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Proceedings of OZCHI'04, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of OZCHI'04, the CHISIG Annual Conference
Note:Supporting Community Interaction: Possibilities and Challenges
Location:Wollongong, Australia
Dates:2004-Nov-21 to 2004-Nov-24
Standard No:ISBN 1-74128-079-6; hcibib: OZCHI04
Links:Conference Page | Conference Series Home Page
Online Communities: Researching sociability and usability in hard to reach populations BIBAKPDF 1
  Jenny Preece
Thousands of social gatherings -- online communities -- occur via ICTs across the Internet. They use listservers, bulletin boards, instant messaging, blogs, social network and meeting facilitation systems and purpose-build platforms. Each community is the product of a complex set of interacting variables. Some of these variables come from usability of the software but social factors have a strong influence. Direct cause and effect relationships are often difficult to tease out and identifying criteria for successful online communities can be difficult. Furthermore several disciplines own this topic, each with its own theories, research methods, community of researchers and publication outlets. This is good for multidisciplinary research but it can be challenging. In this paper I discuss two research projects. Each focuses on community populations that are hard to reach. The first analyses why people do not actively participate in online discussions, i.e., lurk. The second is a new project to develop cross-cultural online book communities for children across the world who do not speak each other's languages. I present the key findings from each project and suggest ways of working with these hard to reach populations.
Keywords: Online community, networked community, ICT, social computing, usability, sociability, lurking, children, digital library
Distances in Design Communities: Sources of Social Creativity BIBAPDF 2
  Gerhard Fisher
Design is a ubiquitous activity. The complexity of design problems requires communities rather than individuals to address, frame, and solve them. These design communities have to cope with the following distances: (1) spatial (across distance), (2) temporal (across time), (3) conceptual (across different communities of practice, and (4) technological (between persons and artifacts). Over the last decade, we have created socio-technical environments to turn the distances into opportunities for enhancing the social creativity of design communities.
From Documents to User Interfaces: Universal Design and the Emergence of Abstraction BIBAKPDF 3
  Jason White
Abstract representations of content which allow it to be automatically adapted to suit the delivery context, have emerged historically with the development of markup languages intended to facilitate the storage and processing of electronic documents. This technological tradition is reviewed in the first part of the paper, focusing predominantly on the nature and advantages of a 'single authoring' approach to the creation of content. Some of the lessons to be derived from the evolution and deployment of markup systems are also discussed, then applied, in the second part of the paper, to the question of how such abstractions can be extended to the design of user interfaces. Innovative work related to the generic specification of user interfaces is reviewed. It is argued that the advantages of an abstract approach depend for their realization on the development of more expressive style languages and more sophisticated adaptation mechanisms, as well as continued refinement of the semantics of markup languages themselves.
Keywords: Abstract representations; markup languages; electronic documents; user interfaces; style languages; semantics
Online Collaborative Learning Enhancement through the Delphi Method BIBAKPDF 4
  Murray Turoff; Starr R. Hiltz; Xiang Yao; Zheng Li; Yuanqiong Wang; Hee-Kyung Cho
A variety of field trials have been conducted at NJIT in the past few years to demonstrate the utility of a Delphi-like approach to promoting asynchronous class wide collaboration. These utilized the Social Decision Support System (SDSS) originally developed as a Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) system for large group decision support. This paper provides an overview of these studies and then focuses on a recent case study in the fall of 2003 that demonstrated the ability of a computer mediated asynchronous Delphi process as a tool to scaffold collaborative idea generation and evaluation in both face to face and distance courses.
Keywords: GDSS, GSS, CMC, SDSS, Delphi, eLearning, ALN, collaborative learning, Knowledge systems, system security, distance learning, online learning, idea generation
A brief account of low-level interaction problems using cyclic interaction theory BIBAKPDF 5
  Hokyoung Ryu; Andrew F. Monk
This paper aims to develop an understanding of cyclic interaction theory so as to analyse low-level interaction problems: action-effect problems, effect-goal problems, and goal-action problems. It will also provide practical examples of low-level interaction problems in everyday life and develop an interaction walkthrough method in terms of cyclic interaction theory. In all cases, the analysis focuses on the issue of direct concern to the practitioner who is not an expert of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), identifying points in the human-computer interaction systems may lead to inappropriate actions, or goals.
Keywords: Cyclic interaction, interaction problem, mode, goal reorganisation problem, goal-action matching problem
An interaction model: from a user model to an environment model BIBAKPDF 6
  Hokyoung Ryu; Andrew F. Monk
This paper presents an approach to modelling man-machine dialog, and the way the users tasks, interaction and feedback affect each other. The model is meant to support the concrete design of a user interface, based on descriptions of user's environment, goals and tasks. Throughout this paper, we assume that Human-computer interaction (HCI) can reasonably be understood as a continuous process of cyclic interaction between the user and the environment. The action the user takes leads to changes to the system or the environment. These are evaluated by the user, and then this evaluation results in changes to goals, and then the user takes another action based on the changes to goals. In order to effectively describe the continuous process of cyclic interaction, a dialog notation that a user interface designer could reason about the interactivity is needed. We claim that a cyclic notation is able to account for the intimate connection between goal, action and the environment, allowing a user interface designer to make explicit what a process achieves, as well as what triggers that process. It is thus possible for designers to build interactive versions of the designs so as to assess the assumptions made or being made regarding the interaction between the user and the system.
Keywords: Cyclic interaction, interaction model, user model, environment model, mode problem
Teaching the Design of Ubiquitous Computing Systems BIBAKPDF 7
  Lubna S. Alam; David Walker; Penny Collings
Interaction design for a relatively new paradigm like ubiquitous computing requires a deep understanding of everyday work practices and environments. To design such systems requires that students use techniques like ethnographic methods to explore work practices, technology probes, physical model building and role-play to produce, test and demonstrate the designed artefacts in a realistic way. In this report, we discuss our approach to designing learning activities that provide a repertoire of HCI techniques to support the design of ubiquitous computing systems, and show the outcomes of projects undertaken by students in the form of work practices and requirements identified by them, and their design solutions. In these projects students undertook an ethnographic investigation into their own work practices to design ubiquitous support for student group work. We also undertake an evaluation of the teaching approach.
Keywords: Ethnography, technology probes, physical model building, role-play, contextual scenario, ubiquitous computing, CSCW
A usability instrument for evaluating websites -- navigation elements BIBAKPDF 8
  Julie Fisher; John Bentley; Rod Turner; Annemieke Craig
Many small businesses websites have become an important advertising medium. However little consideration is given to how these websites might be made more effective. Many factors impact on website effectiveness, including navigation. Research here describes a usability instrument developed for evaluating small business websites and uses navigation as an example of its application. The research found that the quality of navigation does have an impact on ease-of-use of a site, user's emotional response and frustration levels and a user's intention to return to that website. The research also established the statistically significant elements that contribute to navigation.
Keywords: Usability, usability instrument, website navigation
Identifying Cognitive Activities and Processes in a Military Planning Training Exercise BIBAKPDF 9
  Terence Blackburn; Damien Bright; Rudi Vernik
This paper reports on observations made during a military training planning exercise. The motivation for the observations was to try and identify some of the cognitive processes in intense collaborative activities. This work is part of a research project that is investigating how to provide higher levels of technological support for collaborative activities. The examination of models that were built from these observations identified a cognitive interface between the planning coordinators and their resources. This cognitive layer is present in the training exercise but disappears in a bona fide planning operation. This paper identifies some of the processes that disappear and introduces the concept of an orchestration service, which is a human computer interface that could be used to replace some of the missing functionality.
Keywords: Cognitive activities, intense collaboration, orchestration service, planning exercise
Catching Emotions Elicited by Mobile Services BIBAKPDF 10
  Marika Tähti; Soili Väinämö; Vuokko Vanninen; Minna Isomursu
The aim of this paper is to present the results of adapting and applying a method called Emocards for the collection and evaluation of emotions elicited by mobile services in real end user environment. Emocards is a non-verbal self-report instrument originally developed for measuring emotions elicited by the physical appearance of products. We adapted the method so that it could be applied in the context of mobile services. We evaluated the adapted method by applying it to three field experiments with 61 users made in real user environment. Results suggest that Emocards provide a feasible method for collection of emotional responses for services. The method is fast to use, the users comprehend it easily and it provides an easily interpretable representation of user emotions.
Keywords: Emocards, emotions, mobile application, non-verbal measurement
Machine Learning Tools applied to the Qualitative Analysis of Decision-Making Strategies BIBAKPDF 11
  Samuel Moyle; Jared Hayes; William Wong
When conducting qualitative analysis a good deal of time is taken for the purpose of establishing user requirements. Task analysis may yield inconsistent results when dealing with a number of incidents occurring in a dynamic environment. Particularly when issues related to making decisions in a timely manner are involved, it is common for those making the decisions to enact particular decision-making strategies. How do we establish what these strategies are, then design a UI that supports all of the identified strategies? By using machine learning techniques it is possible to significantly reduce the time required to analyse qualitative datasets. In this work a Self Organising Map (SOM) reduced the time taken to analyse qualitative data compared to using an Emergent Themes Analysis (ETA), on the same initial data. The results obtained from using the SOM were encouraging as it reduced the analysis time and provided more in-depth data compared to the ETA.
Keywords: Emergent Themes Analysis, Cognitive Domain Analysis, Self organising Map, Qualitative Analysis
Bimodal Modelling of Facial and Upper-Body Gesture for Affective HCI BIBAKPDF 12
  Hatice Gunes; Massimo Picardi; Tony Jan
Multimodal systems allow humans to interact with machines through multiple modalities such as speech, facial expression, gesture, and gaze. This paper presents a bimodal model of facial and upper-body gesture for affective HCI suitable for use in a vision-based multimodal system. What distinguishes the present study from its predecessors is that, this model combines Facial Action Units (FAUs) and Body Action Units (BAUs) to encode affective states. To our best knowledge there has been no attempt to combine face and body gesture for multimodal affect recognition yet.
Keywords: Affective HCI, perceptual interface, bimodal emotion model, action units (AUs), gesture recognition, facial expression recognition
Desktop Computing BIBAKPDF 13
  Martin M. Nielsen; Susanne Bødker
Based on a detailed study of the use of representations in a tax assessment process, this paper presents an analysis of the use of the physical desktop and of paper documents, files and electronic information. This analysis challenges the normal ways in which the computer desktop is designed and used, and presents a number of challenges to user interface design. Taking these seriously, means to revisit several taken-for-granted elements of the current WIMP regime: the randomly overlapping windows on a non-structured background; the lack of traces of time and past location; and the individualised and non-activity-oriented set-up of the desktop.
Keywords: Distributed Cognition, Workplace Studies, Desktop Metaphor, User Interface
A Comparison of Linear and Calendar Travel Itinerary Visualisations for Personal Digital Assistants BIBAKPDF 14
  Masood Masoodian; Daryl Budd; Bill Rodgers
Various graphical travel itinerary visualization systems have in recent years been developed to allow making easier references between different events such as flights and hotel bookings on a travel itinerary, thereby addressing a problem with tabular itineraries which list travel events in a chronological order of date and time, and only allow referencing consecutive events. These graphical travel itinerary systems are based on a linear visualization of travel events. Although this linear visualization deals with some of the problems associated with tabular itineraries, it is not the only form of visualization which might be capable of addressing these issues. This paper introduces a new visualization of travel itineraries, called the calendar visualization, which relies on a more familiar concept of calendars to depict the relationships between travel events. This paper also describes an empirical study undertaken to compare the calendar and linear itinerary visualizations.
Keywords: Handheld computing, mobile computing, travel itinerary, PDA, visualization
Using Ambient Displays and Smart Artefacts to Support Community Interaction in Distributed Teams BIBAKPDF 15
  Carsten Röcker; Thorsten Prante; Norbert Streitz; Daniel van Alphen
In this paper we point out the current changes and future trends of organizational concepts and explain their influence on workplace awareness and communication. We then elaborate the changing requirements for awareness and informal communication in distributed teams. Finally, we present two artefacts that support informal awareness and community interaction and describe their evaluation in a living-lab situation.
Keywords: ambient displays, distributed teams, informal communication, CSCW, awareness, community support, HCI, collaboration
Architecture Framework for Output Multimodal Systems Design BIBAKPDF 16
  Cyril Rosseau; Yacine Bellik; Frederic Vernier; Didier Bazalgette
An output multimodal system aims at presenting information in an "intelligent" way by exploiting different communication modalities. According to the desired multimodal system, this notion of "intelligence" may vary. However all existing systems share the same goal: the information presentation must be the most suitable to the interaction context. In this study we present a software architecture model for dynamic and contextual Human-Computer Interaction systems. Our proposed architecture framework is more precisely suited to the output side of multimodal systems and introduce certain mechanisms, which are not available with classical GUI architectures, to tailor the information expression to the interaction context. Two Applications of this architecture framework (mobile telephony and military avionics) are also described.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction, output multimodality, multimodal system design, interaction context
The Artist and the Computer: Understanding the creative user BIBAKPDF 17
  R. T. Jim Eales
This paper is focused on understanding the creative computer user for the purposes of informing the design of future creativity support systems and related software. We present an investigation of a successful Australian artist, Jill Lewis, who paints on canvas. In particular, we highlight the interesting part that existing digital technology plays in her creative practice, and we identify and describe in detail two specific uses of this technology. We term these uses "electronic collaging" and "media switching". We go on to attempt to relate this artist's creative process to two theoretical models of the creative process.
Keywords: Creativity Support Systems, user study
Designing Augmented Reality Board Games: The BattleBoard 3D experience BIBAKPDF 18
  Troels L. Andersen; Sune Kristensen; Bjorn W. Nielsen; Kaj Grønbæk
This paper discusses the design of BattleBoard 3D (BB3D) which is an ARToolkit based game prototype, featuring the use of LEGO bricks for the physical and digital pieces. BB3D is a novel type of an AR game augmenting traditional board games with features from computer games. The initial experiments involving kids indicate that it is promising with respect to add computer game excitement to board games and to add a social dimension to computer games. The paper discusses the concept for the game, implementation issues, the physical setting for the game, user interfaces, as well as tailorable pieces and warriors. Based on qualitative experiments with children, we discuss central design issues for future AR board games.
Keywords: Augmented reality, ARToolkit, design with children, game interfaces, multi-user board game, LEGO
When the Whole is Less than the Sum of the Parts: Humanising convergence in interactive systems design BIBAKPDF 19
  Steve Howard; Elizabeth Hartnell-Young; Graeme Shanks; John Murphy; Jennie Carroll
Convergence, viewed as the union of disparate technical solutions, is frequently proposed as a way of maximising value for end users: reducing the number of distinct technologies users have to purchase, learn and use. Yet few empirical studies of use and convergent technology have been reported. Though convergence as a catchphrase has had currency for over a decade now, a tension remains between those who argue for strong-specific solutions, i.e. carefully targeted 'information appliances', and those who prefer weak-general approaches, the ICT equivalent of the Swiss army knife. We describe the dynamic nature of the trade-off between usability and functional complexity that is inherent in convergence. We contrast current products as examples of 'Convergence-by-Design' with empirical data that illustrates users' practices in both combining previously non-converged solutions and separating previously converged solutions. We conclude that effective resolution of the usability/complexity trade-off involves both designers and users, and that sub-optimal resolution can trigger the workarounds that we call 'Convergence-in-Use' and 'Divergence-in-Use'.
Keywords: Convergence, Usability Knee, Divergence
Shared Visualizations in Support of Distributed Creative Communities BIBAKPDF 20
  Alastair Weakley; Ernest Edmonds
The paper is concerned with support for distributed groups of creative knowledge workers: in this case designers. We consider requirements that designers have regarding internalisation and externalisation of ideas and concepts as well as requirements relating to collaboration. We review an online system whose facilities for the graphical representation of data were found to be popular. The evaluation was in the context of a group task and the results, including instances of tacit knowledge sharing, have led us to formulate a number of recommendations as to how such systems might be made still more effective for collaborative working.
Keywords: Design, creativity, collaboration, distributed groups, support systems
Does touching a Projection Augmented model and interacting with it using a spatially coincident device, affect a user's perception of its size? BIBAKPDF 21
  Emily Bennett; Brett Stevens
A Projection Augmented model (PA model) is a novel type of display. It consists of a real physical model, onto which a computer image is projected to create a realistic looking object. PA models provide their users with whole-hand haptic feedback and support spatially-coincident haptic interaction devices. This paper reports on an experiment that investigated the effect these factors have on a user's perception of the size a PA model. Results showed that touching a PA model increased the accuracy of size estimates; however using a spatially-coincident haptic interaction device had no effect.
Keywords: Projection Augmented models, haptic, Tangible User Interface, Size Perception
Pictures Made for Walking: Pilots & Orienteers 1 BIBAKPDF 22
  Nicola J. Bidwell
A study of human navigation situated in unfamiliar physical environments is described. This considers the efficacy of images of landmarks and other visual features to communicate routes. Themes are derived from self-reported visual and textual data on the intersubjective transfer and use of egocentric perspectives. These relate to designing a mobile device which uses community authored information to support navigation in physical environments. It is proposed that some themes are significant for theory on spatial knowledge and mobile collaboration. Design principles should distinguish features that are "ready-to-hand" for navigation situated in unfamiliar environments from those that are highly memorable.
Keywords: Diary-study, spatial awareness, locational information, mobile collaboration, navigation, egocentric perspective
i-Map: An Interactive Visualisation and Navigation System of an Image Database for Finding a Sample Image to Initiate a Visual Query BIBAKPDF 23
  Suryani Lim; Ray Smith; Guojun Lu
A traditional image database system relies on text annotation to retrieve images. A Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system automatically extracts visual features using the content of the images so that users can retrieve the images using the extracted features. Research in CBIR has mainly concentrated on feature extraction. The Page 0 problem, the problem of initiating a visual query without a sample image, has largely been neglected. Proximity visualisation is a type of display in which the physical locations of images reflect their perceptual distances as closely as possible. When the display is contextually meaningful, users can navigate the image database to find the target or sample image, potentially solving the Page 0 problem. In this paper, we propose i-Map (image map) as a solution for the Page 0 problem. i-Map is an interactive system which allows users to find an image by navigating a proximity visualisation display of a large colour image database and to then issue a visual query.
Keywords: Visualisation, Content Based Image Retrieval, Multidimensional Scaling
A Framework for Human-Web Interaction BIBAKPDF 24
  C. J. Pilgrim; G. Lindgaard; Y. K. Leung
Navigation is a critical issue in the World Wide Web and as such there is much interest in developing new navigation techniques and tools. Unfortunately, many of these new developments focus on technological innovation without considering other aspects of human-web interaction and underlying theories. Conceptual frameworks provide structure and guidance for design and research. This paper provides a comparative analysis of a number of conceptual frameworks particularly addressing the role of goals and navigational strategies. A schematic framework for human-web interaction is proposed providing interface designers and researchers with an insight into the various components and concepts in relation to web navigation.
Keywords: Navigation, World Wide Web, framework
Capturing User Experience: Using Distributed Cognition Theory to Inform the Sustainable Design of Meteorological Information Systems in Australia BIBAKPDF 25
  Jo-Anne Kelder; Paul Turner
The Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM), faced with the challenge of meeting rising end-user expectations and managing associated increases in the workload of its forecasters, has initiated the Forecast Streamlining and Enhancement Project (FSEP) to re-design its meteorological information systems (MetIS). The challenge for FSEP and for the research is to acquire the information requirements of forecasters without interrupting the continuous work of forecasting. This research challenge is compounded by the fact that many of the most critical information requirements arise in the cognitive interactions between forecasters and because a 'key bottleneck' for weather products remains the situated, embodied and distributed nature of the interactions used to generate the forecast. This paper presents a case study exploring the utility of distributed cognition (DCog) theory as one approach to address these research challenges and to produce insights that capture forecasters' experiences as a context for the design of the BoM's next generation of MetIS. At the theoretical level, DCog theory allows for the capture and validation of design insights through observing cognitive behaviour as a system of individuals interacting within their natural environment. At the methodological level, the data collection techniques deployed allowed for the capture of the complex socio-technical nature of forecasters' information sharing without interrupting their work. This paper highlights the utility of DCog theory as a sustainable methodology for sensitising designers to an awareness of the cognitive implications of changes to information systems and/or work processes.
Keywords: Distributed Cognition, Computer-mediated communication, Information Systems research methods
A Remote Interactive Master Class in Surgery BIBAKPDF 26
  Chris Gunn; Duncan Stevenson; Alex Krumm-Heller; Sakti Srivastava; Patricia Youngblood; LeRoy Heinrichs; Parvati Dev
This paper describes a concept demonstration of a remotely conducted, virtual surgical training master class. A networked immersive virtual environment was used to link instructor and selected students, while the remaining audience of health professionals observed both the contents of the instruction and the instructor-student interactions. The demonstration illustrated the multiple levels of computer-human interaction involved in this large-scale scenario. The focus of the interactions between the computer systems and the participants was at the level of the problem domain, so that the participants, both the specific students involved and the wider auditorium audience, would feel that their experience was in some way akin to the instructor being present in person and conducting demonstration surgery. The actual demonstration was conducted at a simulation technologies conference held in Canberra, Australia. The medical and surgical instructors were at Stanford University in the USA. The responses of the audience and participants were collected in a questionnaire and the results are presented.
Keywords: Haptics. 3D visualization. Collaborative virtual environment. Remote instruction. Surgical simulation Surgical training. Presence. Distance learning
Using Cultural Probes to Explore Mediated Intimacy BIBAKPDF 27
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Martin R. Gibbs; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard; Sonja Pedell; Karen Mecoles; Marcus Bunyan
Intimacy is a crucial element of domestic life that has received insufficient attention from Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers despite their rapidly growing interest in the design of interactive technologies for domestic use. Intimate acts differ from other activities, and there are unexplored opportunities to develop interactive technologies to support these acts. This paper presents the first phase of a two-part study exploring the potential of interactive technologies to support intimate relationships. We contribute to this uncharted domain of HCI research a literature review of concepts useful in understanding intimacy and methods for its investigation. We conclude with preliminary results and suggestive design ideas for interactive technologies intended to support intimacy.
Keywords: Domestic Technology, Personal Technology, Intimacy, Cultural Probes, Contextual Interviews
Experimental Findings for Awareness Elements in Real-time, Distributed, Collaborative Authoring BIBAKPDF 28
  Gitesh K. Raikundalia; Hao Lan Zhang
Real-time, distributed, collaborative writing systems allow a group of distributed authors to work on a document simultaneously. An important factor in achieving effective collaborative authoring is the incorporation of group awareness. Group awareness provides comprehensive knowledge about other authors and activities other authors perform upon the document. This paper reports results about awareness elements from an empirical study of group awareness. The four most important elements requiring support were found to be: communication support, knowing the tasks for which other users are responsible, the ability to comment on what other users have done and knowing where other users are currently working within the document.
Keywords: Real-time collaborative authoring, group awareness, awareness elements
Representation of self-reported information usage during mobile field studies: Pilots & Orienteers 2 BIBAKPDF 29
  Jeff Axup; Nicola Bidwell; Stephen Viller
This paper presents two representations of data arising out of an exploratory diary study of mobile behaviour. They were developed as user centred tools for analysing and communicating situated, self-reported data and understanding environmentally immersed actions of mobile users. The Information Flow Chart (IFC) focuses on use of environmental information and decision making. The Contextual Information Map (CIM) depicts spatial activity data. The representations were used to help understand navigation behaviour during the study. Based on this experience, we believe they can assist efficient analysis and presentation of contextual information and develop into useful tools for developers of mobile technologies.
Keywords: User modelling, diary studies, egocentric perspective, mobile ethnography, User Centred Design
Reading Marks: An Exploration of Online Reading and Annotation BIBAKPDF 30
  Eriko Tamaru; Kei Tanaka; Kimitake Hasuike; Gene Golovchinsky; Takeshi Nagamine
Despite the proliferation of digital documents in the workplace, computers provide poor support in understanding them. We are interested in exploring the effect of sharing annotations that can help people comprehend documents. We have developed a shared annotation system for active reading, and conducted an experiment to evaluate its effect. While no significant effect was found on the degree of understanding, such an effect might exist on the combination of an interface and task. The acceptance of such reading was split depending on readers' attitude to others' annotations. Readers who trust others' marks showed higher acceptance. This suggests that the context of annotations is essential to interpreting the marks.
Keywords: Annotation, Active Reading, Reading Support System, Shared Document, Annotation Sharing, Paper-like User Interface, Digital Documents, Experience Design, Interaction Design, Understanding, Tablet PC
Interactive Landmarks: Linking Virtual Environments with Knowledge-Based Systems BIBAKPDF 31
  Christian Mueller-Tomfelde; Cecile Paris; Duncan Stevenson
This paper describes the concept of interactive landmarks for human computer interaction in a three-dimensional virtual environment enhanced with knowledge-based reasoning. The proposed concept of landmarks extends the traditional and more passive role of landmarks for orientation and navigation tasks. It enables the system to perform additional reasoning about the user's interactions in space. This approach bridges the gap between a simulation of physical system in a virtual environment and its potential representation in a knowledge-based reasoning system and couples the systems to form a knowledge-enhanced virtual environment. As a proof of concept, we present an initial prototype of an application for surgical training using the concept of interactive landmarks. The goal of the prototype is to demonstrate how training can be authored and interaction can be designed in a coherent and effective way.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction, interactive landmarks, virtual environment, knowledge-based reasoning, surgical training
Interactive spaces: Towards Collaborative Structuring and Ubiquitous Presentation in Domestic Environments BIBAKPDF 32
  Kaj Grønbæk; Marianne Petersen
This paper analyses the use of media and material in private homes based on empirical studies in a project on designing interactive domestic environments. Based on the analyses we propose a Domestic Hypermedia infrastructure (DoHM) combining spatial, context-aware and physical hypermedia to support collaborative structuring and ubiquitous presentation of materials in private homes. With DoHM we propose establishing new relationship between digital and physical hyperspaces, folding hyperspaces into the physical space of the household. Thus we strive to combine the qualities of physical domestic materials and spaces with the flexibility and dynamics of digital hyperspaces. We propose a variety of new ubiquitous home appliances called MediaWall, MediaTable, MediaTray and MediaPort, which address these issues.
Keywords: Interactive spaces, augmented reality, context awareness, ubiquitous hypermedia, domestic technology, multimedia, physical hypermedia
The Privacy of Money and Health: A User Study BIBAKPDF 33
  Supriya Singh; Kylie C. Bartolo
In this paper we report on a qualitative and quantitative study of people's control of personal information in Australia. User control is the central requirement for privacy and identity. Control of personal information varies according to activity and social context. Boundaries of privacy differ for money and health. The challenge for design is to digitally replicate these multifarious interpretations of privacy and identity while ensuring ease of use.
Keywords: Money, Health, Privacy, Identity, User study, Information
"Help Me Pull That Cursor" -- A Collaborative Interactive Floor Enhancing Community Interaction BIBAKPDF 34
  Peter G. Krogh; Martin Ludvigsen; Andreas Lykke-Olesen
In this paper we describe the development, experiments and evaluation of the iFloor, an interactive floor prototype installed at the local central municipality library. The primary purpose of the iFloor prototype is to support and stimulate community interaction between collocated people. The context of the library demands that any user can walk up and use the prototype without any devices or prior introduction. To achieve this, the iFloor proposes innovative interaction (modes/paradigms/patterns) for floor surfaces through the means of video tracking. Browsing and selecting content is done in a collaborative process and mobile phones are used for posting messages onto the floor. The iFloor highlights topics on social issues of ubiquitous computing environments in public spaces, and provides an example of how to exploit human spatial movements, positions and arrangements in interaction with computers.
Keywords: Interactive floor, library, ubiquitous computing environments, spaces as interface, social computing, interaction design, designing for community interaction, video tracking
Understanding Movement as Input for Interaction -- A Study of Two Eyetoy Games BIBAKPDF 35
  Astrid T. Larssen; Lian Loke; Toni Robertson; Jenny Edwards
Interaction between people and computers can now be driven by movements of the human body without the need for mediation by other input devices. We present a way of conceptualising movement-based interaction. Our approach uses two existing frameworks for investigation of the relationship between bodily actions and the corresponding response from technology. The first framework examines characteristics of an interface in terms of "Sensible, Sensable, and Desirable" movement properties. In the second framework movement is seen as a form of "communication" between the user and technology, and the analysis looks at the implications this has for realising the interaction.
Keywords: Design framework, embodiment, embodied interaction, human body, human movement, input, physical interaction, human-centred design
From Piles to Tiles: Designing for Overview and Control in Case Handling Systems BIBAKPDF 36
  Stefan Blomkvist; Inger Boivie; Masood Masoodian; Jenny Persson
Poor overview and control of workload in electronic case handling systems is a potential health risk factor which affects the users. Case handling systems must therefore be designed to give the users a better overview and maximum control over their workload. In an earlier study, we developed a prototype interface for managing cases, based on the piles metaphor. This paper introduces a second prototype, which is designed to incorporate the findings of an evaluation of the piles metaphor prototype. In this second prototype cases are visualized as "tiles", reflecting the number and complexity of the cases. This paper also describes some the results of the evaluation of the tiles prototype.
Keywords: Case handling, Occupational health, Overview, Control, Information visualization, User interface design, Workflow management, Pile metaphor, Tile, Design process
Bridging Technical and HCI Research: Creating Usable Ubiquitous Computing BIBAKPDF 37
  Tim Cederman-Haysom; Margot Brereton
This paper describes methods used to support collaboration and communication between practitioners, designers and engineers when designing ubiquitous computing systems. We tested methods such as "Wizard of Oz" and design games in a real domain, the dental surgery, in an attempt to create a system that is: affordable; minimally disruptive of the natural flow of work; and improves human-computer interaction. In doing so we found that such activities allowed the practitioners to be on a 'level playing ground' with designers and engineers. The findings we present suggest that dentists are willing to engage in detailed exploration and constructive critique of technical design possibilities if the design ideas and prototypes are presented in the context of their work practice and are of a resolution and relevance that allow them to jointly explore and question with the design time. This paper is an extension of a short paper submitted to the Participatory Design Conference, 2004.
Keywords: Human-centered design, participatory design, interaction design, design games, ubiquitous computing, multimodal interfaces
Towards Understanding Information Architecture: A Distributed Cognition Study of an IT Community of Practice BIBAKPDF 38
  Sam Harvey; Toni Robertson; Jenny Edwards
Intranets can play significant roles in medium to large organisations. They provide the means for people to communicate and traverse through information spaces, independently of geographical and/or temporal constraints. To date, the term Information Architecture (IA) has been adopted by technology designers to describe both structure and the process of organising information. This paper presents a study of IA as situated in intranet use within a higher-education organisation. The use of ethnographically-informed methods combined with a distributed cognition analytic framework provides an opportunity to extend existing conceptions of IA as it is realised and represented in daily work activities.
Keywords: Information architecture, intranets, information spaces, communities of practice, ethnography, distributed cognition, HCI
Trust in mobile guide design: exploiting interaction paradigms BIBAKPDF 39
  Connor Graham; Keith Cheverst; Steve Howard; Jesper Kjeldskov; Frank Vetere
Trust is an important issue in the design of context-aware mobile guides. Here we draw on the field evaluations of two different mobile guides to explore trust related incidents. Important factors in trust relationships are user expectations and managing the user's sense of vulnerability. However, uncertainty is currently unavoidable with mobile guide systems. Consequently, given the user's expectations, evidence of the system providing incorrect information (e.g. caused by uncertainty in location due to limited network coverage) is likely to adversely affect the user's trust in the system. We argue here that the interaction paradigm supported by the system can play a crucial role in managing the user's trust. Furthermore, we argue that personified interaction paradigms (Local, Guide, Chaperone, Buddy, Captain) can act as a useful tool for designers developing mobile guides.
Keywords: Context-aware computing, User studies and fieldwork including ethnographic methods
Standing up to Falling Down -- Using the Familiar to Catch the Unusual BIBAKPDF 40
  Russell Beale; Sam Davies
Detecting impairment is particularly difficult in people, and is especially important if they are in charge of a vehicle. We describe how we have augmented the familiar and unchallenging medium of pen and paper by using a digital pen coupled with established paper tests in order to develop a screening device for driver impairment which may be used at the roadside. This form of impairment testing does not isolate or intimidate any member of the general public as a computerized test may do, and proves to be highly acceptable and accurate. Results presented show that impairment can be detected, but that the current tests are not discriminatory enough.
Keywords: Impairment, user testing, novel interaction, pervasive computing
Social Circles and Intersections: Creating a Peer-based Supportive Community Online BIBAKPDF 41
  Russell Beale
In this paper, we present a design study that describes how we used a web-based bulletin board system to support children who suffer from cystic fibrosis. Their illness tends to make them feel socially isolated, and face-to-face group meetings are not possible, and hence we looked to the internet to provide a suitable infrastructure for us to build a supportive community dedicated to this patient group, which could provide support, information and a social meeting place of which they could feel an important part. We discuss the design issues that faced us in trying to create such a community for this group of users.
Keywords: Social circles, community, cystic fibrosis, design study
Empirical Validation of a Computer-Mediated Coordination of Interruption BIBAKPDF 42
  Sonja Gievska; John Sibert
User's cognitive state is extremely fragile and sensitive to external interruption, especially when a user is performing a cognitively-taxing task. Given that interruptions frequently occur during human-computer interaction, and given the relative scarcity of human attention and their vulnerability to interruptions, interruption-resistance is needed to be considered when designing user interfaces. The main objective of this research has been to explore the possibility of facilitating user's performance in a context of interruption, by employing a context-sensitive computer-mediated coordination of interruption. A novel Interruption Taxonomy, which synthesizes various kinds of interruption-related context information, served as a basis for implementing graceful coordination of interruption. An exploratory user study was conducted to experimentally evaluate the adequacy of the proposed approach for mediating interruptions and the utility of the Interruption Taxonomy.
Keywords: Context-sensitive user interfaces, human interruptions, coordination of human interruptions, interruption taxonomy
A Design Approach for Tangible User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 43
  Sriram Subramanian; Bernard Champoux
Tangible interfaces allow physical control and representation of digital information. When designing such interfaces one needs to take into consideration the potential conflicts between the hardware of the artifact and the form of the user control. The design problem is a search for an appropriate fitness (or effortless co-existence) between these two aspects. This problem makes tangible interface design different from the traditional graphical interface design. In this paper we present an approach to aid the design of tangible interfaces based on the desired fitness. We investigate the potential conflicts of tangible interaction by addressing the fitness problem and propose a set of guidelines (in the form of eight questions) that help by defining the boundaries of the electro-mechanics (hardware) and ergonomic design space, identifying the nature of tangible interaction for various subtasks and finally fitting the various components of the electro-mechanics and physical-ergonomics of the artifact to provide a component level fitness. This component level fitness can form the basis for the final form of the tangible interfaces.
Keywords: Tangible computing, design approach, tangible user interface design, collaborative design
Usable Security and E-Banking: Ease of Use vis-á-vis Security BIBAKPDF 44
  Morten Hertzum; Niels C. Juul; Niels Jørgensen; Mie Nørgaard
Electronic banking must be secure and easy to use. An evaluation of six Danish web-based electronic banking systems indicates that the systems have serious weaknesses with respect to ease of use. Analysis of the weaknesses suggests that security requirements are among their causes and that the weaknesses may in turn cause decreased security. Conceptually we view the conflict between ease of use and security in the context of usable security, intended to match security principles and demands against user knowledge and motivation. Automation, instruction, and understanding can be identified as different approaches to usable security. Instruction is the main approach of the systems evaluated; automation relieves the user from involvement in security, as far as possible; and understanding goes beyond step-by-step instructions, to enable users to act competently and safely in situations that transcend preconceived instructions. We discuss the pros and cons of automation and understanding as alternative approaches to the design of web-based e-banking systems.
Keywords: Usable security, ease of use, security, electronic banking, public key infrastructure, strong passwords
Combining Developmental Theories and Interaction Design Techniques to Inform the Design of Children's Software BIBAKPDF 45
  Peta Wyeth; Mark Venz
This paper describes a novel approach to developing design guidelines for educational software for children. This approach involves the application of theoretical research from the field of developmental psychology and practical techniques from human-computer interaction to guide the design process. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which Interaction Design techniques support theories from developmental psychology in informing the design of new software systems for children. It was also intended to provide researchers and practitioners with a comparison to these two methods. The study involved a thorough review of literature on childhood development and learning as well as a user study which integrated observations of and interviews with children. The study has shown the effectiveness of each of the data gathering approaches in the development of design guidelines based on the unique needs of children. These two methods have proven to be complimentary on a number of levels, with the literature review providing important high-level, all-purpose data and the user study adding specific contextually rich detail. A combination approach which includes both methods, each with their specific strengths, was found to be successful as a first step in the design of software for children.
Keywords: Interaction Design and Children, Novice Programming Environments, Design, Developmental Psychology, Educational Applications
The Complex Structure of Office Work: Tasks, Activities & Modes BIBAKPDF 46
  Wally Smith
An observational study of the busy week of a solicitor is reported in which the deep structure of work is revealed in terms of tasks, activities and modes. The need to trade-off two sorts of contextual continuity (task vs mode) is presented as a fundamental cause of work fragmentation. This analysis extends recent research that has tended to analyse surface activity when investigating the role of informational artifacts to aid task management. The findings here show how meta-work is heavily integrated into task work and point to the limitations of task management tools that separate things-to-do planners and schedules from the content of work.
Keywords: multitasking; interruptions; task switching; knowledge work
Maintaining Human Agency in the Design of Context-Aware Systems: Design Games in a Dental Surgery BIBAKPDF 47
  Brett Campbell; Margot Brereton
This paper describes a series of design games, specifically aimed at exploring shifts in human agency in order to inform the design of context-aware applications. The games focused on understanding information handling issues in dental practice with participants from a university dental school playing an active role in the activities. Participatory design activities help participants to reveal potential implicit technical resources that can be presented explicitly in technologies in order to assist humans in managing their interactions with and amidst technical systems gracefully.
Keywords: Human agency, context-aware, design games
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Website Design and Its Effect on Revisit Intention BIBAKPDF 48
  Paulus Insap Santosa
This paper presents a research in progress that investigates a cost-benefit analysis of website design and its effect on user revisit intention. It borrows the Social Exchange Theory in which visiting a website is considered as an exchange transaction where users may get benefits and incur some costs. To assess user revisit intention, this paper also borrows the Theory of Reasoned Action. It is hypothesized that user intention to revisit is positively determined by the benefit the users get from their previous visit and negatively determined by the incurred cost. Proposed methodology is discussed.
Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis, Social Exchange Theory, revisit intention, Theory of Reasoned Action
Supporting Multiple Identities in the Instant Messaging Virtual Community BIBAKPDF 49
  Hong Minh Tran; Yun Yang; Gitesh Raikundalia
In recent years, Instant Messaging (IM) has become one of the most growing online communities, reaching millions of users at home and at work worldwide. As the community expands, assuming multiple identities (MID) becomes a common behaviour of the IM members. This paper reports our ongoing research on the support for MID. Our study used an online survey and face-to-face interviews to identify user needs in supporting MID in IM. The study has identified five themes including single nickname, multiple avatars, multiple statuses, boundary control and interoperability. Reflecting on these themes, we propose a model of MID support in IM.
Keywords: Instant Messaging, multiple identities, virtual community
Exploring Web Exploration: An Empirical Study BIBAKPDF 50
  Aaron Mullane; Sandrine Balbo
The World Wide Web provides a wealth of resources, and coupled with its structure, creates a unique exploratory environment that is quite different to conventional applications. In this paper we present a refinement of exploration for the web, based on the analysis of observations and interviews of end user's exploring web sites. This refinement is necessary to support our future research where we intend to model user's exploration.
Keywords: Exploratory Behaviour, Human Navigation Method, World Wide Web
Implementation of a User-Centered Design Process in a large Software Development Organization BIBAKPDF 51
  Natalie Woletz; Dirk Zimmermann
Requirements for software systems are well known and can be found in software-ergonomic literature in form of style guides, ISO standards or guidelines. Also a lot of Usability Engineering models do exist, consisting of stages, tasks and methods that are thought to be necessary to accomplish an optimal design. In those models the Usability Engineering Process mostly is described independently from other business processes within an organization, like sales and marketing processes, software development, testing or requirement engineering. Especially how to integrate a complete Usability Engineering Process (UEP) into an existing organisation is not well described in current publications. How can overlapping or differentiation from existing processes be defined? What are the interrelations between organizational aspects on one hand and a successful UEP on the other hand? The authors will describe what aspects have to be considered while implementing a UEP not as a "stand-alone" process but as one out of many processes, already implemented in an organization. This will be described using an example, where a UEP was gradually implemented in a large software development organization over a period of three years. The aim of this paper is to provide a good practice example that allows practitioners to derive ideas for introducing a UEP into their organization. In addition, this article encourages research activity in the field of organisational development in the HCI field.
Keywords: User centered design process, usability engineering, process implementation, organisational aspects of user centered design process, organisational development, business process reengineering
Towards a Platform for Usability Remote Tests via Internet BIBAKPDF 52
  Naouel Moha; Ahmed Seffah; Qing Li; Gabriel Michel
Remote Usability tests over the Internet have become possible due to the advent of new technologies, wireless networks and the Internet. The remote usability labs raise the research issues beyond technical problems to resolve. These issues consist in determining the interest of the remote usability testing in comparison with traditional usability labs. This paper aims at clarifying these questions and gives also an insight of the RANA project whose goal is to provide a platform equipped with tools for conducting empirical studies and remote usability testing.
Keywords: Usability, Usability Labs, Remote Usability Testing, RANA (Remote Architecture for Net-based Analysis)
Integration of Speech and Gesture Inputs during Multimodal Interaction BIBAKPDF 53
  Julien Epps; Sharon Oviatt; Fang Chen
Speech and gesture are two types of multimodal inputs that can be used to facilitate more natural human-machine interaction in applications for which the traditional keyboard and mouse input mechanisms are inappropriate, however the possibility of their concurrent use raises the issue of how best to fuse the two inputs. This paper analyses data collected from a speech and manual gesture-based digital photo management application scenario, and from this derives assumptions and fusion thresholds with which future speech/gesture systems can be designed. Gesture input was found to overlap with speech input in nearly all multimodal constructions (95%), and was completely subsumed by speech input in most multimodal constructions (56%), in distinct contrast to previous similar analyses for combined pen and speech input, in which the pen input frequently precedes the speech input.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction, speech and gesture input, fusion, synchronization, segmentation, interaction styles
Pair Writing: Towards the Support of Design Collaboration in Danish Retail Industry BIBAKPDF 54
  Adi Tedjasaputra; Eunice Ratna Sari
Communication problems often occur in an engagement that involves several diverse stakeholders. The problems are due in large part to some gaps in domain knowledge among the stakeholders. A solution to communication problem is the establishment of communication common ground among the stakeholders. Persona and the narrative structure of scenario are powerful in providing a means of communication. Nevertheless, the practice of scenario-based design is often infeasible due to restricted resources. This paper will introduce Pair Writing to foster design collaboration. A case study in the Danish retail industry illustrating the support of design collaboration will also be presented.
Keywords: Pair Writing, Design Collaboration, Communication, Retail Industry
An Ethnography of Speech Recognition BIBAKPDF 55
  Ben Kraal
This short paper reports the preliminary findings of our ethnographic investigation into the use of commercial speech recognition technologies in real work places. We discuss how our ethnographies have shown that the usability of speech recognition is equally about the technology and the social environment in which it is used. We also discuss our method and its wider implications to areas other than speech recognition.
Keywords: Ethnography, speech recognition, actor-network theory, locales framework, ubiquitous computing
Earcon for Intermittent Information in Monitoring Environments BIBAKPDF 56
  Marcus Watson; Toby Gill
In this paper we discuss the first of a series of experiments evaluating earcons for critical care environments. We examine peoples' ability to monitor earcons conveying systolic and diastolic blood pressure while conducting a distractor task. The results showed that when a beacon is present prior to the earcon, participants' judgment of pitch and duration information improved. The results of the study also indicated presence of historical information in the earcon may interfere with participants' judgments. However, since participants felt more confident in their recall of previous values when the historical information was present, the results may reflect insufficient training.
Keywords: Auditory displays, Earcon, Beacons, Blood pressure, Memory
Can people learn about elevation following navigation through a virtual building? BIBAKPDF 57
  Michael Tlauka
This study examined people's spatial knowledge of elevation following exploration of a multistorey virtual environment. Fifty-four University students explored a virtual house consisting of three floors that were connected by a lift and two staircases. Each floor contained two distinctive objects, which served as targets in a subsequent pointing task. When pointing to the targets (which were hidden from view), the accuracy of the tilt (up/down) responses was significantly better than chance level. Estimates towards targets above and below were made with equal accuracy.
Keywords: Virtual Reality, spatial memory, elevation
The effect of music on monitoring a simulated anaesthetised patient with sonification BIBAKPDF 58
  Penelope Sanderson; Vivian Shek; Marcus Watson
The idea of sonifying anaesthetised patients' vital signs is gaining acceptance, but some anaesthetists are concerned about additional noise in the operating theatre. We tested the effect of ambient music (jazz, classical and rock) on participants' ability to monitor a simulated anaesthetised patient with sonification and visual monitors. Participants liked working with ambient music when workload was low. Participants preferred rock music, but reported working better with classical. Ambient music has less effect on participants' ability to monitor the simulated patient than a distractor task does. We discuss practical implications of these findings.
Keywords: sonification, auditory displays, music, musicality, anaesthesia, timeshared tasks, noise
Design of a customizable user interface for mobile communication devices focusing on the emotional aspects of design BIBAKPDF 59
  Bong Kug Kim
The Emotional design theories can be categorised into 2 aspects -- operational aspects (response to functionality) and emotional aspects (engagement to the product). The current focus upon emotional design has looked at customisation of the appearance, not the functionality. This paper investigates customising the functionality and how people respond to the emotional design aspects such as embedding a user's identity into the system. This design aims to make a customisable interface for mobile devices.
Keywords: Customization, user interface (UI) design, emotional design, product identity
3G Multimedia Content Production as Social Communication BIBAKPDF 60
  Christine Satchell; Supriya Singh; John Zic
Young people are taking advantage of the ever-increasing accessibility and technical capabilities of 3G phones and the Internet to represent their experiences through multimedia content. However, this practice is inhibited by design shortcomings which don't adequately protect the privacy of content, problemitise content management and which limit distribution. This paper explores how possible design solutions were envisioned thorough the use of a scenario, called the Trophy Room.
Keywords: Multimedia content production, privacy, archiving, distribution, 3G phones
Maintenance Activities with Wearable Computers as Training and Performance Aids BIBAKPDF 61
  David Liu
Engineers refer to technical manuals when performing maintenance on complex mechanical equipment, often located in difficult environments. Wearable computers provide their users access to information at any time or place. It is hypothesised that accessing technical manuals on a wearable computer would allow maintenance engineers to perform their tasks faster and more accurately. A planned case study involving Mechanical Engineering students is described in this paper, including the expected outcomes and their possible implications.
Keywords: wearable computers, head-mounted displays, performance aiding, interactive electronic technical manuals
Evaluating Computer Games for Children: Exploring Fun through the Concept of Flow BIBAKPDF 62
  Mikael B. Skov; Michal Gajos; Jeanette D. Thomsen
This paper reports from an experiment on evaluating enjoyment of children playing computer games. The experiment involved 40 children playing the same computer game in different conditions. In order to measure enjoyment, we adapt the concept of flow that characterizes a state of consciousness experienced by people who are deeply involved in an enjoyable activity. Our results show that children playing the same game in the same physical context perceive the playing situation as more challenging than children playing in separate contexts. On the hand, the same children find it more appealing and fun to play and race against other children when they are located in the same physical context.
Keywords: Computer games, enjoyment, flow, children
Picture Scenarios: An Extended Scenario-based Design Method for Mobile Appliance Design BIBAKPDF 63
  Sonja Pedell
This paper presents an extended scenario-based design method for the design of mobile appliances. This method builds on the results of two studies with designers in industry. Central to the method is the representation of dynamic use context, a core characteristic of mobile appliance use, with the use of picture scenarios. The initial use of this method in three design workshops is reported here, along with the feedback of the participants.
Keywords: Methods, scenario-based design, mobile appliance design, dynamic use context, picture scenarios
Designing a Drawing Tool for Children: Supporting Social Interaction and Communication BIBAKPDF 64
  Mikael B. Skov; Berith L. Andersen; Kasper Duhn; Kasper N. Garnæs; Olga Grünberger; Ulrik Kold; Anders B. Mortensen; Jakob A. L. Sørensen
Children constitute a growing segment of potential users of interactive software technologies, and graphical interactive drawing tools may support children in developing social skills and in expressing emotions and stories. In this paper, we present Tuzz+ which is a graphical interactive drawing tool for children that enables the sharing of drawings between children and facilitates theme-based drawing. We outline the theoretical and empirical background for the tool, present the graphical interface, and evaluate our solution in a usability test.
Keywords: Drawing technologies, children, social interaction
Usability Attributes: an initial step toward effective User-Centered Development BIBAKPDF 65
  Vince Bruno; Ghassan Al-Qaimari
The definition of usability has evolved over time. Some of the proposed definitions have been general, and apply to all types of interactive systems. Others were tremendously influenced by the experience of those who proposed the definitions and the domain in which they practiced usability. The definitions, in general, seem to agree that the targeted users, the complexity of the task, the type of technology (the interactive system), and environment (context of use) are the common factors that impact the usability of the interactive system. However, the attributes of usability that describe "a measure of how well actions are being performed with an interface" do seem to differ from one definition to another. It is precisely these attributes that we wish to focus on in this paper: how to identify them?, why they tend to differ from one definition to another?, why identifying them is crucial to the success of the interactive system?, and finally, how identifying the usability attribute can lead to effective user-centred development?
Keywords: Usability, attributes, human-computer interaction, universal usability, quality of use, user-centred development
Design and Use of Learning Styles in Flexible Environments -- an empirical grounded research proposal BIBAKPDF 66
  Rikke Orngreen; Bent Soelberg; Carsten Yssing
Based on interesting results from a certification course, we have begun to formulate a research proposal within the design and use of learning styles in e-learning environments. In the course each participant's preferred learning style is uncovered and an individual curriculum is developed. Simultaneously a high degree of mutual learning takes place due to innovative ways of collaboration; among others between mature adult employees and younger college students. We have applied an HCI perspective in our analysis of this preliminary or preparation phase case study, focusing on users of a flexible e-learning course and on future design issues
Keywords: design, research proposal, collaboration, learning style, community interaction, e-learning
Supporting the HCI community: methods, tools & techniques Some observations on the use of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) BIBAKPDF 67
  Kevin Sweeney; Arola von Baggo
This paper describes the experience of using Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) as a tool to evaluate and analyse computer systems designed to support collaborative writing.
Keywords: Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, Analytical Tools, Collaborative Writing
Designing an Environment for Annotating and Grading Student Assignments BIBAKPDF 68
  Beryl Plimmer; Paul Mason
A number of software tools are available to annotate documents with digital ink. However, they only partly solve the problem of annotating and grading student assignments, this task requires digital annotation capabilities, recognition of digital ink and support for workflow practices. We are particularly interested in marking student programming assignments. Programs differ from essays and reports in that they: often need to be examined non-sequentially, exist in multiple files and are usually compiled and executed as a part of the marking process. In this paper we describe the design process for our initial design of such a paperless environment, describe the design decisions we have made and our first prototype, 'Penmarked'. We discuss how this work may inform others designing pen-based applications and conclude with future work.
Keywords: Paperless environments, annotation, pen-based computing, design strategies
Enabling local interaction and personalised networking in residential communities through action research and participatory design BIBAKPDF 69
  Marcus Foth; Margot Brereton
This paper explores how to support the building of networks and network social capital in place-based communities through the use of internet and personal communications technologies. The trends away from conventional neighbourhood interactions to interactions centred around the workplace, personal interests and personalised networking are examined. Through a case study, new forms of interactions in neighbourhoods are identified. Preliminary implications for the support of neighbourhood interactions as well as a framework for understanding community interactions are presented.
Keywords: Community Networks, Residential Communities, Participatory Design, Interaction Design, Community Informatics, Neighbourhoods, Urbanism
Privacy and Security within Intelligent Environments BIBAKPDF 70
  Craig Chatfield; Rene Hexel
This paper discusses the current research in maintenance of user's privacy within an intelligent environment. The need to ensure user privacy within an intelligent environment means the development is as much a socio-technical challenge as a technical one. Users must have complete confidence in the ability and willingness of an intelligent environment to keep their information private before the system will be used. The consideration of user privacy at the design stage is therefore essential to an intelligent environments success.
   The paper presents a privacy aware intelligent environment architecture that seeks to incorporate the user privacy and security design requirements for an intelligent environment. The architecture uses secure communication and user pseudonyms to maintain user privacy, and trusted third parties for secure identity management. User information is managed by the user's privacy preferences, and the intelligent environment's services are utilised in a way that minimises the risk to a user's privacy.
Keywords: Intelligent Environments, Privacy, Security
Dual Monitors Support Group Awareness in Multiplayer Computer Games BIBAKPDF 71
  Hong Minh Tran; John Craik; Yun Yang; Gitesh Raikundalia
This paper reports our exploratory study that investigates the potential of dual monitors in facilitating multiplayer computer games (MCG's). We conducted a laboratory experiment of MCG's played with single and with dual monitors. Dual monitors were used to display awareness information about team players. Participants showed overwhelming interest in playing games with dual monitors. Overall, they found dual monitors useful in supporting their games as dual monitors facilitate team communication and stimulate informal communication.
Keywords: Dual monitors, awareness, multiplayer computer games, laboratory experiment
Group Awareness Support for Past, Current and Future Work in Real-time Collaborative Authoring BIBAKPDF 72
  Gitesh K. Raikundalia; Hao Lan Zhang
Group awareness has become important in improving the usability of real-time, distributed, collaborative writing systems. However, the current set of implemented awareness mechanisms is insufficient in providing extensive and comprehensive awareness in collaborative authoring. This research extends the pool of all known awareness mechanisms (including those yet to be implemented). The research discovered several awareness mechanisms not found and reported elsewhere, through conducting usability experiments with a real-time cooperative editor. This paper describes several mechanisms, such as Task Allocation Tree, User Action List and User-based History Tracking, discovered from the experiments.
Keywords: Computer Supported Cooperative Work, real-time collaborative authoring, group awareness
Scenario-based Design Methods in Mobile Appliance Development: A Case Study in Industry BIBAKPDF 73
  Sonja Pedell; Frank Vetere
This paper investigates how scenario-based design methods can better support the development of mobile appliances. We report the results of an industry case study in a telecommunication organization. Insights were gained into the use of scenarios in current design practice in industry. Because changing use context is a main characteristic of mobile appliances, one focus was on the problems and possibilities of capturing context in scenarios. Initial suggestions are proposed for encoding use context and changing use context in scenarios.
Keywords: Methods, scenario-based design, mobile appliance development, mobile use context
The Human Being in the 21st Century: Design perspectives on the representation of users in IS development BIBAKPDF 74
  J. Nielsen; N. Christiansen; K. Levinsen; L. Nielsen; C. Yssing; R. Ørngreen; T. Clemmensen
In this theoretical paper we present a research proposal that focus on who we are as humans in the perspective of the designers of the technologies of the 21st century. In the global world of today, we need rich portraits of human beings in order to develop the mono-cultural and mono-dimensional models embedded in the techniques and methods used currently by designers in software companies. We outline the idea of creating rich multimedia portraits of the human user of multimodal technologies and we suggest a possible framework and a tentative methodology for initiating such a research enterprise.
Keywords: User representations, HCI methods and techniques, cultural models, designer perspective, multimodal interfaces
Client Centred Design a collaborative case study on the feasibility of e-learning BIBAKPDF 75
  Rikke Orngreen; Janni Nielsen; Karin Levinsen
Exploring the feasibility of e-learning in collaboration with the client resulted in an outline of possibilities for e-learning strategies, focusing on different design scenarios and barriers. Working together with the client engaging in a mutual learning process was the main approach. It is a way for both partners to investigate the client's current activities and knowledge, competences and resources, and raise questions about what they need to consider when contemplating a large e-learning project. Focus was on critical questions to ask and further steps to explore and investigate in order to benefit from the opportunities within an online Continuing Medical Education (CME) programme. Point of departure for the work, and the core for the e-learning scenarios outlined was the understanding that decisions about an e-learning strategy must reflect and build on (but not be limited to) the client's competences and resources. Hence mutual reflections on the client's ability to provide for a possible solution are a pre-requisite.
Keywords: Client centred studies, mutual learning, e-learning and collaboration
Usability of Complex Systems in the Organisational Context BIBAKPDF 76
  Wannapa Suratmethakul; Helen Hasan
This paper describes research into contextual factors that appear to influence the successful implementation of a complex system in an organisation. A grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyse data on the introduction, into a large educational institution, of a timetabling system that was already well established in another similar organisations. The results of the study show that the usability of a system which supports complex tasks can be critically determined by the organisational context but this can be overlooked with detrimental consequences.
Keywords: Usability, organisational context, complex systems
Using a taxonomy of errors as a conceptual framework for differences in patterns of use for casual and novice users BIBAKPDF 77
  Jocelyn Harper; Peter Caputi; Rohan Jayasuria; Shae-Leigh Vella; Peter Hyland
A taxonomy of errors was applied in a recent study of casual and novice users of a statistical analysis software. The taxonomy was found to be useful and several extensions to the taxonomy were proposed. The aim of this study is to confirm the theoretical validity of the proposed extensions and the usefulness of the taxonomy in describing the patterns of human-computer interaction and predicting changes in use patterns with learning.
Keywords: Human errors, Human-computer interaction, Usability, Taxonomy of errors
Design-Side Considerations: A Reaction to DUEM BIBAKPDF 78
  Robert K. Brown
Evaluation of a system's usability is a difficult task, but a new method, DUEM, addresses several of the issues. Any evaluation conducted after the fact however has limited effect, so further work is required at the design end of the lifecycle. Early-Phase elicitation tools, such as i*, may form the basis for new design tools which simplify software development, improve usability and ensure greater system success. Informing such design tools with the principles of the latest Activity Theory-based usability evaluation methods, such as DUEM should facilitate easier testing. As an added benefit, such a design method can form the first stage of an entire software development process where these complex evaluations serve to verify and validate the product.
Keywords: Usability testing, validation and verification, Activity Theory, DUEM, interaction, early-phase, elicitation
Designing Applications for Mobile Phones: The Mobile Subject Assistant BIBAKPDF 79
  Sam Jebeile
The rapid adoption rate of mobile phones coupled with advancements in supporting technologies suggests mobile phones may now be a viable tool for classroom use. In this paper we introduce the Mobile Subject Assistant, a proposed mobile phone based course tool. The tool is intended to assist in the delivery of university level subjects with an emphasis on student participation, collaboration and group or project work. We discuss a number of issues related to the design of interfaces for mobile phone applications and briefly describe the design of the interface to the Mobile Subject Assistant.
Keywords: Mobile technologies, mobile phones, collaborative learning, course tool
Usability/User Interface Design in Agile Processes BIBAKPDF 80
  Anne Fuller
The increasing popularity of the "agile" software development methods has prompted claims that such methods compromise the usability of the delivered product. However, this need not be the case. While some authors have suggested remedial extensions or additions that run in parallel with the chosen method, we believe that any agile method, properly applied, will produce software equally as useable as that produced by any other method.
   The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly we present a survey of many of the arguments made in the literature, thus bringing together a number of differing concerns. Then we set out to present our arguments debunking these claims.
Keywords: Usability design, user interface design, agile development
Mirroring Does Not Equal Transparency: The Importance of Culturally Aware Student BIBAKPDF 81
  Penney MacFarlane; Anne Fuller
The University of Wollongong, along with most other Australian universities, now has considerable investment in delivering courses to Asian markets. While there is some concern regarding the relevance of a Western-based subject delivery to an Asian culture, most transnational teachers do localize course materials to varying degrees. However, the web-based interfaces to the subject materials are rarely, if ever, similarly adapted to better suit the culture of the intended target audience.
   In this paper we argue that failure to take into consideration student perceptions of the interface provided to the materials may adversely affect the usability of such systems. Any advantages gained by localizing course content may thus be totally negated. We contend that providing a culturally aware student-computer interface is equally as important as ensuring local relevance of content.
Keywords: distance education, culture, Hofstede, educational web design; human computer interface
Methods of Online Grocery Shopping: Linking and Searching BIBAKPDF 82
  Mark Freeman
There are two dominant methods for locating information or goods on websites and online systems: searching and linking. Most previous research on searching and linking methods has focused on generic websites dedicated to locating information, such as Yahoo, rather than the searching and linking mechanisms used in specific applications, such as online shopping. In contrast, this study assessed the searching and linking metaphors inherent in online grocery stores, where each website must provide efficient tools for locating products if they are to be successful e-commerce websites. Worldwide grocery sites were judged against a checklist of advanced search features, and the use of searching and linking methods on the sites was evaluated using results from shopping scripts completed by eighteen participants.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Searching, Linking, E-commerce