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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 26

Editors:Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Steven J. Landry
Publisher:Taylor & Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 2/3
  3. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 4
  4. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 5
  5. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 6
  6. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 7
  7. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 8
  8. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 9
  9. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 10
  10. IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 11/12

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 1

A Unified Human-Computer Interaction Requirements Analysis Framework for Complex Socio-technical Systems BIBAFull-Text 1-21
  Yip Wai Tung; Keith C. C. Chan
Complex socio-technical systems (CSTS) play an important part in the operations of a wide range of large-scale, socially important infrastructure, such as power plants and railways systems. Such systems are highly automated but nonetheless still require substantial human operator involvement and oversight. However, the effectiveness of this operator oversight is often compromised by the fact that such systems are built by combining heterogeneous systems and user interfaces, which can lead to operators being asked to oversee systems that represent vital information using a plethora of incommensurable signals, presenting a very considerable threat not just to the usability of such systems but also to their safety. This article presents a Unified Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Requirements Analysis Framework (UHRAF) and a Safety and Usability Model (SUM) for analyzing the HCI requirements of a safety-related scenario in a railway system. UHRAF and SUM are used to identify requirement issues in HCI arising from the concurrent development of heterogeneous systems and aim to facilitate the development of relevant HCI design guidelines for CSTS.
Development of the Conceptual Prototype for Haptic Interface on the Telematics System BIBAFull-Text 22-52
  Yong Gu Ji; Beom Suk Jin
Driver safety and workload have become a crucial issue as the telematics system has evolved in a complex manner. To solve this problem, the aim of this study is to develop a conceptual prototype that supports haptic interface, an eye-free technology, with free navigation based on the user's mental model. The conceptual prototype for haptic interface is established through identifying the problems with previous haptic interface devices and defining functional requirements for the next generation telematics system. In addition, 25 criteria for a haptic device design are identified and applied to evaluate the conceptual prototype. These criteria are classified in a hierarchical order, and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) evaluation model is constructed accordingly. The AHP evaluation framework reveals critical factors as well as the degree of importance in designing the haptic device. As a result, an evaluation method has been developed for the prototype of the early phase of the haptic device design.
Usability: A Critical Analysis and a Taxonomy BIBAFull-Text 53-74
  D. Alonso-Ríos; A. Vázquez-García; E. Mosqueira-Rey; V. Moret-Bonillo
A major obstacle to the implantation of User-Centered Design in the real world is the fact that no precise definition of the concept of usability exists that is widely accepted and applied in practice. Generally speaking, the literature tends to define usability in overly brief and ambiguous terms and to describe its application in informal terms. This is one of the main reasons why ad hoc techniques predominate in usability study methodologies. The aims of this article are to investigate the concept of usability and to describe it by means of a detailed taxonomy that is organized hierarchically and that contains exhaustive descriptions of usability attributes. This taxonomy can be used to support different stages in the development of usable systems.
Enabling Collaborative Work Across Different Communities of Practice Through Boundary Objects: Field Studies in Air Traffic Management BIBAFull-Text 75-93
  Steven J. Landry; Kerry Levin; Dennis Rowe; Monicarol Nickelson
A recently developed decision support tool provides a common information space to share information directly across numerous air traffic control facilities. This tool is unusual in that its displays can be used as boundary objects, which are entities in which decontextualized information is presented in the same form to all participants in the collaboration. Through an analysis of the results of 2 years of field tests, this article discusses the benefits of this arrangement, particularly in comparison to alternative concepts for collaborative work displays, and identifies key aspects for the design of boundary object displays.

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 2/3

Special Issue: Exploration into Naturalistic Decision Making with Computers

Editorial: Explorations Into Naturalistic Decision Making With Computers BIBFull-Text 99-107
  Neville A. Stanton; B. L. William Wong
Can Computers Help Overcome Limitations in Human Decision Making? BIBAFull-Text 108-119
  A. John Maule
The article considers the development of computer-assisted decision support in the context of contemporary research on the forms of thinking used by decision makers. It outlines the potential that computers have for overcoming known limitations in human thinking related to processing capacity and memory and the problems that occur when these applications are developed without full knowledge of the different kinds of thinking adopted by decision makers.
Avoiding Latent Design Conditions Using UI Discovery Tools BIBAFull-Text 120-131
  Harold Thimbleby
Motivation: Designers make decisions that later influence how users work with the systems that they have designed. When errors occur in use, it is tempting to focus on the active errors rather than on the latent design decisions that framed the context of error, and fixing latent conditions can have a more general (and future) impact than addressing particular active failures. Research approach: A constructive computer science approach is used, and results from a simulation reported. Research limitations: Error is a complex multidisciplinary field; this article makes a new contribution complimentary to human factors engineering. Take away message: This article shows that latent design decisions cause serious problems (including fatalities) in safety critical applications; the article proposes UI discovery tools to identify and manage latent errors. UI discovery enables human factors engineers and programmers to work together to help eliminate broad classes of latent design errors.
Using the Decision-Ladder to Add a Formative Element to Naturalistic Decision-Making Research BIBAFull-Text 132-146
  Daniel P. Jenkins; Neville A. Stanton; Paul M. Salmon; Guy H. Walker; Laura Rafferty
This article presents a prototypical model of how decision making can proceed within an environment, independent of situation or actor. Based upon Rasmussen's decision-ladder, an approach for capturing formative descriptions of existing decision-making processes is presented. The example of land-based combat identification is used to demonstrate this approach. Two new representations are introduced to aid domain understanding and support the design of decision support tools. The first maps the links between information elements, system states, and options. The second clusters elements in the decision-making process in terms of their location in the world. The approach presented is not intended to replace existing decision-making analysis techniques, rather, based on similar data collection procedures, its aim is to compliment them with a more formative integrant. By considering decision making independently from actor and context, a flexible approach is presented that is applicable complex sociotechnical systems.
Supporting Naturalistic Decision Making Through Location-Based Photography: A Study of Simulated Military Reconnaissance BIBAFull-Text 147-172
  C. Baber; C. Fulthorpe; R. J. Houghton
Close Target Reconnaissance (CTR) patrols can be characterized by activities that involve naturalistic decision making to develop situation awareness through processes of sense-making. Any technology that is introduced into such activity needs to be sufficiently "invisible" so as not to disrupt or otherwise interfere with the activities of search and interpretation. It is proposed that some technologies, such as imaging devices, can support recognition-primed decision making (RPDM). It is suggested that providing CTR patrols with cameras could supplement existing technologies, such as night vision goggles or binoculars, and provide an opportunity to capture useful intelligence. The concept of location-based photography (in which metadata are collected in parallel with images) provides a means of effectively producing patrol reports in real time. A prototype system is described and trialled comparing conventional practices surrounding note-taking and report writing with the use of location-based photography. The results show little difference in time spent patrolling under the two conditions but significant improvement in reporting under the location-based photography condition. One explanation of these differences relate to the manner in which note taking provides support for sense-making but could interfere with RPDM (through the need to analyze the situation in sufficient detail to make notes), whereas imaging can be performed as part of the RPDM activity. Tagged images change the nature in which the reports are written in that sense-making is performed largely post hoc, which allows flexibility in interpretation and analysis.
From the 6 Ps of Planning to the 4 Ds of Digitization: Difficulties, Dilemmas, and Defective Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 173-188
  Guy H. Walker; Neville A. Stanton; Daniel P. Jenkins; Paul M. Salmon; Laura Rafferty
Interface problems have been cited as critical factor in the suboptimal performance of a large-scale digital command and control system. A live field study involving fully functioning Brigade and Battlegroup headquarters was observed. More than 3,000 communications events were extracted and analyzed in terms of their quantity, direction, and content. The effect of the interface problem was pronounced. Voice mediated communications (conducted by radio and avoiding the interface entirely) were superior at converting "data" into "information." In cases where the interface was relied upon, users seized on a highly simplistic comms. facility and put it to use in ways that were not anticipated. The findings added significant value in terms of the phased, real-world delivery of this system. Very little human factors analysis had been performed previously. The current analysis, therefore, was able to provide a considerable amount of insight and justification for further design iterations. The take-away message: Neither networked technology nor the large quantities of raw data carried by it are sufficient to guarantee successful naturalistic decision making.
Designing an Information Visualization Tool for Sensemaking BIBAFull-Text 189-205
  Celestine A. Ntuen; Eui H. Park; Kim Gwang-Myung
The study presents the AVALANCHE visualization test-bed for sensemaking in ill-structured problem domains. AVALANCHE allows the users to develop and frame hypotheses, analyze the hypotheses in the experimental domain, and provide cases for simulation experiments. The visualization and sensemaking support module in AVALANCHE provides human-computer interface and visualization supports. Validation experiments using groups aided with visualization and support tools and groups with no aiding was performed on two open-ended sensemaking cases provided by a military subject matter expert. Statistical analyses revealed mean performance differences in plan accuracy, plan time, and number of cue prompts between aided and unaided groups across task scenarios. In general, the aided group had the highest mean plan outcome accuracy, low planning time, and the least number of prompts. The intention is to extend the study to collaborative sensemaking tasks to address the effects of negotiation on team planning time, cue prompting frequencies, and different types of cue prompting modalities.
Decisions, Decisions ... and Even More Decisions: Evaluation of a Digitized Mission Support System in the Land Warfare Domain BIBAFull-Text 206-227
  Paul M. Salmon; Neville A. Stanton; Daniel P. Jenkins; Guy H. Walker; Laura Rafferty
Digitized mission support systems are currently being introduced in the military arena. The projected benefits include quicker, better informed, more efficient decision making by the teams using them; however, these claims are often made without appropriate scientific testing. A live operational field trial of a land warfare digital mission support system was observed, and an integrated framework of Human Factors methods was used to evaluate performance with the mission support system. The findings indicated that, as a corollary of various flaws associated with the digital system, decision making was found to be more difficult, more drawn out, and more susceptible to error. Rather than augment the decision-making process, in some cases these flaws were seen to create further decision-making requirements for users. In closing, the implications of this study and the wider naturalistic decision making literature for the design of digitized mission support systems are discussed.
The Effect of a Geographical Information System on Performance and Communication of a Command and Control Organization BIBAFull-Text 228-246
  Björn J. E. Johansson; Jiri Trnka; Rego Granlund; Anna Götmar
This article tests the claimed benefits of using geographical information systems (GIS) in emergency response. An experimental study, which compares command and control (C2) teams using (a) a C2 tool with GIS-functionality and (b) traditional paper maps in a forest firefighting scenario, is presented. A total of 132 persons, forming 22 teams, participated in the study. Eleven teams had access to a C2 tool with GIS-functionality, which provided real-time data about the position of the firefighting units and the fire outbreak. The other 11 teams were using traditional paper maps. The result shows that the teams with access to the C2 tool with GIS-functionality performed significantly better than the teams using the traditional paper maps in terms of saved area. Communication volume was reduced in the case of the C2 teams using the C2 tool with GIS-functionality. The content of exchanged messages was also significantly different in the two settings.
Design and Implementation of a Cognitive Command and Control System for Tower Controllers BIBAFull-Text 247-261
  Lean Weng Yeoh; Oliver Tan; Linus Low; Shi-Hua Teh
This article describes a Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) practitioner's approach to the preliminary design and implementation of a C2 system, focusing on how the CSE approach guided the system design features. The Virtual Assistants and Persistent Sentinels project was built as a concept demonstrator to investigate the efficacy of a CSE approach to building C2 systems. The project team adopted the Decision-Centered Design (DCD) Methodology (Crandall, Klein, & Hoffman, 2006). Guided by the DCD process, from preparation to application design, this article describes 3 examples of transitions from macrocognitive challenges to design prototypes. Preliminary evaluation was conducted using cognitive indicators (Long & Cox, 2007) to evaluate if system features hindered cognitive performance as well as by obtaining feedback from subject matter experts through a cognitive wall walk.
Collaborative Activities During an Outbreak Early Warning Assisted by a Decision-Supported System (ASTER) BIBAFull-Text 262-277
  Liliane Pellegrin; Charlotte Gaudin; Nathalie Bonnardel; Hervé Chaudet
This article introduces the resolution of a medical complex, uncertain, and time-constraint situation: the outbreak early warning in military deployment, which is assisted by a decision-supported system, ASTER, an application developed for early epidemiological alerting for French army forces. A simulated alarm occurring in the Department of Epidemiology in the Institute of Tropical Medicine of the French Forces, managed by physicians belonging to this department, has been studied. One goal was to have a set of systematized observations on the human-system interactions in a constrained and critical situation implying a team of public health experts. The ASTER system and a first study of its usage by experts in a simulated situation are presented, and the first results obtained in the context of the insertion of a complex human-computerized system interaction in a naturalistic situation of decision making are discussed.
Naturalistic Decision Making for Power System Operators BIBAFull-Text 278-291
  Frank L. Greitzer; Robin Podmore; Marck Robinson; Pamela Ey
Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three t's: trees, training, and tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (ndm) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess ndm-based performance criteria. An item analysis indicated that the operators' situation awareness levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/visualization tools. This study applies for the first time the concepts of recognition primed decision making, situation awareness levels, and cognitive task analysis to training of electric power system operators. The ndm approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams.

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 4

User Preference for a Control-Based Reduced Processing Decision Support Interface BIBAFull-Text 297-316
  Ben W. Morrison; Mark W. Wiggins; Glenn Porter
This study examined trainee crime-scene investigators' preference for, and accuracy in using, four different computer-based decision support interface designs, each of which incorporated a different reduced processing information acquisition strategy. The interfaces differed on the basis of the number of options that could be considered simultaneously and the level of control that could be exercised over the number and sequence in which feature values were accessed. Forty trainee investigators completed six decision scenarios in which they were asked to acquire information and formulate a decision by selecting one of three options. The study comprised two phases, the first of which involved familiarizing participants with each of the four interface designs and collecting performance and subjective data. The second phase involved trainees selecting one of the four interfaces to engage in a fifth and sixth decision scenario involving high or low levels of time-pressure. The results indicated that the "all options, full control" interface was the preferred option in the low time-pressure condition. Although the strategy remained the most frequently selected in the high time-pressure condition, this preference was not significant. It was concluded that the perceptions of difficulty and the degree of user control over information acquisition were more important than perceived efficiency in the selection of computer-based interface designs. The outcomes have implications for the design of decision support systems.
The Dynamic User Activities in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games BIBAFull-TextRetraction 317-344
  Dong-Hee Shin
Massive multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have been popular for several years and have spawned a whole subculture. Although studies on online games have received more attention in the literature, MMORPGs have seldom been addressed. This study applies the theory of reasoned action and modifies the technology acceptance model to propose a research model. An empirical study was conducted to test this model. The goal of this study is to examine what perceived factors contribute to an online game user's behaviors. The results of this study indicate that users' attitudes and intentions are influenced by perceived security and perceived enjoyment. Subjective norm and flow are key behavioral antecedents to users' loyalty.
Learning Virtual Community Loyalty Behavior From a Perspective of Social Cognitive Theory BIBAFull-Text 345-360
  Chieh-Peng Lin
Drawing upon social cognitive theory (SCT), this research postulates several personal and environmental factors as key drivers of virtual community loyalty behavior in online settings. An empirical testing of this model, by investigating undergraduate students' participation in communities of online games, reveals the applicability of SCT in virtual communities. The study's test results show that the influences of both affective commitment and social norms on community loyalty behavior are significant, whereas the influences of both exchange ideology and social support on community loyalty behavior are insignificant. This research contributes to the online community literature by assessing critical antecedent factors to the unexplored area of community loyalty behavior, by validating idiosyncratic drivers of community loyalty behavior and by performing an operationalization of affective commitment and social norms in a virtual world. Last, managerial implications and limitations of this research are provided.
Design of Eye-Typing Interface Using Saccadic Latency of Eye Movement BIBAFull-Text 361-376
  Kentaro Kotani; Yuji Yamaguchi; Takafumi Asao; Ken Horii
The objective of this study was to construct and empirically evaluate an improved, online eye-typing interface with respect to its practical usability. The system used the concept of saccadic latency, a silent period of 200 to 250 msec precedes the initiation of a saccade, for identifying the user's intentional text entry. Ten individuals participated in the experiment that was conducted on 2 consecutive days, with three blocks of trials conducted on each day. A block included five trials, each of which involved completing the text entry of a short sentence using this eye-typing interface. The proposed interface was evaluated by the user's performance based on indices including typing speed and an error index. For defining the error index, the overproduction rates (ORs) were used. The results showed an average OR of 0.032 and average typing speed of 27.1 characters typed per minute. The result revealed that the typing speed changed as an effect of participant, day, and block. The characteristics of the proposed interface with the related characteristics of an eye-typing interface were summarized to discuss a further study for the eye-typing interface.
A Method of Human Reliability Assessment Based on Systemic-Structural Activity Theory BIBAFull-Text 377-402
  I. S. Bedny; W. Karwowski; G. Z. Bedny
This article describes a new method of reliability assessment of human performance that derives from systemic-structural activity theory (SSAT). This method is demonstrated by applying it to the study of a human-computer interaction task. The task that has been selected is typical for users who interact with computers. One of the basic methods of SSAT called morphological analysis of activity has been used to examine and describe the computer-based task that was the object of study. Cognitive and behavioral actions and members of human algorithm have been utilized as main units of analysis. Suggested method provides analytical description of activity during task performance. It allows to determine the reliability of task performance and to find more reliable performance methods.

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 5

Editorial -- Evaluating New Interactions in Health Care: Challenges and Approaches BIBFull-Text 407-413
  Rebecca Randell; Stephanie Wilson; Geraldine Fitzpatrick

Evaluating New Interactions in Health Care: Challenges and Approaches

Ecological Validity and Pervasiveness in the Evaluation of Ubiquitous Computing Technologies for Health Care BIBAFull-Text 414-444
  Jesus Favela; Monica Tentori; Victor M. Gonzalez
The difficulties associated with the evaluation of ubiquitous computing (Ubicomp) technologies increase in application domains such as hospitals, where human life can be at risk, privacy of personal records is paramount, and labor is costly and highly distributed across space and time. For the last 6 years numerous Ubicomp technologies in support of hospital work have been created and pilot-tested. In this article, the lessons learned from these evaluations are discussed, using two criteria to classify them. The first criterion is ecological validity, namely, the extent to which the evaluation is conducted under realistic conditions. Alternatives range from controlled experiments to in situ evaluations. The article argues in particular for the advantages of intermediate approaches, which is referred to as in silico and in replica. The second criterion relates to the degree of integration of the technology with the environment, which is referred to as its pervasiveness. The evaluation grid that comes out of this exercise highlights the importance of ecological validity in evaluating ambient computing technology that supports the activities conducted in complex health care settings such as hospitals. This provides a framework for evaluating Ubihealth, which can be used to select appropriate techniques as a function of the technological and environmental complexity as well as to devise novel evaluation techniques.
Fidelity Considerations for Simulation-Based Usability Assessments of Mobile ICT for Hospitals BIBAFull-Text 445-476
  Yngve Dahl; Ole A. Alsos; Dag Svanæs
Controlled laboratory-based usability assessments of mobile information and communications technologies (ICT) for hospitals have been conducted. As part of these assessments, clinicians have acted out mobile work scenarios and used the systems to solve related tasks. The evaluations show that relevant usability issues go beyond those of graphical user interfaces. Many of these usability issues only show up when the real-world context of use is replicated in the laboratory to a high degree of fidelity. The complexity of the context of use for mobile ICT in hospitals has motivated us to explore training simulation fidelity theories. Based on a review of the training simulation literature, a set of fidelity dimensions through which training simulations are often adjusted to meet specific goals are identified. It is argued that the same mechanisms can be used in usability assessments of mobile ICT for hospitals. Our argument is substantiated by using the identified set of fidelity dimensions in a retrospective analysis of two usability assessments. The analysis explains how the configuration of fidelity dimensions, each reflecting various degrees of realism vis-à-vis the actual performance context, contributed to the identification of relevant usability issues.
InfoFlow Framework for Evaluating Information Flow and New Health Care Technologies BIBAFull-Text 477-505
  Charlotte Tang; Sheelagh Carpendale; Stacey Scott
This article presents a framework of 6 distinct yet interrelated factors for describing information flow that arose from a combination of field studies in a hospital ward and a review of literature. These studies investigated the dynamics of nurses' information flow, focusing on shift change. The InfoFlow Framework's 6 interrelated factors that affect the information flow are information, personnel, artifacts, spatiality, temporality, and communication mode. The framework is presented as a tool for evaluating new health care technologies. The 6 factors and their interrelationships are described first. Next, this structure is applied as a tool to aid in the analysis of the data generated in a study that assesses technology in use. Then the use of the framework is illustrated by structuring it as a set of questions that can be used as a guide for other researchers to generate coherent descriptions of the information flow and to evaluate technology deployments. Finally, there is a discussion of areas where the InfoFlow framework may be applied to allow an evaluation of the extent to which the framework may be generalized to other settings.
Human-Centered Evaluation for Broadband Tertiary Outpatient Telehealth: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 506-536
  Duncan Stevenson; Matthew Hutchins; Jocelyn Smith
We present a pilot trial of a broadband telehealth system for tertiary outpatient consultations and use it as a case study to explore issues that arise in designing and evaluating broadband telehealth at a tertiary level of health care. The trial used outpatient consultations for pediatric surgical patients; these consultations involve high levels of interpersonal communications, multiple participants, and the need to share interactive access to large patient data sets. We used a human-centered evaluation approach applied at the level of the health care application (in the hospital setting using actual clinical consultations). The results from the case study indicate that this is the appropriate evaluation approach for early stage trials rather than the traditional randomized controlled trials. The different groups of participants (specialists, patients and parents, supporting clinicians) had different perspectives on the telehealth consultations and different criteria for success and future telehealth evaluations need to take these multiple points of view into account.
Multiple Forms of Appropriation in Self-Monitoring Technology: Reflections on the Role of Evaluation in Future Self-Care BIBAFull-Text 537-561
  Cristiano Storni
This article discusses implications for the design of evaluation studies of self-care technologies and practices with respect to a current shift toward technologically mediated self-care in health care. Through the notion of appropriation of technology, this article shows that as self-care devices migrated into lay patients' lives and their domestic environment, we are confronted with a series of different instances of appropriation where patient empowerment and autonomy take different forms. With a particular focus on self-monitoring devices such as blood-pressure monitors and glucose meters, the article examines a series of illustrative vignettes from an ethnographic study and discusses multiple forms of appropriation of self-care technology and the need to understand its implications on the design of studies for their evaluation. Three conclusive reflections to rethink the role of evaluation study in the current shift toward self-care are addressed: the need to move beyond technological determinism, the need to reflect on whose interests the evaluation serve, and the need to carefully rethink the very goal of evaluation studies in self-care themselves.

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 6

Images of Usability BIBAFull-Text 567-600
  Morten Hertzum
The term usability is ubiquitous in human-computer interaction, so much so that it is commonly used without definition. Rather than one established meaning of usability, there are, however, multiple images of usability. Although each image provides a partial view, the partiality remains implicit unless confronted with alternative images. This study delineates six images of usability: universal usability, situational usability, perceived usability, hedonic usability, organizational usability, and cultural usability. The different foci of the images provide opportunities for becoming sensitized to manifold aspects of the use of a system and thereby acquiring a genuine understanding of its usability. The six images differ, for example, in the extent to which they include aspects of the outcome of the process of using a system or merely the process of use, whether they involve collaborative use or merely individual use, and in their view of usability as perceived by individuals or shared by groups. Several challenges result from recognizing that usability is a set of images rather than a coherent concept, including a risk of misunderstandings in discussions of usability because participants may assume different images of usability and a need for supplementary methods addressing the collaborative and long-term aspects of usability. Moreover, the images call for extending the scope of practical usability work to include the effects achieved by users during their use of systems for real work.
What Drives People to Continue to Play Online Games? An Extension of Technology Model and Theory of Planned Behavior BIBAFull-Text 601-620
  Ming-Chi Lee; Tzung-Ru Tsai
Online gaming has become one of the fastest growing entertainment industries on the Internet over the past decade. However, little is known about why people continue to play certain online games or which design factors are most closely related to the amount of time spent by players at particular online gaming sites. The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical research model, which integrates flow experience, human-computer interaction, social interaction, and perceived enjoyment, together with the technology acceptance model and theory of planned behavior to explain why people continue to play online games. The proposed model was examined through an empirical study involving 415 participants using structural equation modeling techniques. The results found that player attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, flow experience, and perceived enjoyment have a positive influence on players' continued intention to play online games and explain about 70% of variance. In addition, implications for online games development are discussed.
Evaluation of P300-Based Brain-Computer Interface in Real-World Contexts BIBAFull-Text 621-637
  Chang S. Nam; Yueqing Li; Steve Johnson
Despite recent advances in brain-computer interface (BCI) development, system usability still remains a large oversight. The goal of this study was to investigate the usability of a P300-based BCI system, P300 Speller, by assessing how background noise and interface color contrast affect user performance and BCI usage preference. Fifteen able-bodied participants underwent a 2 (low and high interface color contrast) × 3 (low, medium, and high background noise level) within-subjects design experiment, in which participants were asked to type six 10-character phrases in the P300 Speller paradigm. The overall accuracy in the study was 80.2%. Participants showed higher accuracy, higher information transfer rate, bigger amplitude, and smaller latency in the high interface color contrast condition than in the low contrast condition. Participants had better performance in the noisy condition than in the quiet condition, but the background noise effects were not statistically significant in the present study. These results should give some insight to the real-world applicability of the current P300 Speller as a nonmuscular communication system, especially for individuals with severe neuromuscular disabilities.
HCI and Society: Towards a Typology of Universal Design Principles BIBAFull-Text 638-656
  Christian Fuchs; Marianna Obrist
The task of this article is to focus on aspects of design from a theoretical perspective that works out a general framework of techno-social design that is grounded in the notion of the participatory, cooperative, sustainable information society. The approach is normative in that it is based on the judgment that not just any information society is needed, but one that has specific qualities that this article tries to identify. Methodologically, the article works out a conceptual framework that synthesizes general social theory and human-computer interaction. Design is seen as a social process that shapes society and techno-social systems. First, a model of society that is based on the dialectical interaction of economic, political, and cultural subsystems is introduced. Then, the notion of the participatory, cooperative, sustainable information society is introduced. This theoretical definition is then used for classifying design principles of techno-social information systems from a social theory perspective.

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 7

Spatial Representation of a Virtual Room Space: Perspective and Vertical Movement BIBAFull-Text 661-674
  Zhiqiang Luo; Wenshu Luo; I-Ming Chen; Roger Jianxin Jiao; Henry Been-Lirn Duh
Evidence from prior research has demonstrated that exocentric views of the environment can facilitate the acquisition of survey knowledge in a virtual environment. The present study examined the effect of different exocentric views on judging the relative direction of objects. During the participants' vertical movement in a virtual room, participants learned the spatial layout in one of three conditions: two-perspective, attentive-elevation, and normal-elevation conditions, where the number of the exocentric perspectives from which the spatial layout was observed was different. After spatial learning, they made the judgment of the relative direction of objects. The analysis of spatial judgment showed that as the number of exocentric perspectives increased, the accuracy improved in the mental representation of spatial vertical information and spatial information in novel directions. Results indicated that the increased number of exocentric perspectives during the vertical movement facilitated the flexible acquisition of survey knowledge. Applications of this study included the design of effective navigation aids in virtual multilevel buildings.
Structure Processing of Web-Based Menus BIBAFull-Text 675-702
  Peter J. Patsula; Benjamin H. Detenber; Yin-Leng Theng
Grounded in cognitive load theory, levels of processing theory, modes of learning research, and the facets of working memory (WM) framework, the primary goal of this investigation was to seek empirical evidence for a structure processing mechanism in WM that facilitates the coordination of associations made into coherent structures and the role this mechanism might play in performance and retention. This goal was motivated by a gap in the understanding of mental model production and encoding processes in WM. To carry out this goal, two usability studies were conducted to investigate retention, error, and time performance of Web-based menus created with structured or unstructured design. Relationships between these measures and coordination ability in WM, as well as storage and supervision ability, were also assessed. In Study 1, which tested simple Web-based menus, correlations of .28, -.56, and -.54 were detected between coordination (CC) and retention scores, CC and errors, and CC and time; in Study 2, which tested commercial Web-based menus, correlations of .46, -.45, and -.25 were detected. For Studies 1 and 2, differences in favor of structured design for retention, error, and time performance were highly significant (p < .001).
How Age Affects Pointing With Mouse and Touchpad: A Comparison of Young, Adult, and Elderly Users BIBAFull-Text 703-734
  Morten Hertzum; Kasper Hornbæk
Effects of age on pointing performance have become increasingly important as computers have become extensively used by still larger parts of the population. This study empirically investigates young (12-14 years), adult (25-33 years), and elderly (61-69 years) participants' performance when pointing with mouse and touchpad. The goal is to provide an integrated analysis of (a) how these three age groups differ in pointing performance, (b) how these differences are affected by the two pointing devices, and (c) how the submovement structure of cursor trajectories may explain performance differences. Results show that adult participants perform better than both young and elderly participants in that adult participants make fewer errors than young participants and complete trials quicker than elderly participants. Moreover, young participants are quicker than elderly participants, who make neither more nor less errors than young and adult participants. All three age groups were slower and made more errors with the touchpad than the mouse, but the touchpad slowed down elderly participants more than young participants, who in turn were slowed down more than adult participants. Adult participants made more efficient submovements than elderly participants; young participants had an intermediate position in that they were similar to adult participants for some submovement measures and similar to elderly participants for others.
HCI Remixed: Reflections on Works That Have Influenced the HCI Community by Thomas Erickson and David W. McDonald -- MIT Press, 2005. 344 pages. ISBN: 978-0262050883 BIBFull-Text 735-736
  Fagdéba Bakoyéma

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 8

State of the Art on the Cognitive Walkthrough Method, Its Variants and Evolutions BIBAFull-Text 741-785
  Thomas Mahatody; Mouldi Sagar; Christophe Kolski
This article discusses interactive system evaluation from the perspective of inspection methods, specifically the Cognitive Walkthrough (CW) method. The basic principles of CW are reviewed as proposed in the original version and the first two revisions. Then 11 significant extensions of CW are examined: Heuristic Walkthrough, The Norman Cognitive Walkthrough Method, Streamlined Cognitive Walkthrough, Cognitive Walkthrough for the Web, Groupware Walkthrough, Activity Walkthrough, Interaction Walkthrough, Cognitive Walkthrough with Users, Extended Cognitive Walkthrough, Distributed Cognitive Walkthrough, and Enhanced Cognitive Walkthrough. Four summaries are proposed: The first one concerns the conceptual, methodological, and technological aspects; the next two summaries deal with existing studies, first comparative and then noncomparative; and the last summary provides help for choosing a version or variant.
Comparing Inspections and User Testing for the Evaluation of Virtual Environments BIBAFull-Text 786-824
  Cedric Bach; Dominique L. Scapin
This article describes an experiment comparing three Usability Evaluation Methods: User Testing (UT), Document-based Inspection (DI), and Expert Inspection (EI) for evaluating Virtual Environments (VEs). Twenty-nine individuals (10 end-users and 19 junior usability experts) participated during 1 hr each in the evaluation of two VEs (a training VE and a 3D map). Quantitative results of the comparison show that the effectiveness of UT and DI is significantly better than the effectiveness of EI. For each method, results show their problem coverage: DI- and UT-based diagnoses lead to more problem diversity than EI. The overlap of identified problems amounts to 22% between UT and DI, 20% between DI and EI, and 12% between EI and UT for both virtual environments. The identification impact of the whole set of usability problems is 60% for DI, 57% for UT, and only 36% for EI for both virtual environments. Also reliability of UT and DI is significantly better than reliability of EI. In addition, a qualitative analysis identified 35 classes describing the profile of usability problems found with each method. It shows that UT seems particularly efficient for the diagnosis of problems that require a particular state of interaction to be detectable. On the other hand, DI supports the identification of problems directly observable, often related to learnability and basic usability. This study shows that DI could be viewed as a "4-wheel drive SUV evaluation type" (less powerful under certain conditions but able to go everywhere, with any driver), whereas UT could be viewed as a "Formula 1 car evaluation type" (more powerful but requiring adequate road and a very skilled driver). EI is found (considering all metrics) to be not efficient enough to evaluate usability of VEs.

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 9

Invisible Marker-Based Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 829-848
  Hanhoon Park; Jong-Il Park
To estimate camera pose, existing augmented reality (AR) techniques usually require fiducial markers with known geometry. However, placing a marker in the workspace of the user can be very visually intrusive. To overcome this limitation, a nonintrusive AR method using invisible markers that are created/drawn with an infrared (IR) ink is proposed and an IR marker tracking system is presented. This system includes additional algorithms to maintain reliable performance in a cluttered background. Then, the working conditions of IR markers are examined and compared with those of visual markers, and the optimal working conditions of IR markers are discussed. Next, the qualitative evaluation of an IR marker-based AR is presented through a variety of experiments and user evaluations. Finally, the potential applications of IR marker-based AR are explored.
Assessing Online Learning Ability From a Social Exchange Perspective: A Survey of Virtual Teams Within Business Organizations BIBAFull-Text 849-867
  Chieh-Peng Lin; Chou-Kang Chiu; Sheng-Wuu Joe; Yuan-Hui Tsai
Drawing on social exchange theory, this study proposes a model by postulating critical antecedents and mediators as the key drivers of online learning ability. In the model, online learning ability is affected indirectly by trust via 3 mediators simultaneously, including team commitment, task conflict, and relationship conflict, whereas trust is impacted directly by expressiveness interdependence, outcome interdependence, and task interdependence. Empirical testing of this model, by investigating the personnel of virtual teams from information technology organizations, confirms the applicability of social exchange theory in understanding online learning ability. This study contributes to the virtual team learning literature by extending social exchange theory to the rarely explored area of online learning ability of organizational teams and validating idiosyncratic drivers of online learning ability. Last, this article provides managerial implications and limitations of the research.
Development of an Instrument to Measure Enjoyment of Computer Game Play BIBAFull-Text 868-886
  Xiaowen Fang; Susy Chan; Jacek Brzezinski; Chitra Nair
This article reports on the development of an instrument designed to measure the enjoyment of computer game play. Despite the enormous technological progress in the field of computer games, enjoyment of computer game play is still not a well-defined construct. Based on Nabi and Krcmar's (2004) tripartite model of media enjoyment, a survey questionnaire was developed to measure computer game players' affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions. Expert consultation, exploratory, and confirmatory card sorting sessions were used to refine the instrument. A survey of computer game players was subsequently conducted to test the instrument. Reliabilities and construct validities were analyzed. Findings and their implications were discussed.

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 10

Measuring Internet Skills BIBAFull-Text 891-916
  A. J. A. M. van Deursen; J. A. G. M. van Dijk
Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed, applied in two large-scale performance tests, and tested for reliability and validity. The framework consists of four Internet skills: operational, formal, information, and strategic Internet skills. The framework proves to be a powerful means for understanding the complexity of the Internet skills that people employ when they use the Internet. The reliability of the framework is supported by obtaining similar results from two studies focusing on different contexts. The validity of the framework is investigated by comparing the results with external standards that also provide an indication of Internet skill levels.
Modeling the Interaction of Users and Mobile Payment System: Conceptual Framework BIBAFull-Text 917-940
  Dong-Hee Shin
The growing interest in mobile commerce and the high penetration rate of mobile communication service are expected to provide mobile operators with a new and great business opportunity, the mobile payment. This study proposes a research model that examines the factors that determine consumer acceptance of mobile payment system. To achieve this goal, it employed the technology acceptance model (TAM), adding the concepts of security, trust, social influence, and computer-efficacy from Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. The model is examined through an empirical study using structural equation modeling techniques. Although the model confirms the classical role of TAM factors, the results also show that users' attitudes and intentions are influenced by perceived risk and trust. Significant support for the model was found in the data collected from a survey of potential mobile payment system users. Based on the findings, this study proposes a conceptual framework of adoption enablers, drivers, and barriers with propositions to guide future research in mobile payment. Implications to practice and means to overcome the barriers are suggested.
Note: Paper retracted 2013, 29:4, p.317: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10447318.2013.768503
A Context-of-Use Taxonomy for Usability Studies BIBAFull-Text 941-970
  D. Alonso-Ríos; A. Vázquez-García; E. Mosqueira-Rey; V. Moret-Bonillo
The interest in developing usable products has led to the inclusion of usability aspects in product development processes. Nonetheless, the fact that there is a tendency to overlook characteristics of the context in which a product is to be used means that the usability of a product in its operational environment is often diminished. One of the main reasons why this is the case is because there is no clear and sufficiently detailed model available for defining the concept of context of use. A comprehensive taxonomy that describes context of use and its attributes by means of precise definitions is proposed. This taxonomy will serve as a basis for improving the validity of usability activities by enabling an analysis of the conditions of use of a product in usability studies in a structured way.
A Review of Online Advertising Effects on the User Experience BIBAFull-Text 971-997
  Giorgio Brajnik; Silvia Gabrielli
This article reviews empirical research conducted in the last decade on the subject of how online display advertising affects the usability and quality of user experience of websites. In particular, from an in-depth analysis of research questions, methods, and findings of the reviewed studies, the following is discussed: (a) which conceptual and theoretical background knowledge, based on psychological explanations of user cognition, affection and behavior, can best support the design and investigation of online advertising, and (b) which specific adverts features and properties are key to understand and favor certain types of effects on users. By capitalizing on this benchmark knowledge on benefits of adverts and their hidden costs, web researchers and practitioners are encouraged to approach online advertising from a deeper and more comprehensive perspective, which is centered on qualities of web interaction that go beyond traditional usability factors. It is speculated that many of the theories and models developed for advertising effectiveness, and variables used to measure it, could and should be applied also when assessing the quality of the user experience when using websites in general, regardless of whether they contain adverts.

IJHCI 2010 Volume 26 Issue 11/12

HCI and Social Computing BIBFull-Text 1003-1005
  Yong Gu Ji
Too Many Facebook "Friends"? Content Sharing and Sociability Versus the Need for Privacy in Social Network Sites BIBAFull-Text 1006-1030
  Petter Bae Brandtzæg; Marika Lüders; Jan Håvard Skjetne
Little research has been conducted on the two most important criteria for the success of social network sites (SNS), that is, content sharing and sociability, and how these affect privacy experiences and usage behavior among SNS users. This article explores these issues by employing in-depth interviews and explorative usability tests, comparing the experiences and usage of younger and older Facebook users. First, the interviews revealed that Facebook users in all age groups reported more contact with several different groups of people, which reflects different types of social capital (i.e., family, friends, and acquaintances), because of Facebook, but not without consequences for privacy. Having too many Facebook "friends" and access to different social capital disrupt the sharing process due to experiences of social surveillance and social control. This social control often forces younger people in particular to use conformity as a strategy when sharing content to maintain their privacy. Further, the interviews revealed different motivations and usage patterns when older and younger users are compared. Second, the usability test found a significant difference between younger and older adults in time completion and task completion related to Facebook settings. Younger users are more skilled in their Facebook usage, whereas adults over the age of 40 have difficulties in understanding the navigation logic and privacy settings. Younger and older adults display completely open public profiles without realizing it. Finally, the design and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
TimeMatrix: Analyzing Temporal Social Networks Using Interactive Matrix-Based Visualizations BIBAFull-Text 1031-1051
  Ji Soo Yi; Niklas Elmqvist; Seungyoon Lee
Visualization plays a crucial role in understanding dynamic social networks at many different levels (i.e., group, subgroup, and individual). Node-link-based visualization techniques are currently widely used for these tasks and have been demonstrated to be effective, but it was found that they also have limitations in representing temporal changes, particularly at the individual and subgroup levels. To overcome these limitations, this article presents a new network visualization technique, called "TimeMatrix," based on a matrix representation. Interaction techniques, such as overlay controls, a temporal range slider, semantic zooming, and integrated network statistical measures, support analysts in studying temporal social networks. To validate the design, the article presents a user study involving three social scientists analyzing inter-organizational collaboration data. The study demonstrates how TimeMatrix may help analysts gain insights about the temporal aspects of network data that can be subsequently tested with network analytic methods.
Designing Mobile Social Networking Service Through UCD Process: LifeDiary BIBAFull-Text 1052-1076
  Youngho Rhee; Juyoun Lee; IlKu Chang
Socialization is one of the basic human needs that has been capitalized on by various industries. The main features of socialization include content sharing and people networking. These features from web service have been expanded to mobile devices and provide users the same experience in the context of these devices. However, most of the mobile web services merely push data to the mobile device and do not fully utilize the nature of mobility itself. The present article argues that these mobile web services presented to customers do not match the users' expectation due to a lack of interactivity between mobile and web. The present study uses a user-centered design process to better understand social network users' needs and pattern of device usage within this service. Through this process, the main concept of the service is initially to be decided and followed by personas and functions. Then, the role of each device is set by analyzing users' expectation around each device. Finally, a design prototype is proposed and its quality is estimated by conducting usability evaluation. As a result, the present study illustrates the differences among traditional mobile social networking services and shows how mobile phones may improve the traditional social network service experience while interacting with websites and PCs.
An Analysis of Self-Construals, Motivations, Facebook Use, and User Satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 1077-1099
  Jang Hyun Kim; Min-Sun Kim; Yoonjae Nam
Rare studies have focused on how and why people use social networking sites (SNSs) utilizing individual-level variables such as self-construals and social/nonsocial motivations. This study proposes that the self-construal construct provides a good instrument for measuring the relationship between people's understanding of self as a predictor of social computing (Facebook use) and satisfaction. A survey was conducted with students from a large western U.S. university. Results indicate that interdependent self-construal is associated with social-motivations to use SNS, and such motivations lead to satisfaction with SNS use. In contrast, independent self-construal failed to predict SNS use. This finding supports the need to examine the influence of "cultural self" and "social motivations" when interpreting social media use behavior. Suggestions for future research are addressed.
The Influence of Cultural Differences on the Use of Social Network Services and the Formation of Social Capital BIBAFull-Text 1100-1121
  Yong Gu Ji; Hwan Hwangbo; Ji Soo Yi; P. L. Patrick Rau; Xiaowen Fang; Chen Ling
With the advent of Web 2.0, social network services (SNSs), such as Facebook and MySpace, have grown explosively and globally as one of core Web 2.0 applications. However, as revealed in other cultural comparison studies in the field of human-computer interaction, it is believed that cultural differences profoundly impact on how people use SNSs. Unfortunately, the differences in using SNSs have not been systematically investigated, so this study presents a web-based survey study among three nations: Republic of Korea, People's Republic of China, and the United States of America. It was assumed that SNS users form bridging and bonding social capital (borrowed from social capital theory) through the five functions of SNS that were categorized: Identity, Expert Search, Connection, Communication, and Contents Sharing. A correlation between social capital-related activities and usage patterns of SNS was expected. A total of 489 responded to the web-based survey through the three counties. Although the theory of cultural differences turned out to be insufficient to explain diverse usage patterns of SNSs, the results showed that Korean and Chinese users form bridging and bonding social capital mainly through Expert Search and Connection functions, but American users mainly use the Communication function to form bonding Social Capital. Various implications of these results for researchers and practitioners who work on and for SNSs are described as well.
Older Adults in an Aging Society and Social Computing: A Research Agenda BIBAFull-Text 1122-1146
  Yong Gu Ji; Junho Choi; Jee Yeon Lee; Kwang Hee Han; Jinwoo Kim; In-Kwon Lee
The expansion of the social computing environment as a new basis for socioeconomic activities could enhance the quality of life of older adults, but also it could make the problem of digital divide more serious. In this study, the research directions and agenda of social computing for an aging society are presented, which have two major directions: basic study and applied study. Regarding human aspects in social computing mainly dealt with in the basic study, existing research and related theories on cognitive characteristics, information usage patterns, and social network site use of older adults were examined. In the applied study, a study about the most effective contents application and interfaces through user needs analysis, usage context analysis, prototype design, and so on, was conducted. Those studies are discussed to develop applications on a PC platform, mobile platform, and IPTV platform targeting the older adults population.