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OZCHI Tables of Contents: 919293949596980102030405060708091011121314

Proceedings of OZCHI'09, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of OZCHI'09, the CHISIG Annual Conference
Note:Design: Open 24/7
Editors:Jesper Kjeldskov; Jeni Paay; Stephen Viller
Location:Melbourne, Australia
Dates:2009-Nov-23 to 2009-Nov-27
Standard No:ISBN 1-60558-854-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: OZCHI09
Links:Conference Home Page | Conference Series Home Page
  1. Design
  2. Experience
  3. Collaborate
  4. Study
  5. Participate
  6. Interact
  7. Visualise
  8. Evaluate
  9. Lifestyle
  10. Design
  11. Participate
  12. Artefacts
  13. Locative
  14. Input
  15. Projects with unusual needs


Designing situations BIBAKFull-Text 1-8
  Toni Robertson; Lian Loke
This paper extends the analytic framework Suchman used in Plans and Situated Actions by using it as a tool in the design of interactive, immersive environments that rely on human movement as input. We describe the historical and methodological background to Suchman's framework and the impact of her analysis on the development of HCI and related fields. We provide two examples of its use to support prototype evaluation, design reflection and generative and iterative design. Suchman's recognition that computers act on the basis of resources within their situations, just as people act in accord with the resources of theirs, broadens our focus from the design of interfaces to the design of situations within which interaction between people and computers can occur. The tool, and the methodological and theoretical commitments embedded within it, contribute to the design of emerging technologies and to current discussions about approaches to design within shifting paradigms of HCI.
Keywords: Suchman, design tool, interaction design, interactional resources, plans and situated actions, situated action
Beyond the user: use and non-use in HCI BIBAKFull-Text 9-16
  Christine Satchell; Paul Dourish
For many, an interest in Human-Computer Interaction is equivalent to an interest in usability. However, using computers is only one way of relating to them, and only one topic from which we can learn about interactions between people and technology. Here, we focus on not using computers -- ways not to use them, aspects of not using them, what not using them might mean, and what we might learn by examining non-use as seriously as we examine use.
Keywords: non-use, non-users, users
Performative artefacts: users "speaking through" artefacts in collaborative design BIBAKFull-Text 17-24
  Mads Bødker
This paper argues for a relational view of collaboration in User-Centered Design activities. It argues that artefacts of different kinds are performative in making both users and designers perform in particular ways. In this way, it treats a case of a "catastrophic" user workshop as a heterogeneous enactment of relations rather than a case of having e.g. conservative or ignorant users.
Keywords: UCD, artefacts, collaborative, design, heterogeneity, methods, performativity, socio-material, workshop
Patterns or claims: do they help in communicating design advice? BIBAKFull-Text 25-32
  George Abraham; Michael E. Atwood
Past research asserts that patterns or claims will help capture and communicate interaction-design advice. Both structures attempt to provide advice in context along with the justifications for fit. These properties aim to make patterns or claims more concrete and comprehensible to novice designers than design guidelines. However, empirical work evaluating these promises is lacking. This research presents a controlled study that examines the value of structuring design advice as patterns or as claims. Patterns and claims seem different given their respective roots in architecture and design rationale. They also differ in their emphasis when capturing design decisions; patterns emphasize capturing a problem-solution pair in a certain context, whereas claims focus on capturing the positive and negative implications to a design decision. The findings from the study suggest it may be promising to combine the claim and pattern structures and that such a structure may facilitate discussions of design trade-offs.
Keywords: advice, claim, context, controlled-study, pattern, trade-offs


Supporting the supermarket shopping experience through a context-aware shopping trolley BIBAKFull-Text 33-40
  Darren Black; Nils Jakob Clemmensen; Mikael B. Skov
Shopping in supermarkets is becoming an increasingly interactive experience as stores integrate technologies to support shoppers. While shopping is an essential and routine type of consumer behaviour, emerging technologies posses the qualities to change our behaviour and patterns while shopping. This paper describes CAST -- a context-aware shopping trolley designed to support the shopping activity in a supermarket through context-awareness and the acquiring of user attention. The design is based on understandings of supermarket shopping needs and behaviour derived from previous studies. The system supports customers in finding and purchasing products from a shopping list. A field evaluation showed that CAST affected the shopping behaviour and experience in more ways, e.g. more uniform behaviour in terms of product sequence collection, ease of finding products. However, they saved no significant time of the shopping activity.
Keywords: context-awareness, mobile technologies, shopping, supermarket
Evolving interactions: agile design for networked media performance BIBAFull-Text 41-48
  Andrew R. Brown; Steve Dillon; Thorin Kerr; Andrew Sorensen
Network Jamming systems provide real-time collaborative performance experiences for novice or inexperienced users. In this paper we will outline the interaction design considerations that have emerged during evolutionary development cycles of the jam2jam Network Jamming software. In particular we have used agile software design as a research method exploring the co-evolution of features and usability. Several significant iterations of the jam2jam software are presented as case studies and we outline the how core experiences and meaningful engagement has been maintained whilst enhancing user experience and skill develop opportunities. We outline design considerations that support engagement of young people around digital media performance especially in the areas of community arts and education.
You can be too rich: mediated communication in a virtual world BIBAKFull-Text 49-56
  Greg Wadley; Martin R. Gibbs; Nicolas Ducheneaut
Internet-based virtual worlds (VWs) have emerged as a popular form of collaborative virtual environment. Most have offered only text chat for user communication; however several VWs have recently introduced voice. While research has demonstrated benefits of voice, its introduction into the popular VW Second Life (SL) was controversial, and some users have rejected it. In order to understand the benefits and problems that voice brings to virtual worlds, we used qualitative methods to gather data from SL users and analyse it. We discuss our results in the light of media-richness theory and its critiques, arguing that preferences for voice or text reflect a broader problem of managing social presence in virtual contexts.
Keywords: Second Life, media richness, virtual worlds, voice
Brute force interactions: leveraging intense physical actions in gaming BIBAKFull-Text 57-64
  Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Stefan Agamanolis; Frank Vetere; Martin Gibbs
People use a wide range of intensity when interacting with computers, spanning from subtle to brute force. However, computer interfaces so far have mainly focused on interactions restrained to limited force and do not consider extreme physical and brutal interactions, such as those encountered in contact sports. We present an exploration on the topic of "Brute Force" that aims to support researchers and designers who want to leverage the benefits of such forceful interactions. We present the results of a survey on this topic and describe how the salient themes could be used to inspire design work, in particular in a mediated environment, augmented with computing technology. We describe how the themes inspired certain features, and how technological limitations were overcome during this process. We hope with our work we can encourage designers to expand their range of supported interactions to include these physically intense behaviors we call Brute Force that are exhibited in many activities in people's lives.
Keywords: blunt force, brute force, design space, exertion interface, physical, social interaction, sports, tangible, videoconferencing


Understanding distributed collaboration in emergency animal disease response BIBAKFull-Text 65-72
  Jane Li; Kenton O'Hara
There is an increasing interest in CSCW systems for supporting emergency and crisis management. In this paper we explore work practices in emergency animal disease management focusing on the high-level analysis and decision making of the Australian Consultative Committee for Emergency Animal Disease (CCEAD) -- a geographically distributed committee established to recommend action plans during animal disease outbreak. Our findings explore the ways in which they currently share and analyse information together, focusing in particular on their teleconferencing mediated meetings. Our findings highlight factors relating to the time pressure of the task, diverse configuration of the group and asymmetrical settings and how these influence the groups information sharing and communication. We use the findings to discuss implications for collaboration technologies that could support the group and broader implications for similarly structured work groups.
Keywords: distributed collaboration, emergency response, workplace study
Being here: designing for distributed hands-on collaboration in blended interaction spaces BIBAKFull-Text 73-80
  Michael Broughton; Jeni Paay; Jesper Kjeldskov; Kenton O'Hara; Jane Li; Matthew Phillips; Markus Rittenbruch
This paper describes a concept for supporting distributed hands-on collaboration through interaction design for the physical and the digital workspace. The Blended Interaction Spaces concept creates distributed work environments in which collaborating parties all feel that they are present "here" rather than "there". We describe thinking and inspirations behind the Blended Interaction Spaces concept, and summarize findings from fieldwork activities informing our design. We then exemplify the Blended Interaction Spaces concept through a prototype implementation of one of four concepts.
Keywords: CSCW, blended interaction spaces, distributed collaboration, hands-on collaboration, video conferencing
Exploring the project transitions and everyday mobile practices of freelancers: emergent concepts from empirical studies of practice BIBAKFull-Text 81-88
  Kirsten Sadler; Toni Robertson; Melanie Kan
We present analytic concepts that emerged from field studies of the everyday practices of Film and Television Freelancers. We categorised the freelancers' mobile practices into two dimensions: the interplay of flux and stability, and the interplay of the macro and the micro. These dimensions emphasised two key practices that the freelancers engaged in while using technologies to manage change in their lives: sustaining and transitioning practices. These concepts structure our findings in a way that may provide technology designers and researchers with a useful conceptual tool. These concepts draw attention to two aspects that have been little explored in the literature on understanding mobile practices. Firstly, the everyday uses of technologies to manage transitions between longer term durations of practices. Secondly, the integral role of stable contexts, beyond remote work spaces alone, for supporting and shaping mobile practices.
Keywords: mobile technology use, mobility, studies of practice, work/life
Bridging the information gap: collaborative technology design with low-income at-risk families to engender healthy behaviors BIBAKFull-Text 89-96
  Katie A. Siek; Jeffrey S. LaMarche; Julie Maitland
The leading cause of death in the United States is cardiovascular disease. Formative studies have shown that technological interventions may help effect lifestyle changes, however there has been minimal research to ascertain appropriate interventions for at risk, low-income populations. We conducted two participatory-based design workshops with nine caregivers and thirteen children to help determine suitable interventions for an at-risk low socioeconomic population. The major themes that emerged from the workshop for caregivers were their need for assistive systems that would help with everything from parenting to budgeting time and resources. Researchers in human computer interaction would benefit from our findings by developing a holistic sense of barriers encountered by low-income families to improve their health. We conclude the paper with a discussion of design implications.
Keywords: community-based participatory design, design workshops, health behaviors, low-income caregivers, underserved, wellness informatics


Multimedia for primary school children learning sign language BIBAKFull-Text 97-104
  Kirsten Ellis
This research explores the design, development and user testing of a purpose built multimedia resource to assist hearing children in Primary school to learn Australian Sign Language (Auslan). The multimedia application consists of vocabulary instruction, a story, song, game and a series of questions. Children's preferences for characters and activities are investigated as are their opinion on the most appropriate number of signs per session and their enjoyment of learning Auslan in a multimedia environment.
Keywords: children, interaction, sign language, user preferences
Teaching privacy with ubicomp scenarios in HCI classes BIBAKFull-Text 105-112
  Saila Ovaska; Kari-Jouko Räihä
Privacy is a many-faceted concept and, consequently, designing for privacy is a challenging topic to teach. Privacy in ubicomp environments adds to the challenge, since such environments are still rare and people have not gained experience from interacting in them. Scenarios can be used to make the issues concrete for students. We describe three cases, with different scenarios, different pedagogical goals, different levels of students, and different data collection methods, for teaching about privacy using scenarios. We report on the experiences, both the successes and the pitfalls that need to be taken into account.
Keywords: HCI education, privacy, scenario, ubiquitous computing
Radio dispatchers' interruption recovery strategies BIBAKFull-Text 113-120
  Gabriela Mancero; B. L. William Wong; Martin Loomes
A field study was conducted at the British Transport Police Control Room in London. We used The Critical Decision Method (CDM) to explore radio dispatchers' cue identification, situation awareness and integration of information, particularly when following an interruption. The data from the CDM interviews was also analysed using the Emergent Themes Analysis (ETA) approach. The ETA resulted in categorizing difficulties that are shared by all radio dispatchers during high workload. Based on the ETA results, we conducted another set of CDM interviews which focus particularly in interruption recovery. The CDM gave us a clear idea of what information radio dispatchers need to recover from interruptions. We found that radio dispatchers are almost unaffected by interruptions and have developed two main interruption recovery strategies.
Keywords: change blindness, cognition, interruption recovery, situation awareness
Young Australians' privacy, security and trust in internet banking BIBAKFull-Text 121-128
  Supriya Singh; Clive Morley
Generations X and Y (18-40 years old) in Australia see Internet banking as more private, more secure and more trustworthy than older Australians. They use Internet banking more than older Australians as they see Internet banking as a convenient way to bank. Generations X and Y also have greater confidence in their own digital expertise. Like other users of Internet banking they trust the bank will look after them. We draw on a qualitative study of 108 Australian consumers' banking and management of money between April 2005 and March 2006 followed by a random representative survey of 669 Australians aged 18 years or more conducted in September 2007. We contribute to the literature on younger people's use of Internet banking in Australia and their perceptions of privacy, security and trust. We argue there is a need for greater transparency by service providers. We also see regulators being increasingly important in ensuring that social media, cloud computing and financial aggregation services do not lead to unrealistic expectations of security and privacy and a dilution of consumer protections.
Keywords: Australia, generation X, generation Y, internet banking, privacy, security, trust


Dissolving boundaries: social technologies and participation in design BIBAKFull-Text 129-136
  Penny Hagen; Toni Robertson
The emphasis on participation in social technologies challenges some of our traditional assumptions about the role of users and designers in design. It also exposes some of the limitations and assumptions about design embedded in our traditional models and methods. Based on a review of emerging practice we present four perspectives on design in the context of social technologies. By presenting this 'lay of the land', we seek to contribute to ongoing work on the nature of participation and design in the context of social technologies. We draw particular attention to the ways in which roles and responsibilities in design are being reassigned and redistributed. As traditional boundaries between design and use and designer and user dissolve, design is becoming more public. In the context of social technologies design is moving out into the wild.
Keywords: crowdsourcing, design methods, open innovation, participatory design, prototyping, social technologies
Designing for social context of mobility: mobile applications for always-on users BIBAKFull-Text 137-144
  Nithya Sambasivan; Leena Ventä; Jani Mäntyjärvi; Minna Isomursu; Jonna Häkkilä
The informational and instrumental portabilities of mobile devices have made the devices appropriable in various contexts and for various uses. This, then, leads us to ask -- how does the always-on usage impact our day-to-day lives? Extensive investigations were carried out to uncover sociotechnical configurations, appropriations, and negotiations developed to combat perpetual technological availability. Based on the findings, we developed three prototypes, which utilize context-awareness to promote increased sociability, stress relief, and reduced intrusiveness. In this paper, we report on the user investigations, design conception, prototypes, evaluations, and broader learnings.
Keywords: context-aware, informational boundaries, mobile devices, social aspects of mobile phones, urban computing
Dilemmas in situating participation in rural ways of saying BIBAKFull-Text 145-152
  Nicola Bidwell; Dianna Hardy
We reflect upon participation in design processes by people who emphasise 'primary orality', or direct, face-to-face, unmediated communication, due to their rural locations in places with low technology ambiance and cultural antecedents. We focus on issues and relationships between rural contexts and primary orality of relevance to our projects with Indigenous people in regional Australia and villagers in remote rural South Africa. We observe dilemmas as we apply methods, which are informed by ethnomethodology, ethnography and Participatory Design, in enabling local participation, such as intrusive recording practices, concerns about power structures and appropriate investment of time.
Keywords: indigenous culture, rural, technology probes
Designing spatial story-telling software BIBAKFull-Text 153-160
  J. Turner; David Browning
What does it mean when we design for accessibility, inclusivity and "dissolving boundaries" -- particularly those boundaries between the design philosophy, the software/interface actuality and the stated goals? This paper is about the principles underlying a research project called 'The Little Grey Cat engine' or greyCat. GreyCat has grown out of our experience in using commercial game engines as production environments for the transmission of culture and experience through the telling of individual stories. The key to this endeavour is the potential of the greyCat software to visualize worlds and the manner in which non-formal stories are intertwined with place. The apparently simple dictum of "show, don't tell" and the use of 3D game engines as a medium disguise an interesting nexus of problematic issues and questions, particularly in the ramifications for cultural dimensions and participatory interaction design. The engine is currently in alpha and the following paper is its background story. In this paper we discuss the problematic, thrown into sharp relief by a particular project, and we continue to unpack concepts and early designs behind the greyCat itself.
Keywords: computer games, interaction design, participatory design, place, spatiality


Scroll, tilt or move it: using mobile phones to continuously control pointers on large public displays BIBAKFull-Text 161-168
  Sebastian Boring; Marko Jurmu; Andreas Butz
Large and public displays mostly provide little interactivity due to technical constraints, making it difficult for people to capture interesting information or to influence the screen's content. Through the combination of largescale visual output and the mobile phone as an input device, bidirectional interaction with large public displays can be enabled. In this paper, we propose and compare three different interaction techniques (Scroll, Tilt and Move) for continuous control of a pointer located on a remote display using a mobile phone. Since each of these techniques seemed to have arguments for and against them, we conducted a comparative evaluation and discovered their specific strengths and weaknesses. We report the implementation of the techniques, their design and results of our user study. The experiment revealed that while Move and Tilt can be faster, they also introduce higher error rates for selection tasks.
Keywords: accelerometers, cursor control, fatigue, input techniques/mappings, optical flow, target acquisition
TableMouse: a novel multiuser tabletop pointing device BIBAKFull-Text 169-176
  Andrew Cunningham; Ben Close; Bruce H. Thomas; Peter Hutterer
This paper introduces the TableMouse, a new cursor manipulation interaction technology for tabletop computing, specifically designed to support multiple users operating on large horizontal displays. The TableMouse is a low-cost absolute positioning device utilising visually-tracked infrared light emitting diodes for button state, 3D position, 1D orientation, and unique identification information. The supporting software infrastructure is designed to support up to 16 TableMouse devices simultaneously, each with an individual system cursor. This paper introduces the device and software infrastructure and presents two applications exposing its functionality. A formal benchmarking was performed against the traditional mouse for its performance and accuracy.
Keywords: collaboration, collocation, device, interaction
Exploring new window manipulation techniques BIBAKFull-Text 177-183
  David Ahlström; Jürgen Großmann; Susanne Tak; Martin Hitz
Moving and resizing desktop windows are frequently performed but largely unexplored interaction tasks. The standard title bar and border dragging techniques used for window manipulation have not changed much over the years. We studied three new methods to move and resize windows. The new methods are based on proxy and goal-crossing techniques to eliminate the need of long cursor movements and acquiring narrow window borders. Instead, moving and resizing actions are performed by manipulating proxy objects close to the cursor and by sweeping cursor motions across window borders. We compared these techniques with the standard techniques. The results indicate that further investigations and redesigns of window manipulation techniques are worthwhile: all new techniques were faster than the standard techniques, with task completion times improving more than 50% in some cases. Also, the new resizing techniques were found to be less error-prone than the traditional click-and-drag method.
Keywords: novel interaction techniques, window management, window moving, window resizing
Zoofing!: faster list selections with pressure-zoom-flick-scrolling BIBAKFull-Text 185-192
  Philip Quinn; Andy Cockburn
The task of list selection is fundamental to many user interfaces, and the traditional scrollbar is a control that does not utilise the rich input features of many mobile devices. We describe the design and evaluation of zoofing -- a list selection interface for touch/pen devices that combines pressure-based zooming and flick-based scrolling. While previous flick-based interfaces have performed similarly to traditional scrolling for short distances, and worse for long ones, zoofing outperforms (and is preferred to) traditional scrolling, flick-based scrolling, and OrthoZoom. We analyse experimental logs to understand how pressure was used and discuss directions for further work.
Keywords: flicking, list selection, pressure, scrolling, zooming


The social life of visualization BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Hugh Macdonald; Jeremy Yuille; Reuben Stanton; Stephen Viller
In this paper we reframe the creation of information visualizations as a kind of interface design, where visualizations provide people with an interface onto a dataset in such a way that they can generate, understand, and ultimately communicate interpretations of the data in the form of narratives to other members of given social settings. The paper describes a three stage create -- interpret -- capture process [Figure 1] for the design of information visualizations. The work references existing interaction design patterns, interfaces, and theories of organizational behaviour that serve to illustrate the approach we have used.
Keywords: information visualization, interaction design patterns, object-centred social networks
Using emotion eliciting photographs to inspire awareness and attitudinal change: a user-centered case study BIBAKFull-Text 201-207
  Christian Martyn Jones; Claudia Baldwin
Photographs can be used to elicit an emotional response in the viewer to promote attitudinal change. The paper considers the types of photographs which can elicit the strongest impact on viewers and uses a case study of the Mary River Dam. The Queensland government is proposing to dam the Mary River, whilst the Save the Mary River group has been running a campaign against the proposed dam using images of the community and landscape in its protest materials and website. This paper reports on a project to understand which types of images provided by the Save the Mary River group elicit the strongest impact on viewers to inspire support for their protest, and how and why these images can increase awareness around the issues of the proposed dam as a solution to water needs.
Keywords: interactive media, photovoice, user-centered design, visual research
CO2nfession: engaging with values through urban conversations BIBAKFull-Text 209-216
  Tuck W. Leong; Martin Brynskov
It has been suggested that future directions of HCI would need to place human values at its core. One approach towards this complex endeavor is to build an understanding of these values through examining systems designed to address them. This paper focuses on an urban installation -- CO2nfession/CO2mmitment -- that deals with one such (societal) value: environmental sustainability. Designed to solicit personal opinions about climate change, we found the 'confessional' aspect of the installation encouraged strong reflexivity amongst 'users' with regards to this value and precipitated personal considerations about future actions. More importantly this reflexivity exposes people's lived and felt experiences about this societal value, unearthing their ambivalences, hindrances but also motivations. This installation highlights an alternate approach that can complement current efforts without taking a 'big stick' approach. Instead, urban media technologies can be harnessed to engage people with this value on their own terms, through encouraging conversations and supporting reflexivity.
Keywords: interaction design, reflexivity, urban media technology, user-generated video, values
SmartGardenWatering: experiences of using a garden watering simulation BIBAKFull-Text 217-224
  Jon Pearce; Wally Smith; Bjorn Nansen; John Murphy
SmartGardenWatering is an innovative software tool that advises gardeners on watering schedules and watering use. In this paper we investigate how expert and novice gardeners respond to advice from this piece of computer software. Do they readily accept it and adapt their activities accordingly, or do they override it with their own local knowledge? We describe the project to develop the simulation, including the design of the user interface, and a study of 20 gardeners using the tool. The focus of the study was to identify factors in the design of the software that influence how well it might intervene in ongoing gardening practice. The findings focus on what brings confidence or a lack of trust in the underlying horticultural model and its application to a particular garden. Finally, we consider how these findings might inform ongoing development of the software.
Keywords: interaction design, simulation, sustainability, water


Evaluating reading and analysis tasks on mobile devices: a case study of tilt and flick scrolling BIBAKFull-Text 225-232
  Stephen Fitchett; Andy Cockburn
Flick scrolling is a natural scrolling method for mobile touch devices such as the iPhone™. It is useful not only for its performance but perhaps even more so for its ease of use and user experience. Tilt scrolling instead uses the device's tilt to determine the rate of scrolling, which offers several potential interaction advantages over touch sensitive alternatives: scrolling can be achieved without occluding a large proportion of the screen with a hand, finger, or thumb; it frees drag input events for other important actions such as text selection and drag-and-drop; and it works regardless of the hand's state (e.g. moist or gloved). Although previously described, the performance of tilt scrolling has not been compared to flick scrolling, which is now the state of the art. Furthermore, it is unclear how such an empirical comparison should be conducted. To better understand interaction with mobile scrolling, we propose a new method of evaluating scrolling interfaces in the context of reading or analysis tasks. These activities typically involve slow subtle scroll movements rather than large movements typical investigated in most scrolling evaluations. We use this method to thoroughly compare flick scrolling and tilt scrolling. We show that tilt scrolling results in better performance for tasks performed while stationary while there is no significant difference while moving. However, we find that participants prefer flick scrolling and walk faster when completing moving tasks with flick scrolling than tilt scrolling.
Keywords: accelerometer, flick scrolling, mobile device, tilt scrolling
The usability of usability guidelines: a proposal for meta-guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 233-240
  Stefan Cronholm
This paper is challenging the usability of traditional usability guidelines. The claim is that guideline descriptions and explanations are not satisfactory. Analysis results demonstrate vagueness and are ambiguous in explanation. The aim of the paper is to propose a set of principles (meta-guidelines) to be used for improving the usability of guidelines.
Keywords: usability criteria, usability guidelines, usability principles
Window Watcher: a visualisation tool for understanding windowing activities BIBAKFull-Text 241-248
  Susanne Tak; Andy Cockburn
Almost all actions on a computer are mediated by windows, yet we know surprisingly little about how people coordinate their activities using these windows. Studies of window use are difficult for two reasons: gathering longitudinal data is problematic and it is unclear how to extract meaningful characterisations from the data. In this paper, we present a visualisation tool called Window Watcher that helps researchers understand and interpret low level event logs of window switching activities generated by our tool PyLogger. We describe its design objectives and demonstrate ways that it summarises and elucidates window use.
Keywords: data visualisation, longitudinal analysis, window management, window switching
Metaphor or diagram?: comparing different representations for group mirrors BIBAKFull-Text 249-256
  Sara Streng; Karsten Stegmann; Heinrich Hußmann; Frank Fischer
This paper aims at answering the question how ambient displays can be used as group mirrors to support collaborative (learning) activities. Our research question is to what extent the type of feedback representation affects collaborative processes. Two different representations have been created and compared in a user study: a diagram and a metaphor. In the diagram version the quality rating for each person is explicitly shown in charts and numbers. In the metaphorical representation feedback is implicitly visualized by changing certain characteristics of a pictorial scene. The results show that the metaphoric group mirror was not only more popular than the diagram, it also had a greater impact on the group behavior. When receiving negative feedback from the metaphoric group mirror, a correction of behavior was made significantly faster than with the diagram. Furthermore, both group mirrors had a positive effect on the self-regulation of the group compared to the baseline condition without feedback.
Keywords: ambient display, collaborative learning, group mirror, metaphor


Designing participation in agile ridesharing with mobile social software BIBAKFull-Text 257-260
  Margot Brereton; Paul Roe; Marcus Foth; Jonathan M. Bunker; Laurie Buys
Growing participation is a key challenge for the viability of sustainability initiatives, many of which require enactment at a local community level in order to be effective. This paper undertakes a review of technology assisted carpooling in order to understand the challenge of designing participation and consider how mobile social software and interface design can be brought to bear.
   It was found that while persuasive technology and social networking approaches have roles to play, critical factors in the design of carpooling are convenience, ease of use and fit with contingent circumstances, all of which require a use-centred approach to designing a technological system and building participation. Moreover, the reach of technology platform-based global approaches may be limited if they do not cater to local needs. An approach that focuses on iteratively designing technology to support and grow mobile social ridesharing networks in particular locales is proposed. The paper contributes an understanding of HCI approaches in the context of other designing participation approaches.
Keywords: agile ride-sharing, carpooling, community, designing participation, dynamic ride-sharing, green, intelligent transport, local, locales, localisation, localization, participatory design, sustainable, user-centred design
Using a multi-touch tabletop for upper extremity motor rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 261-264
  Michelle Annett; Fraser Anderson; Darrell Goertzen; Jonathan Halton; Quentin Ranson; Walter F. Bischof; Pierre Boulanger
Millions of people in Canada have impairments that result in a loss of function and directly affect their ability to carry out activities of daily living. Many individuals with disabilities enter into rehabilitation programs to improve their motor functioning and quality of life. Currently, many of the activities and exercises that are performed are monotonous, uninteresting, and do not inspire patients to perform to the best of their abilities. The usage of traditional exercises can also make it difficult for therapists to objectively measure and track patient progress. The integration of highly interactive and immersive technologies into rehabilitation programs has the potential to benefit both patients and therapists. We have developed a multi-touch tabletop system, the AIR Touch, which combines existing multi-touch technologies with a suite of new rehabilitation-centric applications. The AIR Touch was developed under the guidance of practicing occupational therapists.
Keywords: interactive surface, motor rehabilitation, multi-touch tabletop, occupational therapy, patient progression
Development of a software-based social tutor for children with autism spectrum disorders BIBAKFull-Text 265-268
  Marissa Milne; David Powers; Richard Leibbrandt
This work in progress aims to investigate the potential for using autonomous virtual agents as social tutors for children with autism through the development of a prototype software program. Existing studies have investigated the use of human controlled virtual agents for social skills development and autonomous virtual agents for language development, both achieving positive outcomes. The virtual agent component of this, known as the Thinking Head, has a lifelike appearance and ability to model realistic facial expressions that lends it to this application. The evaluation component of this project will examine the children's ability to recognize particular facial expressions and choose appropriate social actions to take before and after a short interaction with the social tutor. Additionally, the evaluation investigates the children's thoughts about their experience with the virtual agent. The outcome of this project will provide insights for the potential of this approach and provide direction for future research and development.
Keywords: ASD, autism, autonomous, virtual agent, virtual tutor
SOFA: an online social network for engaging and motivating families to adopt a healthy lifestyle BIBAKFull-Text 269-272
  Nilufar Baghaei; Jill Freyne; Stephen Kimani; Greg Smith; Shlomo Berkovsky; Dipak Bhandari; Nathalie Colineau; Cecile Paris
Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic and are increasing rapidly. Previous research has shown that providing social support and family support has profound roles on the weight management of individuals. However, the support provided by online health communities is outside the family context and is targeted at individuals. We are proposing SOFA (SOcial FAmily), an online social networking system aimed to engage and motivate families to adopt a healthy lifestyle through exposure to educational information on diet exercise and a range of other healthy living information. In this paper, we describe SOFA's features, the research questions that we are investigating and some preliminary results from a live deployment. The results showed that adding a social layer can considerably increase user engagement with static educational content and showed that the provision of family based profiles reduced the activity levels of individual family members when compared to those with individual profiles.
Keywords: family health care, social networks, user engagement
Physical activity motivating games: you can play, mate! BIBAKFull-Text 273-276
  Shlomo Berkovsky; Jill Freyne; Mac Coombe; Dipak Bhandari; Nilufar Baghaei
Contemporary lifestyle is becoming increasingly more sedentary: a little physical activity and much sedentary activity. The nature of sedentary activity is self-reinforcing, such that increasing physical and decreasing sedentary activity is difficult. Rather than trying to motivate users to reduce the time spent on sedentary activity, we focus on integrating physical activity into the sedentary activity of computer games playing through a novel game design. Our design leverages engagement with games in order to motivate users to perform physical activity, as part of the sedentary playing, by offering game rewards in return for physical activity performed. In this work we report on an initial user study of our game design applied to the open source Neverball game. We motivated users (in this case children) to perform physical activity by reducing the time allocated to perform tasks and captured their activity through accelerometers configured to recognise jumping movements. Findings showed that users performed more physical activity and decreased the amount of sedentary time when playing the active version of Neverball, while not reporting a decrease in perceived enjoyment of playing.
Keywords: behavioural change, game design, motivation, physical activity, serious games, user study
Technological approaches to promoting physical activity BIBAKFull-Text 277-280
  Julie Maitland; Katie A. Siek
This paper reflects on the HCI community's current and potential contributions to the problem of promoting physical activity. It does so by first presenting a conceptual overview of existing research, and then draws from the findings of a study of attitudes towards health and health-related behaviour to frame a critical review of the current state of the art. In doing so, we identify an area of outstanding need and opportunity for future research: conveying the value of physical activity to those unconvinced of its importance.
Keywords: low-income, persuasive technology, physical activity
Utilising the open channel created by telecare: acoustic communication analysis of radio sounds at home BIBAKFull-Text 281-284
  Hanif Baharin; Ralf Mühlberger
Since policy makers are advocating telecare as a popular solution for the aging society, it is expected that sooner or later many homes will have an always-on open channel as the result of telecare technology usage. Our previous studies have shown that this channel can be tapped to provide the feeling of presence of loved ones without the exchange of content. In this paper, the idea is discussed further by analysing the meaning of radio sounds at home from the perspectives of Acoustic Communication Theory. The analysis justifies the need to further explore the use of meaningful environmental sound objects in a domestic setting to negate 'social silence', by giving an example of a possible design.
Keywords: acoustic communication theory, radio sounds, telecare


Working towards an open source design approach for the development of collaborative design projects BIBAKFull-Text 285-288
  Natalie Ebenreuter
At its core the act of designing begins with an idea that develops over time to shape the creation of a product or service that meets a distinct purpose. Characteristically, a select group of designers, key stakeholders and possibly end-users of a product work together to facilitate the design process. However, if understood with respect to the development of an open source project, open design projects can potentially involve any number of global participants that contribute to the online development of a product's voluntary advancement.
   In this paper I consider if the concept of open source development can be extended to collaborative interaction design practices. In doing so, I argue that effective open design processes for designing interactive experiences need to be developed and propose a way in which online communication tools and rationale instances can be used to share the iterative direction of open design decisions.
Keywords: design decisions, open design, open source development, rationale instances
'Coalesce': a web-based tool for sensemaking BIBAKFull-Text 289-292
  Brendan Ryder; Terry Anderson
Sensemaking is an ill-defined, iterative and complex activity concerned with the way people approach the process of collecting, organizing and creating representations of information. The user needs to be supported in two cognitive tasks: 'representation construction', which involves finding an appropriate structure to aid sensemaking and 'encoding', which is populating that structure with meaningful information. Much work has been completed in the area of encoding, but the forms of representation construction and how they can be better supported in software requires further investigation.
   This paper reports on the design, implementation and evaluation of a web-based sensemaking tool called Coalesce. It tightly integrates search facilities with the representation construction task through the SenseMap -- an innovative interactive hierarchical mechanism for displaying, structuring and storing selected information. Results from controlled experiments indicate that Coalesce enhances users' searching, gathering and organizing tasks when compared to a standard browser and word processor combination, but without imposing an additional cognitive load.
Keywords: personal information management, representation construction, sensemaking, tagging
Lenders, borrowers and fellows: personal narrative and social entrepreneurship in online microfinance BIBAKFull-Text 293-296
  Jolynna Sinanan
Online microfinance promotes and encourages entrepreneurship as well as creating informal relationships between lenders and clients using social networking technologies. While much of the existing literature describes the quantitative success of online microfinance, little attention has been given to the social processes through which this has been achieved. This short discussion will take an interdisciplinary approach, focusing on the role of narrative production in facilitating relationships between online lenders in more affluent countries and client entrepreneurs in developing countries, using experience drawn from initial fieldwork conducted in Cambodia. Better understanding the relationships between online lenders, clients and the intermediaries who document the activities of client entrepreneurs may be useful in the design, modification or implementation of effective technologies to better enable all actors in the delivery of online microfinance services.
Keywords: online microfinance, reflective HCI, social entrepreneurship, social networks
Truce in online games BIBAKFull-Text 297-300
  Mitchell Harrop
This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a study examining the nature of rules in the online multiplayer game modification Defense of the Ancients (DotA). It was found that players use numerous truce calls (categorised broadly as fainties, parlay, pax and cheap) to negotiate rules or the maintenance of 'fair play' in a game. The possibility of providing feedback on the use of truce calls to developers as part of the design process is also considered.
Keywords: DotA, defense of the ancients, game studies, rules
User interaction with novel web search interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 301-304
  Hilal Ali; Falk Scholer; James A. Thom; Mingfang Wu
Search result organisation and presentation is an important component of a Web search system, it can have a substantial impact on the ability of users to find useful information. In this study we compare the effectiveness of three publicly available search interfaces for supporting navigational search tasks. The three interfaces vary primarily in the proportion of visual versus textual cues that are used to display a search result. Our analysis shows that users' search completion time varies greatly among interfaces, and an appropriate combination of textual and visual information leads to shortest search completion time and the least number of wrong answers.
Keywords: eye tracking, search result presentation, web search interfaces
MUSTe method for quantifying virtual environment training system efficacy BIBAKFull-Text 305-308
  Dawei Jia; Asim Bhatti; Saeid Nahavandi
In the current era increased attention and interest of utilizing advanced computer technologies for training and education at all managerial levels and functional areas is apparent. One of such technologies, virtual environment (VE), is perceived to be effective in enhancing human abilities to learn abstract concept and complex procedural tasks. Despite its adaptation for training and fast-paced technological advancements, ways in which to evaluate efficacy of such technology are unclear. We have approached this problem by developed a new evaluation method focus on cognitive, affective and skill-based learning dimensions, based on traditional usability evaluation methods but tailored to specifically suit for the quantification of 3D VE system. We first describe the construct of the new method and then report a study utilizing the method in the context of quantifying a VE efficacy in an object assembly task. At last, we discuss the implications of such a method.
Keywords: efficacy, human-virtual environment interaction (HVEI), training evaluation, user experience
Having fun at home: interleaving fieldwork and goal models BIBAKFull-Text 309-312
  Sonja Pedell; Tim Miller; Frank Vetere; Leon Sterling; Steve Howard; Jeni Paay
We aim to make sense of a perplexing human experience (fun) as it occurs in a recently discovered place for socio-technical study (the home). Our toolkit includes technology probes, associated fieldwork and models from software engineering. We describe how we interleave the probes and models. As the work will please neither modeling nor fieldwork purists, we enunciate the benefits of our ambidextrous approach.
Keywords: agent-oriented modelling, domestic domain, fieldwork, probes, quality goals


Towards an ethical interaction design: the issue of including stakeholders in law-enforcement software development BIBAKFull-Text 313-316
  Patrick G. Watson; Penny Duquenoy; Margaret Brennan; Matt Jones; James Walkerdine
In the public sector (particularly in the UK in light of recent reforms i.e. the Local Government Act 2000, etc.) a greater degree of accountability and public involvement or intervention has become the norm in public infrastructure projects, partially under the rubric of "stakeholder engagement". This paper seeks to discuss public involvement in a law-enforcement technology (Isis), which operates on a covert basis in the detection and prevention of child abuse activities across a number of social networking facilities. Our contribution to the development of Isis is to perform an ethics centered consultation process with stakeholders who will contribute to the design and deployment of the end software package. To that end, we have sought to develop a "Modified Participatory Design" approach, utilizing the knowledge gained from the HCI community with regards to more traditional design projects and adapting this body of work to questions of ethics, privacy, corporate and civic responsibility, monitoring and awareness issues, etc. in an effort to create a fluid and agile communication process between stakeholders and designers, thus taking account of the ethical issues around Isis as design occurs.
Keywords: ethics centred development, new public management, participatory design, socio-technical considerations, stakeholder engagement
The emergence of the indigenous field of practice: factors affecting Australian Indigenous household ICT adoption BIBAKFull-Text 317-320
  Peter Radoll
This paper examines the factors affecting adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Australian Indigenous households in a rural context. Drawing on the sociological notion of structure and agency it is argued that being engaged in external fields influences Indigenous household ICT adoption. In this paper, a conceptual schema is developed by drawing on Bourdieu's theory of habitus to explain the low uptake of ICTs in Indigenous households in Australia. The research illustrates the value of habitus to understand ICT adoption from a rural Australian Indigenous perspective. Case analysis suggests that this research has practical and policy implications.
Keywords: ICT adoption, habitus, household, indigenous, motivations, theory of practice
Navigating the labyrinth: the technical trials and misadventures of bringing virtual worlds into a government secondary school BIBAKFull-Text 321-324
  Stefan Schutt; John Martino; Dale Linegar
In this paper we present the technical obstacles encountered by a project team seeking to embed virtual world-based activities in a government high school. In doing so we outline a number of broader issues connected with working with proprietary technologies, access and equity, working with IT bureaucracies and systems, and engaging disadvantaged young people.
Keywords: Second Life, access, digital divide, disadvantage, engagement, equity, virtual worlds
Collaborating with users: cultural and (I)literacy challenges BIBAKFull-Text 325-328
  Janni Nielsen; Mads Bødker
With the development of the global market, users become a competitive factor since successful diffusion of IT systems lie with them. However, users have different IT competences and they are embedded within cultures. These are two central challenges that must be addressed in the development of HCI techniques and tools suitable for handling the complexity of designing for users across cultures. User-Centered Design is a first step, and for this paper we frame it specifically within the Scandinavian IS tradition to ensure direct participation by -- and cooperation with -- users through all phases of the design process. This approach serves as the basis for conceptual and experimental work-in-progress in our VisionLab. We describe the different techniques we are exploring, the essentials of which are to work with users in open dialogue. We point out that when working across cultures, virtually mediated cooperation with users is the next challenge, and conclude by sketching two digital techniques for virtual cooperative design using digital media and how they could be useful.
Keywords: UCD, collaboration, culture, design, user research, users, virtual tools, visionlab
A study of email and SMS use in rural Indonesia BIBAKFull-Text 329-332
  Dean M. G. Hargreaves; Toni Robertson
This paper describes a two-year research study that piloted and evaluated the use of low-cost, low-bandwidth Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to support meetings between agricultural researchers and farmers in rural Indonesia and researchers in Australia. We found that the primary constraints to ICT use in rural Indonesia are rarely technical, but rather relate to the knowledge, social and economic systems within which they are used. This study revealed how different local appropriations of email and mobile phone SMS clash, which often resulted in misunderstanding, frustration and reduced team cohesion and performance. This research contributes to understanding the role of ICT to enhance social inclusion of those in remote parts of developing countries.
Keywords: ICT4D, Indonesia, action research, developing countries, low-bandwidth, low-cost, systems thinking and practice
Experimenting with the use of persona in a focus group discussion with older adults in Malaysia BIBAKFull-Text 333-336
  Syariffanor Hisham
Eliciting user-requirements from older adults -- especially amongst non-users -- can be challenging. This is due to the fact that older adults are varied in term of their functional abilities and experience with technology. The common User-centered design (UCD) techniques such as focus group and interviews were found to be less effective with older adults. Inspired by the benefits of persona in enhancing designer's attention through narrative and storytelling, the study reported in this paper tested persona as a communication tool in a focus group discussion with older adults in Malaysia. The study was carried out to gather Malaysian older adults' needs and requirements for the development of a prototype email application. Findings and feedbacks from the study shows that persona can be a potential technique to be applied in working with older adults. The use of persona in a focus group discussion does not only benefit the researchers and designers but also the participants -- particularly in building interest among non-users to embrace computers.
Keywords: focus group, older adults, persona, user requirement gathering
An examination of the knowledge barriers in participatory design and the prospects for embedded research BIBAKFull-Text 337-340
  Miri Segalowitz; Margot Brereton
Participatory design has the moral and pragmatic tenet of including those who will be most affected by a design into the design process. However, good participation is hard to achieve and results linking project success and degree of participation are inconsistent. Through three case studies examining some of the challenges that different properties of knowledge -- novelty, difference, dependence -- can impose on the participatory endeavour we examine some of the consequences to the participatory process of failing to bridge across knowledge boundaries -- syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic. One pragmatic consequence, disrupting the user's feeling of involvement to the project, has been suggested as a possible explanation for the inconsistent results linking participation and project success. To aid in addressing these issues a new form of participatory research, called embedded research, is proposed and examined within the framework of the case studies and knowledge framework with a call for future research into its possibilities.
Keywords: embedded research, involvement, knowledge boundaries, participation, participatory design


When three worlds collide: a model of the tangible interaction process BIBAKFull-Text 341-344
  Marc Hermann; Michael Weber
The design of Tangible Interfaces has already evolved since the first projects were developed. Frameworks and taxonomies have helped to understand the field of Tangible Interaction. But nevertheless the mental models of the interaction process with Tangible Interfaces seems to be surprisingly diverse. In this paper we present a comprehensive and generic model for interaction with the digital world through physical objects. Our goal is to model the complete process of interaction, to analyse existing design approaches using the model, and to gain a generic design aid for Tangible Interaction.
Keywords: action research, design, tangible interaction
The pile of least effort: supporting lived document management practices BIBAKFull-Text 345-348
  Paris Buttfield-Addison; Christopher Lueg; Jonathon Manning
This paper outlines early results from ethnographic research examining the ways people organise and manage their personal documents in an office, with a focus on people who engage in piling. The study encompassed in-depth interview data, questionnaire data and explorations of technology prototypes with participants. We build upon existing personal information management (PIM) research and develop a framework to encompass the real world of paper document management. In this paper, we highlight the challenges of being a piler, and suggest how they might be remedied or alleviated through design considerations for future support systems.
Keywords: personal information management, situated practices
Passengers in the airport: artefacts and activities BIBAKFull-Text 349-352
  Ben Kraal; Vesna Popovic; Philip J. Kirk
This study addresses the ordinary activities of passengers in airports. Using observational techniques we investigated how passenger activities are mediated by artefacts, in this the bags that people carry. The relationship between passengers and their bags is shown to be complex and contingent on many factors. We report on our early research in the airport and document an emerging taxonomy of passenger activity. The significance of this research is in the contribution made to an understanding of passenger activities which could contribute to the design of future technologies for passenger facilitation and to airport terminal design.
Keywords: airport passengers, field work
Exploring virtual representations of physical artefacts in a multi-touch clothing design collaboration system BIBAKFull-Text 353-356
  Jason Yang; Andrew Dekker; Ralf Muhlberger; Stephen Viller
This paper describes a pilot study that investigates how a multi-touch system can support remote collaboration within the clothing design and manufacturing industries. We first examine and discuss the existing collaboration processes and issues found in the day-to-day operations of the clothing industry. To further refine our understanding of what forms of collaboration are important when discussing design and manufacturing techniques, we conducted an ethnographic study with fashion design students. Based on this background research, we designed, developed and evaluated a multi-touch gestural prototype interface. We conclude with reflections on whether collocated natural interactions can be extended remotely via technology.
Keywords: collaboration, gestural interface, multi-touch, observation, tangible interface, user-centred design
Doing things backwards: the OWL project BIBAKFull-Text 357-360
  Danielle Wilde; Kristina Andersen
The OWL project is inspired by Arthur C. Clarke's Third Law of Technology Prediction: Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. It consists of a series of open and speculative body-devices designed without a pre-defined function and tested as design 'probes' in order to ascertain their functionality. While the initial forms emerge from an investigation of the body, their functionality are determined through use. The project fuses fine art and contemporary design processes to arrive at ambiguous outcomes whose functionality is being ascertained 'after the fact' through interviews, or 'probing'. While not necessarily antidesign, the methodology contrasts dramatically with traditional design processes, where the purpose and broad functionality of 'that which is being designed' is usually known in advance. It calls into question the validity of a traditional approach when trying to design 'sufficiently advanced technology'. In this paper we present our process and the theoretical scaffold that supports our underlying thinking. Our field of concerns includes enchantment and ambiguity as resources for design, encouraging 'magical thinking' and 'making strange'.
Keywords: ambiguity, body objects, body worn devices, desires, enchantment, magical thinking, making strange, participatory design, sculptural process
Visual melodies interactive installation for creating a relaxing environment in a healthcare setting BIBAKFull-Text 361-364
  Amy Yi-Chun Chen; Bert Bongers; Rick Iedema
This short paper presents an overview of our Visual Melodies installation through two of the themes we have created, the 'Sea Theme' and 'Night Sky Theme'. Visual Melodies utilises sound and moving images with the aim of inducing relaxation and stress relief. The key contribution of this project will be to create a relaxing and supportive therapeutic environment for visitors in healthcare settings. Participants will be able to sit on a sofa, listen to the music and control the moving images and sounds using wireless controllers. A computer programme has also been developed to interface sensors with animations, allowing people to interact and play with the installation.
Keywords: hospital, interactive installation, motion images, relaxation, therapeutic environment, waiting room
Open in art, nature and emergence BIBAKFull-Text 365-368
  Jennifer Seevinck; Ernest Edmonds
The interactive art system +-now is modelled on the openness of the natural world. Emergent shapes constitute a novel method for facilitating this openness. With the art system as an example, the relationship between openness and emergence is discussed. Lastly, artist reflections from the creation of the work are presented. These describe the nature of open systems and how they may be created.
Keywords: design, emergence, emergent shape, exploration, interactive art, nature, open, reflection, sand, tangible user interface


FrostWall: a dual-sided situated display for informal collaboration in the corridor BIBAKFull-Text 369-372
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Jeni Paay; Kenton O'Hara; Ross Smith; Bruce Thomas
FrostWall is designed to support collegial communication and collaboration within a co-located work environment by facilitating and encouraging informal information exchange in the corridors of a workplace using large situated displays. FrostWall displays provide a flexible display area between the inside of a private office workspace and the public corridor outside it. FrostWall uses "frosting" of glass windows and partitions between private and public workspaces in combination with projectors to create a display area that is effectively dual-sided: readable and operable from both sides. In addition to facilitating informal digital communication and information exchange between co-workers, this situated display area also provides a venue for playfulness and personal expression enhancing social cohesion between colleagues. FrostWall is also a unique vehicle for future research into interaction design for dual-sided interfaces.
Keywords: dual-sided interface, informal collaboration, situated display, ubiquitous computing
Unleashing creative writers: situated engagement with mobile narratives BIBAKFull-Text 373-376
  Kevin Wiesner; Marcus Foth; Mark Bilandzic
The emergence of sophisticated multimedia phones in combination with improvements to the mobile Internet provides the possibility to read texts and stories on mobile handsets. However, the question is, how to adapt stories in order to take advantage of the user's mobility and create an engaging and appealing experience. To address these new conditions, a Mobile Narrative was created and access to individual chapters of the story was restricted. Authors can specify constraints, such as a location or time, which need to be met by the reader if they want to read the story. This concept allows creative writers of the story to exploit the fact that the reader's context is known, by intensifying the user experience and integrating this knowledge into the writing process. Interviews with authors and creative writers and two user studies explored the effects of this way of writing on both parties. The paper presents our preliminary research findings discussing this new experience that was found to be exciting and interesting by both sides.
Keywords: constraints, locative media, mobile interaction, mobile media, placed-based community engagement, restrictions, urban informatics
Disposable maps: ad hoc location sharing BIBAKFull-Text 377-380
  Jan Seeburger; Ronald Schroeter
The gathering of people in everyday life is intertwined with travelling to negotiated locations. As a result, mobile phones are often used to rearrange meetings when one or more participants are late or cannot make it on time. Our research is based on the hypothesis that the provision of location data can enhance the experience of people who are meeting each other in different locations. This paper presents work-in-progress on a novel approach to share one's location data in real-time which is visualised on a web-based map in a privacy conscious way. Disposable Maps allows users to select contacts from their phone's address book who then receive up-to-date location data. The utilisation of peer-to-peer notifications and the application of unique URLs for location storage and presentation enable location sharing whilst ensuring users' location privacy. In contrast to other location sharing services like Google Latitude, Disposable Maps enables ad hoc location sharing to actively selected location receivers for a fixed period of time in a specific given situation. We present first insights from an initial application user test and show future work on the approach of disposable information allocation.
Keywords: context sharing, location sharing, location tracking, location-based services, privacy, urban informatics
Discussions in space BIBAKFull-Text 381-384
  Ronald Schroeter; Marcus Foth
In-place digital augmentation enhances the experience of physical spaces through digital technologies that are directly accessible within that space. This can take place in many forms and ways, e.g., through location-aware applications running on the individuals' portable devices, such as smart phones, or through large static devices, such as public displays, which are located within the augmented space and accessible by everyone. The hypothesis of this study is that in-place digital augmentation, in the context of civic participation, where citizens collaboratively aim at making their community or city a better place, offers significant new benefits, because it allows access to services or information that are currently inaccessible to urban dwellers where and when they are needed: in place. This paper describes our work in progress deploying a public screen to promote civic issues in public, urban spaces, and to encourage public feedback and discourse via mobile phones.
Keywords: locative media, mobile interaction, mobile media, place-based community engagement, public screens, urban informatics
Edutainment in the field using mobile location based services BIBAKFull-Text 385-388
  Christian Martyn Jones; Matthew Willis
The explorer project provides educational tours and activities to schoolchildren using existing low cost technologies. The activities take place in environmentally sensitive and remote locations and are based around a proven curricula developed in collaboration with Queensland schools.
   To undertake the activities, smart phones are provided to students that are pre-loaded with GPS driven software that guides them through each task. Tasks are triggered by the student's proximity to field locations (using GPS coordinates). Students are directed to observe, collect, analyse and report data by utilising the features of the device, such as the in built camera, location services, text, handwriting and sketch entry, and the audio and video capabilities of the device. Data collated by students is uploaded to a secure server on completion of the tasks. All data is made available to students via the server for inclusion in reports, assessment items and for sharing and blogging on social networking sites.
   The project will assess changes to learning outcomes, and student attitudes and values towards the environment, comparing the experience of students using the explorer device with traditional paper-based descriptions and reporting. Results of the explorer project will help inform the development of future location-based technologies for field-based education.
Keywords: context and location awareness, education and HCI, remote environments, smart phones
The exploration of non-visual interaction for social proximity applications in a Taiwanese night market BIBAKFull-Text 389-392
  Chao-Lung Lee; Yun-Maw Cheng; Da Lee; Ming-Wei Lin; Li-Chieh Chen; Frode E. Sandnes
Social Proximity Applications (SPAs) has been an emerging hot topic in recent mobile research communities. However, the traditional SPA interfaces rely on heavy interaction load in visual attention. This is always problematic when people are on the move. This paper describes our research-in-progress in designing and developing a suitable SPA interface for the use in a night market. Night markets embody a distinct cultural habitat for social life in Taiwan. Visitors are continuously bombarded with surrounding information. The results showed our non-visual interaction approach could be a successful means in user interfaces in this type of situations.
Keywords: collaborative communication support, gesture interaction, non-visual interaction, proximity-based sharing, sociable experience sharing, tactile displays, tactons
OurPlace: the convergence of locative media and online participatory culture BIBAKFull-Text 393-396
  Jillian Hamilton
The trans-locative potential of the Internet has driven the design of many online applications. Online communities largely cluster around topics of interest, which take precedence over participants' geographical locations. The site of production is often disregarded when creative content appears online. However, for some, a sense of place is a defining aspect of creativity. Yet environments that focus on the display and sharing of regionally situated content have, so far, been largely overlooked.
   Recent developments in geo-technologies have precipitated the emergence of a new field of interactive media. Entitled locative media, it emphasizes the geographical context of media. This paper argues that we might combine practices of locative media (experiential mapping and geo-spatial annotation) with aspects of online participatory culture (uploading, file-sharing and search categorization) to produce online applications that support geographically 'located' communities. It discusses the design considerations and possibilities of this convergence, making reference to an example, OurPlace 3G to 3D, which has to date been developed as a prototype. It goes on to discuss the benefits and potential uses of such convergent applications, including the co-production of spatial-temporal narratives of place.
Keywords: digital story telling, geo-technologies, interaction design, locative media, mobile, online video editing, participatory media


Be careful how you point that thing: Wiimote aiming for large displays BIBAKFull-Text 397-400
  Chris Pelling; Torben Sko; Henry J. Gardner
Previous work demonstrated that the Wii Remote (Wiimote) can be used as a control device for large displays by the use of multiple sensor bars. While this work showed the system to perform quite successfully, the limited vertical aiming range of the Wiimote was noted to be a shortcoming and, to address this issue, an accelerated aiming technique was introduced. The present work extends the study of Wiimote aiming for large displays by implementing two further techniques that consider relative movements and clutching. User testing is conducted and the results from all three techniques show that clutching performed worst while the absolute and relative techniques could not be statistically differentiated.
Keywords: Wii remote, Wiimote, absolute, aiming, clutch, first-person-shooter, games, interaction techniques, large displays, pointing, relative, virtual reality
My phone is my keypad: privacy-enhanced PIN-entry on public terminals BIBAKFull-Text 401-404
  Alexander De Luca; Bernhard Frauendienst; Sebastian Boring; Heinrich Hussmann
More and more services are available on public terminals. Due to their public location and permanent availability, they can easily fall victim to manipulation. These manipulations mostly aim at stealing the customers' authentication information (e.g. bank card PIN) to gain access to the victims' possessions. By relocating the input from the terminal to the users' mobile device, the system presented in this paper makes the authentication process resistant against such manipulations. In principle, this relocation makes PIN entry more complex, with a tendency to worse usability. In this paper, we present the concept as well as an evaluation that has been conducted to study the trade off between usability and security. The results show that users apparently are willing to accept a certain increase of interaction time in exchange for improved security.
Keywords: PIN entry, mobile devices, privacy, security
Using brain imaging to explore interactivity and cognition in multimedia learning environments BIBAKFull-Text 405-408
  Barney Dalgarno; Gregor Kennedy; Sue Bennett
Recent educational models of computer-based interactivity stress the important role of a learner's cognition. It has been suggested that interactive learning tasks carried out in the context of an authentic, problem-based scenario will result in deeper elaborative cognitive processing leading to greater conceptual understanding of the material presented. Research methods that have been used to investigate cognition and learning have traditionally included self-report questionnaires, focus groups, interviews and think-aloud protocols and, more recently in computer-based settings, interaction log file or 'audit trail' analysis. While all of these techniques help researchers understand students' learning processes, all are limited in that they rely either on self-report or behavioural information to speculate about the cognitive activity of users. The use of functional brain imaging techniques has the potential to address this limitation. Drawing on issues encountered during a recent study using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), this paper discusses the methodological issues involved in the use of these techniques for exploring interactivity and cognition. Initial results comparing brain activation when exploring an interactive simulation with brain activation when using an equivalent tutorial program, for a single participant, are presented in order to provide information about the feasibility of the proposed methodological approach.
Keywords: cognition, fMRI, functional brain imaging, interactivity, learning, multimedia
Simple classification of walking activities using commodity smart phones BIBAKFull-Text 409-412
  Zachary Fitz-Walter; Dian Tjondronegoro
People interact with mobile computing devices everywhere, while sitting, walking, running or even driving. Adapting the interface to suit these contexts is important, thus this paper proposes a simple human activity classification system. Our approach uses a vector magnitude recognition technique to detect and classify when a person is stationary (or not walking), casually walking, or jogging, without any prior training. The user study has confirmed the accuracy.
Keywords: accelerometer, activity classification, context-aware, mobile computing, sensor technology, ubiquitous computing, user experience, user interface
Investigating political and demographic factors in crowd based interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 413-416
  Tom Barker; M. Hank Haeusler; Frank Maguire; Jason McDermott
Techniques that enable groups of people to control or influence digital system applications collectively have been greatly facilitated through the emergence of faster and better image processing and sensing technologies. This paper considers design issues that relate to crowd or group based user interfaces. One key difference when comparing group interface design with one-on-one user interfaces, is that a group format raises issues of digital political determinism within the system algorithms. These include the impact of an individual's weighting within the group; problems relating to inclusivity across certain user groups; and communication of appropriate user interaction to a diverse audience. These issues were explored by the authors' research using an anamorphic, anthropomorphic experimental display screen in a public location. An input mechanism was developed employing human facial expression analysis, to deliver emotionally expressive visual feedback.
Keywords: cybernetics, digital political determinism and anamorphic anthropomorphic display, emotion recognition, image recognition, user interface design
Urban Kinesic: a gestural interface for the expression of emotions through bodily movements BIBAKFull-Text 417-420
  Yeup Hur; Frank G. Feltham
This research through design project presents Urban Kinesic (UrK), a hand held device that enables the expression of emotion through gestural dance movement. Expressive body movement is another interaction and communication channel in our analogue world. We know this from how a gesture can support speech in a face-to-face conversation. To this end the authors firstly observed how expressive movement is used in expressive dance. Findings from these observations informed the design of the UrK, which is a curious electronic device with a silicon skin. It communicates via Bluetooth with a network and uses multi-modal channels such as haptics, vibration and heat transfer to indicate its functional states. In use, the UrK is tracked using an accelerometer to initiate sound modulations that accompany an expressive dance movement. This paper gives an account of the design, development and initial user findings of the UrK with a dance troupe, which reveals some interesting initial insights into the expressive nature of the activity it enables, due to its design.
Keywords: context and location awareness, multi-sensory feedback system, social expression and engagement, tangible user interaction design
Enhancement of human computer interaction with facial electromyographic sensors BIBAKFull-Text 421-424
  Guillaume Gibert; Martin Pruzinec; Tanja Schultz; Catherine Stevens
In this paper we describe a way to enhance human computer interaction using facial Electromyographic (EMG) sensors. Indeed, to know the emotional state of the user enables adaptable interaction specific to the mood of the user. This way, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) will gain in ergonomics and ecological validity. While expressions recognition systems based on video need exaggerated facial expressions to reach high recognition rates, the technique we developed using electrophysiological data enables faster detection of facial expressions and even in the presence of subtle movements. Features from 8 EMG sensors located around the face were extracted. Gaussian models for six basic facial expressions -- anger, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness and neutral -- were learnt from these features and provide a mean recognition rate of 92%. Finally, a prototype of one possible application of this system was developed wherein the output of the recognizer was sent to the expressions module of a 3D avatar that then mimicked the expression.
Keywords: EMG, Gaussian models, facial expressions

Projects with unusual needs

Introducing the OZCHI 24-hour design challenge BIBAFull-Text 425
  Martin Tomitsch; Andrew Vande Moere; Jeremy Yuille
For the first time OZCHI was preceded by a student design challenge this year. In line with the conference theme the challenge was organised as two 24-hour events. The first event took place online before the conference. Students from around the world were invited to create a solution for a specific design problem within 24 hours. The top two entries received a travel scholarship for attending OZCHI 2009. The second 24-hour event takes place in Melbourne. All students attending the conference are invited to participate in this challenge. Entries are exhibited during the main conference and the winners will be determined based on audience voting.
Palmap: designing the future of maps BIBAKFull-Text 427-428
  Philip Staud; Rui Wang
This paper introduces Palmap, which was designed and prototyped for the OZCHI 2009 24 Hour Design Challenge. It presents a design concept how navigation systems and maps could be used in the future. Background research and semi-structured interviews have been conducted to assess current status and to identify problems of maps and navigation. Palmap is an augmented reality (AR) based concept that focuses on gesture-based interaction. This concept is built on the assumption that, in the future, it will be possible to project rich virtual visual information directly into the eye of the user. Interactions would be possible with a virtual assistant and information projected on their palm. Three distinct interactions are described, namely selecting an option, displaying the 'next' and 'previous' options and a 'Total Immersion' function. The evaluation of the concept showed that participants were excited about the possibilities of this concept.
Keywords: 24 hour design challenge, HCI, OZCHI24, augmented reality (AR), concept, finger, gesture, maps, palm
StoryTime: experiencing place through history BIBAKFull-Text 429-430
  Lorelei Kelly; Sarah Reeder; Xuan Wang; Susan Coleman Morse
In this paper, we present our vision of the future of maps. Story Time is a system of geographically associated "stories" as told by the people who experienced them. Story Time allows visitors to a location to explore a place from a new perspective, providing insight into the lives of those who live there. We focus on individual access to stories recorded by others, and present Story Time through use of an e-paper interaction concept.
Keywords: cartography, experience design, participatory mapping, psychogeography, way-showing
Artography: mapping social experiences as public art BIBAKFull-Text 431-432
  Tamara Chahine; Joanna Chang; Oliver Dawson; Ryo Yambe
This paper outlines our submission to the OZCHI 2009 24-hour online design challenge. The goal of the project was to explore ways of enhancing user engagement with current maps. For the purposes of the design challenge, the concept was to be centred in the city of Melbourne. Our proposed map displays user interactions with the city in a way that constructs points of interest that are constantly changing based on these interactions. Displayed on a screen in Melbourne's CBD, this map brings together everyday flows of movement within the city and allows people to interact with the map using mobile devices.
Keywords: 24-hour design challenge, maps, public art, public screen, tagging