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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 25

Editors:Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Steven J. Landry
Publisher:Taylor & Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 4
  5. IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 5
  6. IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 6
  7. IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 7
  8. IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 8

IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 1

Evaluation of Wayfinding Aids in Virtual Environment BIBAFull-Text 1-21
  Anna Wu; Wei Zhang; Xiaolong Zhang
It is difficult for a navigator to find directions to a given target in an unfamiliar environment, especially a virtual environment. The commonly used overview maps can show survey knowledge only on one particular scale but cannot provide spatial knowledge at other scales. In this study, three wayfinding aids (a view-in-view map, animation guide, and human system collaboration) were compared experimentally in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and users' satisfaction. Results show that although these three aids all can effectively help participants find targets quicker and easier, their usefulness is different, with the view-in-view map being the best and human system collaboration the worst. Their usefulness also appears to be different for people with different spatial abilities. The results indicate that the design of wayfinding tools in virtual environments should consider the type and the presentation style of spatial information based on wayfinding tasks and users' spatial ability.
Categorization Constructionist Assessment with Software-Based Affinity Diagramming BIBAFull-Text 22-48
  Dean Mohamedally; Panayiotis Zaphiris
Affinity diagramming is a cheap and widely used knowledge elicitation technique in human-computer interaction (HCI). However, empirical methods for evaluating user performance in conducting affinity diagrams have remained relatively static. Despite the fact that often the main value of such affinity diagramming sessions lies in the group-based discussions and debates that take place during their construction, what is being captured is often only the final categorizations (the affinity diagram) rather than the process of constructing them. In this article, we propose the concept of categorization constructionism, which we describe as optimized when affinity diagrams are facilitated in groups that have a considerate input of activity in categorization decision-making. We describe how we used this rule to model the temporal nature found within affinity diagram categorizations as they are constructed. To help us test our approach, we utilized participatory design (PD) sessions in developing three TabletPC-based software tools (CATERINE, SAW, and MATE) that would record, allow manipulation of, and evaluate the organization of affinity constructs over time programmatically with digital inking processes. We then used these tools to conduct an experiment that would explore our concept of measuring constructionistic activity over time in practice through the use of our tools.
Exploring the Value of Usability Feedback Formats BIBAFull-Text 49-74
  Mie Nørgaard; Kasper Hornbæk
The format used to present feedback from usability evaluations to developers affects whether problems are understood, accepted, and fixed. Yet, little research has investigated which formats are the most effective. We describe an explorative study where three developers assess 40 usability findings presented using five feedback formats. Our usability findings comprise 35 problems and 5 positive comments. Data suggest that feedback serves multiple purposes. Initially, feedback must convince developers about the relevance of a problem and convey an understanding of this. Feedback must next be easy to use and finally serve as a reminder of the problem. Prior to working with the feedback, developers rated redesign proposals, multimedia reports, and annotated screen dumps as more valuable than lists of problems, all of which were rated as more valuable than scenarios. After having spent some time working with the feedback to address the usability problems, there were no significant differences among the developers' ratings of the value of the different formats. This suggests that all of the formats may serve equally well as reminders in later stages of working with usability problems, but that redesign proposals, multimedia reports, and annotated screen dumps best address the initial feedback goals convincing developers that a usability problem exists and of conveying an understanding of the problem.
Developing a Usability Evaluation Method for e-Learning Applications: Beyond Functional Usability BIBAFull-Text 75-98
  Panagiotis Zaharias; Angeliki Poylymenakou
In this article, the development of a questionnaire-based usability evaluation method for e-learning applications is described. The method extends the current practice by focusing not only on cognitive but also affective considerations that may influence e-learning usability. The method was developed according to an established methodology in HCI research and relied upon a conceptual framework that combines Web and instructional design parameters and associates them with the most prominent affective learning dimension, which is intrinsic motivation to learn. The latter is proposed as a new usability measure that is considered more appropriate to evaluate e-learning designs. Two large empirical studies were conducted in order to evaluate usability of e-learning courses offered in corporate environments. The results provide valuable evidence for reliability and validity of the method, thus providing evidence that usability practitioners can use it with confidence when evaluating the design of e-learning applications.
The Cognitive Artifacts of Designing. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates by Willemien Visser -- 2006. 280 pages. ISBN: 0-8058-5511-4 BIBFull-Text 99-102
  Yan Liu

IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 2

Measuring Player Immersion in the Computer Game Narrative BIBAFull-Text 107-133
  Hua Qin; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
In order to measure player immersion in the computer game narrative, this study explores and analyzes factors of the computer game narrative that influence players who are immersed in the game story world. Originally a questionnaire consisting of six dimensions -- Curiosity, Concentration, Challenge, Control, Comprehension, and Empathy -- was proposed. To evaluate the questionnaire, two surveys were conducted on the Internet, and data were collected from 734 respondents. After exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, the dimensions were modified to Curiosity, Concentration, Challenge and Skills, Control, Comprehension, Empathy, and Familiarity.
The Effects of Different Presentation Modalities on a Person Identification Task: A Study of Wireless Multimedia PDA Use in a Security Context BIBAFull-Text 134-154
  Dan J. Kim; Charles Steinfield; Pamela Whitten
The convergence of affordable multimedia capabilities with local and wide area wireless data networking on handheld devices is a particularly important trend. Using off-the-shelf technology, we conducted a simple experiment that required participants to engage in a person-identification task while posing as security agents in a field setting. Participants attempted to identify a target person in a public setting under different conditions with or without the aid of video information distributed to them via wireless-enabled multimedia PDAs. We developed a research framework and expectations based on previous research in the areas of the dual processing theory of working memory, information richness theory, and the role of video in grounding. Our findings suggest that dual modes of presentation (i.e., phonological and visuospatial information) simultaneously incorporated by a specific presentation significantly influence user perception and enhance task performance.
Evaluation and Improvement of Interface Aesthetics with an Interactive Genetic Algorithm BIBAFull-Text 155-166
  Michael Bauerly; Yili Liu
The goal of this research is to examine the effectiveness of the interactive genetic algorithm (IGA) procedure in evaluating and improving interface aesthetics. Though the procedure has been adopted by a few other researchers in investigating preference or in design scenarios, its ability to improve subject's preference has not been demonstrated quantitatively, particularly for the outcome measure of aesthetic appeal. Two experiments are presented that use identical IGA characteristics to help subjects choose a good design quickly from a large design space. The first experiment uses abstract imageries as stimuli, and the second uses Web page templates for a Web log. The statistical evaluation of the IGA illustrates that it is effective in both cases, showing an 8% increase in aesthetic appeal for abstract imagery and a 15% increase for the Web pages over the duration of the IGA procedure.
Beyond the Desktop Metaphor: Design Integrated Digital Work Environments by Victor Kaptelinin -- The MIT Press, 2007. 360 pages. ISBN: 0-262-11604-X BIBFull-Text 167-168
  Ji Soo Yi

IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 3

Understanding User Acceptance of DMB in South Korea Using the Modified Technology Acceptance Model BIBAFull-Text 173-198
  Dong Hee Shin
As mobile TV is becoming increasingly popular, this study examines the factors affecting consumers' intentions to use and adopt DMB. By integrating a motivational perspective into the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examines the socioeconomic determinants of DMB adopters and nonadopters in South Korea. Perceived availability and perceived quality are proposed as new constructs that reflect DMB-specific features.
   The empirical results overall support a modified TAM in explaining consumers' behavioral intentions to use/adopt DMB. In particular, the results of structural equation modeling suggest that perceived availability is positively associated with perceived benefit and the attitude toward DMB. In addition, the results suggest that adopters and nonadopters of DMB perceive its value differently, which implies how to promote the diffusion of DMB to nonadopters more effectively. Implications of this study are important for both researchers and practitioners.
Hardware Support for Navigating Large Digital Documents BIBAFull-Text 199-219
  Nicholas Chen; François Guimbretière; Liyang Sun; Mary Czerwinski; Gian Pangaro; Steven Bathiche
Buxton and Myers (1986) compared a specialized document navigation device and a scrollbar. Their device tracked finger movements along two touch-sensitive areas: one for absolute movement and one for relative movement. They found that their system was faster when navigating a 5-page document. We identified finger-tracking issues with the Buxton and Myers device for larger documents (100 pages) and developed an alternative device employing a range sensor and rotary encoder to track finger movement. We ran a new experiment comparing the traditional scrollbar, the Buxton and Myers design, and our new design. Both the Buxton and Myers design and our new design were poorly received by users compared to the scrollbar. Our results indicate that in a large document, factors beyond finger tracking accuracy influence the performance of a device providing absolute movement. From these results, we identify possible improvements necessary to implement effective and practical absolute navigation devices.
Learning Online Brand Personality and Satisfaction: The Moderating Effects of Gaming Engagement BIBAFull-Text 220-236
  Chieh-Peng Lin
This research assesses the association between the perceived brand personality of interactive IT and users' satisfaction. In the model of this study, satisfaction is affected by the perceived brand personality that contains four dimensions: perceived imaginative personality, perceived cheerful personality, perceived successful personality, and perceived interactive personality. Gaming engagement moderates each model path. The statistical results indicate that the influences of imaginative personality, cheerful personality, and successful personality on satisfaction are significant, whereas the influence of interactive personality on satisfaction is insignificant. Meanwhile, the influence of imaginative personality, cheerful personality, and successful personality on satisfaction is moderated by engagement, whereas the remaining model path between interactive personality and satisfaction is not moderated. Last, the discussion and managerial implications based on the empirical results are provided.

IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 4

Better in 3D? An Empirical Investigation of User Satisfaction and Preferences Concerning Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Product Representations in Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce BIBAFull-Text 243-281
  A. Ant Ozok; Anita Komlodi
This study aimed at determining the user preferences and satisfaction concerning three-dimensional product representations in business-to-consumer electronic commerce. An experiment was designed and conducted on 20 college-age electronic shoppers to determine the user preference and satisfaction issues concerning two-dimensional (2D), three-dimensional low-interaction (3DL), and three-dimensional high-interaction (3DH) product representations. A valid and reliable survey with 0.89 Cronbach's alpha internal reliability coefficient was presented to participants after they completed tasks on each product representation type. Results indicated that participants found the 3D representations (both low and high interaction) more detailed, easier and more fun to use, more accurate, and carrying more information than 2D representations. It was concluded that 3D representations in general resulted in higher satisfaction for the shoppers. Future studies can be conducted to determine the business aspects of different product representations as well as human information visualization and processing issues relating to product representations in electronic commerce.
Integration of Usability Evaluation Studies via a Novel Meta-Analytic Approach: What are Significant Attributes for Effective Evaluation? BIBAFull-Text 282-306
  Wonil Hwang; Gavriel Salvendy
The overall discovery rates, which are the ratios of sum of unique usability problems detected by all experiment participants against the number of usability problems existed in the evaluated systems, were investigated to find significant factors of usability evaluation through a meta-analytic approach with the n-corrected effect sizes newly defined in this study. Since many studies of usability evaluation have been conducted under specific contexts showing some mixed findings, usability practitioners need holistic and more generalized conclusions. Due to the limited applicability of the traditional meta-analysis to usability evaluation studies, a new meta-analytic approach was established and applied to 38 experiments that reported overall discovery rates of usability problems as a criterion measure. Through the meta-analytic approach with the n-corrected effect sizes, we successfully combined 38 experiments and found evaluator's expertise, report type, and interaction between usability evaluation method and time constraint as significant factors. We suggest that in order to increase overall discovery rates of usability problems, (a) free-style written reports are better than structured written reports; (b) when heuristic evaluation or cognitive walkthrough is used, the usability evaluation experiments should be conducted without time constraint, but when think-aloud is used, time constraint is not an important experimental condition; (c) usability practitioners do not need to be concerned about unit of evaluation, fidelity of evaluated systems, and task type; and (d) HCI experts are better than novice users or evaluators. Our conclusions can guide usability practitioners when determining evaluation contexts, and the meta-analytic approach of this study provides an alternative way to combine the empirical results of usability evaluation besides the traditional meta-analysis.

IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 5

Editorial for the Special Issue of the International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction BIBFull-Text 311-312
  Pascale Carayon
The Balance Theory and the Work System Model ... Twenty Years Later BIBAFull-Text 313-327
  Pascale Carayon
This article describes the origins of the work system model and the Balance Theory, which were developed as a way of integrating knowledge about work from various bodies of literature: job/organizational design, job stress, and human factors and ergonomics. Key concepts of the Balance Theory are reviewed. The work system model and associated design principles are described. Originally, the Balance Theory emphasized the impact of work on job stress; other worker outcomes were later described such as job satisfaction, and worker health, safety, and well-being. In conclusion, the article describes four emerging areas of application of the Balance Theory: (a) impact of the work system on worker performance, (b) multilevel analysis of the work system, (c) understanding the nonwork sphere, and (d) application to health care and patient safety, also known as the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model of work system and patient safety.
Can't We All Just Get Along? Some Alternative Views of the Knowledge Worker in Complex HCI Systems BIBFull-Text 328-347
  Marvin J. Dainoff
Questionnaire Survey Nonresponse: A Comparison of Postal Mail and Internet Surveys BIBAFull-Text 348-373
  Peter Hoonakker; Pascale Carayon
Rapid advances in computer technology, and more specifically the Internet, have spurred the use of the Internet surveys for data collection. However, there are some concerns about low response rates in studies that use the Internet as a medium. The question is whether the lessons learned in the past decades to improve rates in postal mail surveys can also be applied to increase response rates in Internet surveys. After all, the Internet is a completely new medium with its own "rules" and even its own (n)etiquette. This article examines 29 studies that directly compared different survey modes (postal mail, fax, e-mail, and Web-based surveys) with more than 15,000 respondents. Factors that can increase response rates and response quality when using Internet surveys, compared to mail surveys, are discussed. Finally, the research that can contribute to increase response rates in Internet surveys is examined.
Do Beliefs About Hospital Technologies Predict Nurses' Perceptions of Quality of Care? A Study of Task-Technology Fit in Two Pediatric Hospitals BIBAFull-Text 374-389
  Ben-Tzion Karsh; Richard Holden; Kamisha Escoto; Samuel Alper; Matthew Scanlon; Judi Arnold; Kathleen Skibinski; Roger Brown
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that nurses' beliefs about the technology they use in practice would affect their perception of individual and unit quality of care. A survey was administered to 347 pediatric nurses (response rate = 57.3%) from two academic freestanding pediatric hospitals in the United States. Two separate equations were constructed; one tested whether technology beliefs affected perceived individual quality of care, and the other tested whether technology beliefs affected perceived quality of care provided by the nursing unit. Nurse confidence in their ability to use computer technology and their beliefs that the technologies fit task requirements were significant predictors of nurse beliefs that they and their unit were able to provide quality care to their patients.
Mobile Internet Services from Consumers' Perspectives BIBAFull-Text 390-413
  Seongil Lee
Elaborating on the rapid evolution of mobile internet services in Korea, this article investigates consumers' perceptions and attitudes toward mobile Internet services through person-to-person questionnaires. The study tried to find out "how" consumers perceived different mobile services from the consumers perspectives: expectation, satisfaction, and fulfillment of that expectation. A new construct of perceived fulfillment of expectation was suggested in the study and used to explain consumers' attitudes toward the mobile Internet services in 2004 and in 2006. After examining what the consumers actually said, it was found that consumers' expectation was fulfilled differently for different service categories. The expectation was more fulfilled in system attributes, that is, network-wise, for personalization and information services, and in contents attributes for entertainment services. It was also observed that consumers of different age groups showed different patterns of fulfillment of expectation with the same services. Even though most of the past studies on mobile telephony concentrated on attitudes and behaviors of teenagers toward the mobile telephone services, the result of this study indicates that the consumers in their 20s and 30s can provide more insight for future directions of mobile Internet services. The newly defined construct could well explain the differences among the various consumer groups' perceptions and attitudes.
Macroergonomics and Information Systems Development BIBAFull-Text 414-429
  Francisco B. P. Moro
Implementation of information systems (IS) in organizations have been a constant challenge. Many organizations still approach IS implementation as a panacea. Lessons learned from the introduction of computer terminals in the late 1970s to enterprise systems in the late 1990s have not been applied consistently. This article makes the case for using macroergonomics in the development and implementation of information systems. It stresses that macroergonomics may increase the likelihood of IS implementation success.
Effects of Importance and Detectability of Usability Problems on Sample Size Requirements BIBAFull-Text 430-440
  April Savoy; Yinni Guo; Gavriel Salvendy
Existing models of usability evaluation estimate sample size requirements based on goal discovery rate and detectability of potential problems without consideration of the importance of the problem and an index of usability, which allows the comparison of the effectiveness of usability of information technology products and services across different domains. This article presents a methodology which accounts for the aforementioned limitations in usability evaluation. A case study is presented, which illustrates the utility of the proposed methodology and indicates that the current methods underestimate the number of participants in usability evaluation studies.
Designing for All in Ambient Intelligence Environments: The Interplay of User, Context, and Technology BIBAFull-Text 441-454
  Constantine Stephanidis
This article outlines issues that emerge from the evolution of the Information Society towards Ambient Intelligence (AmI) environments, focusing on the diversity of human needs, the dynamic evolution of context, and the multifaceted characteristics of interactive technologies. Such an evolution brings forward many implications and challenges in the context of Universal Access, that is, accessibility and usability of Information Society Technologies by all users, independently of individual abilities and characteristics. Identified research challenges include the investigation of human requirements in the context of AmI, suitable approaches to nonfunctional characteristics (such as accessibility, privacy, security, and safety), suitable models of the context of use, appropriate interaction devices and techniques for diverse users and contexts of use, interaction design for continuous and implicit interaction, elaboration of design methods suitable for very complex interactive environments, and mechanisms for interaction adaptation. This article argues that such challenges in the context of AmI environments can be addressed by systematically investigating the interplay between the user, the context, and the technologies. Such a research direction requires systematic approaches to diverse human needs, dynamic context characteristics, and technology possibilities, all of which need to be elaborated and validated in practice.
Review Study of Computer Input Devices and Older Users BIBAFull-Text 455-474
  Alvaro D. Taveira; Sang D. Choi
The fast aging of many societies and their increasing reliance on computers create a compelling need to reconsider older users' interactions with computers. Changes in perceptual and motor skill capabilities that accompany the aging process bring important implications for the design of human-computer interfaces. This study reviews the recent research literature on computer input devices and their adequacy to the elderly user. Significant findings from evaluative studies are summarized, and strengths and weaknesses of the different input devices are outlined. Recommendations for the design and selection of input devices are provided.

IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 6

Perception of Interactivity: Affects of Four Key Variables in Mobile Advertising BIBAFull-Text 479-505
  Qin Gao; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
There are indications that interactivity could benefit the effectiveness of mobile advertisements. But there are few guidelines on how to design interactive mobile advertisements. This study investigated the influences of various design features of mobile advertisements on perceived interactivity and the relationship between perceived interactivity and attitude toward mobile advertisements. An experiment consisting of 2 sessions was conducted to test 5 proposed hypotheses with 40 participants. Results showed that the number of user control options and the customizability of advertisements have significant influences on users' perception of interactivity. The more options a message advertisement provides, the more interactive the participants perceive the advertisement; a customizable game advertisement is perceived as more interactive than an uncustomizable game advertisement. But no significant effects of presenting instructional information of mobile Web advertisements and including humorous elements were found. Finally, perceived interactivity was found a strong predictor of attitude toward mobile advertisement.
Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment in Computer Games Through Real-Time Anxiety-Based Affective Feedback BIBAFull-Text 506-529
  Changchun Liu; Pramila Agrawal; Nilanjan Sarkar; Shuo Chen
A number of studies in recent years have investigated the dynamic difficulty adjustment (DDA) mechanism in computer games to automatically tailor gaming experience to individual player's characteristics. Although most of these existing works focus on game adaptation based on player's performance, affective state experienced by the players could play a key role in gaming experience and may provide a useful indicator for a DDA mechanism. In this article, an affect-based DDA was designed and implemented for computer games. In this DDA mechanism, a player's physiological signals were analyzed to infer his or her probable anxiety level, which was chosen as the target affective state, and the game difficulty level was automatically adjusted in real time as a function of the player's affective state. Peripheral physiological signals were measured through wearable biofeedback sensors and several physiological indices were explored to determine their correlations with anxiety. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the affect-based DDA on game play by comparing it with a performance-based DDA. This is the first time, that is known, that the impact of a real-time affect-based DDA has been demonstrated experimentally.
The Evaluation of User Experience of the Virtual World in Relation to Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation BIBAFull-TextErratumRetraction 530-553
  Dong Hee Shin
This study utilized the Technology Acceptance Model to study user attitude toward Second Life (SL), an emerging virtual environment. The objective is to explain the intrinsic and extrinsic motivational determinants of SL use. For this goal, the study built a model that links various factors to the attitude, intention, and flow in using SL. A survey instrument was utilized to collect data from SL users, and the data from the survey were analyzed statistically to establish the validity of the model by testing the 13 proposed hypotheses. The research identified factors such as synchronicity, empathy, and self-efficacy to be significant associated with users' motivations to use SL. The results of this study show that users' extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are significantly associated with their motivation to use SL. Extrinsically, synchronicity is found to have a significant effect on perceived usefulness. Intrinsically, empathy is identified as a key component for creating a more enjoyable experience. In addition, self-efficacy is found to have a significant effect on both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The study provides a more intensive view of virtual reality users and is an important step toward a better understanding of user behavior of advanced virtual reality like virtual actuality.
QN-ACES: Integrating Queueing Network and ACT-R, CAPS, EPIC, and Soar Architectures for Multitask Cognitive Modeling BIBAFull-Text 554-581
  Yili Liu
Comprehensive and computational models of human performance have both scientific and practical importance to human-machine system design and human-centered computing. This article describes QN-ACES, a cognitive architecture that aims to integrate two complementary classes of cognitive architectures: Queueing network (QN) mathematical architecture and ACT-R, CAPS, EPIC, and Soar (ACES) symbolic architectures. QN-ACES represents the fourth major step along the QN architecture development for theoretical and methodological unification in cognitive and human-computer interaction modeling. The first three steps -- QN architecture for response time, QN-RMD (Reflected Multidimensional Diffusions) for response time, response accuracy, and mental architecture, and QN-MHP (Model Human Processor) for mathematical analysis and real time simulation of procedural tasks -- are summarized first, followed by a discussion of the rationale, importance and specific research issues of QN-ACES.
Review and Reappraisal of Smart Clothing BIBAFull-Text 582-617
  Gilsoo Cho; Seungsin Lee; Jayoung Cho
Smart clothing is a "smart system" capable of sensing and communicating with environmental and the wearer's conditions and stimuli. A comprehensive review is presented on the research and developments related to smart clothing including technology developments, human aspects in smart clothing, and the applications. Recent smart clothing technology can be summarized as a tendency toward textile-based technology for each component: interface, communication, data management, energy management, and integrated circuits. Human aspects in smart clothing, even though some areas were not fully covered, were dealt with in terms of usability, functionality, durability, safety, comfort, and fashion. General applications of smart clothing developed so far include bio-monitoring clothing, MP3 player-adopted clothing, and photonic clothing.

IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 7

The Role of Organizational and Individual Characteristics in Technology Acceptance BIBAFull-Text 623-646
  Dongseop Lee; Youngho Rhee; Randall B. Dunham
The roles that users' individual and organizational characteristics play in technology acceptance were examined. Perceived work group characteristics was considered an organizational characteristic; attitude toward change and job stress were considered individual characteristics. User satisfaction with system characteristics was considered a consequence of technology acceptance. Data were collected from a sample of 236 Korean expatriates in information technology (IT) industries who were assigned to work in the United States. Perceived work group characteristics, attitude toward change, and job stress were related to one of the technology acceptance variables, perceived ease of use of the IT system. Ease of use was, in turn, related to perceived usefulness of the IT system, the other technology acceptance variable. Both perceived ease of use and usefulness were related to user satisfaction.
Softly Elastic 6 DOF Input BIBAFull-Text 647-691
  Martin Sundin; Morten Fjeld
The aim of this work is to identify the properties that a universal multidimensional input device should have in order to optimally function with 3D applications, including Web browsers, window managers, digital content creation software, and computer games. Such applications have become increasingly effective due to the rapid development of computer graphics. This situation has generated a greater need for multidimensional input devices. It is conjectured that an ideal universal multidimensional input device should allow for 2D pointing as well as precise manipulation and navigation within 3D environments. Accordingly, the device should offer (a) six degrees of freedom, (b) a range of motion adapted to finger manipulation, (c) elastic suspension providing rich sensory feedback, and (d) position and rate control. The input device, SpaceCat, was designed to offer all these properties. Although such devices are known to benefit 3D navigation, this work demonstrates that they also benefit 3D object manipulation.
Nomadic Speech-Based Text Entry: A Decision Model Strategy for Improved Speech to Text Processing BIBAFull-Text 692-706
  Kathleen J. Price; Min Lin; Jinjuan Feng; Rich Goldman; Andrew Sears; Julie Jacko
Speech text entry can be problematic during ideal dictation conditions, but difficulties are magnified when external conditions deteriorate. Motion during speech is an extraordinary condition that might have detrimental effects on automatic speech recognition. This research examined speech text entry while mobile. Speech enrollment profiles were created by participants in both a seated and walking environment. Dictation tasks were also completed in both the seated and walking conditions. Although results from an earlier study suggested that completing the enrollment process under more challenging conditions may lead to improved recognition accuracy under both challenging and less challenging conditions, the current study provided contradictory results. A detailed review of error rates confirmed that some participants minimized errors by enrolling under more challenging conditions while others benefited by enrolling under less challenging conditions. Still others minimized errors when different enrollment models were used under the opposing condition. Leveraging these insights, we developed a decision model to minimize recognition error rates regardless of the conditions experienced while completing dictation tasks. When applying the model to existing data, error rates were reduced significantly but additional research is necessary to effectively validate the proposed solution.
Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction (5th Edition) by B. Shneiderman and C. Plaisant -- Pearson Addison-Wesley, 2009. xviii + 606 pages. ISBN: 978-0-321-53735-5 BIBFull-Text 707-708
  Liang Zeng
Erratum BIBFull-Text 712

IJHCI 2009 Volume 25 Issue 8

Active-Input Provides More Movement and Muscle Activity During Electronic Game Playing by Children BIBAFull-Text 713-728
  L. Straker; C. Pollock; J. Piek; R. Abbott; R. Skoss; J. Coleman
The majority of children in affluent countries now play electronic games, and this has lead to concerns about the health impact of this activity. Traditional electronic games have used gamepad, keyboard, and mouse input, but newer game interfaces that require more movement are now available. However the movement and muscle activity demands of electronic games have not been described. This study compared the amount of movement and muscle activity while 20 children aged 9 to 12 years watched a DVD and played games using handheld computer, gamepad, keyboard, steering wheel and, active-input (Webcam motion analysis-Sony EyeToy®) devices. Movement of the head, sacrum, foot, shoulder, wrist, and thumb was measured along with activity in cervical erector spinae, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, and wrist extensor muscles. Use of the wheel resulted in some increase in upper limb movement and muscle activity, but the other traditional input devices were usually as sedentary as watching a DVD. In contrast, use of the active-input device (EyeToy) resulted in substantial movement and muscle activity in limbs and torso. These results suggest that playing traditional electronic games is indeed a sedentary activity but that new active-input technologies may be useful in encouraging more movement and muscle activity in children.
Content Preparation for E-Commerce Involving Chinese and U.S. Online Consumers BIBAFull-Text 729-761
  Huafei Liao; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
The objective of this study was to examine underlying mechanisms concerning preference differences for content on e-commerce Web sites of online consumers with different cultural backgrounds. Two experiments were conducted to explore Chinese and U.S. online consumers' information preferences with three particular product categories: MP3 players, digital cameras, and laptop computers. For Experiment 1, two prototype e-commerce Web sites were developed that contained the same content but presented in different ways. Twenty-four Chinese and 24 U.S. university students were asked to purchase an MP3 player, a digital camera, and a laptop computer from one of the two sites, and their information preferences were assessed and compared in terms of their performance on the sites. For Experiment 2, two versions of product description were developed for each product used in the experiment with each version focusing on a different information item. The preferences of 24 Chinese and 24 U.S. university students for certain information items were assessed and compared with their preferences for the corresponding product description, indicated on a 7-point Likert scale. The differences between the two cultural groups' information preferences revealed by the experiments are discussed, and their implications for improving the content usability of e-commerce Web sites in China and the United States are offered.
The Optimal Size of Handwriting Character Input Boxes on PDAs BIBAFull-Text 762-784
  Xiangshi Ren; Xiaolei Zhou
This article presents an empirical study to determine the optimal size of a box for the input of handwriting characters on personal digital assistants (PDAs). The experiments involve the consideration of boxes for different kinds of characters, different box sizes and shapes (square and rectangular), different user postures, and the age differences of users. The results are assessed in terms of high performance (high character recognition rates, minimal stroke protrusions outside the character box, minimal number of error corrections, minimum writing time) and subjective ratings (e.g., ease of writing and minimum degree of fatigue). The results show that the optimal size of character boxes for the input of alphanumeric characters is 12 × 14 mm (rectangular), whereas for Kanji (Chinese characters) mixed with Kana characters and for Hiragana & Katakana characters the optimal size is 14 × 14 mm (square). We believe that knowledge of the optimal size of character input boxes will be useful for the design of user interfaces on PDAs.
Vision for Performance in Virtual Environments: The Role of Feedback Timing BIBAFull-Text 785-805
  Andrea H. Mason; Brandon J. Bernardin
This work explores how people use visual feedback when performing simple reach-to-grasp movements in a tabletop virtual environment. In particular we investigated whether visual feedback is required for the entire reach or whether minimal feedback can be effectively used. Twelve participants performed reach-to-grasp movements toward targets at two locations. Visual feedback about the index finger and thumb was provided in four conditions: vision available throughout the movement, vision available up to peak wrist velocity, vision available until movement initiation, or vision absent throughout the movement. It was hypothesized that vision available until movement onset would be an advantage over a no vision situation yet not attain the performance observed when vision was available up to peak velocity. Results indicated that movement time was longest in the no vision condition but similar for the three conditions where vision was available. However, deceleration time and peak aperture measures suggest grasping is more difficult when vision is not available for at least the first third of the movement. These results suggest that designers of virtual environments can manipulate the availability of visual feedback of one's hand without compromising interactivity. This may be applied, for example, when detailed rendering of other aspects of the environmental layout is more important, when motion lag is a problem or when hand/object concealment is an issue.