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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 28

Editors:Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Steven J. Landry
Publisher:Taylor & Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2012-01 Volume 28 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2012-02 Volume 28 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2012-03 Volume 28 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 2012-04 Volume 28 Issue 4
  5. IJHCI 2012-05 Volume 28 Issue 5
  6. IJHCI 2012-06 Volume 28 Issue 6
  7. IJHCI 2012-07 Volume 28 Issue 7
  8. IJHCI 2012-08 Volume 28 Issue 8
  9. IJHCI 2012-09 Volume 28 Issue 9
  10. IJHCI 2012-10 Volume 28 Issue 10
  11. IJHCI 2012-11 Volume 28 Issue 11
  12. IJHCI 2012-12 Volume 28 Issue 12

IJHCI 2012-01 Volume 28 Issue 1

Designing Inclusive Interfaces Through User Modeling and Simulation BIBAFull-Text 1-33
  Pradipta Biswas; Peter Robinson; Patrick Langdon
Elderly and disabled people can be hugely benefited through the advancement of modern electronic devices, as those can help them to engage more fully with the world. However, existing design practices often isolate elderly or disabled users by considering them as users with special needs. This article presents a simulator that can reflect problems faced by elderly and disabled users while they use computer, television, and similar electronic devices. The simulator embodies both the internal state of an application and the perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes of its user. It can help interface designers to understand, visualize, and measure the effect of impairment on interaction with an interface. Initially a brief survey of different user modeling techniques is presented, and then the existing models are classified into different categories. In the context of existing modeling approaches the work on user modeling is presented for people with a wide range of abilities. A few applications of the simulator, which shows the predictions are accurate enough to make design choices and point out the implication and limitations of the work, are also discussed.
A Motivationally Oriented Approach to Understanding Game Appropriation BIBFull-Text 34-47
  C. Herodotou; N. Winters; M. Kambouri
Enhancing Spatial Knowledge With Discrete Euclidean Virtual 3D Display Interfaces: Design Options BIBAFull-Text 48-60
  Tiffany N. Saffell; Herbert A. Colle; Ian M. Bock; Lisa J. Douglas
Getting lost within Internet applications has been addressed with limited success by treating hypertext navigation as analogous to spatial navigation. One alternative for shopping-specific interfaces is to create discrete virtual three-dimensional (3D) Euclidian spaces for web navigation. Equivalent configural spatial knowledge acquisition was obtained from searches in discrete HTML Euclidian environments and comparable desktop 3D virtual environments (Couture, Colle, & Reid, 2005, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction). However, between-store spatial knowledge was not optimal for both discrete HTML and continuous desktop virtual environments. Also, walking longer distances between stores is undesirable. These issues are addressed with two design options. In Experiment 1, better between-store spatial knowledge was acquired in linear and clustered arrangements of adjacent stores than with hallway travel between stores. In Experiment 2, map menu teleportation, selecting a store teleportation destination from a map menu, did not spatially disorient participants. Design implications for several domains were discussed.
Investigating the Impact of Task Change Type and Transparency on Transfer of Learning BIBAFull-Text 61-71
  Yunchen Huang; Lesley Strawderman; Darryl Murray
This article investigates users' transfer of learning on two e-mail platforms with different transparency levels and task change types. The objective is to provide implication on task design in product upgrading. A mixed design of 4 (types of task change)×2 (transparency)×2 blocks (Hotmail and Outlook platform) within-subjects design and 3 levels of expertise between-subjects design, both having repeated measures on type of task change and transparency, was used to evaluate participants' transfer of learning. A main effect of both transparency and task change type is expected. High-transparency tasks are expected to lead to higher performance than low-transparency tasks. Commission task changes are expected to lead to lower performance than other types of task change due to the addition of new task steps. The results showed that commission task changes led to the greatest disturbance on user performance, whereas performance is best during sequence task changes in which participants have a positive transfer in performance time per step and no increase in error ratio. Participants also showed better transfer of learning in high-transparency tasks. The conclusion is that transparency level is critical in the future design of product changes. A refined design approach is necessary to ensure that the design tasks are highly transparent to users. In addition, to facilitate user's transfer of learning, commission task changes should be reduced and sequence task changes should be increased.

Book review

Recommender Systems: An Introduction, by Dietmar Jannach, Markus Zanker, Alexander Felfernig, and Gerhard Friedrich BIBFull-Text 72-73
  Robin Burke

IJHCI 2012-02 Volume 28 Issue 2

Human Factors and Human-Computer Interaction Considerations in NextGen BIBFull-Text 75-76
  Kim-Phuong L. Vu
Toward Automated Air Traffic Control -- Investigating a Fundamental Paradigm Shift in Human/Systems Interaction BIBAFull-Text 77-98
  Thomas Prevot; Jeffrey R. Homola; Lynne H. Martin; Joey S. Mercer; Christopher D. Cabrall
Predicted air traffic increases over the next 25 years may create a significant capacity problem that the United States' National Airspace System will be unable to accommodate. The concept of introducing automated separation assurance was proposed to help solve this problem. However, the introduction of such a concept involves a fundamental paradigm shift in which automation is allowed to perform safety-critical tasks that today are strictly the air traffic controllers' domain. Moving toward automated air traffic control, therefore, requires a careful and thorough investigation. As part of an ongoing series, three human-in-the-loop simulation studies were conducted at the NASA Ames Research Center with the overarching goal of determining whether the automated separation assurance concept can be integrated into air traffic control operations in an acceptable and safe manner. These studies investigated a range of issues including the proper levels of automation for given capacity targets, off-nominal operations from both air and ground perspectives, and sustained near-full mission operations with many tasks allocated to the automation in the presence of convective weather and scheduling constraints. Overall, it was found that the concept has the potential to solve the envisioned airspace capacity problem. The automation was largely effective and robust, and the function allocation of tasks between controllers and automation was generally acceptable. However, feedback and results also showed that further technological development is necessary to improve trajectory prediction and conflict detection accuracy. The need for further procedural development to govern controller/automation and air/ground interactions was also highlighted. These and other considerations are addressed as the automated separation assurance concept is further tested and pursued through subsequent studies. This article not subject to US copyright law.
Using Engagement to Negate Vigilance Decrements in the NextGen Environment BIBAFull-Text 99-106
  Vlad L. Pop; Eric J. Stearman; Sadaf Kazi; Francis T. Durso
The aim of this study was to explore the extent to which increasing engagement would negate vigilance decrements in monitoring during a realistic air traffic control monitoring task. Technological advances in aircraft and navigation may change the controller's job from directing air traffic to more of a monitoring role with supervisory control. Research shows that humans are not effective monitors and can be subject to vigilance decrements. Even though vigilance decrements have been demonstrated in some settings, it is still not known if they are likely in a future ATC monitoring role. Sixteen undergraduates from the Georgia Institute of Technology trained for 6 weeks on NextSim, a medium fidelity ATC research simulator of the NextGen environment. They then performed 4 weeks of scenarios that required monitoring of flow corridors for failures of conflict evading technology. Two levels of engagement and two levels of attentional focus while monitoring were analyzed. Participants showed a significant vigilance decrement except after extended practice in the engaged condition. The findings of this study suggest that engaging the operator may alleviate the vigilance decrement, however only after practice.
Pilot Performance in Trajectory-Based Operations Under Concepts of Operation That Vary Separation Responsibility Across Pilots, Air Traffic Controllers, and Automation BIBAFull-Text 107-118
  Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Thomas Z. Strybel; Vernol Battiste; Joel Lachter; Arik-Quang V. Dao; Summer Brandt; Sarah Ligda; Walter Johnson
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will revolutionize the air traffic management system in the United States. NextGen will involve human operators interacting with new technologies in a complex system, making human factors and human-computer interaction considerations a major concern. The present study reports data from a human-in-the-loop simulation that evaluated pilot performance, workload, and situation awareness under one of three plausible NextGen concepts of operation. The concepts of operation differed with respect to the allocation of separation responsibility across human pilots and air traffic controllers (ATCs), and automation. Pilots were asked to employ trajectory-based operations to perform weather avoidance maneuvers, an interval management task, and a continuous descent approach. Depending on the concept being tested, they were also given the responsibility of separation assurance (Concept 1) or received conflict resolutions from an ATC (Concept 2) or automated system (Concept 3). Overall, pilot performance on the various flight tasks was worse in Concept 3 than in Concepts 1 and 2. Although pilot workload did not differ across the three concepts, pilot situation awareness was highest in Concept 1, in which the pilots were given the most responsibilities. These findings suggest that keeping pilots engaged in separation assurance tasks may be preferable to having them rely on automation alone.
Flight Deck Interval Management Delegated Separation Using Equivalent Visual Operations BIBAFull-Text 119-130
  Lawrence J., III Prinzel; Lynda J. Kramer; Kevin J. Shelton; Jarvis J. Arthur; Randall E. Bailey; Robert M. Norman; Kyle L. Ellis; Bryan E. Barmore
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept termed, "Equivalent Visual Operations" (EVO) represents a fundamentally different operational approach to current issues confronting commercial aviation. Synthetic and enhanced flight vision system (S/EVS) technologies are critical enabling technologies to EVO. Research was conducted that evaluated concepts for flight-deck-based interval management operations, integrated with S/EVS. One of the concepts tested involves delegated flight-deck-based separation, in which the flight crews were paired with another aircraft and responsible for spacing and maintaining separation from the paired aircraft termed "equivalent visual separation." The operation required the flight crews to acquire and maintain an "equivalent visual contact" as well as to conduct manual landings in low-visibility conditions utilizing S/EVS and other flight deck technologies. The article describes results that evaluated the concept of EVO delegated separation, including an off-nominal scenario in which the lead aircraft was not able to conform to the assigned spacing resulting in a loss of separation. The results demonstrated that delegated separation improved flight deck situation awareness without an increase in mental workload. Implications for NextGen and future research directions are described.
Pilot Procedure-Following Behavior During Closely Spaced Parallel Approaches BIBAFull-Text 131-139
  Steven J. Landry; Julie Jacko
A flight simulator experiment was run to examine pilot procedure-following behavior during closely spaced parallel approaches. Such approaches are being considered under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to increase the capacity of runway systems, possibly without the need to increase the footprint of airports. Pilots flying these approaches utilized a simple heuristic to fly the procedure consistently, despite the heuristic being suboptimal for any of the three conditions. Moreover, procedure compliance was relatively low, but noncompliance itself was not unsafe unless accompanied by situation awareness problems. In some cases, noncompliance could be shown to be a better choice than compliance. These results have implications for assumptions regarding procedure-following by pilots utilizing novel procedures in NextGen.
Situation Awareness in the NextGen Air Traffic Management System BIBAFull-Text 140-151
  Dan Chiappe; Kim-Phuong L. Vu; Tom Strybel
The Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is expected to revolutionize how air traffic will be managed and significantly enhance the capacity of the National Airspace System in the United States. Because NextGen is a system that requires a high level of interaction between human operators and technology, there is a need to assess how NextGen tools and concepts of operation will impact operator situation awareness (SA). The goal of this study is to highlight the importance of SA to operator performance in complex systems. The defended view is that SA is situated, which means that operators rely in fundamental ways on interactions with external tools to maintain their understanding of a situation, minimizing internal memory storage of task relevant information. Consequently, SA metrics must be conducted in the context where operators have access to their displays and tools. The article ends with a discussion of how the situated SA approach can be used to explain the acquisition of shared SA in distributed teams and to guide applied research relating to the evaluation and development of NextGen concepts and tools.

IJHCI 2012-03 Volume 28 Issue 3

Understanding User Satisfaction With Instant Messaging: An Empirical Survey Study BIBAFull-Text 153-162
  Wei Wang; JJ Po-An Hsieh; Baoxiang Song
The current article examines user satisfaction with instant messaging in building and maintaining social relationships with friends, family members, and others. The research model integrates motivation theory with media capacity theories to explain how the attributes of media capacity (e.g., social presence and media richness) and users' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations toward using instant messaging influence user satisfaction. Data were collected from a sample of 247 Chinese university students via an online survey. The results suggest that perceived enjoyment, perceived social presence, and perceived usefulness are key to user satisfaction. Perceived social presence and perceived media richness are positively associated with perceived enjoyment. It was also found that perceived enjoyment, perceived social presence, and perceived media richness have significant effects on perceived usefulness. Of interest, perceived enjoyment and perceived social presence have stronger effects on user satisfaction than perceived usefulness.
Shall I Tell You Where I Live and Who I Am? Factors Influencing the Behavioral Intention to Disclose Personal Data for Online Government Transactions BIBAFull-Text 163-177
  Ardion Beldad; Thea van der Geest; Menno de Jong; Michael Steehouder
The success of an online transaction with a government organization depends on citizen's willingness to share personal data relevant for the transaction. However, disclosing personal data online is oftentimes considered risky. It has been substantiated in a number of empirical studies that perceptions of the risks involved in sharing personal data in the virtual environment could hinder Internet users from engaging in online transactions that require the disclosure of personal data. Results of a large-scale online survey with 2,202 Dutch Internet users reveal that trust in government organizations is a very important determinant of personal data disclosure intention among users with and without e-government experience. Low perceptions of risks, high expectations of the benefits of e-government services, and strong beliefs in the adequacy of legal protection mechanisms could also positively influence users' intention to share personal data for e-government services. The negative relation between trust and risk perceptions is also established, as citizens' trust in government organizations could reduce perceptions of the risks involved in disclosing personal data online.
Understanding the Intention to Use Technology by Preservice Teachers: An Empirical Test of Competing Theoretical Models BIBAFull-Text 178-188
  Timothy Teo; Paul van Schaik
The proliferation of technology has provided educational institutions with opportunities to integrate technology into their curriculum. Technology acceptance refers to a user's willingness to employ information technology for the tasks it is designed to support. This study compared the four models (TRA, TPB, TAM, and integrated) to examine which model best helps to predict preservice teachers' intentions to use technology. Data were gathered from 429 preservice teachers from a teacher training institute in Singapore, and structural equation modeling was used to compare the four models in terms of overall model fit, explanatory power, and path significance. The results demonstrate that the models did not differ in explanatory power. Attitude as an independent variable was found to have the greatest impact on the intention to use technology.
Codein -- A New Notation for GOMS to Handle Evaluations of Reality-Based Interaction Style Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 189-201
  Georgios Christou; Frank E. Ritter; Robert J. K. Jacob
We propose a new diagrammatic notation system for Goals, Operators, Methods, Selection rules (GOMS), called Codein, with extensions to support the evaluation of Reality Based Interaction Styles. The proposed notation gives added power to GOMS to model and evaluate the task completion time of parallel actions during the performance of a task, something that was previously only possible using CPM-GOMS, which is far more complicated to use. Codein's evaluative power is verified through an experiment. The first condition of the experiment compares the completion time predicted by a GOMSL model, a Codein model, and the actual completion time of participants in a direct manipulation task. The second compares the completion time of participants in a Tangible User Interface task with predictions by a GOMSL model and a Codein model. Predicted task times by Codein in both conditions come close to the actual experimental results.
A Nonformal Interactive Therapeutic Multisensory Environment for People With Cerebral Palsy BIBAFull-Text 202-212
  Cesar Mauri; Agusti Solanas; Toni Granollers
A new multisensory system that aims at fostering the interaction of people with cerebral palsy is presented. This article describes the strategies and technologies used to provide people who have moderate to severe cerebral palsy with playful and fun activities designed according to their abilities. These activities are based on interactive systems that use computer vision and generate graphics and sounds in real time. The well-being that is achieved through the use of these activities is the result of gaining a significant degree of autonomy by the users. The presented system was first developed in the Cerebral Palsy Centre of Tarragona, Spain. Its motivation came from the low rate of users able to interact with computers. Although several assistive technology gadgets and special software applications (e.g., cause-effect and educational activities, simple navigation environments, etc.) were used, most users simply did not understand the interaction mechanisms. It was thought that a highly interactive activity (reinforced with sounds and images closely related with gestures) would be more accessible to most users in spite of their sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments. Tests with impaired users show that the proposal promotes participation, engagement, and play. In this article, the experimental methodology, the used and developed tools, and the results that were obtained are explained.

IJHCI 2012-04 Volume 28 Issue 4

Rapid Prototyping of Adaptable User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 213-235
  Asterios Leonidis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
User interface adaptation has been proposed in recent years as a means to achieve personalized accessibility and usability of user interfaces. Related user interface architectures, as well as a variety of related development method and tools, have also been elaborated. Admittedly, however, despite the recognized validity of the approach, which has been proved in practice in a series of prototype systems, the wider adoption and uptake of user interface adaptation approaches are still limited. One of the identified obstacles is the complexity intrinsic in designing such interfaces and the need of radically revising the current user interface design practice to account for (a) the alternative designs required for adaptation, (b) the parameters involved in driving adaptations (i.e., selecting among alternatives at a given point during interaction), and (c) the logic of adaptation at runtime. This article proposes a twofold tool-based support strategy for user interface adaptation development, based on (a) an adaptation development toolkit and related widget library, which directly embeds lexical level adaptations into common interactive widgets, and (b) embedding such a library in a common integrated development environment, thus allowing designers to define and view alternative adaptations at design time and create adaptable user interfaces through traditional prototyping. The aforementioned approach has been implemented in the domain of adaptable applications for older users, producing tools that are currently in use in the development of a large suite of interactive applications in various domains. The approach presented in this article is claimed to be the first and so far unique supporting rapid prototyping of adaptable user interfaces, thus minimizing the divergence between typical development practices and user interface adaptation development.
Complexity Evaluation of Computer-Based Tasks BIBAFull-Text 236-257
  Gregory Z. Bedny; Waldemar Karwowski; Inna S. Bedny
In this work, task complexity is considered as a multidimensional, integral characteristic of a task. The more complex a task is, the higher the cognitive demands for performing the task. Components of task complexity impose demands on the mental efforts of users. This article proposes a general approach to evaluate the complexity of computer-based tasks. The proposed principles of complexity evaluation and measures of complexity provide a proper basis for optimization, modification, and enhancement of the software design process. Experimental results support the effectiveness of the proposed method for both the design of man-machine systems and human-computer interfaces. The suggested methods and principles of complexity assessment derive from systemic-structural activity theory.
Understanding Computer Users With Tetraplegia: Survey of Assistive Technology Users BIBAFull-Text 258-268
  Héctor A. Caltenco; Björn Breidegard; Bodil Jönsson; Lotte N. S. Andreasen Struijka
An online survey in the form of a questionnaire was conducted to obtain the opinion of computer users with tetraplegia on their current computer interfaces and to assess desirable applications for future independent control using assistive devices. The survey included questions related to information about the respondents' injury/disease, everyday activities and social life, electronic devices and computer programs, evaluation of computer interfaces, and desirable applications for assistive devices. The survey was distributed via tetraplegia associations, magazines, and Internet forums mainly in Denmark and Sweden, but also through other European and American associations. Thirty-one completed questionnaires were collected from individuals with spinal cord injury and other neuromuscular diseases that resulted in tetraplegia. Respondents evaluated gaze and head trackers; speech recognition systems; chin, mouth, and hand joysticks; sip and puff interfaces; and typing sticks. Most interfaces were evaluated in a range from neutral to good. Users expressed a desire for applications to independently control wheelchairs, television sets, doors, and windows. This is, as far as is known, the first study that compares a wide range of current commercial computer interfaces that have been used as part of the users' everyday lives. The answers are useful for designing and developing alternative computer interfaces and assistive devices and for computer-interface users to identify a computer-interface fitting more to his or her needs.
Updating Fitts' Law to Account for Restricted Display Field of View Conditions BIBAFull-Text 269-279
  HaiTao Song
The field of view (FOV) restricted displays are becoming more prevalent in daily use, such as touch-screen-based smart phones; ultramobile PCs; and, to some extent, head-mounted displays. All of these displays occupy significantly smaller portions of a user's FOV compared to standard desktop and laptop displays. Prior research has shown that there is an effect of display size, which is related with display FOV, on movement time (MT) when performing pointing tasks. However, there has yet to be a detailed, quantitative study of how display FOV affects MT across a wide range of FOV values. In the present study two user experiments are conducted, and it is found that Fitts' law is no longer adequate for modeling MT if the display FOV is restricted below a certain value, which we call the critical size. A new Fitts'-FOV model is proposed to extend Fitts' law beyond this critical size to restricted display FOV conditions. The results showed that the new model works as both a descriptive and a predictive model for restricted display FOV conditions.

IJHCI 2012-05 Volume 28 Issue 5

Can 3DTV Create Immersive Environments? BIBAFull-TextRetraction 281-291
  Dong-Hee Shin; Seon-Gi Baek
The goal of this study is to propose an acceptance model of immersive 3D effects and 3D contents for the sustainable development of the 3D industry and its applications. This study investigates immersion/flow/presence effects in the acceptance of 3DTV with the conceptual model of subliminal factors. A model is created to validate the relationship of subliminal factors to attitude and behavior. Structural equation modeling is used to construct a predictive model of attitudes toward 3DTV. Further, the model examines the mediating and moderating roles of immersion and flow. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of building a theory of 3DTV and providing practical insight into developing a user-centered 3D interface.
Brain-Computer Interfaces for Multimodal Interaction: A Survey and Principles BIBAFull-Text 292-307
  Hayrettin Gürkök; Anton Nijholt
For decades, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been used for restoring the communication and mobility of disabled people through applications such as spellers, web browsers, and wheelchair controls. In parallel to advances in computational intelligence and the production of consumer BCI products, BCIs have recently started to be considered as alternative modalities in human-computer interaction (HCI). One of the popular topics in HCI is multimodal interaction (MMI), which deals with combining multiple modalities in order to provide powerful, flexible, adaptable, and natural interfaces. This article discusses the situation of BCI as a modality within MMI research. State-of-the-art, real-time multimodal BCI applications are surveyed in order to demonstrate how BCI can be helpful as a modality in MMI. It is shown that multimodal use of BCIs can improve error handling, task performance, and user experience and that they can broaden the user spectrum. The techniques for employing BCI in MMI are described, and the experimental and technical challenges with some guidelines to overcome these are shown. Issues in input fusion, output fission, integration architectures, and data collection are covered.
DEEP: Design-Oriented Evaluation of Perceived Usability BIBAFull-Text 308-346
  Tao Yang; Jared Linder; Davide Bolchini
Existing perceived usability questionnaires detect the appearance of usability issues rather than the underlying design generating those issues. This limits the capability of existing instruments to directly inform design recommendations. To address this problem, a usability questionnaire structured around the analytical composition of the design was created and validated. A four-stage process was followed. First, 3 usability experts refined 54 questions from highly cited usability questionnaires and structured them around 6 design dimensions. Second, 12 raters scored the questions by their relevance to assess usability. Third, questions and dimensions were then improved through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (N=196) and, fourth, further enhanced through confirmatory factor analysis (N=362). The result is DEEP, a 19-question usability questionnaire based on 5 main design dimensions (content, information architecture, navigation, layout, and visual guidance). DEEP can be used to capture detailed usability feedback that more directly relates to specific aspects of design requirements.
Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities: A Study of Citizenship Behavior and Its Social-Relational Antecedents BIBAFull-Text 347-359
  Bo Xu; Dahui Li; Bingjia Shao
A virtual community is a type of online structure that enables Internet users to communicate and collaborate. Users' knowledge contributions are critical to the viability and sustainability of virtual communities. This article studies virtual community members' knowledge sharing from the perspective of citizenship behavior defined as members' spontaneous contribution to the community without expectation of return or reciprocation. The social-relational antecedents of citizenship behavior are explored through an examination of how members' general attitude and desire for relationship building and maintaining, including attachment motivation, social support orientation, and disposition to trust influence their trusting beliefs and citizenship knowledge-sharing behavior. Hypotheses are developed and tested with survey data from Chinese and American users of virtual communities. In general, the results of data analyses support our research model. This article contributes empirically to virtual community research and has practical implications for virtual community development.

IJHCI 2012-06 Volume 28 Issue 6

Evaluation of a Geospatial Annotation Tool for Unmanned Vehicle Specialist Interface BIBAFull-Text 361-372
  Tao Zhang; Julie A. Adams
Map-based interfaces have been developed to support collaborative control of unmanned vehicles (i.e., robots). Annotation on the map (or geospatial annotation) has been proposed as an effective way to support team collaboration; however, there is a lack of research focused on the design of geospatial annotation tools to promote usability and task performance. The utility of location reference in geospatial annotations for communication and information sharing is the focus of this article. Two annotation tool designs were developed. The annotation contents were directly anchored on the map in the first design, whereas in the second design annotations were summarized in a separate panel on the interface. Evaluation participants followed instructions from a simulated team leader and assigned unmanned vehicles to different tasks for two simulated scenarios that include searching for victims and collecting hazardous materials samples. The results demonstrate the potential of using geospatial annotations to enrich communication and support map-based unmanned vehicle control. Participants appreciated the direct location reference feature of the first design and had generally shorter response time, but felt that the second design provided better usability and lower task workload. These results suggest that the user experience depends on the manner of obtaining information from the annotation tools, and the integration of the tool with user's task flow and other interface components, such as the map display. The presented results can be used as a basis for designing geospatial annotation tools for team collaboration that better fit user needs and preferences.
Voice-Driven Sound Effect Manipulation BIBAFull-Text 373-382
  Soonil Kwon
Authoring tools for sketching the motion of characters to be animated have been studied for contents such as computer animations, games, and user-created content. However the natural interface for sound editing has not been sufficiently studied. This article proposes an intuitive interface method in which sound sample is selected and edited by speaking sound-imitation words (onomatopoeia). An experiment with the method based on statistical models, which is generally used for pattern recognition, showed up to 99% in the accuracy of recognition. In the other experiment for sound editing, syllable segmentation was first executed, and then a syllabic time scale of sound samples was modified by the Synchronized Overlap-Add algorithm. The energy by the syllable was then modified according to utterances of sound-imitation words. The experiment showed that the proposed method, compared to modification by the whole, achieved about 20.4% and 65.6% relative improvement in the time displacement of peaks and syllabic boundaries between modified sound samples and sound-imitation utterances.
Skill Progression Demonstrated by Users in the Scratch Animation Environment BIBAFull-Text 383-398
  Christopher Scaffidi; Christopher Chambers
The Scratch environment exemplifies a tool+community approach to teaching elementary programming skills, as it includes a website where users can publish, discuss, and organize animations that are programs. To explore this environment's effectiveness for helping people to develop programming skills, a quantitative analysis of 250 randomly selected users' data, including more than 1,000 of their animations, was performed. Skill based on 4 models that had proven useful in prior empirical studies was measured. Overall, mixed results about the environment's effectiveness were found. Among users who do not drop out, an increasing progression in social skills was found. However, an extremely high drop-out rate was also observed. Moreover, a flat or decreasing level of demonstrated skill was observed on virtually every measure. These results call into question whether simply combining an animation tool and an online community is sufficient for keeping people engaged long enough to learn elementary programming skills.
Are Stereotypes Relative to Gender Usage Applicable to Virtual Worlds? BIBAFull-Text 399-405
  Gilok Choi; Hyewon Chung; Yoonsook Kim
Common stereotypes of virtual game or community users are often portrayed as young and socially inept male addicts. Recent studies, however, defy many of the common prejudices about game or community users. As an extension of recent research, this study looks at gender differences in Virtual Worlds and finds that female users are actually a driving force behind the recent success of online communities. The study results indicate that female users more actively participate in social life, information seeking, and building activities in Virtual Worlds than their male counterparts. Similarly, female users have greater appreciation for the value of Virtual Worlds, although both male and female users recognize Virtual Worlds as a highly useful entertainment tool.
Generation, Adoption, and Tuning of Usability Evaluation Multimethods BIBAFull-Text 406-422
  S. Filippi; D. Barattin
The selection and customization of usability evaluation methods, given the peculiarities of their application domains, still remains a critical issue; this especially when dealing with complex products and/or nonexpert usability evaluators. Moreover, as time goes by, the quality of the evaluation results has a heavier impact on the product design process. Starting from classic usability evaluation methods, the research described in this article generates multimethods semiautomatically. It allows quantitative characterization of these multimethods before their application in the field and exploits the comparison between this prior assessment and a final estimate, made after adoption, to update the information used by the method selection process. The most critical issue related to usability, subjectivity, is considered and dealt with throughout the entire research. A case study, done at the end of the development phase, helps validate the proposed approach to usability evaluation.

IJHCI 2012-07 Volume 28 Issue 7

Improving Window Manipulation and Content Interaction on High-Resolution, Wall-Sized Displays BIBAFull-Text 423-432
  Chris Rooney; Roy Ruddle
Interaction with high-resolution wall-sized (Powerwall) displays can be a tedious and difficult task due to large display areas and small target sizes. To overcome this, we developed techniques that reduce the precision required to manipulate windows and select data. The manipulation layer speeds up the common tasks of moving and resizing application windows by overlaying them with large, transparent target areas. The Power-Lens magnifies target sizes by automatically appearing once the cursor reaches the region of interest. Two experiments evaluated these techniques against conventional desktop-style interfaces. Experiment 1 showed the window manipulation layer to speed up the tasks of moving and resizing a window by 24% and 27%, respectively. Experiment 2 showed the Power-Lens to speed up the selection of 5×5 pixel targets by 18%. Together, our new techniques help to make interaction more fluid on Powerwall displays.
Updating Fitts' Law to Account for Small Targets BIBAFull-Text 433-444
  HaiTao Song; James Clawson; Iulian Radu
The use of small display devices is becoming more prevalent in our daily lives, such as smart phones, ultramobile PCs, and even head-mounted displays. Usually, the graphical user interface components shown on these displays are small and often difficult to interact with. Although some prior work has shown that Fitts' law does not hold for small target size, a detailed investigation of Fitts' law in different small target size conditions has yet to be done. In this study we conducted two experiments investigating the impact of small target sizes on pointing performance. We identified a critical point on the target size dimension where Fitts' law started to break down. We then proposed a small target size index of difficulty and an empirical Fitts' formula to extend the Fitts' law beyond the critical point to small target size conditions. Our results show that the new model works well as both a descriptive and a predictive model for small target size conditions.
Hedonic and Utilitarian Motivations for Physical Game Systems Use Behavior BIBAFull-Text 445-455
  Hsin-Hui Lin; Yi-Shun Wang; Chien-Hsiang Chou
With the recent proliferation of physical game systems in entertainment contexts, gaining a better understanding of why users are willing to utilize physical game systems has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. The current study attempts to explore the determinants of behavioral intention pertaining to the use of physical tennis games from the perspective of both hedonic and utilitarian motivations. A research model is proposed based on the existing literature. Data collected from 124 experienced players of physical tennis games are tested against the research model using the partial least squares approach. The results indicate that both perceived exercise utility and perceived enjoyment have a significant influence on behavioral intention. In addition, perceived motion-sensing, challenge, interactivity, ease of use, and design aesthetics are found to have a significant effect on perceived enjoyment. More specifically, perceived motion-sensing is observed to be the antecedent of perceived exercise utility. The findings of this study provide several important implications pertaining to both the research and practice of physical game system development and diffusion.
Structuring Users' Self-Report Responses to Website Designs BIBAFull-Text 456-471
  Steve J. Westerman; Samuel Shaerf; Gareth C. Tuck; Peter H. Gardner
A two-dimensional framework is proposed as a basis for assessing users' self-report responses to website designs. This incorporates two features that have been consistently identified in the psychology and design literatures: (a) a processing sequence and (b) a distinction between cognition and affect. Suggested advantages include increased clarity with regard to the identification of self-report constructs, stronger links to relevant literature, and improved "actionability" of designs. To examine this framework empirically, a study was conducted for which participants were required to imagine selecting a psychology university degree program and to provide a series of ratings of the designs of five department websites. The proposed framework enabled the identification of distinct and interpretable patterns of users' responses. In this regard, a number of consistencies with recent conceptualizations of user experience were noted. Implications and limitations of the proposed approach were considered.
A Chinese Text Input Brain-Computer Interface Based on the P300 Speller BIBAFull-Text 472-483
  James W. Minett; Hong-Ying Zheng; Manson C-M. Fong; Lin Zhou; Gang Peng; William S-Y. Wang
A visual speller is a brain-computer interface that empowers users with limited motor functionality to input text into a computer by measuring their electroencephalographic responses to visual stimuli. Most prior research on visual spellers has focused on input of alphabetic text. Adapting a speller for other types of segmental or syllabic script is straightforward because such scripts comprise sufficiently few characters that they may all be displayed to the user simultaneously. Logographic scripts, such as Chinese hanzi, however, impose a challenge: How should the thousands of Chinese characters be displayed to the user? Here, we present a visual speller, based on Farwell and Donchin's P300 Speller, for Chinese character input. The speller uses a novel shape-based method called the First-Last, or FLAST, method to encode more than 7,000 Chinese characters. Characters are input by selecting two components, from a set of 56 distinct components, that match the shape of the target character, followed by selection of the character itself. At the input speed of one character per 107 s, 24 able-bodied participants achieved mean online accuracy of 82.8% per component selection and 63.5% per character input. At the faster input speed of one character per 77 s, mean online accuracy was 59.4% per component selection and 33.3% per character input.

IJHCI 2012-08 Volume 28 Issue 8

Rethinking HCI Education for Design: Problem-Based Learning and Virtual Worlds at an HCI Design Studio BIBAFull-Text 485-499
  Panayiotis Koutsabasis; Spyros Vosinakis
The practice of teaching and learning human-computer interaction (HCI) design has to develop its own approaches that balance method and technology use with reflective and situated practice. This article presents our HCI design studio course that makes a combined use of constructivist pedagogies and virtual worlds aiming to aid students critically review and reflect on the use of related methods and technologies in design and to cultivate more general skills like self-directed learning, intrinsic motivation, and critical thinking. Our HCI design studio course can be thought of as an iterative and incremental teaching and learning process that blends HCI methods, design practice, and technology between a real and a virtual design studio. The course introduces problem-based learning to the pedagogies of project-based learning and studio-based learning currently employed in most HCI design studios. The positive student responses and our reflection and experiences focusing on a number of challenges for further implementation are also outlined.
Explaining Instant Messaging Continuance Intention: The Role of Personality BIBAFull-Text 500-510
  Wei Wang; Eric W. T. Ngai; Haiying Wei
The Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality is widely used to predict cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors in management and psychological research. However, the FFM personality has seldom appeared in the information system (IS) research field. Devaraj, Easley, and Crant (2008) first introduced FFM into the context of IS acceptance. This study extends to the context of IS continuance. The proposed model is developed and empirically validated using data from a field survey in order to examine how individuals' personality traits influence their IS continuance intentions. The data were collected from a public university in China via an online survey. The findings support that user satisfaction and perceived usefulness are key to continuance intention of instant messaging use. The results also support that perceived enjoyment and perceived usefulness are positively associated with user satisfaction. Perceived enjoyment is the dominant variable affecting user satisfaction with technology use. Two personality traits of the Big Five factors (i.e., Conscientiousness and Extraversion) have direct effects on perceived enjoyment, whereas the other three (i.e., Openness to Experience, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness) have no direct effects. Our study provides an important basis for better understanding how individuals' personality characteristics influence their technology continuance.
Temporal Presence Variation in Immersive Computer Games BIBAFull-Text 511-529
  Jaeyong Chung; Henry J. Gardner
Increasingly, the sophistication of modern computer-gaming systems is becoming comparable to that of immersive, virtual reality (VR) environments, and the popular VR research topic of "presence" is now being explored in the context of computer games. The explosion of popularity of networked gameplay and the movement of computing infrastructure on to the Internet and the cloud mean that technical anomalies such as network latency, dropouts, and so on, may increasingly disrupt players' experience of presence. In this article, a study of these "Breaks in Presence" (BIPs), which examines a networked, first-person-shooter game in an immersive virtual environment, is presented. Our study investigates how participants react to BIPs in terms of their impact on participants' levels of presence and in terms of the time needed for participants to recover from BIPs. Four distinct BIP types, which were selected because of their practical significance and because of their relevance to an established model for presence, were tested. The effects of two contrasting game modes (a low-involvement "navigation game" and a high-involvement "combat game") on the perceptions of these BIPs are analyzed. As part of our experimental procedure a new video-cued-recall slider technique is introduced.
   Our study shows that participants experience different levels of impact and recovery from BIPs and that the perceptions of impact of BIPs depend on the overall sense of presence as well as being task dependent. The article shows that recovery time seems to be a well-defined concept and that an overall measure of recovery time exhibits believable correlations with overall presence, with the overall number of BIPs (including "spontaneous" BIPs) and with user characteristics. The article also shows that the slider data for recovery time from BIPs provide evidence for a smooth variation of presence during an immersive experience. It is found that perceptions of impact and recovery time behave differently and that, intriguingly, recovery time appears to be much more independent of game mode than impact is. Evidence is found of strong carry-over effects in participants' recollections of the impact of BIPs from one game experience to the next is found. Results from our slider technique appear to show general agreement with results from a postexperiment questionnaire, and our study motivates the usefulness of our slider technique for future experiments.
Does Context Matter? The Impact of Use Context on Mobile Internet Adoption BIBAFull-Text 530-541
  Shuiqing Yang; Yaobin Lu; Sumeet Gupta; Yuzhi Cao
Consumers' perceived value plays a dominant role in determining the adoption of mobile technologies. However, behavior literature suggests that consumer value is context dependent. The current study attempts to understand the effects of use context on consumers' perceived value and adoption of mobile Internet. An adoption model that reflects the unique use context and the utilitarian values (perceived usefulness and perceived mobility) and hedonic values (perceived enjoyment and concentration) of mobile Internet was developed and empirically tested against data collected from 507 mobile Internet users in China. Structural equation analysis results indicate that consumers' values perceptions and adoption decisions are context dependent. The use context fully mediates the effects of utilitarian values and partially mediates the relationship between hedonic values and intention to use mobile Internet. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

IJHCI 2012-09 Volume 28 Issue 9

Considering Context: The Role of Mental Workload and Operator Control in Users' Perceptions of Usability BIBAFull-Text 543-559
  Christina M. Kokini; Sangwon Lee; Richard J. Koubek; Seung Ki Moon
In developing an application, the importance of usability and user experience has become increasingly emphasized over the past few decades. An important factor in understanding these is the context in which the application is being used. To better understand the direct effect of context, two task characteristics (i.e., mental workload and operator control) were manipulated and their effects on perceived usability were examined through an experiment using simulated home security systems. The experimental results showed that both mental workload and operator control had significant effects on perceived usability. Also, the perceptions of mental workload and operator control were strongly correlated with perceived usability. The interaction between the mental workload and the operator control factors was not significant. Possible reasons for the results and practical implications for the findings are discussed.
Development of an Adaptive EC Website With Online Identified Cognitive Styles of Anonymous Customers BIBAFull-Text 560-575
  Jia-Jiunn Lo; Yun-Jay Wang
This study developed an adaptive electronic commerce (EC) website based on users' cognitive styles without asking users to complete any evaluation forms. In this system, a multilayer feed forward neural network (MLFF) was designed to identify the cognitive styles of anonymous users by observing their browsing behavior. Then the system presented the adaptive interfaces, designed by investigating the relationships between users' cognitive styles and browsing behavior, to users based on the identified cognitive styles. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. The experimental results verified the potential benefits of MLFF in identifying anonymous users' cognitive styles during browsing of EC applications and provided evidence that an adaptive EC website that presents product data consistent with the users' cognitive styles can be beneficial to one-to-one Internet marketing not only for users whose cognitive styles are known before browsing but also for anonymous users whose cognitive styles are identified during browsing.
Developing Multimodal Adaptation Algorithm for Mobility Impaired Users by Evaluating Their Hand Strength BIBAFull-Text 576-596
  Pradipta Biswas; Patrick Langdon
Recent research on interactive electronic systems like computer, digital TV, smartphones can improve the quality of life of many disabled and elderly people by helping them to engage more fully to the world. Previously, a simulator was developed that reflects the effect of impairment on interaction with electronic devices and thus helps designers in developing accessible systems. In this article, the scope of the simulator has been extended to multiple pointing devices. The way that hand strength affects pointing performance of people with and without mobility impairment in graphical user interfaces was investigated for four different input modalities, and a set of linear equations to predict pointing time and average number of submovements for different devices was developed. These models were used to develop an adaptation algorithm to facilitate pointing in electronic interfaces by users with motor impairment using different pointing devices. The algorithm attracts a pointer when it is near a target and thus helps to reduce random movement during homing and clicking. The algorithm was optimized using the simulator and then tested on a real-life application with multiple distractors involving three different pointing devices. The algorithm significantly reduces pointing time for different input modalities.
Emotional Factors in Advertising Via Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 597-612
  Taezoon Park; Gavriel Salvendy
Advertising delivered via mobile phones constitutes a promising approach to marketing because it enables easy targeting, content personalization, and interactive communication. We conducted a laboratory experiment with 48 participants using a 24-item structured questionnaire about important emotional components involved in using mobile phones for advertising. The data revealed 3 factors that explained 63% of the total variance. Factor 1 included activation, restfulness, desire, affection, gratitude, and urgency. Factor 2 included anger, fear, sadness, and irritation. Factor 3 included skepticism and boredom. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that boredom accounted for 45% of the variance in attitudes toward the advertisements. These findings imply that low-intensity negative feelings are important contributors to the success of advertisements presented on mobile phones and that engagingness is the most important emotional component in effective cell phone advertising.
Integration of Adaptable and Adaptive Approaches for Interface Personalization Through Collaborative Menu BIBAFull-Text 613-626
  Jungchul Park; Sung H. Han
This article examines different user-system collaboration models in the adaptation of a menu interface. Four collaboration models were implemented on a prototype of mobile phone menu: (a) basic collaboration with no system support (for user adaptation) and no user control (over system adaptation), (b) system support only, (c) user control only, and (d) system support plus user control. The prototype mobile phone menu includes a hotlist (a quickly accessible collection of menu items) as well as a hierarchical menu. The hotlist is collaborative, because it combines adaptable and adaptive approaches by allowing both the user and the system to manage the items in it. A controlled experiment compared different types of collaborative menus in order to investigate the effects of system support and user control. Twenty participants performed menu selection tasks in the experiment, and both performance and subjective measures were taken. The results showed that, in a certain condition, the system support and the user control improved the user performance when applied independently, but their effects were not additive. Although the effects disappeared when the selection frequency distribution changed, the system support was preferred by most of the users. The advantages and disadvantages of the collaborative menus and implications for the adaptation of menus are discussed.

IJHCI 2012-10 Volume 28 Issue 10

Exploring the Individual's Behavior on Self-Disclosure Online BIBAFull-Text 627-645
  Dong-Her Shih; Sheng-Fei Hsu; David C. Yen; Chia-Chia Lin
Even though the ubiquity of technology can make many aspects of life more convenient, it may simultaneously raise some concerns about the privacy issues related to personal information. This research focused on the individual's behavior toward self-disclosure online and his or her cognition on personal privacy that was affected by not only the personal psychological factors but also the individual's computer knowledge and associated skills. To study how technological and psychological factors can simultaneously affect one's privacy concern and restrain behavior on disclosure, this study applied both perceived privacy and privacy concern to assess such factors as personal subjective attitude, computer self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control to investigate the technological influence. A hypothesized model was proposed to describe the relationships among these constructs. After structural equation modeling is utilized to analyze the proposed hypotheses, the research findings showed that, although the perceived behavioral control had a negative effect on self-disclosure online, all the other hypotheses indicated a positive casual effect.
Formal Modeling and Reconfiguration of User Interfaces for Reduction of Errors in Failure Handling of Complex Systems BIBAFull-Text 646-665
  Benjamin Weyers; Dina Burkolter; Wolfram Luther; Annette Kluge
Controlling and observing complex systems is central to the study of human-machine interaction. In our understanding, there is much to be gained from integrating formal modeling and analysis, including the reconfiguration of user interfaces, with the development of user interfaces with high usability. To this end, we introduce a new approach to modeling and reconfiguration of user interfaces jointly with a newly developed set of tools for interactive and visual creation and automatic transformation of user interfaces' interaction logic to a formal language based on Petri nets. Reconfiguration will be embedded into a process for adapting user interfaces to the user's cognitive representation of the controlled system. This process involves practicing the use of a given user interface, adapting it to the user's needs through reconfiguration, and applying the resulting adaptations to the formally defined interaction logic. An evaluation study confirms that this process reduces errors in interaction.
Reexamining the Factors for Trust in Cultivating Online Customer Repurchase Intentions: The Moderating Effect of Perceived Waiting BIBAFull-Text 666-677
  Shiu-Wan Hung; Min-Jhih Cheng; Pei-Che Chen
With the advancement of Internet technology, online shopping has emerged as a popular way of making purchases. However, because online shopping does not allow immediate enjoyment of purchases as bricks-and-mortar shops do, cultivating customers' trust in online businesses is especially important in attracting return customers. Previous studies have put forward the factors that build multidimensional trust but not systematically examined them. This article reexamines factors of building customer trust and makes a systematic study of the relationship between customers' perceived waiting and repurchase intention. This study examines online stores' professional ability, integrity, and benevolence were selected as the three constructing factors of trust. A total of 351 valid customer questionnaires were collected and analyzed using structural equation modeling. It was found that the most influential factor in customer trust was the security of the online business' information system, followed by the privacy protection, whereas the third-party guarantees and recommendation exhibited the third strongest correlation. Furthermore, the perceived waiting was a significant factor affecting customers' decision to return, notwithstanding their trust in an online business.
A Usable Security Heuristic Evaluation for the Online Health Social Networking Paradigm BIBAFull-Text 678-694
  Alexandros Yeratziotis; Dalenca Pottas; Darelle Van Greunen
The security, privacy, and usability of health social networking websites remain key concerns for their successful adoption by patients. As far as it is known, no studies have developed a usable security heuristic evaluation to test these websites for the usability of their security and privacy features. This article describes the development of such a usable security heuristic evaluation in the context of the online health social networking paradigm. The tailored method approach was applied to transform themes identified from relevant literature and convert them into high-level heuristics for usable security. Checklist items were created for each high-level heuristic. The result is 13 high-level heuristics with individualized checklist items that help examine usable security. The results can identify which security and privacy features are lacking from a usability perspective and would, therefore, require design improvement. The improvements would enhance the users' experiences, which in turn can assist in the adoption of health social networking websites.
The Voice in the Machine: Building Computers That Understand Speech BIBFull-Text 695-696
  James R. Lewis

IJHCI 2012-11 Volume 28 Issue 11

Distributed User Interfaces: Applications and Challenges BIBAFull-Text 697-699
  Ricardo Tesoriero; María Dolores Lozano
This article explores the key points regarding the development of distributed user interfaces to present the features that are not covered by traditional development processes and how these features are characterized. A transversal approach to tackle these new issues is also proposed. This introductory article aims to present also a resume of the main topics covered in this special issue that gathers a thorough selection of the best papers presented at the first workshop on distributed user interfaces. The goal of this workshop is to promote the discussion about the emerging topic of distribute user interfaces, answering a set of key questions: what, when, how, and why distribute a user interface among different devices to improve users' interaction.
A Proposal to Validate the User's Goal in Distributed User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 700-708
  J. A. Gallud; A. Peñalver; J. J. López-Espín; E. Lazcorreta; F. Botella; H. M. Fardoun; G. Sebastián
Traditional user interfaces are evolving toward "distributed" user interfaces according to the new technological advances, allowing one or more interaction elements distributed among many different platforms in order to support interaction with one or more users. In this new scenario, the Abstract User Interface (AUI) model has been reviewed and modified to include specific characteristics from the Distributed User Interface (DUI) point of view. This article proposes a new AUI that takes into account the possibility of distribution. Before presenting this new AUI model, the article introduces the definition of the DUI concept and its foundations using a formal notation. Together with the new AUI model, a double hierarchy of user interfaces and targets has been defined, so the type of distribution can be verified using the concept of finality introduced as an algorithm in this article. With this new algorithm it is possible to test whether a given DUI (multiple devices, multiple user interfaces) supports the user's goal in the system.
From Centralized Interactive Tabletops to Distributed Surfaces: The Tangiget Concept BIBAFull-Text 709-721
  Sophie Lepreux; Sébastien Kubicki; Christophe Kolski; Jean Caelen
After having outlined the uses of new technologies such as smartphones, touch-screen tablets, and laptops, this article presents the TangiSense interactive tabletop, equipped with RFID technology tagged on tangible objects, as a new paradigm of interaction for ambient intelligence. Within its framework, this article aims to distribute surfaces (tables) interacting mainly with tangible objects. Leads for interactive surface distribution such as interactive tables are given. The article proposes to describe some tangible objects, which are the interaction supports; these are called Tangigets. They are defined according to an augmented Presentation-Abstraction-Control structure to take the tangibility element into account. Six categories of Tangigets are also proposed, which are tangible objects, and the supports of distributed collaboration. To validate the Tangiget concept and its use on the TangiSense tabletop, illustrations in centralized and distributed configurations are proposed. A first evaluation is also presented. To conclude, the article presents the directions under consideration for our future research.
Investigating a Design Space for Multidevice Environments BIBAFull-Text 722-729
  Nima Kaviani; Matthias Finke; Rodger Lea; Sidney Fels
There has been significant research interest over recent years in the use of public digital displays and in particular their capability to offer both interactivity and personalized content. Although a number of interaction technologies have been investigated, a promising approach has been the use of the ubiquitous cell phone, which not only offers a means to interact with displays but increasingly offers a small but high-quality screen to complement the larger public display. However, to date there has been little investigation into the impact on users when interfaces are distributed across this type of dual screen setup. This article reports on a series of experiments carried out to determine if there is a significant quantitative or qualitative effect on user performance when interaction is split across large public and smaller private screens.
Guidelines for Designing Awareness-Augmented Mobile DUIs BIBAFull-Text 730-736
  Barrett Ens; Rasit Eskicioglu; Pourang Irani
Colocated groups using mobile devices do not share all of the benefits of face-to-face collaborators. Close interaction requires application support for awareness features, allowing participants to establish common ground. Following an overview of research on awareness and grounding, the results of an informal user study are presented, which demonstrate how current systems can deter users from engaging in close collaboration. Literature on awareness provides hope for improving this situation, but a naive transfer to mobile distributed user interfaces will not necessarily succeed. From prior art, a concise list of guidelines has been compiled to assist designers in providing awareness information to users of shared mobile workspaces. These guidelines can also serve as heuristics for the evaluation of future systems. An example is provided to demonstrate how these guidelines can be applied to the development of features for providing awareness of current location and browsing history to colocated users of mobile distributed user interfaces.
Design and Implementation of Post-WIMP Distributed User Interfaces with ZOIL BIBAFull-Text 737-747
  Hans-Christian Jetter; Michael Zöllner; Jens Gerken; Harald Reiterer
"Interactive spaces" are physical environments or rooms for collaborative work that are augmented with ubiquitous computing technology. Their purpose is to enable a computer-supported collaboration between multiple users that is based on a seamless use of different devices for natural "post-WIMP" interaction (e.g., multitouch walls, interactive tabletops, tablet PCs, or digital pen and paper). However, to this day, there are no well-established guidelines or toolkits for designing and implementing such distributed user interfaces (DUIs). Therefore, this article introduces the Zoomable Object-Oriented Information Landscape (ZOIL), a novel design approach and software framework for post-WIMP DUIs in interactive spaces. In the following, the ZOIL design principles are first introduced and illustrated. They provide recommendations and examples of DUI interaction design for interactive spaces. Then the different software patterns and architectures that have been employed for implementing the open-source ZOIL software framework are described. This framework facilitates the implementation of ZOIL's design principles in practice. Lessons learned from ZOIL's implementation are shared, and the implementation is discussed and compared with related work and approaches. The results of an evaluation of ZOIL with designers and developers conclude the article.
Using Distributed User Interfaces in Collaborative, Secure, and Privacy-Preserving Software Environments BIBAFull-Text 748-753
  Mohamed Bourimi; Thomas Barth; Dogan Kesdogan; Dhiah el Diehn I. Abou-Tair; Fabian Hermann; Simon Thiel
In complex, ad hoc constituted situations, people with different intentions, experiences, and expertise need or want to cooperate to cope with the domain-specific challenges they face. These situations can occur in both a professional and a leisure-life context. Cooperative systems providing enhanced interaction facilities in the user interface (e.g., direct manipulation techniques) could substantially support cooperation especially for geographically distributed cooperating participants. In many cases, sensitive information has to be shared in a common workspace requiring different handling procedures according to the different types of participants involved in these ad hoc processes. This article proposes the use of a common, multilaterally secure distributed user interface to support collaboration for distributed groups of process participants. The system combines a collaborative multipointer system with an anonymous credential security system to provide users with an easy way to share and access information securely, ensuring the privacy of sensitive information communicated in the course of ad hoc processes. Various scenarios representing contrary use cases from three different projects are introduced to derive typical requirements and to show the generality of the proposed system and its core components.
Collaborative Map Exploration Using Multitouch Surfaces BIBAFull-Text 754-759
  Pedro G. Villanueva; Ricardo Tesoriero; María D. Lozano
The Collaborative Map Explorer defines a new learning artifact that allows students to explore different layers of information related to a geographical location on a map using distributed user interfaces in the same space at the same time. Students are able to manipulate geographical information using viewports that can be moved over a map that is projected on a shared surface (i.e. multitouch surface). Each viewport exposes different layers of information for a particular region on the map. These information layers are selected by the student using a mobile device. Consequently, the use of a distributed user interface provides students with the ability to address local and shared information at the same time in the same space in a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Environment. The article also includes a preliminary usability evaluation of this interaction technique that exposes the potential of this solution.
A Comparative Evaluation of User Preferences for Extra-User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 760-767
  Jérémie Melchior; Jean Vanderdonckt; Peter Van Roy
This article aims to investigate user preferences for extra-user interfaces (extra-UI), formerly known as meta-user interfaces. These are special user interfaces that allow the user to control or personalize the application's user interface. They are named "extra-user interfaces" because the application does not need it to work. Their main goal is the support of systems with several contexts, displays, devices, or platforms. The purposes and features offered by all the Extra-UI vary from one application to another. To create coherence between them, we defined a catalogue of 14 distribution primitives that are typically provided and classified into 4 categories: simple primitives, basic primitives, advanced primitives, and management operations. Based on this catalogue, a comparative analysis of the state of the art was conducted to identify which interaction styles have been properly used and to discuss the rationale behind these usages. From this analysis, we set up and conducted a comparative evaluation of user preferences by 14 participants testing 6 selected distribution primitives in 4 different interaction styles. The research outcomes exemplified that there were significant differences on user preferences between interaction styles with regards to experience level and primitive type.
Design and Evaluation of a Collaborative System That Supports Distributed User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 768-774
  Elena de la Guía; Victor R. Penichet; Juan E. Garrido; Félix Albertos
Group work is a fundamental human activity in all areas of life; it is a good exercise to enhance integration and communication among users. In addition, it is highly effective in increasing users' creativity, thus yielding better and more satisfactory results. This task is very complex; however, thanks to the benefits offered by new technologies, today we can build systems designed to facilitate such collaboration. This paper proposes the "Co-Interactive Table": an interactive and intuitive system developed to enhance the collaboration in meeting rooms. It is based on mobile devices, RFID technology integrated in panels. This solution offers Distributed User Interfaces and a new style of interaction, which consists of bringing the mobile device close to the panel. To improve collaboration, the workspaces are divided into two spaces, collaborative and public, which consist of a display projected on the wall, and the personal and private spaces, which consist of the user's personal device. An assessment has been carried out in order to verify user satisfaction in performing tasks with this system.

IJHCI 2012-12 Volume 28 Issue 12

Relations Between the Tendency to Invest in Virtual Presence, Actual Virtual Presence, and Learning Outcomes in Educational Computer Games BIBAFull-Text 775-783
  Claudia Schrader; Theo Bastiaens
This study examines whether the effect of virtual presence on learning is influenced by learner characteristics. More specifically, the focus is on how the variation in the actual experience of virtual presence and learning is related to learners' individual tendency to invest in virtual presence for educational computer games. According to these tendencies, 59 eighth graders were divided into 2 groups (high vs. low tendency) and performed a computer-based learning game. Virtual presence and learning outcomes were measured by means of a questionnaire. Correlation and regression analyses were used, and a moderation model was structured to analyze the relationship between the variables. Whereas the tendency to invest in virtual presence does not moderate the positive interaction between virtual presence and learning, correlation and regression results between both groups show that a stronger tendency to invest in virtual presence increases virtual presence and both, trivial- and nontrivial learning outcomes were evinced. In the eyes of learners, interestingly, their tendency to invest in virtual presence for educational computer games was significantly lower than for conventional entertainment games.
Haptic User Interfaces for the Visually Impaired: Implications for Haptically Enhanced Science Learning Systems BIBAFull-Text 784-798
  Chang S. Nam; Yueqing Li; Takehiko Yamaguchi; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson
The overall quality of haptic user interfaces designed to support visually impaired students' science learning through sensorial feedback was systematically studied to investigate task performance and user behavior. Fourteen 6th- to 11th-grade students with visual impairments recruited from a state-funded blind school were asked to perform three main tasks (i.e., menu selection, structure exploration, and force recognition) using haptic user interfaces and a haptic device. This study used several dependent measures that are categorized into three types of variables: (a) task performance including success rate, workload, and task completion time; (b) user behavior defined as cursor movements proportionately represented from the user's cursor positional data; and (c) user preference. Results showed that interface type has significant effects on task performance, user behavior, and user preference, with varying degree of impact to participants with severe visual impairments performing the tasks. The results of this study as well as a set of refined design guidelines and principles should provide insights to the future research of haptic user interfaces that can be used when developing haptically enhanced science learning systems for the visually impaired.
Use and Design of Handheld Computers for Older Adults: A Review and Appraisal BIBAFull-Text 799-826
  Jia Zhou; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
This article presents a comprehensive literature review to investigate whether and why older adults accept handheld computers and how to design elderly-friendly handheld computers. Findings about acceptance, input devices, menu and functions, and output devices are summarized. First, older adults were under social pressure to use mobile phones, but they had low acceptance of advanced functions. Also, they had a different way to judge acceptance factors from younger adults. Second, older adults preferred the physical keyboard to the on-screen keyboard for text entry, whereas they preferred tapping the touch pad to the joystick and buttons for pointing tasks. Third, older adults had shallower mental representation of the mobile phone menus than younger adults. Navigation aids providing contextual information and large cognitive preview per screen could help them. Finally, recommended size and spacing for text and icons are presented.
Proposing a Survey Instrument for Measuring Operational, Formal, Information, and Strategic Internet Skills BIBAFull-Text 827-837
  A. J. A. M. van Deursen; J. A. G. M. van Dijk; O. Peters
Observational studies prove to be very suitable to provide a realistic view of people's Internet skills. However, their cost and time are a strong limitation for large-scale data gathering. A useful addition to the measurement of Internet skills would be the development of survey questions for measuring Internet skills. In this contribution, potential survey measures for operational, formal, information, and strategic Internet skills were analyzed. Three steps were followed to obtain valid items; coherences between, on one hand, frequency and agreement scales and, on the other hand, the results of two large-scale performance tests (assignment completion and time spent) are measured, the Fornell and Larcker discriminant validity criterion was used to test discriminant validity of these Internet skills items, and the items are analyzed using a first-order confirmatory factor analysis. The items that resulted from the three steps might be used in future survey measures.

Book Review

Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics (4th ed.) BIBFull-Text 838
  Ben Shneiderman