pure textual display. An experiment was carried out to test this hypothesis with analytical problems from the Graduate Record Examination. Thirty individuals participated in this experiment. The results indicate that users' performance and acceptance were improved significantly by using the "graphic + voice" presentation. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications and limitations of the findings for future research in multimodal interface design.
Use of Decision Support for Clothing Products on the Web Results in No Difference in Perception of Tactile Sensation Than Actually Touching the Material BIBAFull-Text 794-808
  K. Jeong; S. Jang; J. Chae; G. Cho; G. Salvendy
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of decision support through visualization to increase tactile sensations (physical sensations) of clothing products. Gap and Anthropologie e-commerce Web sites were selected, and 160 participants (80 for Gap and 80 for Anthropologie) took part in this study. For each brand, the 80 participants were divided into two groups. One group assessed the material based on the information presented on the current clothing Web site. The other group had additional visual information on the nature of the clothing material. Both groups completed a -6 item questionnaire on their perception of the clothing material. After this, both groups touched the actual clothing material and rated its characteristics. There was no statistical difference in the material perception for the experimental group between using the Web site with decision support and actually touching the material, whereas for the control group there was a significant difference between them.