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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 23

Editors:Julie A. Jacko; Gavriel Salvendy; Steven J. Landry
Publisher:Taylor & Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2007 Volume 23 Issue 1/2
  2. IJHCI 2007 Volume 23 Issue 3

IJHCI 2007 Volume 23 Issue 1/2

Introduction: Toward Universal ICT Media Design: HCI Research at NTT Cyber Solutions Laboratories BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Katsuhiko Ogawa; Minoru Kobayashi
Search Result Clustering Using Informatively Named Entities BIBAFull-Text 3-23
  Hiroyuki Toda; Ryoji Kataoka; Masahiro Oku
Clustering the results of a search helps the user to review the information gathered. In this article, we regard the clustering task as indexing the search results. Here, an index means a structured label list that can make it easier for the user to comprehend the labels and search results. To realize this goal, we make three proposals. The first is to use Named Entity Extraction for term extraction. The second is to create a new label-selecting criterion based on importance in the search result and the relation between terms and search queries. The third is a label categorization using category information of labels, which is generated by named entity extraction. We implement a prototype system based on these proposals and find that it offers a much higher performance than existing methods; we focus on news articles in this article, but the system is not topic specific.
Kanshinji Antenna: A Japanese-language Concept Search System BIBAFull-Text 25-49
  Katsuji Bessho; Osamu Furuse; Ryoji Kataoka; Masahiro Oku
We propose a concept search system called Kanshinji Antenna that searches for documents with semantic content similar to that of the input text. In this system, concept vectors are statistically generated as the semantic expressions of words, and the similarities between documents are judged based on these concept vectors. This makes it possible to provide search functions that cannot be implemented in ordinary keyword search systems. In this article we discuss the system configuration and useful functions of the Kanshinji Antenna and discuss its effectiveness based on the results of an accuracy evaluation and an online questionnaire.
Instant Topic Extraction From a Text-Based Communication Channel for Seeing the World BIBAFull-Text 51-69
  Megumi Ishii; Minako Izawa; Ryoji Kataoka; Masahiro Oku; Katsuhiko Ogawa
This article proposes three topic extraction methods for a text-based communication channel of a message stream in bulletin board or chat services. A message is input into the channel, and these methods instantly select active and curious topics from the channel by using noun phrases, topic pressure at the latest message in the channel, topic unexpectedness, and partial matching. This serves as a module of a system that enables a user to follow unfolding world developments. An evaluative comparison of the performance of our methods and a conventional method using four data sets from two standpoints was performed. This is the first step in testing the performance of our methods.
EyePrint: Using Passive Eye Trace From Reading to Enhance Document Access and Comprehension BIBAFull-Text 71-94
  Takehiko Ohno
The improvement of digital document technologies is changing our document browsing style. We browse a lot of documents in a short time, jumping from one to another by following the hyperlinks. This makes document management difficult; we sometimes feel it is difficult to keep track of all of the information. To overcome this problem, this article proposes a novel method that uses the user's eye movement to create passive traces of document comprehension for digital documents. The eye gaze traces so generated become metadata of the document; they can be used in the next search, document browsing, and zooming. A prototype system that works with a gaze tracking system is developed. Two experiments are conducted to evaluate the usefulness of eye gaze traces in digital document browsing. The first experiment examines the validity of trace generation, where generated eye gaze traces are compared with the 'participants' self-judgment of reading. In the second experiment, participants browse a set of documents to gather information, where the 'participants' reading behavior with the eye gaze trace and the efficiency of keyword search is studied. The results confirm that EyePrint is the answer to keeping track of digital documents.
VoiceBlog: Universally Designed Voice Browser BIBAFull-Text 95-113
  Masahiro Watanabe; Aya Okano; Yoko Asano; Katsuhiko Ogawa
We developed VoiceBlog, a voice browser based on the concept of universal design. It has a cascading user interface, has a hierarchic structure, and can well parse strictly structured Web content such as blogs. We investigated whether VoiceBlog could function as a voice browser by observing blind users of VoiceBlog and then interviewing them. After using VoiceBlog for a while, most users felt that VoiceBlog made it much easier to read and understand Web content than common voice browsers. The cascading user interface is seen as one of the best methods for aural presentation. However, some users complained about the synthesized voice and key-mapping, mainly because these differed from the voice browsers' voice and key-mappings the users were familiar with. We also compared the operation logs of sighted and blind users and found that there were some differences in their demands. The results suggest that it is difficult to make one mechanism that suits both sighted and blind users. A universally designed voice browser should prepare different kinds of mechanisms (modes) and switch between them according to the users.
A New Multimedia Content Skimming Technique at Arbitrary User-Set Rate Based on Automatic Speech Emphasis Extraction BIBAFull-Text 115-129
  Kota Hidaka; Shinya Nakajima
This article proposes a new technique for skimming multimedia content such as video mail, audio/visual data in blog sites, and other consumer-generated media. The proposed method, which is based on the automatic extraction of emphasized speech, locates emphasized portions of speech with high accuracy by using prosodic parameters such as pitch, power, and speaking rate. As the method does not employ any speech recognition technique, it enables a highly robust estimation in noisy environments. To extract emphasized portions of speech, the method introduces a metric, "degree of emphasis," which indicates the degree of emphasis of each speech segment. Given an article, the method computes the degree of emphasis for each speech segment in it. When a user requests a skimming of the article's content, the method refers to the user-specified "skimming rate" to collect the emphasized segments. Preference experiments were performed in which participants were asked to select either the skimmed contents created by our method or those created using a fixed interval approach. The preference rate of our method was about 80%, which suggests that the proposed method can generate proper content skimming.
Discovery Search System That Supports the User's Interest Using the Referrals of Other Users BIBAFull-Text 131-142
  Shinji Miyahara; Toru Sadakata; Hidenori Okuda; Masahiro Oku
In this article, we propose a navigation system that interests users in contents, based on information on Web site visits and usage. The system guides users to tourist spots by applying a referral system. In cooperation with travel agencies, we verified the system by opening it to Internet access. Moreover, we extend the system to resolve the problems identified in the evaluation results.
C-Blink: A Hue-Difference-Based Light Signal Marker via a Cell Phone Color Display BIBAFull-Text 143-161
  Kento Miyaoku; Suguru Higashino; Yoshinobu Tonomura
To enable existing cell phones to interact with contents shown on large public screens in town, we propose "C-Blink," a new light signal marker method that uses the color liquid-crystal display of a cell phone as a visible light source. We overcome the performance limitations of such displays by developing a hue-difference-blink technique. In combination with a screen-side sensor, we describe a system that detects and receives light signal markers sent by cell phone displays. Evaluations of a prototype system confirm that C-Blink performs well under common indoor lighting. The C-Blink program can be installed in any mobile terminal that has a color display, and the installation costs are low. C-Blink is a very useful way of enabling screens to become interfaces for existing mobile terminals.
Factors Affecting User Reassurance When Handling Information in a Public Work Environment BIBAFull-Text 163-183
  Shigeyoshi Iizuka; Katsuhiko Ogawa; Shinya Nakajima
This article describes a basic study on design guidelines for a public work environment where personal information might be handled. In this study, we conducted a user survey to extract factors that affect reassurance and performed an experiment to evaluate the effect of partition size on reassurance. First, from the user survey, we extracted personal-information and work-environment factors that affect reassurance in a public work environment. Next, we examined the effect of partition size (height and depth) on reassurance and found that "the ability of someone viewing my monitor from a neighboring seat" is a factor affecting reassurance and that "the ability of seeing the figure (feel the presence) of a neighbor" does not affect reassurance. In short, partition height has the role of blocking information (on the monitor) from a neighbor, and provided that partition height satisfies a certain value (keeping the monitor out of a neighbor's view), partition depth will also make a significant difference in reassurance. The role of partition depth, moreover, is not so much to block information but rather to block off the user's space.
A Review of: "Foundations of Augmented Cognition" by Schmorrow, D. D. BIBFull-Text 185-187
  Robert G. Feyen
A Review of: "Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics" by Salvendy, G. BIBFull-Text 189-190
  Donald A. Norman

IJHCI 2007 Volume 23 Issue 3

Special Issue in Honor of Ben Shneiderman's 60th Birthday

Special Issue in Honor of Ben Shneiderman's 60th Birthday: Reflections on Human-Computer Interaction BIBFull-Text 195-204
  Catherine Plaisant; Chris North
Find What You Need, Understand What You Find BIBAFull-Text 205-237
  Gary Marchionini; Ryen White
This article presents a framework for research and development in user interfaces that support information seeking. The information-seeking process is described, and each of the subprocesses are discussed with an eye toward making user interfaces that closely couple support mechanisms. Recent results from studies related to term suggestions for queries, coupling search and examination, and seamless interaction between overviews and previews are used to illustrate highly interactive information-seeking services.
20 Years of Four HCI Conferences: A Visual Exploration BIBAFull-Text 239-285
  Nathalie Henry; Howard Goodell; Niklas Elmqvist; Jean-Daniel Fekete
We present a visual exploration of the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) through the author and article metadata of four of its major conferences: the ACM conferences on Computer-Human Interaction (CHI), User Interface Software and Technology, and Advanced Visual Interfaces and the IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization. This article describes many global and local patterns we discovered in this data set, together with the exploration process that produced them. Some expected patterns emerged, such as that -- like most social networks -- coauthorship and citation networks exhibit a power-law degree distribution, with a few widely collaborating authors and highly cited articles. Also, the prestigious and long-established CHI conference has the highest impact (citations by the others). Unexpected insights included that the years when a given conference was most selective are not correlated with those that produced its most highly referenced articles and that influential authors have distinct patterns of collaboration. An interesting sidelight is that methods from the HCI field -- exploratory data analysis by information visualization and direct-manipulation interaction -- proved useful for this analysis. They allowed us to take an open-ended, exploratory approach, guided by the data itself. As we answered our original questions, new ones arose; as we confirmed patterns we expected, we discovered refinements, exceptions, and fascinating new ones.
Exploratory Data Analysis With Categorical Variables: An Improved Rank-by-Feature Framework and a Case Study BIBAFull-Text 287-314
  Jinwook Seo; Heather Gordish-Dressman
Multidimensional data sets often include categorical information. When most dimensions have categorical information, clustering the data set as a whole can reveal interesting patterns in the data set. However, the categorical information is often more useful as a way to partition the data set: gene expression data for healthy versus diseased samples or stock performance for common, preferred, or convertible shares. We present novel ways to utilize categorical information in exploratory data analysis by enhancing the rank-by-feature framework. First, we present ranking criteria for categorical variables and ways to improve the score overview. Second, we present a novel way to utilize the categorical information together with clustering algorithms. Users can partition the data set according to categorical information vertically or horizontally, and the clustering result for each partition can serve as new categorical information. We report the results of a longitudinal case study with a biomedical research team, including insights gained and potential future work.
Capture, Annotate, Browse, Find, Share: Novel Interfaces for Personal Photo Management BIBAFull-Text 315-337
  Hyunmo Kang; Benjamin B. Bederson; Bongwon Suh
The vision of ubiquitous digital photos has arrived. Yet, despite their broad popularity, significant shortfalls remain in the tools used to manage them. We believe that with a bit more creativity and effort, the photo industry can solve many of these problems, offering tools which better support accurate, rapid, and safe shared annotations with comfortable and efficient browsing and search. In this article, we review a number of projects of ours and others on interfaces for photo management. We describe the problems that we see in existing tools and our vision for improving them.
HCI and Societal Issues: A Framework for Engagement BIBAFull-Text 339-374
  Harry Hochheiser; Jonathan Lazar
Human-computer interaction (HCI) is much broader than the study of interface design and input devices. It includes considerations of the social, political, ethical, and societal implications of computer systems. Concerns such as privacy, accessibility, universal design, and voting usability have led to active HCI research. Our examination of HCI responses to these and other issues informs a model of social engagement based on societal influences that motivate various responses from the HCI community. This model provides suggestions for engagement with issues that are likely to grow in importance over the next several years. By focusing on these issues, HCI researchers may make still greater contributions toward addressing societal concerns.