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OZCHI Tables of Contents: 919293949596980102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of OZCHI'06, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of OZCHI'06, the CHISIG Annual Conference
Note:Design: Activities, Artefacts and Environments
Editors:Jesper Kjeldskov; Jeni Paay
Location:Sydney, Australia
Dates:2006-Nov-20 to 2006-Nov-24
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-545-2; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: OZCHI06
Links:Conference Home Page | Conference Series Home Page
  1. Keynotes
  2. Long papers: awareness
  3. Long papers: health
  4. Long papers: mobile
  5. Long papers: modality
  6. Long papers: tangible
  7. Long papers: tools
  8. Long papers: culture
  9. Long papers: understanding
  10. Long papers: using
  11. Short papers: mobile
  12. Short papers: play
  13. Short papers: fieldwork
  14. Short papers: social
  15. Short papers: modality
  16. Short papers: evaluation


Opening keynote BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Genevieve Bell
User centred design in practice: is it working? BIBAFull-Text 3
  Donna Maurer
In this talk, I look at the current state of user-centred design from a practitioner perspective. I examine where I think the field is up to, why we still struggle to be accepted, and what we need to do to move forward and contribute to truly great design.
Designing for our (sur)real lives BIBAFull-Text 5
  William Gaver
In this talk, I present an overview of design-led research that I have been pursuing with a multidisciplinary team to produce prototypes, methods and concepts appropriate to technologies for our everyday lives.

Long papers: awareness

iSocialize: investigating awareness cues for a mobile social awareness application BIBAFull-Text 7-14
  Berith L. Andersen; Martin L. Jørgensen; Ulrik Kold; Mikael B. Skov
Emerging technologies increasingly provide opportunities for creating and maintaining social relations with people even though separated by time or distance. However, it is still unclear how such technologies can support these social relations and what kind of interface awareness cues such technologies should provide. Based on an ethnographic study of social awareness in families, we identified four awareness cues namely activity, status, relation, and vicinity. From these cues, we designed a prototype called iSocialize to explore the identified awareness cues. Based on a laboratory-based evaluation, we assessed our solution and identified five issues of social awareness cues including that imprecise awareness cues are requested to ensure privacy issues and that users found it difficult to maintain a continuously peripheral awareness of their contacts.
Interpersonal awareness in the domestic realm BIBAFull-Text 15-22
  Carman Neustaedter; Kathryn Elliot; Saul Greenberg
Family and friends naturally maintain an awareness of each other on an ongoing basis (e.g., knowing one's schedule, health issues) and many technologies are now being contemplated to help fulfill these needs. We use findings from a contextual study along with related work to present interpersonal awareness -- a spectrum that differentiates how people desire and gather awareness for individuals across three different social groupings: home inhabitants, intimate socials, and extended socials. We compare this spectrum to workplace awareness and discuss how our study findings can be used to analyze and design domestic awareness technologies.
Hermes@Home: supporting awareness and intimacy between distant family members BIBAFull-Text 23-30
  Georgios Saslis-Lagoudakis; Keith Cheverst; Alan Dix; Dan Fitton; Mark Rouncefield
This paper presents the Hermes@Home system, which supports awareness (through messaging) between members of a home. Person(s) 'away' from the home can send messages via a web portal to an 'always on' 'information appliance' style display situated in the home, while people at home can scribble messages on the touch sensitive display of this unit for reception by the person(s) away from the home. The system was conceived as a technology probe and serves as a tool in investigating related issues such as awareness and intimacy between home inhabitants. It supplements existing communication methods by providing a highly expressive and always-available messaging method. We present some findings and initial results from a preliminary analysis of messages sent through the system during four deployments, identifying emerging themes in message content. In addition, we also present some of the issues that have surfaced through these deployments in a domestic environment.
Transient life: collecting and sharing personal information BIBAFull-Text 31-38
  Stephanie Smale; Saul Greenberg
Millions of people post personal information on the internet, yet the actual information varies greatly. Some pieces are extremely brief, others are highly detailed. Some focus on the moment to moment changes of one's state and thoughts, others describe stable and long-lasting traits. To handle this diversity, we created Transient Life: a system that lets a person gather personal 'transient' information tidbits on the fly and share this collected information with others. Transient Life is designed as a modular sidebar located on the display's periphery. A person uses its modules to: update momentary personal state (feelings, location, happenings, and thoughts), record activity milestones done over the day as well as a 'to do' list of things left to do, collect interesting URLs and photos seen, and compose text essays of whatever has captured their interest. A person can selectively post this information as a 'today message' to one's community, and the essay to one's personal blog. Information is kept in a History Calendar, which allows one to view the information recorded on a past date.

Long papers: health

Evaluating an in-vivo surgical training demonstration over broadband internet BIBAFull-Text 39-46
  Duncan Stevenson
This paper evaluates a demonstration of in-vivo (live) surgery over a broadband Internet connection between the USA and Australia. Two specific targets of the evaluation are the use of remote 3D video display of the laparoscopic surgery and the structure of the demonstration to replicate actual surgical training in the operating room. The evaluation materials include preliminary design and preparation records, recordings of the two-way video data and of the surgical video, exit questionnaires, debriefing discussion notes and follow-up interviews with the participants. Prior work in this area is surveyed and the demonstration is positioned with respect to this work. Conclusions are drawn about the effectiveness of the two key aspects of the demonstration and about possibilities for future work.
Evaluating clinicians' experience in a telemedicine application: a presence perspective BIBAFull-Text 47-54
  Leila Alem; Susan Hansen; Jane Li
The Virtual Critical Care Unit, (ViCCU) is a telemedicine system that allows a specialist at a major referral hospital to direct a team in a rural hospital. ViCC allows remote consultation to take place based on the transmission of multiple channels of real-time video/audio information of the patient, the clinical team, x-ray/paper documents and patient vital signs from the remote site to the specialist. This paper explores clinicians' experience of presence in a telemedicine application. In this study we used a modified version of the Slater-Usoh-Steed (SUS) presence questionnaire to measure clinicians' sense of presence when using ViCC. We also explored the relationship between presence felt when using ViCCU and personal, usability and media factors. Initial results indicate that in this context, personal factors influenced clinicians experience of presence and that there was a positive relationship between presence and both usability and media factors. Reflection on some of the challenges in conducting this study in an emergency department and the appropriateness of the SUS presence measure in this real setting are also included.
Perceptions of the elderly on the use of wireless sensor networks for health monitoring BIBFull-Text 55-62
  Chirstopher Secombe; Robert Steele; Wayne Brookes
From the certainty of information transfer to the ambiguity of intuition BIBAFull-Text 63-70
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Stefanie Kethers; Leila Alem; Ross Wilkinson
Handovers between shifts are known causes of preventable adverse events in hospitals. In order to gain an insight into the information transfer that occurs between shifts of senior staff in an emergency department, we observed handovers, interviewed practitioners and distributed questionnaires. We found that merely considering the transfer of "hard data", such as patients' heart rate, blood pressure, etc. can be insufficient: the transfer of "soft data" such as the ambiguity of intuition is also a central aspect in this type of work environment and vital for successful cross-coverage. We describe design concepts that address capture, visualization and transfer of intuition for the handover process. Addressing the issue of intuition support can be a challenge but also a rewarding opportunity for human-computer interaction research in supporting health care handovers.

Long papers: mobile

Indexical interaction design for context-aware mobile computer systems BIBAFull-Text 71-78
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Jeni Paay
This paper presents findings from a current research project focusing on challenges of interaction design for context-aware mobile computer systems. These challenge are approached from a novel perspective on context awareness; by exploiting knowledge about the user's context to create indexical user interfaces that carry a major part of their meaning implicitly through the settings in which they are used, thus reducing the need for explicit information representation cluttering the limited screen real estate of mobile devices. The project aims at creating a theoretical foundation for future research into interaction design with context-aware mobile computer systems and to develop the concept of indexicality as an interaction design principle for such systems. Achieving this, we are conducting a theoretical as well as a technical stream of research involving field studies into the context of mobile computer system use and experimental design, implementation and evaluation of prototype systems.
Taking hold of TV: learning from the literature BIBAFull-Text 79-86
  Richard Harper; Tim Regan; Mark Rouncefield
In this paper, we report the findings of a literature review into the experience of and the prospects for mobile TV, in particular multimedia experiences enabled over mobile phone-type devices and networks. The review shows that there will be a niche market for broadcast 'TV content' but that, more interestingly, 'mobile TV' might consist of a new content genre, affording new forms of shared, coproximate experiences.
A cross-cultural study of mobile music: retrieval, management and consumption BIBAFull-Text 87-94
  Esa Nettamo; Mikko Nirhamo; Jonna Häkkilä
This paper reports a user study on retrieving, consuming and managing digital music content related to mobile music consumption. We study the personal relationship people have with music entertainment technology and content, and explore how music is enjoyed on the move. We also look at the typical actions related to personal music management, how they are accomplished, and where they take place. The study was carried out in New York City and Hong Kong, and the paper also reports the differences found in mobile music consumption between these cultural settings.
Designing a mobile communicator: combining ethnography and object-oriented design BIBAFull-Text 95-102
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Christian Monrad Nielsen; Michael Overgaard; Michael Bach Pedersen; Jan Stage; Sigge Stenild
Communication and coordination of mobile and distributed work activities is a challenging application domain for mobile handheld devices. In this paper, we present the design of a mobile system to support communication and coordination between workers in safety-critical tasks in a power plant. The design of the system was based on ideas inherited from a communicator that was developed for a different application domain. The design was devised through a combination of ethnography and object-orientation. The mobile system we designed provides location-aware access to computerized information and process control on a handheld wireless computer terminal.

Long papers: modality

Interface design for an aircraft thrust and braking indicator/advisor BIBAFull-Text 103-110
  S. D. Pinder; D. N. Bristow; T. C. Davies
Recent advances in the development of aircraft landing and takeoff performance monitoring systems (Pinder, 2003) have shown the feasibility of a cockpit instrument that could aid significantly in the decision making process during the most critical phases of flight, provided that the information can be effectively visualized. The design of a cockpit interface to communicate the information in a timely and efficient manner has now been completed. Here we describe the ecological interface design resulting from a work domain analysis conducted in consultation with industrial partners, and the results of user testing conducted on the prototype bimodal interface. The resulting Thrust and Braking Indicator/Advisor (TABI/A) integrates a visual display with audible advice.
Spatial sound localization in an augmented reality environment BIBAFull-Text 111-118
  Jaka Sodnik; Saso Tomazic; Raphael Grasset; Andreas Duenser; Mark Billinghurst
Augmented Reality (AR), the overlay of virtual images onto the real world, is an increasingly popular technique for developing new human-computer interfaces. As human navigation and orientation in different environments depend on both visual and auditory information, sound plays a very important role in AR applications. In this paper we explore users' capability to localize a spatial sound (registered with a virtual object) in an AR environment, under different spatial configurations of the virtual scene. The results not only confirm several previous findings on sound localization, but also point out some important new visual-audio cues which should be taken into consideration for effective localization and orientation in AR environment. Finally, this paper provides tentative guidelines for adding spatial sound to AR environments.
LookPoint: an evaluation of eye input for hands-free switching of input devices between multiple computers BIBAFull-Text 119-126
  Connor Dickie; Jamie Hart; Roel Vertegaal; Alex Eiser
We present LookPoint, a system that uses eye input for switching input between multiple computing devices. LookPoint uses an eye tracker to detect which screen the user is looking at, and then automatically routes mouse and keyboard input to the computer associated with that screen. We evaluated the use of eye input for switching between three computer monitors during a typing task, comparing its performance with that of three other selection techniques: multiple keyboards, function key selection, and mouse selection. Results show that the use of eye input is 111% faster than the mouse, 75% faster than function keys, and 37% faster than the use of multiple keyboards. A user satisfaction questionnaire showed that participants also preferred the use of eye input over other three techniques. The implications of this work are discussed, as well as future calibration-free implementations.
Magistrates and voice recognition: reconceptualising agency BIBAFull-Text 127-133
  Anni Dugdale; Ben Kraal
Exploring the introduction of speech recognition, an intelligent software system, in the Magistrates Court of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) promted questioning of the notion of agency. In this paper we look to sociology for conceptions of human and machine agency helpful to HCI. In particular we draw on actor network theory and the work of Lucy Suchman for an emphasis on the materiality of agency, the mutuality of human and non-human co-constructions of agency, and the performative and distributed nature of agency. Far from being marked by autonomy and independence, agency can more usefully be conceived as the outcome of the relatedness of human to human, human to non-human and non-human to non-human.

Long papers: tangible

Learning from interactive museum installations about interaction design for public settings BIBAFull-Text 135-142
  Eva Hornecker; Matthias Stifter
This paper reports on the evaluation of a digitally augmented exhibition on the history of modern media. We discuss visitors' interaction with installations and corresponding interaction design issues, drawing on results from analysis of logfiles, interviews, and observation in the museum. We see this as an exploration into interaction design of interactive installations for public settings, using the evaluation as a case study on what makes an installation engaging and how it can provide an engaging experience for groups.
Exploration and reflection in interactive art: glass pond BIBAFull-Text 143-150
  Jennifer Seevinck; Linda Candy; Ernest A. Edmonds
Glass Pond is an interactive artwork designed to engender exploration and reflection through an intuitive, tangible interface and a simulation agent. It is being developed using iterative methods. A study has been conducted with the aim of illuminating user experience, interface, design, and performance issues.
   The paper describes the study methodology and process of data analysis including coding schemes for cognitive states and movements. Analysis reveals that exploration and reflection occurred as well as composing behaviours (unexpected). Results also show that participants interacted to varying degrees. Design discussion includes the artwork's (novel) interface and configuration.
Tangible tiles: design and evaluation of a tangible user interface in a collaborative tabletop setup BIBAFull-Text 151-158
  Manuela Waldner; Jörg Hauber; Jürgen Zauner; Michael Haller; Mark Billinghurst
In this paper we describe a tangible user interface "Tangible Tiles", which uses optically tracked transparent plexiglass tiles for interaction and display of projected imagery on a table or whiteboard. We designed and implemented a number of interaction techniques based on two sets of different tiles, which either directly represent digital objects or function as tools for data manipulation. To discover the strengths and weaknesses of our current prototype, we conducted a user study that compared simple interaction with digital imagery in three conditions: 1) our Tangible Tiles system, 2) a commercial touch screen, and 3) a control condition using real paper prints. Although we discovered some conceptual problems, the results show potential benefits of Tangible Tiles for supporting collaboration and natural interaction.
AuraOrb: using social awareness cues in the design of progressive notification appliances BIBAFull-Text 159-166
  Mark Altosaar; Roel Vertegaal; Changuk Sohn; Daniel Cheng
One of the problems with notification appliances is that they can be distracting when providing information not of immediate interest to the user. In this paper, we present AuraOrb, an ambient notification appliance that deploys progressive turn taking techniques to minimize notification disruptions. AuraOrb uses social awareness cues, such as eye contact to detect user interest in an initially ambient light notification. Once detected, it displays a text message with a notification heading visible from 360 degrees. Touching the orb causes the associated message to be displayed on the user's computer screen. When user interest is lost, AuraOrb automatically reverts back to its idle state.
   We performed an initial evaluation of AuraOrb's functionality using a set of heuristics tailored to ambient displays. We compared progressive notification with the use of persistent ticker tape notifications and Outlook Express system tray messages for notifying the user of incoming emails. Results of our evaluation suggest that progressive turn taking techniques allowed AuraOrb users to access notification headings with minimal impact on their focus task.

Long papers: tools

Using a scenario-planning tool to support an engaging online user experience BIBAFull-Text 167-174
  Jon M. Pearce; John Murphy; David Patman
This paper describes a pilot project to research the use of a dynamic visual interface as the basis of a scenario-planning tool. We introduce 'flow' as a theoretical framework that underpins the research, describe the design and development of the software tool and, through its evaluation in user-testing trials, we develop the ideas of scenario-planning in the context of providing e-government online services. Finally, proposed future research is discussed.
Tools for designing and delivering multiple-perspective scenarios BIBAFull-Text 175-182
  Wally Smith; Daghan Acay; Ramon Fano; Gideon Ratner
This paper describes two prototype tools developed as part of a design-based investigation into the use of multiple-perspective scenarios. A multiple-perspective scenario is one constructed as many different narratives about the same events, with the intention being to explore how the different perspectives might be coordinated or might reach some accommodation. The first prototype assists an author to construct such a scenario, while the second prototype allows the scenario to be delivered to physically distributed groups who communicate with each other using video-conferencing. This exploratory investigation demonstrates how the scenario must be represented with extensive additional data and meta-data to render the authors' intentions visibile and meaningful. In this way, the scenario can be re-played in a way that allows for re-discovery of the issues contained within.
Virtual object specification for usable virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 183-190
  Shamus P. Smith; James S. Willans
The specification of virtual world objects is an important part of virtual environment design. However, identifying the required level of behaviour and geometric decomposition for virtual objects in a particular application is difficult and error-prone. This has implications for usability as the behaviour of objects gives strong cues to potential interaction. A fundamental step in tackling usability problems is the specification of virtual world objects early in the design phase. This paper presents a method for virtual object specification using task-based scenarios.
PICTIOL: a case study in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 191-198
  Vivienne Farrell; Graham Farrell; Kon Mouzakis; Chris Pilgrim; Pauline Byrt
Participatory design is an essential element of the skill set of professional interface developers and therefore is a significant component of HCI courses at universities. The PICTIVE technique is a 'low-fidelity' collaborative design technique that encourages participatory design. Significant challenges arise when attempting to introduce participatory design techniques such as PICTIVE to students who may not be studying on campus.
   This paper is a case-study in the design, evolution and refinement of an educational software tool designed to provide off-campus students with experience in collaborative user-centred software design.
   This paper investigates the origins and value of participatory design and its implementation using the PICTIVE technique. The paper describes the process of creating PICTIOL, a web-delivered solution to provide experience in problem-based learning, emulating the PICTIVE technique. Stages in development of the new software are described, including various HCI testing techniques and the iterative design/implementation/feedback loop. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential of the PICTIOL in education and industry.
   Whilst the focus of the project was on the development of the PICTIOL tool, the very process of creating PICTIOL is itself an example of collaborative user-centred software design.

Long papers: culture

Cultural theory: from armchair critic to star performer BIBAFull-Text 199-204
  Christine Satchell
When designing mobile technologies for young people in social situations, there is a need for methodological approaches that allow the researcher to capture the intricacies of use within the context of day-to-day situations. As will be discussed in this paper, one of the most effective ways of achieving this is through the use of multi-disciplinary methodologies provided by HCI. However, while traditional approaches usually draw on ethnography or psychology for the sociology component, the study reported on in this paper, inspired by the work being conducted within the emerging field of Critical Technical Practice, introduces cultural theory into the multi-disciplinary mix of a user centered design project. The result is the development of the Swarm mobile phone prototype.
MAIL: a framework for critical technical practice BIBAFull-Text 205-212
  Nick Foster; Luke Compston; Daniel Barkho
This paper proposes a new framework for applying Critical Technical Practice (CTP) to the area of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). Through this paper the framework is developed, justified and explained. The framework is then demonstrated using three cases. Since the conception of CTP in the late 1990s it has attracted interest from various areas, and through research is helping to yield new ways forward for problem areas, design and products in HCI. However the application of CTP has always been up to individuals and their own interpretation. The proposed framework tries to add structure through a series of easy to follow steps that the CTP adopter can use to apply CTP to their problem area, design or product. The framework is motivated by the need to provide the adopter with a straight forward way to critically think about his/her HCI arena. Ways to enable this are provided and areas for future work are discussed. The use cases presented help to demonstrate how the framework can be applied to each of these different areas.
Factoring culture into the design of a persuasive game BIBAFull-Text 213-220
  Rilla Khaled; Pippin Barr; Ronald Fischer; James Noble; Robert Biddle
Preliminary studies indicate that games can be effective vehicles for persuasion. In order to have a better chance at persuading target audiences, however, we claim that it is best to design with the background culture of the intended audience in mind. In this paper, we share our insights into the differences of perception between New Zealand (NZ) Europeans and Maori (the indigenous people of NZ), regarding smoking, smoking cessation, and social marketing. Based on our findings, we discuss how we have designed two different versions of culturally relevant persuasive game about smoking cessation, one aimed at a NZ European audience, the other aimed at a Maori audience.
"heh -- keeps me off the smokes...": probing technology support for personal change BIBAFull-Text 221-228
  Connor Graham; Peter Benda; Steve Howard; James Balmford; Nicole Bishop; Ron Borland
The design and evaluation of computing technology supporting a process of personal change presents both opportunities and challenges for HCI. Here we describe an existing program of ongoing smoking cessation support delivered via the Internet, and present the case for augmenting this system using messaging and 'social' technologies. A key concern in this enterprise is reconciling a model of human behaviour with models of technology interaction. This involves utilizing a model describing the health behaviour change process to inform present support (an interactive, Web-based 'coaching' system -- the QuitCoach or QC) and future technologies augmenting this system. The two data sets we present (patterns of use of the QC and emails sent to the site) illustrate some broad requirements for interactive support programs, operating through several channels of communication, for smokers trying to quit.

Long papers: understanding

Making there: methods to uncover egocentric experience in a dialogic of natural places BIBAFull-Text 229-236
  Nicola J. Bidwell; David Browning
The design and evaluation of computing technology supporting a process of personal change presents both opportunities and challenges for HCI. Here we describe an existing program of ongoing smoking cessation support delivered via the Internet, and present the case for augmenting this system using messaging and 'social' technologies. A key concern in this enterprise is reconciling a model of human behaviour with models of technology interaction. This involves utilizing a model describing the health behaviour change process to inform present support (an interactive, Web-based 'coaching' system -- the QuitCoach or QC) and future technologies augmenting this system. The two data sets we present (patterns of use of the QC and emails sent to the site) illustrate some broad requirements for interactive support programs, operating through several channels of communication, for smokers trying to quit.
What is your husband's name?: sociological dimensions of internet banking authentication BIBAFull-Text 237-244
  Supriya Singh; Anuja Cabraal; Gabriele Hermansson
First order authentication of the privacy and security of Internet banking rests mainly on distinctive user names and passwords. Our qualitative study of banking, security and privacy shows it is common for married and de facto couples in Australia to access each other's individual Internet and phone banking accounts through shared user names and PINs. This sharing happens when the couple has joint accounts, and both persons also have individual accounts, but only one person manages the money. Individual accounts appear to remain important for their symbolic meanings in a marriage, even though online money management may negate access and privacy boundaries between individual and joint accounts. This study thus finds that first order authentication policies go against social practice in some important domestic contexts. Our work points to the importance of sociological empirical user centred security study in order that security design can be built on social practice.
An information overload study: using design methods for understanding BIBAFull-Text 245-252
  Ingrid Mulder; Henk de Poot; Carla Verwij; Ruud Janssen; Marcel Bijlsma
Information overload is not a clear-cut concept. To understand the concept we studied knowledge workers in their organizational context applying different design methods. These methods are increasingly used to inspire designers in designing technology solutions. However, for understanding ambiguous concepts they are less common. We compared critical incidents collection, cultural probing and storytelling with respect to their contribution to articulate the concept of information overload and to understand why respondents perceive information overload as problematic. At the same time, these insights will steer us towards practical guidelines and technological solutions bridging the gap between understanding human behaviour and (technological) support.
Moving from cultural probes to agent-oriented requirements engineering BIBAFull-Text 253-260
  Anne Boettcher
The cultural probe approach is becoming a valuable observational method in social contexts. Based on cultural probe work on intergenerational play, this paper proposes a method for moving forward from these results towards a requirements analysis, while retaining valuable aspects of the cultural probe approach, like subjectivity and interpretation. Since requirements elicitation techniques are often determined by the modeling scheme used, we chose the most apparently appropriate modeling scheme for social contexts, the Agent Oriented Software Engineering (AOSE) methodology, ROADMAP. We believe to have contributed the ability to include AOSE in the cycle from cultural probe observation to production of informed technology, reflecting designer motivation and intention, for re-immersion into the situational context. The method facilitates the transition from data collection in social environments via cultural probes to socially oriented requirements analysis for informed technology production.

Long papers: using

Conceptual framework and models for identifying and organizing usability impact factors of mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 261-268
  Dong-Han Ham; Jeongyun Heo; Peter Fossick; William Wong; Sanghyun Park; Chiwon Song; Mike Bradley
Usability has been regarded as a critical factor affecting the quality of mobile phones. Many studies have examined usability impact factors of mobile phones on the basis of software usability concepts. However, considering mobile phones as multi-media and information appliances, a new usability concept and associated factors should be developed. This paper proposes a conceptual framework which has five views to reflect different aspect of interactions between users and mobile phones, and from which various usability impact factor models can be derived. Five views include user view, product view, interaction view, dynamic view, and execution view. Furthermore, we developed a hierarchical model which organizes usability factors in terms of goal-means relations. Through two case studies, we could verify the usefulness of the framework and model. Lastly, we developed a set of checklists that are helpful to measure the usability of mobile phones, thereby increasing the practicality of the framework and model.
Usability of online grocery systems: a focus on errors BIBAFull-Text 269-275
  Mark Freeman; Alison Norris; Peter Hyland
Recording of errors in regards to the usability of systems has traditionally focused on safety-critical systems and business support systems. This study applies Zapf et al.'s 'Taxonomy of Errors' to a non-work related context, an Online Grocery System. The taxonomy was found to show that similar types of errors were made by all users of such systems. However, the number of errors that were recorded by different user groups varied. This finding was in contrast to previous studies, and supported the common perception that beginner users make a greater number of errors than more experienced users.
Question-based group authentication BIBAFull-Text 277-283
  Ann Nosseir; Richard Connor; Karen Renaud
There are various situations where a distinction needs to be made between group members and outsiders. For example, to protect students in chat groups from unpleasant incidents caused by intruders; or to provide access to common domains such as computer labs. In some of these situations the implications of unauthorized access are negligible. Thus, using an expensive authentication technique, in terms of equipment and maintenance, or requiring significant effort from the user, is wasteful and unjustified. Passwords are the cheapest access control mechanism but have memorability issues. As a result, various alternatives have been proposed. These solutions are often either insecure or expensive in terms of data collection and maintenance. In this paper we present a solution that is less costly since it is built on the data produced by user-system interactions. The mechanism relies on a dynamic (and unpredictable) shared secret. We report on our investigation into differentiating between group members and outsiders by means of their group characteristics. We also present an original analytical framework to facilitate the automatic generation of questions from group characteristics. Finally, we introduce a prototype of the mechanism.
Saxaren: strengthening informal collaboration among geographically distributed teachers BIBAFull-Text 285-292
  Kristina Groth; Sinna Lindqvist; Cristian Bogdan; Tobias Lidskog; Yngve Sundblad; Ovidiu Sandor
For people working in situations with few colleagues around, information technology could be used for increased communication with colleagues at other places. One such group is teachers in rural areas. In our work with teachers in an archipelago school distributed over six islands we have focused on encouraging communication using a digital notice board, providing for quick handwritten notes, connecting all islands. Based on the teachers' collaborative situation, and on the design, implementation and use of the prototype, we illustrate, by a number of recorded notes, how the teachers have been using the prototype, relating the findings to group building, easy access, and playful behaviour.

Short papers: mobile

Holding hands over a distance: technology probes in an intimate, mobile context BIBAFull-Text 293-296
  Shannon O'Brien; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
While apart, couples can verbally and visually communicate through existing technologies such as mobile phones, text messaging, videoconferencing and email. Yet, other important means of communication, such as holding hands, can only happen when couples are co-located. We investigated if geographically distant handholding in a mobile context is important for young-adult couples by deploying a simple technology probe. Unfortunately, the design of our probe fell short in encouraging participants to engage with it. While it is important for technology probes to be simple, they need to be well designed. Our current and future work incorporates form design into the technology probe method to better support intimate, mobile contexts.
Mobile helper for university students: a design for a mobile learning environment BIBAFull-Text 297-300
  Richard Brown; Hokyoung Ryu; David Parsons
This paper reports on a design case study for a mobile learning (M-learning) environment that follows a user-centred design approach. This development of the system applied an M-learning design framework to identify appropriate design requirements in practice.
A wearable folding display for self-expression BIBAFull-Text 301-304
  Andrew Vande Moere; Monika Hoinkis
This paper proposes the design rationale of a wearable display that is able to convey the behavioral typology of its wearers by merging insights from wearable computing, aesthetic visualization, and electronic fashion. This display acts as an electronically enhanced and dynamically changing form of self-expression, which can be integrated with daily clothing. The data mapping approach is based on historical behavior data retrieved via built-in accelerometer, microphone and infrared sensors. By aesthetical encrypting this personal data, the actual meaning of the display can only be interpreted by people that are intrinsically motivated to learn it, and have had a long-term exposure to it. Conceptually, the display is based on the dynamic folding of consecutive layers of fabric, which creates emergent visual patterns that subtly change over time. A first prototype has been implemented which will ultimately lead to a deployment of several interconnected devices in a real social context, to evaluate its social acceptance and its effectiveness in augmenting human self-expression and promoting social networking.
One-key keyboard: a very small QWERTY keyboard supporting text entry for wearable computing BIBAFull-Text 305-308
  Seoktae Kim; Minjung Sohn; Jinhee Pak; Woohun Lee
Most of the commercialized wearable text input devices are wrist-worn keyboards that have adopted the minimization method of reducing keys. Generally, a drastic key reduction in order to achieve sufficient wearability increases KSPC (Keystrokes per Character), decreases text entry performance, and requires additional effort to learn a new typing method. We are faced with wearability-usability tradeoff problems in designing a good wearable keyboard. To address this problem, we adopted a new keyboard minimization method of reducing key pitch and have developed the One-key Keyboard. The traditional desktop keyboard has one key per character, but One-key Keyboard has only one key (70mmX35mm) on which a 10*5 QWERTY key array is printed. One-key Keyboard detects the position of the fingertip at the time of the keying event and figures out the character entered. We conducted a text entry performance test comprised of 5 sessions. The participants typed 18.9WPM with a 6.7% error rate over all sessions and achieved up to 24.5WPM. From the experiment's results, the One-key Keyboard was evaluated as a potential text input device for wearable computing, balancing wearability, social acceptance, input speed, and learnability.
Using ecological interface design to develop an auditory interface for visually impaired travellers BIBAFull-Text 309-312
  T. Claire Davies; Catherine M. Burns; Shane D. Pinder
This paper discusses the development of a prototype design of an auditory interface for the visually impaired based on the work domain analysis of ecological interface design. Secondary mobility devices have been developed to increase preview distances in addition to a long cane, but these have gained limited acceptance. These devices lack an easily interpreted interface. An interface design that provides the user with sufficient preview to avoid obstacles and plan a path among obstacles is presented.
Beyond security: implications for the future of federated digital identity management systems BIBAFull-Text 313-316
  Christine Satchell; Graeme Shanks; Steve Howard; John Murphy
Federated identity management is often viewed by corporations as a solution to support secure online commerce by synthesising complex and fragmented user information into a single entity. However previous research (Satchell et al 2006) has revealed a new set of end user needs for the design of identity management systems. This paper explores these needs from an identity management provider perspective, finds both alignment and divergence in needs and identifies a generational shift as a major cause of the differing needs. Whilst X and Y generations do not react strongly to concerns about digital identity theft or misappropriation of information, they seek to create and control their digital representations to be streamlined, portable across domains and revealing elements of their real life identity. There is still a considerable challenge for providers who must look beyond 'security' and 'authentication' to include 'user control', 'synthesis', 'portability' and 'personalisation' in the design of their systems.

Short papers: play

Playing the interface: a case study of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas BIBAFull-Text 317-320
  Pippin Barr; Rilla Khaled; James Noble; Robert Biddle
Video games are currently not well understood from an HCI perspective. As opposed to the standard task-based view of interaction, video game interaction takes the form of play. In this paper we offer an analysis of a form of gameplay we call "playing the interface." By understanding play as a kind of interaction with software, we can move toward a video game-specific HCI.
A table tennis game for three players BIBAFull-Text 321-324
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Martin Gibbs
Table tennis is a game that can provide healthy exercise and is also a social pastime for players of all ages across the world. However, players have to be collocated to play, and three players cannot usually play at the same time in fair or equitable manner. We have developed a networked table tennis like game called Table Tennis for Three (TTT). TTT is a game played with bat and ball by three people on three physically separated table tennis tables. The players of TTT can interact with one another through the use of augmented virtuality -- the augmentation of virtual systems with elements of physical game play. TTT uses the physicality of table tennis combined with the communicative media typically associated with videoconferencing. TTT has been developed with the aim of achieving similar benefits to those of co-located table tennis such as exercise, enjoyment and bringing people together to socialize.
Distributed hide-and-seek BIBAFull-Text 325-328
  Frank Vetere; Mark Nolan; Raihaan Abdool Raman
Grandchildren and grandparents are often separated by distance. The decline of the extended family, the pursuit of careers, global migration, divorce and family disputes can contribute to grandchildren growing up without much contact with their grandparents. Technological advances can provide new and creative ways to bring separated grandparent and grandchildren closer. This paper reports on a technological prototype based on the traditional game of hide-and-seek that seeks to re-connect intergenerational relatives. The prototype exploits Bluetooth technologies to sense location and create a distributed hide-and-seek experience.
How it feels, not just how it looks: when bodies interact with technology BIBAFull-Text 329-332
  Astrid Twenebowa Larssen; Toni Robertson; Jenny Edwards
This paper presents thoughts to extend our understanding of bodily aspects of technology interactions. The aim of the paper is to offer a way of looking at the role our kinaesthetic sense plays in human-computer interaction. We approach this issue by framing it around how our bodies establish relationships with things when interacting with technology. Five aspects of a conceptual tool, body-thing dialogue, potential for action, within-reach, out-of-reach and movement expression are introduced. We discuss the role this tool can play in our thinking about, further exploration and eventually our design for movement enabled technology interactions. The idea is that it can help us consider, not just how a design or a technology might look but also how it might feel to use.
Playing the e-business game in 3D virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 333-336
  Helmut Berger; Michael Dittenbach; Dieter Merkl; Anton Bogdanovych; Simeon Simoff; Carles Sierra
In this paper we present an integrated, game-like e-Business environment that follows the role model of Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). The interface is realized as a 3D virtual world using affordable game engine technology. Our environment provides a platform for conducting business and it is supposed to be a community facilitator to create and establish a lively and sustainable online community involving both, providers and consumers. It is information-rich and multimedia-based offering transparent access to disparate information sources.
The antiusability manifesto BIBAFull-Text 337-339
  John Lenarcic
In the style of a brief polemic editorial, antiusability is introduced as a radical design paradigm to reclaim conscious dominion of the user interface, with gaming machines being employed as a framing example.

Short papers: fieldwork

Scenarios for embracing errorful automatic speech recognition BIBAFull-Text 341-344
  Ben Kraal; Anni Dugdale; Penny Collings
Errorful speech recognition can be embraced in the design of automatic speech recognition (ASR) support for the Magistrates Court. In this paper we describe processes and scenarios that led to a design by examining work practices and considering a more realistic understanding of ASR technology than is promoted in ASR literature.
   This paper also uses scenarios in a novel way to package and communicate field work data in a way that is accessible to a wide range of stakeholders.
Designing for place-based social interaction of urban residents in México, South Africa and Australia BIBAFull-Text 345-348
  Marcus Foth; Victor M. Gonzalez; Wallace Taylor
The design of technology to facilitate social interaction of urban residents is increasingly important for many countries around the world. Mexico and South Africa are particularly prone to issues that stem from urban densification and a lack of adequate affordable housing. Governments look to ICT to take on a mediating and facilitating role. This paper reports on research-in-progress of a tri-continental study. The external factors and aims of this pilot project identifying local case studies to prepare for a larger and longer term international comparison of local community networking approaches are examined. It is argued that by careful attention to cultural and social assets in the community, innovations will be engendered which enhance economic and social development. Preliminary design implications for the support of neighbourhood interactions across different socio-cultural contexts are presented.
Case study for a virtual office tailored to the digital media production industry BIBAFull-Text 349-352
  Claudia Schremmer
How can people who work in creative industries collaborate when separated by distance? This paper investigates how people who work in a computer-centred, project-focused, creative environment interact with their peers in their current open-plan offices. In our case study, the digital media production company we worked with needs to maintain its competitive advantage by being able to access external talent. They believe the future of their industry depends on the ability to overcome distance, and are therefore aiming to set up satellite offices that are connected to their headquarters through new technologies. In the creative environment that we examined, interactions between people are of great importance in the synthesis of an atmosphere of fun and trust that enables creativity. We observed the importance of spontaneous casual interactions, awareness and engagement with other people for encouraging an atmosphere of creativity. In our design reflections for a virtual office, where the lack of physical proximity is being overcome by communication technologies, we give recommendations to model these interactions.
Technology designers as technology users: the intertwining of infrastructure and product BIBAFull-Text 353-356
  Julia Prior; Toni Robertson; John Leaney
This paper is about the developer as technical user interacting with computer technology as part of the infrastructure that makes possible their 'real work' of developing a large and complex software product. A longitudinal ethnographic study of work practice in a software development company that uses an Agile development approach found that the developers spend a large part of their working time designing, creating, modifying and interacting with infrastructure to enable and support their software development work. This empirical work-in-progress shows that an understanding of situated technology design may have implications for the future development of HCI methods, tools and approaches.
Are disability-access guidelines designed for designers?: do they need to be? BIBAFull-Text 357-360
  Chris M. Law; Ji Soo Yi; Young Sang Choi; Julie A. Jacko
In this paper we discuss the implications of recent research studies on disability-related design guidelines. We have investigated the quality of guidelines with respect to designers as their end-users, and we have conducted field studies of the use design resources in practice. We now look at gaps in the current knowledge regarding the conceptualized system that comprises: the designer of technology, end-users of technologies, and guideline-setting committees. We look at the practice of setting up accessibility program offices in large companies as a means to tackle accessibility issues, and examine the implications of this practice for product designers, and people creating disability-based guidelines for technology.
A qualitative analysis of local community communications BIBAFull-Text 361-364
  Fiona Redhead; Margot Brereton
This paper explores how people communicate in reference to local interests and suggests information and communication technology (ICT) design for enhancement of local community networks. Qualitative data was gathered from participant observations of local community collective action and open interviews with active community members. Data analysis revealed concepts, leading to categories in relation to local interactions and interests. Design suggestions consider introducing people to local community private-strategic activity via public displays that indicate simple entry points to active participation, and creating information collections according to local community perspectives for long-term reference.

Short papers: social

Design for inspiration: children, personal connections and educational technology BIBAFull-Text 365-368
  Peta Wyeth; Carla Diercke; Stephen Viller
The project is working towards building an understanding of the personal interests and experiences of children with the aim of designing appropriate, usable and, most importantly, inspirational educational technology. kidprobe, an adaptation of the technology probe concept, has been used as a lightweight method of gaining contextual information about children's interactions with 'fun' technology. kidprobe has produced design inspiration which focuses primarily on the social and emotional connections children made. The use of kidprobe has generated some important ideas for improving the use of probes with children. It is an important first step in understanding how to effectively adapt probing techniques to inspire the design of technology for children.
Translating principles of web design and information architecture to the development of interactive television (iTV) interfaces BIBAFull-Text 369-372
  Linda Leung; Scott Bryant; Adrienne Tan
This paper discusses the application of information and interaction design principles to the design of iTV (Interactive TV) applications. It details the authors' experiences of teaching a subject in Digital Information & Interaction Design as part of a postgraduate program in Interactive Multimedia. Students worked on a design project for a common client -- Austar, a Subscription TV and iTV service provider in rural and regional Australia -- in which they developed the information architecture and interaction for proposed new iTV applications.
   The paper begins by defining iTV in relation to the Subscription TV service offered by Austar. It will also contextualise this against other forms of iTV which exist but are not yet possible within the infrastructure available in Australia.iTV was chosen as a novel alternative to designing web interfaces. The students were more than familiar with designing for web environments. iTV presented students with a new technology which many had never experienced directly, as well as new challenges in learning about its constraints and possibilities.
   Finally, the paper details the design process undertaken by the students, and the difficulties faced in their attempts to translate and apply their knowledge of HCI and web design to the development of iTV interfaces.
InfoScent evaluator: a semi-automated tool to evaluate semantic appropriateness of hyperlinks in a web site BIBAFull-Text 373-376
  Katsanos Christos; Tselios Nikolaos; Avouris Nikolaos
In this paper, we present InfoScent Evaluator, a tool that automatically evaluates the semantic appropriateness of the descriptions of hyperlinks in web pages. The tool is based on a theoretical model of users' behavior when engaged in information search tasks, called Information Foraging theory. A textual description of the user's search goal is compared with the textual description of each probable hyperlink, using Latent Semantic Analysis, a statistical technique that evaluates the distance between the two texts. Through this approach the most probable path that the user will follow in order to access the sought web page can be predicted. Thus, the tool can be used to evaluate the web site in terms of appropriateness of hyperlink text and of information architecture. We argue that the presented tool could substantially aid design and evaluation of a web site.
The Wiki: an environment to revolutionise employees' interaction with corporate knowledge BIBAFull-Text 377-380
  Helen Hasan; Charmaine C. Pfaff
Some corporations have adopted a Wiki on their Intranets for employees to collectively store, edit and access work-related material such as reports, best-practice features, and documents. As such collaborative software moves from the social to the corporate arena, it is bound to challenge management authority, engaging the knowledge worker in a more participatory knowledge capability and environment. This paper explores the implication that this revolution has for the interaction of corporate users with technology that will lead to a profound change in organisational culture.
Social software for industrial interaction BIBAFull-Text 381-384
  Toni Koskinen
Social software is an umbrella containing mixture of technologies, internet services, and software. Internet has already demonstrated that it can be used for building online communities and inventing new innovative web services. What about business-to-business industrial usage? Does social computing have anything to offer to industrial business environments? The purpose of this paper is to analyze the potential of social software from the standpoint of industrial employment. This paper also includes a case study description of applying social software technologies to industrial context.
Designing cultural probes for children BIBAFull-Text 385-388
  Peta Wyeth; Carla Diercke
This paper reports on the challenges faced during the design and deployment of educationally-focused cultural probes with children. The aim of the project was to use cultural probes to discover insights into children's interests and ideas within an educational context. The deployment of a cultural probe pack with children aged between 11 and 13 has demonstrated the method's effectiveness as a tool for design inspiration. Children's responses to the cultural probe have provided a valuable insight into the attributes of successful probe activities, the nature of contextual information which may be gathered and the limitations of the method.

Short papers: modality

Examining the redundancy of multimodal input BIBAFull-Text 389-392
  Natalie Ruiz; Ronnie Taib; Fang Chen
Speech and gesture modalities can allow users to interact with complex applications in novel ways. Often users will adapt their multimodal behaviour to cope with increasing levels of domain complexity. These strategies can change how multimodal constructions are planned and executed by users. In the frame of Baddeley's Theory of Working Memory, we present some of the results from an empirical study conducted with users of a multimodal interface, under varying levels of cognitive load. In particular, we examine how multimodal behavioural features are sensitive to cognitive load variations. We report significant decreases in multimodal redundancy (33.6%) and trends of increased multimodal complementarity, as cognitive load increases.
Applying reach in direct manipulation user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 393-396
  Aaron Toney; Bruce H. Thomas
The HCI community currently faces the problem of making tangible user interfaces actively responsive to their user's current physical context. This paper explores the context of direct manipulation user interfaces for large horizontal interactive displays. Knowledge of users' reach provides direct manipulation user interfaces with a powerful tool for contextualizing and predicting user action. This paper introduces users' reach as a formal way to predict the previously observed phenomena of workspace segmentation and territoriality. By creating models of "reach-ability", reach probability surfaces can be generated which further explain the impact on workspace usage of the shape, height, and position of the workspace. As the presented techniques build on formal qualitative and mathematical models of reach, they lend themselves particularly well to an algorithmic implementation suited to driving complex user interface behaviour. This paper presents the results of an initial user study to determine the accuracy of these predictions and their underlying hypotheses about reaches role in shaping workspace usage.
Estimating virtual touchscreen for fingertip interaction with large displays BIBAFull-Text 397-400
  Kelvin Cheng; Masahiro Takatsuka
Large displays are everywhere. However, the computer mouse remains the most common interaction tool for such displays. We propose a new approach for fingertip interaction with large display systems using monocular computer vision. By taking into account the location of the user and the interaction area available, we can estimate an interaction surface -- virtual touchscreen -- between the display and the user. Users can use their pointing finger to interact with the display as if it was brought forward and presented directly in front of them, while preserving viewing angle. An interaction model is presented to describe the interaction with the virtual touchscreen, using the head-hand line method. Initial results, in the form of a work-in-progress prototype, demonstrate the feasibility of this concept.
A novel method for multi-sensory data fusion in multimodal human computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 401-404
  Yong Sun; Fang Chen; Yu (David) Shi; Vera Chung
Multimodal User Interaction (MMUI) technology aims at building natural and intuitive interfaces allowing a user to interact with computer in a way similar to human-to-human communication, for example, through speech and gestures. As a critical component in MMUI, Multimodal Input Fusion explores ways to effectively interpret the combined semantic interpretation of user inputs through multiple modalities. This paper presents a novel approach to multi-sensory data fusion based on speech and manual deictic gesture inputs. The effectiveness of the technique has been validated through experiments, using a traffic incident management scenario where an operator interacts with a map on a large display at a distance and issues multimodal commands through speech and manual gestures. The description of the proposed approach and preliminary experiment results are presented.
Grammar, meaning and movement-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 405-408
  Ben Matthews
Human movement is rightly seen as a rich and under-explored resource for the design of novel interaction modalities. In this paper, I briefly explore some of the difficulties inherent to harnessing what seems to be the limitless potential of human movements as a means of interacting with systems. In particular, I treat these difficulties as a symptom of the fact that movement (generally conceived), unlike language, does not have a grammar. Some implications of this for the promise of human movement as interaction design material are then discussed.
Augmented reality authoring: generic context from programmer to designer BIBAFull-Text 409-412
  Alastair Hampshire; Hartmut Seichter; Raphaël Grasset; Mark Billinghurst
Developing an Augmented Reality (AR) application is usually a long and non-intuitive task. Few methodologies address this problem and tools implementing these are limited or non-existent. To date there is no efficient and easy development tool tailored to the needs of Mixed Reality (MR). We are presenting an initial taxonomy of MR applications, addressing the different levels of abstraction for defining the relation between real and virtual world. We then demonstrate some development approaches and describe tools and libraries that we implemented in order to illustrate aspects of our authoring taxonomy. Finally, we provide a definition addressing the requirements for new generation of AR rapid application development (RAD) tools based on actual implementations.

Short papers: evaluation

Design of an advanced telemedicine system for emergency care BIBAFull-Text 413-416
  Jane Li; Laurie Wilson; Stuart Stapleton; Patrick Cregan
In this paper we describe the design process of the Virtual Critical Care Unit (ViCCU) -- an advanced telemedicine system developed by CSIRO in conjunction with Sydney West Area Health Service. The system allows an emergency care specialist in a major referral hospital to remotely lead a team in a small rural hospital during the treatment of critically ill patients. It enables transmission of high quality audio/video information and has a seamless interface to the complex clinical working environment. The technical design team took an iterative participatory design approach towards the system design. The combination of expert user evaluations and scenario-based user testing methods ensured users' needs were designed into the system and verified. Our experience indicates that the success of this telemedicine system relied largely on a participatory design approach, appropriate evaluation methodologies and working closely with users to build a system which was integrated into the emergency clinical work practice.
Gaze analysis in a remote collaborative setting BIBAFull-Text 417-420
  Cara A. Stitzlein; Jane Li; Alex Krumm-Heller
Understanding computer mediated interactions between humans is an interesting challenge for human factors psychology and a necessity for effective group support system design. We report on our experiences using a remote gaze tracker in a remote collaborative setting. After recording gaze tracking of the remote individual in a mixed presence group during an activity of negotiation, we report the data in context of the display's Areas of Interest (AOIs). This single user display, sectioned into three areas based on informative content, serves as the model for tracking with a remote gaze tracker. An analysis of fixation and dwell times indicate greatest engagement with a focused view of co-located participants which indicates preference over a wider vantage point of people and their surroundings. Methods and preliminary results are discussed.
Socialising across channels: group multichannel communication BIBAFull-Text 421-424
  Clint Heyer; Margot Brereton
People increasingly communicate over multiple channels, such as SMS, email and IM. Choosing the channel for interaction is typically a considered action and shapes the message itself. In order to explore how people make sense of communication mediums and more generally, social group behaviour, we developed a multichannel communication prototype. Preliminary results indicate that multichannel communication was considered very useful in the group context even considering the increased quantity of messages while it was little used for person-to-person interaction.
Usability problems: do software developers already know? BIBAFull-Text 425-428
  Rune Thaarup Høegh
The result of usability evaluations is often accentuated as a distinctive input for developers to improve the usability of a software system. On the other hand developers say that many of the results from the usability evaluations are issues already known to them. This paper presents a study of usability problems as developers perceive them in their own emerging software in relation to usability problems experienced by users in a usability evaluation. The results indicate that having developers explicating their expectation on emerging software can provide a low-cost identification of problem areas, whereas a full scale usability evaluation provides specific knowledge of usability problems and their severity.
A design science approach to an HCI research project BIBAFull-Text 429-432
  Sisira Adikari; Craig McDonald; Penny Collings
Usability is an important and determinant factor in human-computer systems acceptance. Usability issues are still identified late in the software development process, during testing and deployment. One of the reasons these issues arise late in the process is that current requirements engineering practice does not incorporate usability perspectives effectively into software requirements specifications. The main strength of usability-focused software requirements is the clear visibility of usability aspects for both developers and testers. The explicit expression of these aspects of human-computer systems can be built for optimal usability and also evaluated effectively to uncover usability issues. This paper presents a design science-oriented research design to test the proposition that incorporating user modelling and usability modelling in software requirements specifications improves design. The proposal and the research design are expected to make a contribution to knowledge by theory testing and to practice with effective techniques to produce usable human computer systems.
Building effective help systems: modelling human help seeking behaviour BIBAFull-Text 433-436
  Matthew Willis
This paper proposes that the help systems provided for current software applications do not adequately support the natural help seeking behaviours of human beings. To test this hypothesis, theories about help seeking behaviours were used to design an evaluation instrument. This instrument is applied to the help systems of some well known software applications. The findings suggest that these systems do not match natural help-seeking behaviours, with deficiencies particularly in support for adaptivity, communications and creativity.