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Proceedings of OZCHI'02, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of OZCHI'02, the CHISIG Annual Conference
Note:Design for the whole person - integrating physical, cognitive and social aspects
Editors:Frank Vetere; Lorraine Johnston; Ros Kushinsky
Location:Melbourne, Australia
Dates:2002-Nov-25 to 2002-Nov-27
Standard No:ISBN: 0-85590-789-5; hcibib: OZCHI01
Links:Proceedings Home Page | Sessions | Abstracts | Conference Series Home Page
Summary:HF2002 is the first Australian conference jointly sponsored by ESA, the Ergonomics Society of Australia, and CHISIG, the Computer Human Interaction Special Interest Group. The organisers invited submissions for papers and posters, workshops and tutorials in all relevant areas of design for humans, including physical, cognitive and social aspects. All submissions were fully evaluated through an independent (double-blind) review process, with at least three reviewers considering each submission. The reviewers were selected by the Technical Programme Co-Chairs. Papers and posters came from an international field, with submissions from various countries in Europe, North America, Asia and Australasia.
    The programme reflects the multi-disciplinary and overlapping nature of Ergonomics and HCI research and practice, and underlines both the diversity and the commonality of the issues relating to design for the whole person. Our keynote speakers address issues as diverse as accidents and technical failure, ergonomics research in the context of the design of consumer products, and the future of ergonomics, particularly with respect to surgery.
    The disparate nature of design considerations can further be seen in the range of topics covered by the papers and posters, from cognitive studies of ambulance dispatch; to social issues covering both ethics and universal usability of computer-based systems; to physical issues like muscle activity of school children using information technology. Tutorials and workshops offer hands-on experience across a spectrum of topics as diverse as safe manual handling of goods and suitable lighting. Another important aspect of this combined conference is seen in the panels and seminars which are directed at getting participation from a broad cross-section of the community. They cover various areas such as work practices in call centres, technology in the classroom, ergonomics and the car, and accreditation of usability professionals.
    Following the trend in many conferences, the Proceedings for HF2002 have been published in CD-ROM form, as we believe that it is a convenient medium for this valuable resource.
    HF2002 would not be the success we know it will be, without the time and dedication of so many volunteers. We thank the authors, the reviewers, the session chairs, the organising committee, the CHISIG and ESA committees, the student volunteers, and all the conference registrants. A special thanks to the paper reviewers for their thoughtful and constructive comments. We provide separately a list of reviewers and their affiliations. We need also to acknowledge the dedication and the expertise of those who put together this CD.
    We hope that this joint conference raises our awareness of the wide range of issues that can impinge on design when we consider the whole person.
  1. Keynotes
  2. Mobiles & wearables
  3. Hitting targets
  4. In the hospital theatre
  5. Affect
  6. Software tools
  7. Scenarios and ethnography
  8. Design -- getting it right
  9. Complex Systems
  10. Accessibility & older users
  11. Posture
  12. Thinking & learning
  13. Accessibility & audio
  14. Posters


Making sense of failure BIBAKHTMLPDF 1
  Chris Johnson
Incident and accident reporting systems can be used to identify patterns of operator behavior in the causes and mitigation of adverse events. Most attention in this area has, however, focused on the civilian process, healthcare and transportation industries. In contrast, this paper focuses on human factors issues in military incident reporting. We identify important differences both in the incidents that are reported and in attitudes towards human 'error'. For instance, military systems contain far more training related mishaps than might be expected in civilian systems. These incidents often stem from tensions between the need to prepare staff for operational situations and the need to control the hazards that form a necessary part of complex, military training scenarios. Further differences stem from the need for military personnel to make complex risk assessments in uncertain environments in strictly limited time periods. For example, leaders may have to choose between a short exposure to a relatively high-risk situation and prolonged exposure to a lesser risk. One consequence of this is that military reporting systems often focus more on the risk-decision making process than they do on the immediate actions that lead to an adverse event. It is also possible to identify a strong form of hindsight bias in which individuals may be blamed irrespective of the risk exposure that they accept.
Keywords: Human error, incident analysis, causation, root cause analysis
Ergonomics and the design of consumer products: moving beyond retroactive fixes BIBAKHTMLPDF 2
  Bill Green
This paper considers some of the theories underpinning ergonomics research in the context of the design of consumer products and comments on the suitability or otherwise of positivist/objectivist principles versus a constructivist/relativist approach in interaction research. It uses projects from graduate and doctoral studies as examples and places them in a safety/efficiency/satisfaction hierarchy. It concludes with an assertion that qualitative and quantitative are pejorative and less than perfect descriptors for appropriate ergonomics research, that design is an essential integrating factor and that it should be a predicator of ergonomics methods rather than a simple outcome of arbitrarily applied preconceptions and a subject of post-facto evaluations.
Keywords: Consumer product use; risk perception; theoretical positions; ergonomics methods; pleasure with products
Human Factors of the fourth kind BIBA 3
  Michael Patkin
Although the social role of ergonomics is widely accepted, a more difficult challenge is to map out possible futures for ergonomics. Previous developments have been predictable as layers of technology intervene between humans and their work -- the unpredictable is by definition unstatable, but the possibly predictable developments will be presented.

Mobiles & wearables

Ergonomics of wearability as a design driver: A case study of user-centered design process of designing mobile phones and accessories for active use BIBAKHTMLPDF 4
  Harri Wikberg; Turkka Keinonen
User interface design has two major focus areas: Ensuring that the product is easy to use and ensuring that the product meets end user needs. The former -- ease of use -- has already reached a mature role in the industry. Usability processes have been integrated into the product development process and the importance of usability is well understood all the way up to the top management. However, meeting end user needs in product design is still a poorly understood process not properly applied in the industry. Instead most design is driven quest for applications for emerging technologies or requirements dictated by marketing people. And more than once this has lead to products that do not meet user needs. The importance of qualitative end user studies as such is well understood and also reflected in the number of studies being conducted. However, the problem lies in transferring the findings into designs. There has been a lack of proper way to make people involved in the design process (designers, marketing people, management) to understand what is important in the product i.e. what actually should be designed. This case study describes a project whose objective was to create a series of concepts for Nokia's sports products and to see what kinds of solutions would emerge for products optimized for physical activities, outdoor activities and wearability. It is a good case of a project where findings of the end user studies totally changed the focus of the project from assumed interaction design of phone applications to ergonomic design of handling the phone and the headset. Furthermore, the project was a pilot project for concept projects that followed it. It successfully demonstrated the model of a user-centered concept project. It convinced the customer organization and it helped to create the necessary confidence in the process.
Keywords: Ergonomics, product design, end user needs, mobile appliances
Formative ergonomic and usability evaluation of wearables: A case study BIBAKHTMLPDF 5
  Leong Hwee Teo; Kok Tiong Soo
Both (physical) ergonomics and (software) usability are important in the design of wearable computers. In this paper, we report a formative human factors evaluation of a wearable prototype for military personnel. Twelve subjects participated in a series of laboratory and field evaluations. Joint consideration of ergonomics and usability was by (1) progressive introduction of prototype components, tasks and environment factors, and (2) evaluation checklists cross-referenced by task. We conceived and applied a novel evaluation method to collect graphical data for identifying ergonomic problems, with encouraging results and subject feedback. The evaluation found that integrating new controls onto existing tool grip surfaces degrades user experience with both the original tool and the new controls; and over reliance on visual output, such as in "point-and-click" interaction, demands visual attention and conflicts with the user's need to observe and work in the real environment.
Keywords: Physical Ergonomics, Software Usability, Wearable Computer, Formative Evaluation, Case Study
Location based services (LBS) and the effect it can have on WAP BIBAKHTMLPDF 6
  Shane Fernando; Ghassan Al-Qaimari
Our study investigates the effect that Location Based Services (LBS) has on WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) applications. In particular the advantages it offers the design of the user interface and the effect it has on the users perception, efficiency and effectiveness of the application. Through a train timetabling prototype the users retrieved information pertaining to travel information, fare prices and ticket outlets. The system consists of two components: one that emulates a LBS enhanced system and the other that does not. A comparison within subject study was conducted allowing us to test the same participants across all scenarios and draw conclusions. We found that LBS functionality does enhance the WAP applications by overcoming some of the limitations associated with WAP.
Keywords: WAP, Location, LBS, Wireless, User Interface Design

Hitting targets

Enhancing operator performance of remote container landing: An assessment of a 3D stereoscopic control & display system BIBAKHTMLPDF 7
  Kee Yong Lim; Roy S. M. Quek
A freight company in Singapore has developed and implemented the world's first semi-automated camera-based remote control crane system to pick-up and land freight containers. A centralised computer commands the crane to move a container between locations, while the operator performs the skilled task of vertically landing/picking up the container. However, the 2 dimensional (2D) camera-based system compromises somewhat the depth perception required for the container landing/pick-up task. For instance, the operator may experience difficulty in judging container height relative to the prime mover chassis. Their ability to control container landing/pick up quickly and thus, throughput, may be affected. Similarly, container landing impact may be controlled poorly. To address these problems, depth perception needs to be restored. A desk-top virtual reality system comprising a three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic display, has thus been developed to meet this requirement. Subject tests with a scale model has shown that the 3D stereoscopic display can enhance operator performance of container landing impact (P<0.01). For the small scale test rig, no significant difference in container landing time performance is found between the displays as expected. Thus, it may be concluded that a 3D stereoscopic display has shown promise in enhancing operator performance of container landing with apparently no loss in throughput.
Keywords: 2 dimensional display, 3D stereoscopic display, depth perception, remote control crane
Triangular targets can afford conflicting cues during cursor placement BIBAKHTMLPDF 8
  J. Phillips; J. Meehan; R. Stevenson; T. Triggs
Triangles often signify a mode of operation, but as targets they also contain conflicting irrelevant features that may influence positioning movements within graphical user interfaces. In a choice reaction time paradigm 16 participants used a cursor control device to move a crosshair cursor 8cm or 16cm to equilateral triangular targets in which the vertex pointed towards (blunt) or away (sharp) from the direction of motion. Experiment 1 employed a touch sensitive screen, finding greater amounts of overshooting when moving to the sharp end of a triangular target in near space. Experiment 2 observed similar trends using a computer mouse. However, target shape had more influence upon cursor trajectories for the mouse, with prolonged movements towards the sharp end of a triangular target in far space. For direct controls (touch sensitive screen), target shape influences the degree of overshoot, while for indirect controls (mouse), target shape influences cursor trajectory.
Keywords: Performance, targets, touch sensitive screen, mouse
Learning and transfer in an applied visual spatial task BIBAKHTMLPDF 9
  Shayne Loft; Andrew Neal; Michael Humphreys
This paper presents a new dynamic visual spatial task for use in applied cognition research. The aim of the experiment reported is to illustrate a major limitation of learning from individualized examples -- the inability to transfer across different contexts. Instance-based models of learning emphasize the role that memory for previous examples plays in subsequent task performance and the predictions were based on this framework. The task required participants to decide as quickly and as accurately as possible whether pairs of aircraft moving on the screen would come within 1 cm of each other (conflict). During training the surface features of the items were held constant, and during transfer they were changed. Changing the spatial configuration of the aircraft had the largest negative impact on performance, followed by orientation and then position. The results illustrate some key ways in which episodic memory influences performance in a dynamic visual spatial environment. The results reported raise some avenues for further enquiry. Design implications are discussed.
Keywords: Learning, transfer, air traffic control, training, context

In the hospital theatre

Analysis and Visualisation of Complex Behavioural Data: A case study of disturbance management in anaesthesia BIBAKHTMLPDF 10
  Kathleen Keogh; E. A. Sonenberg
We have studied the reasoning of anaesthetists involved in resolving a critical incident. This reasoning incorporates the diagnosis of disturbances simultaneously with therapeutic patient management activities. The cognitive behavioural data and activity representing each scenario is dense and rich with meaning although difficult to conceptualise as raw tabular traces of actions and events occurring over time. We have developed an approach for the transformation of our raw temporal data into novel visual representations that facilitate the interpretation of the data and enable comparative analysis of model/subject performance during cognitive modelling and in the assessment of subjects' performance during training exercises. We make some preliminary observations as to how the approach illustrated here could be adapted to other dynamic domains.
Keywords: Complex data analysis, cognitive modelling
The role of auditory attention and auditory perception in the design of real-time sonification of anaesthesia variables BIBAKHTMLPDF 11
  Janet Anderson; Penelope Sanderson; Michael Norris
Sonification -- the representation of data relations in sound relations -- is attracting increasing attention within the human factors community as a way of providing human operators of real-time processes with continuous information about the state of a system. This is particularly needed in anesthesia, where the anesthetist must divide attention across a wide variety of tasks. Efforts to design effective sonifications of the physiological state of anesthetized patients, however, have not emerged from basic scientific studies of auditory attention. Literature reviews indicate that the kind of basic scientific research on auditory attention that would support the design of sonifications does not exist. The work described herein is the first part of a research program in which we build a foundation for our design of anesthesia sonification in a series of basic studies of auditory attention. These studies may contribute information that will support sonification design beyond the anaesthesia application.
Keywords: sonification, auditory attention, auditory perception, auditory display
Multimodal displays for anaesthesia sonification: timesharing, workload, and expertise BIBAKHTMLPDF 12
  Jennifer Crawford; Marcus Watson; Oliver Burmeister; Penelope Sanderson
Physiological monitoring is necessary in health care contexts where a patient is anaesthetised or heavily sedated. Our goal is to determine the safest format for keeping a health care practitioner informed about the patient's state, taking into account other tasks that need to be performed. We report results of a study that compares visual, auditory, and mixed modality displays for monitoring an anaesthetised patient while carrying out another task, reflecting real-world healthcare settings. Results of this study in the context of other studies in our laboratory suggest task trade-offs that reflect participants' professional backgrounds, but are nonetheless encouraging for the development of multimodal displays.
Keywords: Sonification, auditory displays, timesharing, multimodality, anaesthesia


High Appeal vs.high Usability: Implications for user satisfaction BIBAKHTMLPDF 13
  Gitte Lindgaard; Cathy Dudek
People judge incoming sensory stimuli immediately by how pleasant or unpleasant these 'feel'. When judging a web site seen for the first time, this judgment is based on visual appearance. At the same time, people tend to be reluctant to revise a judgment once it is made, resulting in a so-called confirmation bias. In this study we investigated the existence and the robustness of this bias by requiring subjects to complete a usability test containing serious usability problems after exploring a high- or a low-usability site. Both sites were high in aesthetic appeal. Results suggest that subjects are sensitive to different levels of usability and that they do revise their original satisfaction judgment after completing the test. They also suggest that aesthetics is judged independently of usability.
Keywords: Satisfaction, Usability, Aesthetics, Appeal
Designing for software quality BIBAKHTMLPDF 14
  Todd Bentley; Lorraine Johnston; Karola von Baggo
We often talk of "quality for a cost", or value for money. Usually we want as much quality as we can get for a particular price. What, then, is quality in software? Current standards deal with quality from a productivity perspective, and do not address software quality where productivity is not the main focus. Other factors, such as enjoyment, fun, or relaxation, may be more important. This paper examines the issues of quality in software from the 'total' user perspective, going beyond productivity to the quality of experience.
Keywords: standards, design, quality, software, affective factors
Consumer products: buy at first sight? BIBAKHTMLPDF 15
  Helen Beazley
The study was conducted to ascertain whether the aesthetic design aspects of a product have a greater influence on older consumers' product selection than ease of use aspects. Generally the look of a product is considered to have a significant influence on the consumer's purchase decision. The study was conducted involving subjects aged 65years and older and a range of five cordless kettles. The study involved the completion of a questionnaire that included fourteen design aspects (aesthetic and ease of use), participation in a usability trial or a selection task, and the completion of an ease of use checklist. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated: that subjects rated ease of use aspects higher than aesthetic design aspects; that the usability trial did not have a significant impact on the subject selecting a product that was considered to have enhanced ease of use; and that the checklist results indicated that generally there was no difference in the subjects' product selection decision following their completion of this. The study concluded that in fact ease of use aspects have a greater influence on older consumers product selection than aesthetic design aspects where cordless kettles are concerned.
Keywords: aesthetics, ease of use, older consumer, questionnaire, usability trial

Software tools

Split window view and modification director: Innovative awareness mechanisms in real-time collaborative writing BIBAKHTMLPDF 16
  Minh Hong Tran; Gitesh Raikundalia; Yun Yang
Group awareness is a vital feature improving the usability of real-time collaborative writing systems. Unfortunately, existing awareness mechanisms were derived from a solely "bottom-up" approach, without prior research on what awareness information users really need. Previous research fails to provide a comprehensive set of awareness mechanisms, and some mechanisms were even implemented in an ad-hoc manner. Applying the principle of user-centred design, this research exploits a "top-down" approach in identifying awareness mechanisms by conducting a laboratory-based usability experiment with REDUCE (Real-time Distributed Unconstrained Cooperative Editing). This research has identified quite a few innovative mechanisms, such as Split Window View (SWV) and Modification Director (MD). SWV provides key information about others' working and viewing areas. MD conveniently and instantly notifies users when their work is modified by others.
Keywords: Awareness mechanisms, Split Window View, Modification Director, CSCW, real-time collaborative writing
Tamot: Towards a flexible task modeling tool BIBAHTMLPDF 17
  Shijian Lu; Cécile Paris; Keith Vander Linden
The usefulness of task analysis and task modeling has been widely acknowledged in software design and development. However, the rate of adoption of task analysis and modeling has been painstakingly slow. One of the reasons for this may be the lack of flexible software tool support. In this paper, we present Tamot, a graphical task modeling tool that was designed to include the characteristics that would be desirable in a task-modeling tool. Those characteristics include ease of learning, support for entering multiple tasks quickly, mechanisms to support top-down and bottom-up approaches to task modeling, ease of modification, customisable reporting facilities, and, finally, inter-operability.

Scenarios and ethnography

Managing Innovation in contextual scenario-based design BIBAdesign, contextual scenarios, innovationdesign, contextual scenarios, innovation 18
  Steve Howard; Jennie Carroll; John Murphy; Jane Peck
Scenarios are often proposed as a means of managing innovation in use-centred design. Here we discuss 'how'. Scenarios allow design spaces to be mapped, both marking and pushing the boundaries of those spaces, and charting paths through the conceptual terrain therein. They achieve this through facilitating two modes of design discourse (backward and forward chaining), and mapping the granularity of the design conversation.
Towards an activity scenario-based methodology for usability testing of websites BIBAKHTMLPDF 19
  Lejla Vrazalic; Peter Hyland
Traditional laboratory based usability testing methodologies do not take into account the context in which users engage in socially-driven activities when using a website along with other types of mediating tools. A preliminary study with 34 users indicates a series of shortcomings with this traditional approach. The activity scenario based usability testing methodology, currently being developed, aims to overcome these shortcomings by utilising a combination of Activity theory principles and scenario development. This paper describes the initial theoretical investigation and empirical evidence which will be used as the basis for further development and refinement of the methodology.
Keywords: Usability testing, methodology, activity theory, scenarios, website, laboratory
Each sold separately: Ethnography as a tool for integrating online and off line use of educational toys BIBAKHTMLPDF 20
  Jared Braiterman; Patrick Larvie
This paper describes the contributions of rapid ethnography to the design of a web-enabled educational toy, specifically installation and registration. While HCI practitioners increasingly advocate rapid ethnography for early discovery and requirements phases, we discuss the role played by ethnography that spans open ended observation, story telling, conceptual design and iterative prototype evaluation in natural environments of use. As the web enables new types of services, including educational toys, Experience Design professionals must use new methods to ensure that these services are truly intuitive and learnable. Focused on everyday environments, offline and online experiences, an ethnographic approach combined with an iterative design process helped integrate knowledge of user motivation, sensitivities and tolerances throughout the design project.
Keywords: Customer Experience, Rapid Ethnography, Usability, Education, Children
Design of future television BIBAKHTMLPDF 21
  Leena Eronen
To enable the future users to create their own product concepts is a relatively new idea in the design of consumer products. In this paper, ten TV viewers created new concepts of interactive television programs and applications for digital television. During the user study, the study participants were asked to gather data on themselves in their home environment. The study focused on TV viewers' leisure time and their thoughts of the television in the future. The study resulted in a set of user profiles and innovations of future interactive applications the study participants designed for themselves. The study aims at creating a user centered design method with the study participants as equal research partners with the designers.
Keywords: Digital television, concept design, ethnographic research, home

Design -- getting it right

Achieving benchmark product design in the waterfront industry, using a systematic risk assessment approach BIBAKHTMLPDF 22
  Anthony Novosad; Graham Griffiths
Over the last two years there has been significant work conducted on finding ways to improve the safety performance of forklift users. "Since 1988 in Victoria, there have been 45 recorded deaths involving forklifts. Those deaths involve pedestrians, operators and in one case a child. They range from deaths on the wharfs to small factories and timber yards. The problems vary from system failure to design issues with the equipment". Work cover figures reveal that -- "The costs of 5539 claims across all 'forklift' profile areas totals to $101,168,367. The production and the costs to the health sector are not counted in the work cover figures". Nationally, of the 225 fatal incidents that occurred, a Coroner, OHS Authority or other agency made recommendations arising from 112 (49.8%). Of these, 53 recommendations were specifically related to the design of equipment. Over the last two years, there has been significant work conducted at Brambles Shipping to ensure that new equipment purchased not only complied with local, international and national OHS&E legislative requirements, but also for the first time actually addressed the operating risks of our daily stevedoring industry.
Keywords: Forklift, design, risk assessment and purchasing
Ergonomic book return system at Mt Gravatt Campus Library of Griffith University BIBAKHTMLPDF 23
  Ken Horrigan; Sandra Schofield
The book return system at the Library at Mt Gravatt Campus of Griffith University presented a combination of manual handling risks and inefficient, outdated work practices. The application of ergonomics has provided a win-win situation with a streamlined system of work and minimal manual handling. The paper describes the consultative approach to producing the solution, the features of the ergonomic system adopted and the modifications to the work practices from the return of the books to their placement on shelves. It emphasises the concept of risk control through engineering design rather than administrative control measures. The system was awarded the Australian Library Institute of Australia Award for Innovation 2000-Academic Library. Since that award, the library has improved the design by adding a lifting platform for the processing of courier boxes thus greatly reducing the need to manually lift heavy boxes.
Keywords: ergonomics, library, manual handling, efficient workflow, design
Interpretation of selected past Australian anthropometric datasets BIBAKHTMLPDF 24
  Michael Michaliades; Owen Evans
Phase 1 of this study identified the existence of a relatively large number of small-scale and population-specific Australian anthropometric surveys. As most of these published past studies had not comprehensively analysed their measurement data, a description of the anthropometry of the general Australian population was largely unknown at the time of commencement of phase 2 of this study. This paper reports on a few selected findings from a wider investigation in phase 2 that sought to identify and then interpret existing anthropometric data with the aim of anthropometrically describing the general Australian population. Findings include the effects of several known determinants of variance (eg. ethnicity, secular effects, demography) on the anthropometry of the general Australian population, particularly children aged 5-17 y.o. An attempt to pool several small (but comparable) datasets is also described.
Keywords: Anthropometry, Body-measurement, Physical anthropology, Australia

Complex Systems

Analysing ambulance dispatcher decision making: Trialing emergent themes analysis BIBAKHTMLPDF 25
  William Wong; Ann Blandford
Understanding how people make decisions in actual, real-time operational environments can provide software developers with useful insights into how systems should be designed to support them. However, part of the difficulty is developing that understanding. In this paper we describe a case study of how Critical Decision Method interview data was analysed using the Emergent Themes Analysis Approach we trialed to identify themes and subsequently decision strategies for extracting design insights.
Keywords: emergency ambulance dispatch, emergency medical dispatch, naturalistic decision making, critical decision method
Ethical issues in the use of embedded social protocols to resolve technical problems BIBAKHTMLPDF 26
  Toni Robertson
The relations between various computer applications and the social and organisational behaviour they are intended to support are not natural or pregiven. They are always constructed and always the result of decisions made somewhere. This paper takes a fragment of shared design work and considers some solutions to one of the technical problems that arise when technology is used to support similar work over distance. The argument is made that some of these solutions are better than others because they enable human interaction in different ways. Some solutions enhance the possibilities for human agency, others diminish it. Since human agency is about capacities and powers to act in specific situations, and ethics is about action, then there are ethical issues associated with the particular solutions to technical problems, as well as the particular representations of human activities, that we choose to embed in the technology we build.
Keywords: Interaction design, ethics of work design, CSCW, shared drawing applications

Accessibility & older users

Designing usable applications for older users: An example BIBAKHTMLPDF 27
  Dan Hawthorn
There is now a body of general interface design principles for older users. The paper reports work in progress on a prototype email system aimed at providing proof of concept for these principles. The user interface is described together with indications of the aspects of older users that prompted various design decisions. Based on testing with a small group of older novices the system appears to be highly suitable for older users and it is suggested that this project is on track towards its goal of proof of concept.
Keywords: Aging, interface design
Impacts of presentation media on older users' performance in hypertext perusal as a function of text topology BIBAKHTMLPDF 28
  Dyi-Yih Lin
The present study attempts to examine how older adults react to multimedia interface in hypertext perusal. 24 older subjects participated in an experiment where presentation media and text topology were manipulated. A hypermedia system of tourist guide was developed to test the subject's navigation performance in terms of retention accuracy. Results showed that the main effects and interaction were significant. The use of animated graphs, still pictures, and pure text resulted in significantly descending retention when the hierarchical topology was perused. The advantage of animated graphs over still pictures disappeared for the referential topology but both media rendered higher retention scores than the text-only presentation. It was suggested that hypermedia interface for the aged should be designed towards the use of graphs-based presentations on a hierarchical topology for better retention. Detailed implications were discussed.
Keywords: multimedia, hypertext, disorientation, older adults
Investigations of older adults' interface design requirements BIBAKHTMLPDF 29
  Mar Zajicek; Wesley Morrissey
This paper reports empirical investigations to uncover older adults' special requirements for a Web browser with voice and large text output, which aim to establish whether failing senses can be supported by using more than one channel of perception simultaneously. We present results concerning the efficacy of multi-modal text and speech output compared with either speech or text alone. The paper also introduces a special interface design approach for older adults, Design for Dynamic Diversity, which takes into account the wide diversity of functionality in older adults.
Keywords: Older adults, speech output, Web access, Design for Dynamic Diversity, mixed mode
Accessing users' with disabilities conceptual constructions of the online medium: A case for discursive research BIBAKHTMLPDF 30
  Natilene Bowker; Keith Tuffin
This paper presents another approach for researchers to access users' understandings of their online experience. The merits of discursive research -- a particular kind of qualitative data gathering philosophy and technique, are considered. An empirical example of discursive research is given, which analyses users with disabilities' (UWD) interview data about their online experiences. Research findings demonstrate the benefits of engaging in text-based environments for UWD because of users' ability to control the textual construction of their identity. Considerations are suggested for multi-media design of online environments, where audio and visual enhancements are encouraged. Analysis offers a way into users' conceptualisation of their online interaction, allowing users' ideas to influence the research sphere. Beyond a functional capacity, the online medium is embedded within social practices, which enable users to operate beyond the constraints of a visible category of identity.
Keywords: Research approaches, discursive psychology, identity, disability


Posture of school children using information technology BIBAKHTMLPDF 31
  Andrew Briggs; Alison Greig; Leon Straker
The aim of this study was to examine the physical impact of the use of new and old information technology (IT) on the musculoskeletal system of children through an analysis of posture. The sitting posture of 32 school aged children (4-17 years) was examined whilst they read from a book, laptop, and desktop computer at a standard school chair and desk. A 2D motion analysis approach was used to calculate mean angles for head tilt, neck flexion, gaze angle and trunk angle. Posture was found to be influenced by IT type (p<0.001), age (p<0.001) and gender (p=0.024), and significantly correlated to the height of the subjects. This paper complements Part B (Muscle activity of school children using information technology) given the highly interdependent relationship between posture and muscle activity and therefore the discussion considers findings from both studies.
Keywords: information technology (IT), children, musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), posture
Muscle activity of school children using information technology BIBAKHTMLPDF 32
  Alison Greig; Andrew Briggs; Leon Straker
The aim of this study was to examine the physical impact of the use of new and old information technology (IT) on the musculoskeletal system of children through an analysis of muscle activity. The muscle activity of 32 school aged children (4-17 years) was examined whilst they read from a book, laptop, and desktop computer at a standard school chair and desk. Surface electromyography (EMG) data was collected from left and right cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius muscles. Muscle activity was found to be influenced by IT type (p<0.001), though was not significantly influenced by age (p=0.382) or left and right sides (p=0.181). This paper complements Part A (Posture of school children using information technology) given the highly interdependent relationship between muscle activity and posture and therefore the discussion considers findings from both studies.
Keywords: information technology (IT), children, musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), EMG
Forearm support for intensive keyboard users: A field study BIBAKHTMLPDF 33
  Catherine Cook; Robin Burgess Limerick
The aim of this study was to determine whether providing forearm support when using a normal computer workstation would decrease musculoskeletal discomfort in intensive computer users in a call centre. In a randomised controlled study (n=59), thirty participants were given forearm support for 12 weeks and the remainder were given forearm support for the last 6 weeks of the study. Questionnaires were used at 1, 6 and 12 weeks to obtain information about discomfort, workstation setup, working posture and comfort. At 12 weeks, there were fewer reports of neck, back and wrist discomfort amongst all participants. These findings indicate that for the majority of users, forearm support may be preferable to the "floating" posture implicit in current guidelines for computer workstation setup.
Keywords: keyboard, call centre, computer, forearm support

Thinking & learning

What do learning curves tell us about learnability? BIBAKHTMLPDF 34
  Antti Pirhonen
Learnability is generally seen as a key factor of usability. This paper discusses learnability in terms of different learning theories. The appropriateness of different theories when striving towards high learnability is highly dependent on the specific context. One case, the learnability of a portable music player, is analysed and discussed in detail. In the focused case, the cognitive view of skill acquisition provided a suitable theoretical framework for explaining the progress of learning.
Keywords: Learnability, learning theories, mobile applications
Metaphors of human thinking in HCI: Habit, stream of thought, awareness, utterance, and knowing BIBAKHTMLPDF 35
  Erik Frokjaer; Kasper Hornbaek
Understanding human thinking is crucial in the design and evaluation of human-computer interaction. Inspired by introspective psychology, we present five metaphors of human thinking. The aim of the metaphors is to help designers to consider important traits of human thinking when designing. The metaphors capture aspects of human thinking virtually absent in recent years of mainstream HCI literature. As an example of the utility of the metaphors, we show how a selection of good and poor user interfaces can be appreciated in terms of the metaphors. The metaphors are also used to reinterpret central notions in human-computer interaction, such as consistency and information scent, in terms of human thinking. Further, we suggest the metaphors be used for evaluating interfaces.
Keywords: Human thinking, habit, stream of thought, awareness, design guidelines
Developing mental models and new work practices: An evaluation of the state-of-the-art commercial speech recognition system BIBAKHTMLPDF 36
  Penny Collings; Michael Wagner; David Walker
This paper presents an evaluation of an off-the-shelf commercial speech recognition system. It focuses particularly on two problems. The first problem is how to develop a robust mental model of continuous speech recognition and its use in document preparation. The second is how to learn relevant new work practices in this context. The paper identifies such new work practices and discusses issues that confuse users and hinder their development of a robust mental model. It also suggests how documentation and training might address these matters.
Keywords: voice recognition, continuous speech recognition, work practices, mental models, learning, documentation, document preparation, technology uptake

Accessibility & audio

Universal Usability: Accessibility considerations for aural renditions of tables in web sites BIBAKHTMLPDF 37
  Terence De Giere; Oliver Burmeister
Accessibility is a major design and usability issue. There has not been a conspiracy to make the Web inaccessible. The focus has been on visual not aural navigation. Problems have grown out of the desire to make the Internet more attractive, especially to commercial interests, and a lack of understanding of the original purpose for which HTML was designed. Conformance to Internet accessibility guidelines are frequently in conflict with the design purposes for particular sites. When web site formatting layouts involve tables there are numerous considerations facing developers. A shift needs to occur that will promote the consideration of accessibility design issues earlier in the development process. Accessibility needs to be considered not only by developers in the final stages of web site development, but also by designers well before implementation decisions are taken.
Keywords: Accessibility, design, disability, table, W3C
Designing an audible caller ID adjunct: A user-centred approach BIBAKHTMLPDF 38
  Marc Fusco
Telecommunications products and services have come under scrutiny recently by the U.S. Federal government to ensure that they meet the needs of all users, particularly the differently-abled and elderly. This is a summary of a process that incorporated user's needs into the design of an audible CallerID adjunct. Although the team was presented with design constraints (to keep the cost of the device nominal), by using user-centered design principles, we believe we have produced a product that meets the needs of "all" users and will thereby be successful in the marketplace.
Keywords: CallerID, visually impaired, UCD, differently-abled


Modifying work to cater for people with colour vision deficiencies BIBAKHTMLPDF 39
  Jennifer Long
Colour is used in workplaces for many reasons including coding, increasing contrast, reducing visual clutter and highlighting information. However, approximately 8% of males and 0.5% of females have a colour vision deficiency (CVD). A person with a CVD can still see colour, but they see it differently and may not be able to distinguish as many shades of colour as a person with normal colour vision.
   There may be justification for excluding CVD workers from some professions, especially where safety is concerned (e.g. electrical trades). However, in occupations where colour is only a small part of the job description or where safety is not a critical issue, it may not be desirable to exclude these people from employment. The matter is further complicated if a worker only discovers that they have a CVD after commencing employment or if a job task changes during the course of their employment.
   In an ideal world, job tasks would be designed so that no worker would be disadvantaged by their colour vision capabilities. This might be achieved by using other cues beside colour for coding e.g. shape, size, position. In reality, colours are often chosen by convention (e.g. red signifies 'stop', green signifies 'go') and equipment is frequently designed without an awareness of safety and efficiency issues for CVD workers. It may be impractical or too costly to replace equipment in some workplaces -- the best option may be to redesign the task or to modify the work environment.
Keywords: colour vision, work design
Night Vision Goggle Symbology for Maritime Helicopter Operations BIBKHTMLPDF 40
  Peter Blanchonette; Craig Mathews; Philip Hughes; Andrew Robbie; Bradley MacPherson; Royal Australian Navy
Keywords: Helicopter-ship operations, Night Vision Goggles, Symbology, Helmet Mounted Displays
Useability in the design of a Lice Detection Device BIBAHTMLPDF 41
  Peter Schumacher; Tim Upsdell; Peter James
Within the manufacturing industry Industrial Designers are often the professionals solely responsible for the design of the utility and ergonomics aspects of new products. This poster describes how ergonomics education is integrated into the Industrial Design Program at the University of South Australia, as well as a process for formally developing and testing useable design.
Designing Software for the Severely/Profoundly Intellectually Handicapped Teenager and Adult BIBAKHTMLPDF 42
  Sally Jo Cunningham
Little software has been created specifically for the severely/profoundly intellectually handicapped adult. This paper presents recommendations for software to support the educational and recreational needs of these users, and examines the problems of evaluating software usability.
Keywords: requirements analysis, intellectually handicapped, special needs users
Psychology-based Agent Architecture for Whole-of-user Interface to the Web BIBAKHTMLPDF 43
  Steve Goschnick; Leon Sterling
This paper argues that the user interface of a workstation connected continuously (24x7) to a network would be most effective with a sophisticated agent architecture embedded deep in the workstation system software. In the user's absence an embedded agent system could act as something more than a proxy for the user, the multiple sub-agents within it should act in concert as a Digital Self, one representing and empowering the user. Our proposed agent architecture, called Shadowboard, is based on a sophisticated model of the user drawn from the Psychology of Subselves, a modern stream of Analytical Psychology.
Keywords: Models of Mind, Psychology, Agent Architecture, User Model, Interface Agents,
Optimisation of Command and Control Console Layout with Human Factors Engineering BIBAKHTMLPDF 44
  K. C. Yong; C. K. Chng; K. T. Soo
A well-designed command and control layout takes into consideration the communication and coordination needs associated with the tasks to be performed, field of view for situational awareness and environmental ergonomics for comfort. With these considerations, an optimal command and control layout was derived by performing a task analysis and applying human factors principles such as: (1) physical proximity among operators based on information flow and the need for coordination, (2) physical proximity of operator to equipment based on the functions of the operators; equipment maintained by the same operator should be grouped together so the operator will not have to move around to check or work on the equipment, (3) layout design supports monitoring by upper levels of the command hierarchy, (4) superior environmental ergonomics, such as lighting, heat stress, noise and motion state of the platform, to enhance comfort during operation, (5) passageway clearance in accordance to anthropometric signature of the operators and (6) layout for safety; all equipment should be located to minimise the possibility of equipment damage, personnel injury, or inadvertent activation. Besides following these principles, the technique of computer-based visualisation was used to examine human factors issues such as passageway clearance, operators' field of view and lighting conditions. Essentially, the optimal layout aimed to enhance not only operator sustainability but also command and control effectiveness.
Keywords: Optimization, Command and Control, Console Layout, Human Factors, Environmental Ergonomics