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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2014: Third International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part II: User Experience Design for Diverse Interaction Platforms and Environments

Fullname:DUXU 2014: Third International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part II: User Experience Design for Diverse Interaction Platforms and Environments
Note:Volume 9 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8518
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07626-3 hcibib: DUXU14-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-07625-6 (print), 978-3-319-07626-3 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DUXU 2014-06-22 Volume 2
    1. Design for the Web
    2. Design for the Mobile Experience
    3. Design of Visual Information
    4. Design for Novel Interaction Techniques and Realities
    5. Games and Gamification

DUXU 2014-06-22 Volume 2

Design for the Web

The Common Implementation Framework as Service -- Towards Novel Applications for Streamlined Presentation of 3D Content on the Web BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Andreas Aderhold; Katarzyna Wilkosinska; Massimiliano Corsini; Yvonne Jung; Holger Graf; Arjan Kuijper
We solve a standing issue of the recently published Common Implementation Framework (CIF) for Online Virtual Museums: programmatic access to the transcoding, optimization and template rendering infrastructure of the CIF. We propose a method that enables researchers and developers to build novel systems on top of the CIF infrastructure beyond its current Cultural Heritage workflow. Therefore, we introduce a way to programmatically access the powerful backend of the CIF through a universal access layer, addressable by standards like HTTP and the JSON Data Interchange Format. In order to demonstrate our approach, we present two different use cases in which the CIF pipeline is utilized as a service through the proposed resource-based access layer: a native mobile iOS application for browsing 3D model repositories realizing just-in-time optimization of large models, and a MeshLab plugin to asynchronously convert and prepare a model for the Web.
Keywords: Web 3D; Virtual Museums; Cultural Heritage; Content Authoring; Distributed Systems
Website Design Based on Cultures: An Investigation of Saudis, Filipinos, and Indians Government Websites' Attributes BIBAKFull-Text 15-27
  Hend S. Al-Khalifa; Regina A. Garcia
Saudi Arabia as a country that attracts foreign workers especially from Asia needs to take into consideration the requirements of multinational cultures when providing its government e-services. This paper investigates the user interface design of top government websites of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in comparison with the top government websites of the Philippines and India. The study present the web design attributes which are commonly used specifically to government websites of the three countries included in this study. With the utilization of inferential statistics, results show that there is no significant difference of culturally web design attributes of the top government websites found among the three cultures. The study can be used as guidelines in order to enhance the website's user interface in a specific culture and to allow web designers to base their websites on the cultural background of the target website users. The findings of the study can also contribute to assist web developers and designers in developing websites that are culturally suitable for expatriates in a country such as KSA.
Keywords: Cross-cultural; Globalization; India; Internationalization; Philippine; Saudi Arabia; User Experience; User interface; Web design
The Role of Avatars in e-Government Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 28-37
  Badr Almutairi; Dimitrios Rigas
This paper investigates the use of avatars to communicate live message in e-government interfaces. A comparative study is presented that evaluates the contribution of multimodal metaphors (including avatars) to the usability of interfaces for e-government and user trust. The communication metaphors evaluated included text, earcons, recorded speech and avatars. The experimental platform used for the experiment involved two interface versions with a sample of 30 users. The results demonstrated that the use of multimodal metaphors in an e-government interface significantly contributes to enhancing the usability and increase trust of users to the e-government interface. A set of design guidelines, for the use of multimodal metaphors in e-government interfaces, was also produced.
Keywords: multimodal; e-government; interfaces; avatar; speech; earcons; trust
Towards Data Confidentiality and Portability in Cloud Storage BIBAKFull-Text 38-49
  Ebtesam Ahmad Alomari; Muhammad Mostafa Monowar
As of now, cloud computing has become a hot topic in the global technology industry. Users become able to store their data in cloud storage and have ubiquitous access at any time. In spite of the enormous advantages of cloud storage, one of the greatest challenges is ensuring the security. In this paper, we address the problem of data confidentiality in cloud storage. Further, we consider the portability and secured file sharing issues in cloud storage. Our proposed solution consists of four different modules: Encryption/Decryption provider (EDP) that performs the cryptographic operations, Third party auditor (TPA) that traces and audits the EDP, Keys storage provider (KSP) which performs key management and Data storage provider (DSP) which stores user files in an encrypted form. We design a prototype to facilitate the process of secured data storage on DSP and KSP. The proposed mechanism ensures the data confidentiality, supports portability, and also provides secured sharing of files among users.
Keywords: Cloud Computing; Storage; Confidentiality; Portability
A Usability Study on Elder Adults Utilizing Social Networking Sites BIBAKFull-Text 50-61
  Jessica Arfaa; Yuanqiong (Kathy) Wang
There are a growing number of elder adults using computers and the internet, however their social media presence still remains low compared to younger counterparts. What are the reasons hindering them from utilizing social media? What challenges do elder adults face when using these types of sites? Are they able to successfully utilize the site as intended? Does computer experience play a role in the usability of these sites? Can improvements be made to current social media sites to improve usability and accessibility for elders? This paper reports the preliminary findings to the questions above based on a usability study involving twenty-two elders with none to advanced computer experience. Results from this study show that previous experience with computers and the design of the sites affect the usability and accessibility for the elderly. Social networking sites are difficult for elders to use because of computer illiteracy, lack of knowledge of Web 2.0 concepts, and format, navigation, and layout issues. Future suggestions include redesigning social networking sites by abiding by known website guidelines and other suggestions found in this study.
Keywords: Social Media; Social Networking; Elder Adults; Usability Study
An Alternative Media Experience: LiveLeak BIBAKFull-Text 62-70
  Fatih Çömlekçi; Serhat Güney
This research examines a video sharing web site called LiveLeak to be able to analyze the possibilities of democratic and horizontal social mobilization via Internet technology. In this sense, we take into consideration the Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's philosophical conceptualization of "rhizome" which provides a new approach for activities of online communities. In the light of this concept and its anti-hierarchical approach we tried to discuss the potentials of network communication models such as LiveLeak in terms of emancipating use of media and democratic communication. By analyzing the contextual traffic on the LiveLeak for a randomly chosen one week (first week of December 2013) we argue that this video sharing web site shows a rhizomatic characteristic.
Keywords: LiveLeak; Rhizome; Social Networking
E-government and the Digital Agenda for Europe BIBAKFull-Text 71-80
  Jane Billestrup; Jan Stage
Several initiatives in regards to digitalisation citizens' services have been launched, both in the European Union and in Denmark. Several problems have been reported in related work in regards to lack of accessibility and usability of e-government self-service solutions. The objective of this paper was "How are software providers developing e-government self-service solutions that should be usable for all citizens?" we conducted 11 phone interviews with self-service providers in Denmark. We found that no citizens are involved in the development process and only few of the self-service solutions are usability evaluated before being released.
Keywords: E-Government; Digitalisation; Usability; Self-service systems; E-Government providers; Digital agenda for Europe
The Paradigm of Meta-interface as a Facilitator of Websites Usability and Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 81-91
  Fábio F. C. Campos; Edvar Vilar Neto; Maria Neves; Walter F. M. Correia
This article aims to present an artifact based on a design paradigm called "meta interface", an interface for interfaces, as a useful mean of improving existing interfaces for the individual needs of various classes of users. As a proof of concept of this paradigm, a case study was implemented. It consisted in the development, implementation and application of a "Meta-interface" with the aim to provide better access for users with low vision. The results confirmed evidence of the feasibility of this paradigm and also generated evidences for its effectiveness in improving the usability and accessibility of websites.
Keywords: interface; accessibility; universal design; meta interface; usability
Experience-Centered Web Design Model BIBAKFull-Text 92-103
  Luciane Maria Fadel
This paper presents an experience-centered web design model. This model was constructed identifying a series of heuristics that characterize the quality of experience. This series was the start point to select a set of variables that could be used to design the user experience. Thus, user experience is designed using variables such as: challenge, focused attention and clear goals and feedback. These variables were analyzed in terms of the three dimensions of user experience which were established from the literature review: emotional, functional and aesthetics dimensions. This analysis was used to create a model for an experience-centered web design. In addition, this paper suggests that this model can be used in different applications of experience-centered design.
Keywords: web design; user experience; creativity
Online Shopping Websites: An Evaluation of User Experience and Interface Ergonomic Criteria from the Perspective of Older Users BIBAKFull-Text 104-115
  Fabiane Rodriguez Fernandes; Luis Carlos Paschoarelli
This paper presents a user experience evaluation of two online shopping websites from the perspective of older users (those aged 50 and older). Two online shopping websites were evaluated using methodological procedures established in prior research [1]. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) heuristic interface evaluation using an ergonomic criteria checklist, (2) online identification and experience questionnaire, (3) evaluation of user experience and interface interaction, and (4) satisfaction questionnaire. Results of the study revealed the analyzed websites are not suitable for older users, who find it difficult to interact with these interfaces.
Keywords: Design; user experience; usability; e-commerce; older users
HCI Knowledge for UX Practices in the Web Development Process BIBAFull-Text 116-126
  Idyawati Hussein; Murni Mahmud; Abu Osman Md Tap
Web development must consider good design in order to satisfy user interaction. However, for many users, the interfaces of Web applications are still difficult and frustrating to use. Frustration may not only result in personal dissatisfaction and inefficient use, but may also have a bad effect in the workplace. One experience with misleading data or unexpected results will undermine a person's willingness to use an application for a long time. Knowledge of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) supports developers in designing useful, usable and pleasant computing technologies. However, regardless of this knowledge, practice of the waterfall approach is the main methodology, embedded and integrated in well-established procedures. This study reports the results of a survey of 82 individual practitioners who received a formal HCI and HCI-related education in their Web development projects. The study used a Likert-scale metric to measure the prevailing User Experience (UX) in explicit practice which is rooted in the HCI-related discipline. The findings indicate that enforcement of the use of HCI knowledge can strengthen the policy of integrating UX principles in the Web development process by the appropriate authority, e.g. university department for project assignment.
Cultural Divergence in Website Interaction Spanish vs. English BIBAKFull-Text 127-138
  Nicholas Iuliucci; Ania Rodriguez
Our perception of the world around us is based on our knowledge and experiences. Web design has used this concept to improve websites by matching expectations derived from the knowledge and experience to design concepts. Understanding the role culture plays in perception of websites needs to be better understood. This paper uses eye-tracking gaze patterns (ETMAP) in conjunction with a cultural identification survey (ARSMA-II) to explore divergences between American and Latino-Americans. Our results suggest a relationship between sequential reading and scanning behaviors with acculturation scores. While these results demonstrate that the methodology has potential, the findings need to be confirmed in future studies.
Keywords: Eye-tracking; Usability; Gaze Patterns; Spanish; Acculturation; Culture; ARSMA-II; ETMAP
A Study of Cultural Reflection in Egyptian Government Websites BIBAKFull-Text 139-147
  Nouf Khashman; Elaine Ménard
Culture is arguably an important consideration when designing websites because it influences users' needs and expectations as they come to the site. Ten government websites from Egypt were evaluated in 2010 and 2014, before and after the break of the Arab Spring. By utilizing Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions, the objective is to identify whether cultural-specific design elements have changed over time. The results suggest that the designs of these websites have changed and that they did not fully reflect design characteristics inferred from Hofstede's model.
Keywords: Web design; Egypt; Culture; Hofstede
Towards a Friendly User Interface on the Cloud BIBAKFull-Text 148-157
  Heba A. Kurdi; Safwat Hamad; Amal Khalifa
The wide availability of high interconnection networks, powerful mobile devices and service-oriented architectures has paved the way for the delivery of cloud services. Moving information technology services to the cloud has imposed new ways of interaction with users. Users desire friendly looking, highly interactive, dynamically visualized and naturally controlled user interfaces (UI) that allow smooth navigation in the cloud space. Transferring the rich user interface of the desktop, where running the software dynamically online and instantly following up with social networking activities is relatively easy, to the web-browser on mobile devices is introducing many challenges. This has resulted in the emergence of innovative cloud services and implementation approaches specifically to handle the new user interface demands. However, a standardized consistent user interface metaphor for cloud services is still lacking. This paper presents a comprehensive study on the cloud user interface requirements, special services, implementation trends, technologies and efforts for standardization.
Keywords: cloud computing; user interface; standardization; service
The Cultural Conceptual Model for Simplifying the Design of Localized Websites BIBAKFull-Text 158-169
  Abdalghani Mushtaha; Olga De Troyer
This paper introduces a cultural conceptual model that was created to provide a conceptual representation of the Cultural Markers Pyramid introduced for the purpose of designing a localized website. The proposed conceptual model is an abstract specification of a set of five groups of cultural markers and guidelines for culture-centered website design. Having the Cultural Markers Pyramid in a formal model will help experts to manage, validate and improve the model regularly.
Keywords: Localization; local website design; cultural markers; cultural conceptual model

Design for the Mobile Experience

Left vs. Right-Handed UX: A Comparative User Study on a Mobile Application with Left and Right-Handed Users BIBAKFull-Text 173-183
  Sinan Asçi; Kerem Rizvanoglu
The demand for point-of-sale (PoS) applications, from public service kiosk to personal mobile devices, has drastically increased since the last decade. PoS applications are a demanding environment that requires the interface to be responsive, accurate and easy to use for anyone. Menus and navigation in applications have traditionally been on the left, but many application developers choose to put them on the right so that the content can have focus on the left. In left-to-right languages, people are used to reading from the left, and so objects on the left hand side get more attention than those on the right. Previous research has shown the benefits of right-handed use for touchscreen mobile phones in several angles, such as performance, usability and user experience. The goal of this study is to investigate the differentiating aspects of left or right-handed user experience through the use of a popular mobile PoS application in Turkey, YemekSepeti, on touchscreen mobile phones. More specifically, this study aims to evaluate the left and right-handed user experience on touchscreen mobile phones regarding an application, which was mainly designed to be used with a defined thumb. For this purpose, a qualitative mobile usability test based on a multi-method approach was conducted with a sample of 8 Turkish college students who defined themselves as iPhone users. The tests were conducted with a predefined smart phone: iPhone 4S. The participants were observed during the task executions and any additional data was collected by the thinking-aloud, eye tracking and video-recording of the participants. After completing the tasks, the participants were interviewed to have further understanding on their thoughts and actions. Findings support the notion that the usability of a touchscreen mobile phone was affected by both handedness and the layout of the applications in terms of entry speed, accuracy rate and inclusive touch interfaces.
Keywords: User Experience (UX); Handedness; Touchscreen; Mobile; Application
Scissors -- A Precise Pointing Widget for Touch Screen Devices BIBAKFull-Text 184-192
  Felipe Breyer; Luis A. Vasconcelos; Antônio Rivero; Judith Kelner
A common complaint of touch interaction concerns the lack of precision and false negatives, especially in applications inherited from the PC and mouse context. This work introduces Scissors, a virtual widget for tasks that require precision while interacting with touch screens. It also prevents occlusion of targets, is effective for screen edges and is compatible with current interaction techniques. We developed two prototypes for testing: the first introduced a basic learning scenario and the second presented two sequences of targets with different sizes and locations. The system recorded, for each target, the time spent and number of attempts to select it. We performed tests with thirty-one users and evaluated their data according to statistical test, in this case, t-test for difference of means. The results showed that the Scissors widget was very effective in the scenarios that motivated its conception attaining an equivalent or up to 11.5 times higher success rate, thus achieving its main purpose.
Keywords: pointing widget; interaction technique; touch devices
Ergonomics and Usability in Sound Dimension: Evaluation of a Haptic and Acoustic Interface Application for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 193-202
  Guilherme Orlandini; Gilson Ap. Castadelli; Lígia Maria Presumido Braccialli
This paper addresses the usability evaluation results performed in an application for mobile devices. The referred application uses haptic and audio interfaces to provide access to web content. Based on the model of listening mechanisms proposed by Schaeffer, the researchers' team responsible for this project, sought to ally the fundamentals of Software Engineering, Ergonomics and Usability Engineering to the purpose of broadening the possibility of using and handling mobile technologies that allow access to information available in telematics environments by means of synthesis and voice recognition, including also tactile commands. The ergonomic and usability evaluation of the application was performed by specialists in the software engineering field having Nielsen's heuristics and normative proposals by NBR-9241-11:2002 as bases. The results of the evaluation performed in the application, as well as the modifications done in it are presented in this paper towards contributing with information inherent to the practical application of usability concepts in human-computer interfaces development.
Keywords: Usability; Haptic Interface; Audio Interface; Mobile Devices
Information Design -- Qualitative Approach for Corporative App in iPad BIBAKFull-Text 203-212
  Jacqueline Aparecida G. F. de Castro; Marcelo V. Rino; Julia Yuri Landim Goya
This paper reports the stage of our research about the corporate identity of iPad apps. The research objective is to develop a system to aid the designer to potentiate the transmission of brand identity in your app. At this stage, we tried to determine the variables that contribute to this tool icon considered nowadays and that expresses the brand in various media. In this paper the analysis of a Brazilian venture of selling apartments that were created on the system of aid visual language created for a thesis, which used techniques of Design of Information at this presented app, combining cultural studies to geometric modeling, Gestalt and Semiotics.
Keywords: Apps elements; Information Design; Visual Language; iPad
An Analysis of Design Methodologies of Interactive System for Mobiles BIBAKFull-Text 213-222
  Adriana Chammas; Manuela Quaresma; Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão
Companies subjected to pervasive need for "innovation" that reigns in the mobile market, to schedules and limited budgets; require more effective ways to adapt processes that excel the user experience (UX) to the corporate world pressure. Regardless of the design methodology and its suitability, the most important is to uncover how and where the user's voice takes place in this process, according to User-Centered Design approach, This study aims to compare antagonistic ways of considering the user's voice and asks to what extent the principles of ISO 924120/2010 are respected on behalf of the end user of the product in one of the most currently used methodologies, Scrum.
Keywords: Ergonomics; Usability; Design Methodologies; Human-centred Design; SCRUM
Smart-Islands: Enhancing User Experience for Mediterranean Islands for Tourism Support BIBAKFull-Text 223-233
  Umberto Di Staso; Daniele Magliocchetti; Raffaele De Amicis
In recent years, several mobile devices with excellent performances have become accessible to people at affordable prices. The availability of this type of equipment, especially in the mobile sector, has encouraged research and development of increasingly complex applications ("Apps") that require visualization of large-scale scene. However, large-scale 3D maps typically available through mobile version of so-called "spinning globes" do not allow the use of high definition data, due to their hardware limitations. This kind of lack should not be considered as a limitation, but as an opportunity: there are a lot of possibilities, especially in the tourism domain, where it is not required to construct wide 3D environment. Instead only a little portion of a specific territory using high quality spatial data over high fidelity three dimensional geometry models of the environment is sufficient. A simple example of this domain could be the representation of a Mediterranean island: these islands are generally small, numerous, lacking infrastructure whilst impacted by seasonal tourism, being far from the definition of smart cities. The infrastructure of future cities needs to support vibrant, innovative and entrepreneurial communities such as the community of an island that takes advantage of the digital environment and realize their potential to become "smarter". In this context, this document presents the SMART-ISLANDS framework: a set of mobile and desktop applications for the seasonal tourism support, public sector and administration, private sector and university focused on the contest of the Mediterranean islands, using high fidelity 3D model for the environment representation and geographic information aiming at leveraging the concepts of smart-cities on the island context. After the presentation of the application, a study will be conducted to investigate how the user experience and usability will change if the same application is executed as an applet, using a custom web browser, or on a mobile device as an application, changing the input device (mouse and gestures). Results, obtained by using ISO 9241 guidelines will be analysed, summarized and commented.
Keywords: user experience; human computer interaction; HCI; LBS; mobile devices; common gestures
Detection of Churned and Retained Users with Machine Learning Methods for Mobile Applications BIBAKFull-Text 234-245
  Merve Gençer; Gökhan Bilgin; Özgür Zan; Tansel Voyvodaoglu
This study aims to find the different behavior patterns of churned and retained mobile application users using machine learning approach. The data for this study is gathered from the users of a mobile application (iPhone & Android). As a machine learning classifier Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used for evaluating in the detection of churned and retained users. Several features are extracted from user data to discriminate different user behaviors. Successful results are obtained and user behaviors are classified with 93% and 98% accuracy. From the diversity perspective, results of this study can be used to evaluate the differences of churned and retained users in terms of diverse user groups.
Keywords: Machine learning; SVM; mobile applications; churned and retained users; diversity applications; classification; mobile devices; push notification; user experience
A Research Framework for the Smartphone-Based Contextual Study of Mobile Knowledge Work BIBAKFull-Text 246-257
  Mikko Heiskala; Eero Palomäki; Matti Vartiainen; Kai Hakkarainen; Hanni Muukkonen
We present an initial research framework for the contextual study of mobile knowledge work that combines automatic, objective data collection from smartphone sensors with subjective participant self-reported data possibly complemented with researcher conducted interviews. The framework shows how raw sensor data, contextual information inferred from the sensor data, both in real-time and post hoc, can be used in tandem with smartphone administered questionnaires and post hoc in-depth interviews to study mobile knowledge work. We evaluate the framework by reporting some early experiences from a pilot study of mobile knowledge work.
Keywords: mobile sensing; mobile data collection; mobile knowledge work; context-awareness; smartphone-based research
The Happiness Machine: Mobile Behavior Change BIBAKFull-Text 258-268
  Aaron Marcus
The author's firm planned, researched, analyzed, designed, implemented (in the form of sample screens), evaluated, documented, and prepared training documents for several versions of a mobile phone application conceptual prototype, the Happiness Machine, which combines happiness theory with information design/visualization and persuasion design to change people's behavior. This paper summarizes the Happiness Machine's user-experience design. A more complete description appears in the White Paper cited [18].
Keywords: culture; dashboard; design; development; emotion; experience; happiness; incentives; information; interface; mobile; persona; persuasion; social; scenario; user
Equivalence of Navigation Widgets for Mobile Platforms BIBAFull-Text 269-278
  Amilcar Meneses Viveros; Erika Hernández Rubio; Dario Emmanuel Vázquez Ceballos
One of the main features of mobile applications is that its development should be focused on the user. For this reason the design of graphical interfaces must be usable, efficient and effective, among other properties of HCI. The acceptance of mobile applications and the device are affected by personality, cognitive abilities (memory, spatial ability and verbal ability), age, and experience in mobile technology by users. Even if there are methods and techniques to design graphics user interfaces, there is a limited styles for the interfaces for mobile applications. The proliferation of mobile devices has generated the emergence of various platforms. This variety of mobile platforms there has generated a several set of widgets. However, this set of widgets is not cross-platform. That is to say, not all widgets are available on all platforms. Developers have the problem that must generate native applications that have the same level of usability between different platforms or to generate cross-platforms applications that comply with the HCI properties: usability, effectiveness and efficiency. Moreover, if we want to achieve applications to automatically adapt its GUI to the mobile platform (OS and device), requires some equivalence between the widgets on each platform and also, you should know the styles of organization of widgets for each platform. One solution to this problem is to have usability equivalences between different widgets for each mobile platform. We propose the equivalence of widgets with two properties: functionality and usability. Possibly the most important widget sets are related to the navigation of mobile applications. In this paper we present an overview of the widgets of the main mobile platforms and a taxonomy of them. It also presents the study of some equivalences in widgets that allow navigation in mobile applications.
Gestural Interfaces Touchscreen: Thinking Interactions beyond the Button from Interaction Design for Gmail Android App BIBAKFull-Text 279-288
  Tobias Mulling; Cristiano Lopes; Arthur Cabreira
The design of interfaces for mobile devices (smartphones, tablets) is still very tied to the WIMP paradigm (abbreviation for "windows, icons, menus and pointers"). Thus, the potential use of gestures (touch screen) is often not used efficiently. Therefore, designing an interface that aims to optimize the user experience from a more natural and human gestural interface becomes a challenge for interaction designers. Moreover, gestural interactions requires a learning curve ahead to commands and interactions of an application. The hypothesis of this research is to argue that applications often used by users can take a more gestural and natural character in their interactions, thus generating a new projetual paradigm (with less use of buttons and menus), established from designing an application for Gmail (Android).
Keywords: gestures; natural user interfaces; user experience; touchscreen
Tracking Mobile Workers' Daily Activities with the Contextual Activity Sampling System BIBAKFull-Text 289-300
  Hanni Muukkonen; Kai Hakkarainen; Shupin Li; Matti Vartiainen
The present study used smart phones to collect contextualized data on professionals' daily working activities; our purpose was to trace professionals' work engagement and socio-emotional activities. We used two tools, the Contextual Activity Sampling System (CASS-Q) and ContextLogger for collecting, in parallel, complementary self-report and location-sensor data. This allowed us to compare the types of data and their richness of information. The methods and instruments developed enabled one to trace various aspects of the mobile multi-locational workers' positive and negative self-reported affects in work contexts, as well as their activities and experiences of challenge and competence. The secondary working contexts (e.g., seminars, meetings, customer's office), especially, included interactions with others leading to both high positive and negative affects. The results also indicate that the participants' self-reported locations corresponded closely with the actual location documented by ContextLogger. Our results suggest possibilities for developing an algorithm that uses location information to automatically recognize certain activity contexts.
Keywords: mobile data collection; event sampling; self-report; location data; mobile work
Methods to Study Everyday Activities in a Mobile Work Context -- A Literature Overview BIBAKFull-Text 301-312
  Eero Palomäki; Kai Hakkarainen; Matti Vartiainen; Mikko Heiskala
This article presents an overview of methods to study everyday activities in their contexts. We focused on contextual research methods used to study the daily life of workers, and a sub-group of mobile workers. The prevalence of the following methods was examined in literature: self-report recall surveys, time diaries, direct field observation, and experience sampling method (ESM). We identified only few articles where the methods were used to study working life. Adding the search term "mobile work" returned no hits. Based on this, we claim that there is a real need to apply the existing methods and to develop new methods to study mobile and multi-locational work in their contexts. The implication for future research is to point the need for filling the gaps between areas of daily research methods and studies of daily working life, and especially daily mobile work.
Keywords: mobile methods; mobile data collection; mobile and multilocational work; daily life research; everyday activity research; bibliometric analysis; ecological momentary assessment; context-awareness
Building a Quality Mobile Application: A User-Centered Study Focusing on Design Thinking, User Experience and Usability BIBAKFull-Text 313-322
  Danielly F. O. de Paula; Bianca H. X. M. Menezes; Cristiano C. Araújo
This article describes the creation of a mobile application through Design Thinking (DT), User Experience (UX) and usability guidelines approach in the undergraduate setting. The aim of this paper is to present the whole creative process involved in designing a mobile application, within the ideology of Design Thinking, which offers a comprehensive, reliable and, above all, simple experience. The app was built by a team of inexperienced undergraduate students in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Design at the Federal University of Pernambuco, during a process that lasted a month. As a result, the application has obtained a high success rate, being the third most downloaded application of all genres in the first week it became available in BlackBerry Store, and also getting extremely high ratings by leading technology websites in Brazil.
Keywords: User Experience; Usability; Design Thinking; Mobile Application
Territorial Brand Graphic Interface Management in Mobile Applications Focused on User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 323-333
  Luiz Salomão Ribas Gomez; Valéria Casaroto Feijó
As well as the products and services, territories and places compete for investments, businesses, tourists, residents, and other factors. The concept of Territorial Branding has as main feature the development of representative identities in order to encourage people to engage with them, from strategies and techniques that seek to empower a place to develop their potential. The identification and validation of the DNA of a brand is manifested as a possible tool in developing a unique identity to a territory. After identifying the DNA of the brand, it is necessary to integrate communication and the senses to produce experiences and memories to it. The present study aims to investigate the Branding dimension of territorial brands in mobile applications with a focus on the user experience, from the analysis of the cities of Barcelona, London and Berlin official guide applications.
Keywords: Branding and DUXU issues/trends; Territorial branding; User Experience; Mobile Applications
Device Agnostic CASS Client BIBAKFull-Text 334-345
  Kari Salo; Udeep Shakya; Michael Damena
The growth in take-up of smartphones and tablet devices has made longitudinal and context-aware documenting of daily life easier. The Contextual Activity Sampling is a research methodology for the contextual tracking of activities. To support this methodology, an IT-system called CASS (Contextual Activity Sampling System) was developed. It consists of a backend service and a front-end system. The front-end system needs to run in different devices. Instead of developing a separate software for all major device platforms we designed and implemented a software architecture that is based on HTML5 and enables basic functionalities to run in browsers and enhanced functionalities to run as native applications. Thus CASS usage as a research tool will be widened as it supports a large base of different types of devices from PCs to tablets and smart phones.
Keywords: html5; web technologies; contextual activity sampling; JavaScript framework; cross-platform development; AngularJS; PhoneGap
To What Extent System Usability Effects User Satisfaction: A Case Study of Smart Phone Features Analysis for Learning of Novice BIBAKFull-Text 346-357
  Muhammad Shafiq; Muddesar Iqbal; Jin-Ghoo Choi; Zeeshan Rafi; Maqbool Ahmad; Wasif Ali; Saqib Rasool
Usability is a vital aspect of the machine interface. When users do not access the features of a machine, the features do not serve the design purpose. When a user confronts a different machine interface from his prior experiences, the learning process takes tremendous time and incurs cognitive stresses to the user. Smart phones, one of the most popular machines recently, share many common features regardless of vendors, but users find it very hard to switch them. It requires different clicks or touches to operate an application in one system and another. This paper focuses on evaluating the elements of smart phone systems, in terms of learnability and usability, such as Users, Tasks, Content, Context, Experience and Perception of users through survey. Then we conduct the task analysis for participants to evaluate the usability among users over the sampled smart phones of 3 latest brands. Our result shows that usability is a serious threat to the effectiveness of smart phones since 47% of the youth do not use smart phones at all, 31.5% of the users have accessibility threat for accessing its features and 45.5% of the users have usability threat. Overall just 23% of the users have fully adopted the features of smart phones.
Keywords: Task analysis; user survey; usability evaluation; UI; HCI
Cutting Edge Design or a Beginner's Mistake? -- A Semiotic Inspection of iOS7 Icon Design Changes BIBAKFull-Text 358-369
  Christian Stickel; Hans-Martin Pohl; Jan-Thorsten Milde
This work follows an ongoing discussion on the implications of skeuomorphic vs. flat design for interface design. Therefor two subsets of the standard iOS6 and iOS7 system icons were reviewed with a semiotic inspection method and compared against each other. The subsets were chosen according to an open online user rating. The findings suggest that missing information due to design simplification is a major issue for less user acceptance. This study shows that especially flat design affords a more careful focus on the semantics of the used elements.
Keywords: Semantics; Meaningfulness and Satisfaction; Attractiveness; Interface visualization; semiotic engineering

Design of Visual Information

Developing a Verbal Assistance System for Line Graph Comprehension BIBAKFull-Text 373-382
  Cengiz Acartürk; Özge Alaçam; Christopher Habel
Statistical graphs have been designed for accessible use by visually impaired users. Haptic devices provide an appropriate interface for haptic exploration of statistical graphs. However, haptic exploration of statistical graphs reveals a more local and sequential inspection pattern compared to visual exploration. This difference between haptic exploration and visual exploration is usually attributed to different characteristics of the exploration processes, such as bandwidth of information extraction. To facilitate information extraction from statistical graphs, alternative sensory modalities have been employed. In particular, line graphs have been represented by sound, thus leading to sonified graphs. Despite their demonstrated facilitating effects, sonified graphs have limitations under complex line representations. One method of overcoming those difficulties is to develop a verbal assistance system for haptic line graph comprehension. In the present article, we summarize our studies on designing and developing a verbal assistance system for haptic line graph comprehension. We present the findings in a set of studies conducted with blindfolded and visually impaired participants.
Keywords: Haptic Graph Comprehension; Verbal Assistance
Multimedia Surveillance in Event Detection: Crowd Analytics in Hajj BIBAKFull-Text 383-392
  Layla Al-Salhie; Mona Al-Zuhair; Areej Al-Wabil
Multimedia surveillance systems have evolved in recent years to capture, process and analyze multimedia data coming from heterogeneous sensors in the context of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca in Hajj. Systems in these contexts are often designed to support decision making, such as responding to alerts triggered by sensors and incidents detected by surveillance systems as well as to provide useful information for monitoring and emergency-response teams concerned with health and public safety. Various tools and techniques from different fields such as operations research, computer vision, image and video processing, pattern recognition, and multimedia fusion have contributed to the proliferation of such systems in the context of Hajj. In this paper, a systematic review and synthesis of the representative works that have been done in the field of multimedia surveillance for event detection in Hajj is presented. Observations and reflections on these works are discussed in the context of Hajj rituals' distinctive characteristics, crowd-management challenges, and multimedia issues related to event detection and surveillance systems in Hajj.
Keywords: Multimedia; multimodal fusion; Hajj
A Visual Programming Approach to Big Data Analytics BIBAFull-Text 393-404
  Christian Bockermann
Data processing and analysis has become a major task in a lot of application domains. Most tools for defining analytical processes lack a user oriented interface -- especially when it comes to Big Data analytics.
   In this work we propose an abstraction layer for process design that enables domain experts to define their processes at an abstract level that matches their expertise. Based on that, we investigate the use of machine learning to provide gesture recognition on input devices like tablets to provide these experts with a intuitive environment for process design.
Management of Visual Clutter in Annotated 3D CAD Models: A Comparative Study BIBAKFull-Text 405-416
  Jorge Camba; Manuel Contero; Michael Johnson
The use of annotations in CAD models has been an active area of research because of their ability to connect design information to specific aspects of the model's geometry. The effectiveness of annotations is determined by the ability to clearly communicate information. However, annotations can quickly create clutter and confusion as they increase both in number and complexity. Consequently, efficient interaction and visualization mechanisms become crucial. Despite recent standardizations of procedures for the presentation of textual information in CAD models, no explicit guidelines are available as to how to make annotated models more readable and manageable. In this paper, we present the results of a comparative study of different mechanisms to manage visual clutter in annotated 3D CAD models and offer recommendations based on our findings. Our results show that even basic interaction mechanisms have a substantial impact on user's performance.
Keywords: visual clutter; annotated 3D models; CAD model interaction; design communication
Effect of Perception-Compatibility, Learning-Factor, and Symbol-Carrier on Single LED Symbol System Recognizing BIBAKFull-Text 417-424
  Chun-Chieh Chang; T. K. Philip Hwang
This study investigated effect of perception-compatibility, learning-factor, and symbol-carrier on single LED symbol system recognizing. A total of 48 subjects aged between 19 to 53 (M=28.6, SD=9.49) participated. Subjects were asked to interpret target LED symbols and match with product status. A 2 (perception-compatibility) × 2 (learning-factor) × 2 (symbol-carrier) mixed design was used in this study. Analysis showed that the effect of perception-compatibility on recognizing accuracy was significant. However, no significant effects on accuracy were associated with learning-factor and symbol-carrier. The result showed that perception-compatibility play an important role in recognizing symbols.
Keywords: symbol carrier; semantics; product status
Interfacing CBIR: Designing Interactive Widgets to Query Attribute Data in Face Image Retrieval BIBAKFull-Text 425-434
  Ted Davis
This paper establishes a unique method in visual search for the querying of face image attribute data, through a modular interface composed of interactive widgets. These widgets enable the user to define a model result through abstracted visual representations of each portrait attribute. The combined inputs construct compound queries for comparing quantitative values. Such a technique can help bridge the semantic gap within image retrieval by avoiding the continued and prevalent reliance on keywords and text-based inputs for the description and querying of pictorial content. Rather than a graphical user interface being an afterthought to a novel image processing technique, this research utilizes existing image datasets as a future given and addresses how content-based image retrieval (CBIR) can advance when reconsidering the role and importance of design.
Keywords: content-based image retrieval; CBIR; image search; visual search; query; portrait; face; attribute; interaction; interface; design; semantic gap; graphical user interface; GUI; widget; relevance feedback
Wearable Networks, Creating Hybrid Spaces with Soft Circuits BIBAKFull-Text 435-445
  T. Raune Frankjaer; Daniel Gilgen
With the emergence of augmented eyeglasses, smart watches, and health and performance monitoring wristbands, wearable computing has moved to the cusp of commonplace consumer technology. These technologies continue a trend already observed within mobile technologies, their exclusivity to the wearer. Users often project an aura of disengagement from their surroundings. To address this issue we developed the Lightning Bug, a light enhanced garment. The Lightning Bug signifies an extension of our existing channels of mobile communication into the directly perceivable realm, by deploying a visible mode of interaction and exchange of information. In a semantic analysis, we investigate the ability of the garment to represent information using different light-patterns, and develop a mode of intuitively interpretable signaling. Considering the established mental models concerning fashion, we further develop a system of controlling the device based on natural behavioral patterns by reading and utilizing the wearer's nonverbal communicative clues.
Keywords: Photonic displays; smart fashion; embedded electronics; wearable networks; hybrid space; applied semantics; interactive technology; Soft User Interface; physical computing; Lightning Bug
Aluminum CT Image Defect Detection Based on Segmentation and Feature Extraction BIBAKFull-Text 446-454
  Ning He; Lulu Zhang; Ke Lu
Industrial computed tomography (CT) scanning has been used in many areas of industry for internal inspection of components. Some of the key uses for CT scanning have been flaw detection, failure analysis, metrology, assembly analysis and reverse engineering applications. In this paper we present the approach to detecting defects follows a general image processing scheme based on three steps: segmentation, feature extractions, and classification. In the first step (segmentation), potential defects are segmented using the region method. In the step of feature extraction, two main features of the potential defects are considered: geometric and intensity features. The third step, design a proper classifier. The classifier assigns a feature vector Z to one of the two classes: regular structure or defects, that are assigned "0" and "1", respectively. A good metric defining the similarity must be established. Experiments demonstrate that proposed method is fast and accurate to defects detection in CT image, and the method has high robustness for illumination.
Keywords: CT image; Defect detection; Feature extraction; Histograms of gradients
Interface as a Medium: Creating Effective Visual Services through a User-Experiences Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 455-462
  Tingyi S. Lin
The growing market for robotic services reflects the rapidly expanding demand for such services in personal and domestic settings, according to the Service Robot Statistics of the International Federation of Robotics (IFR, 2013). It is also reasonable to argue that the design for robotic services is a topic that merits considerable attention regarding both technical and supply aspects. Supported by Promate Electronics Inc., the Visual Information Design Lab conducted a Smart Vending Machine UI design project to explore new campus-based service possibilities. Drawing on the ideas associated with this experimental design, the current study proposes an interactive interface that functions as a medium capable of motivating users to voluntarily interact with a vending machine. Also, this pilot service is realizable and testable in a campus setting. To achieve these tasks, the current study has analyzed four user types relative to users' potential behaviors, including goal-oriented behaviors, pioneer behaviors, observer behaviors, and risk-taker behaviors (Lin & Lai, 2013). The current study's design strategy has the objective of preparing for an effective visualized interface that helps launch a campus service. Under this umbrella, the current study's design team conducted their design research by using a 4D (discover, define, develop, and deliver) design method to produce an interface that would effectively stimulate four variables -- attention, interest, desire, and action -- from the perspective of visual-information design. Visual-information design is capable not only of delivering messages to its viewers, but also of enhancing services that structure and represent concepts. This approach is a way to merge aesthetics and functionality into one design practice for fully satisfying users' needs. Understanding a project's targeted users is the backbone of design processes from the very beginning to the end. This project analyzes user types and investigates users' reactions to a type of smart vending machine, revealing how and how much a design practice satisfies the needs of users. While interface-based visual information is a major element with which merchants build and maintain relationships with customers, it is important to address how users interact with designed representations. In this way, one can gauge not only how visual information functions in real practices but also how targeted users respond to the visual information. This is an essential stage in designing a robotic service and in undertaking a marketing activity: designers must understand users' experiences from outer indications (behaviors and reactions) and from inner gain (information learned and perceptions). The results are great resources for design teams and strategists seeking to enhance the quality of visual information and to create multiple-level services available on vending machines.
Keywords: User Experience; Interface Design; Visual Information; Robotic Service
Taking Decisions with Systems Oriented to the General Public BIBAKFull-Text 463-471
  André S. Monat; Marcel Befort; Ricardo Cunha Lima
Business Intelligence (BI) systems are designed to provide a user friendly way to make reports, elaborate queries and take decisions based on data stored in a special type of database called data warehouse. Normally, BI systems provide a large variety of graphic tools for these tasks. Nevertheless they are all based in a very mathematical way of displaying data. This is reasonable to managers, economists and those familiar with mathematical tools. Nevertheless it can be inappropriate to use these tools when the report was designed to be exhibit to the general public. In this work we suggest to use the Viennese Method, or ISOTYPE, in order to deal with this type of situation. We also present an example where a BI system uses this method for a public transportation system.
Keywords: Information Systems; Visual Language; Viennese Method
Interactive Visualizations in Learning Mathematics: Implications for Information Design and User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 472-480
  Virginia Tiradentes Souto
Learning mathematics seems not to be an easy task for many students. One of the reasons why mathematics may be difficult to learn is because mathematical concepts (e.g. numbers and functions) are not intuitive or accessed through everyday experience (Chiappini and Bottino, 1999). One way of trying to facilitate learning mathematics is through the use of interactive visualizations. The aim of this study is to draw attention to the importance of user experience and information design principles in order to design effective interactive visualization in learning mathematics. This article reviews some studies on visualization in learning mathematics, describes some principles both for information design and for user experience, and discusses their relevance in creating effective interactive visualization in learning mathematics.
Keywords: Interactive visualization; learning mathematics; information design; user experience
Need Driven Prototype Design for a Policy Modeling Authoring Interface BIBAKFull-Text 481-487
  Dimitris Spiliotopoulos; Athanasios Dalianis; Dimitris Koryzis
This work reflects upon the design stages of a web prototype for creating policy models and policy domains. The approach allows for user input on policy modeling, creating domains and producing relations between entities, arguments, etc. The data collected during need finding provided insight into the type of interaction required for that. This paper reports on the need-finding methodology and the several iterative interaction modeling steps in order to produce a visualized authoring design.
Keywords: policymaking; social network information; interaction design
Beyond Perspective -- A Model-Based Approach for Camera-Based 3D-Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 488-498
  Jan Wojdziak; Rainer Groh
During the design process of 3D interfaces, designer and software developer make a multitude of design decisions. The construction of a virtual scene, the texturing, and the lighting are applied methods to create effective and efficient user interfaces. In contrast, the camera model of computer graphics or rather the projection of the three-dimensional scene onto a two-dimensional image plane is often of little practical use as a tool for designing 3D interfaces. To improve the camera as an instrument in 3D interface design, the MosaIC approach (Model-Based 3D Interface Composition) is presented. The top-down approach allows designers and developers to specify 3D interfaces at multiple levels of abstraction by means of model-based interface development.
Keywords: model-based; 3D interface design; 3D computer graphics; Multiple Views; Nonlinear Projection Methods

Design for Novel Interaction Techniques and Realities

Use of Immersive Reality and Haptic Devices in Rehabilitation after Cerebral Vascular Accident: Clinical Perspectives and Neuro-Image Evidence BIBAKFull-Text 501-508
  Helda Oliveira Barros; Marcelo Márcio Soares; Epitácio Leite Rolim Filho
This paper sets out how immersion virtual reality is used to rehabilitate people affected by a stroke. To do so, we carried out a review of the literature after collecting articles published between 2000 and 2013. The results indicate that the use of virtual environments is a trend in rehabilitation and that neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the success of doing so. However, many challenges remain to be overcome. The greatest difficulties lie in characterizing the sample population. Many studies that specifically focus on post-stroke rehabilitation are conducted on individuals without declaring what the disability is and use a non-significant number participants.
Keywords: virtual reality; people with a disability; rehabilitation; ergonomics
Extending ActionSketch for New Interaction Styles: Gestural Interfaces and Interactive Environments BIBAKFull-Text 509-520
  Gil Barros
Sketching is considered a core activity in design and is a well-established practice in many areas of design. Interaction design is a new field of design that poses challenges for sketching, due to particular characteristics of the field such as being dynamic and "immaterial". To address these challenges a technique was proposed to improve the process of sketching for interaction design. It was originally proposed for WIMP interfaces and has been extended for multi-touch interfaces. In this article we verify how to apply the technique to other interaction styles, namely gestural interfaces and interaction environments. We then analyze these adaptations and extract some general rules for this kind of modification. We conclude the article with some future directions.
Keywords: Sketching; technique; gestural interface; interactive environment; ActionSketch
Syntactic/Semantic Formalizations and Metrics of Residential Applications Based on Gestural Interface BIBAKFull-Text 521-532
  Ana Carla de Carvalho Correia; Paulo Leonardo Souza Brizolara; Leonardo Cunha de Miranda; Juvane Nunes Marciano
The development of residential applications with gestural interaction focuses often only on technological and physical aspects in the construction of its applications. The use of technologies that support gestural recognition might restrict the gestural commands of an application. We argue that an abstraction of gestural interaction is required for a more comprehensive interaction approach. In an attempt to reduce problems related to gestural interaction, in this work, we formalized gestural interaction syntactically and semantically. The syntactic formalization uses building blocks that produce a grammar of the Extended Backus-Naur Form (EBNF) type. The semantic information is described by the point of view of residential application, together with their actions or services offered in the application. Additionally, we analyze the relations and combinations of gestural interaction syntactically formalized in generating a set of metrics for evaluating qualities of interaction that are based on recommendations for residential systems, in which the entire description comes from the pre-established syntactic formalization.
Keywords: gestural interaction; domotics; organizational semiotics; EBNF; smart home; home automation
Controlling Light Environments Using Segmented Light Sources and Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 533-540
  Brian Eschrich; Dietrich Kammer; Karol Kozak; Jan Hesse; Rainer Groh
In this paper, we describe a software interface for controlling light environments using segmented light sources based on OLED arrays. We propose requirements for a tool that can be used to author specific light scenarios. Both the technical view and the user view on the system are addressed. We describe the concept of creating such an interface and demonstrate an example for a specific light source. The light source consists of 72 OLED segments that can be individually programmed using a mobile device. Different use cases illustrate the concepts. The description of future work regarding the control of OLED lighting situations concludes the paper.
Keywords: Light; Interaction; OLED; Mobile; Prototyping
Can Virtual Reality Increase Emotional Responses (Arousal and Valence)? A Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 541-549
  Sergio Estupiñán; Francisco Rebelo; Paulo Noriega; Carlos Ferreira; Emília Duarte
Emotions in the context of UX are generally evaluated in regard to product appearance and sensorial experience. The use of virtual reality can be a way to study UX in consumer products. We want to evaluate if we could increase emotional responses using a virtual reality immersive system. For that purpose, we used the GAPED picture database and compared valence and arousal ratings of GAPED and those obtained using virtual reality. Results showed that arousal was higher in virtual reality for all images, and valence was negatively extreme for images of living creatures usually associated with phobias (spiders and snakes). Nonetheless being this is a pilot study, we conclude that there is a tendency for Virtual Reality to increase emotional responses.
Keywords: Emotions; Virtual Reality; User Experience; Head Mounted Display; learning; phobias; valence; arousal
In-Place Natural and Effortless Navigation for Large Industrial Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 550-561
  Lucas S. Figueiredo; Mariana Pinheiro; Edvar Vilar Neto; Thiago Menezes; João Marcelo Teixeira; Veronica Teichrieb; Pedro Alessio; Daniel Freitas
Here we address the problem of navigating in virtual environments with fixed display visualizations (e.g. projections and tvs) by using natural gestures. Gesture metaphors have proven to be a powerful tool for human computer interaction. Examples arise from smartphones to state of the art projects like the Holodesk (from Microsoft Research). However, regarding the use of gestures for navigation in virtual environments, a specific limitation arises in respect to the user movimentation in the real space. The gestures should provide the user a way of turning the virtual camera direction without losing the view of the screen. Moreover, the user must be able to move long distances in the virtual environment without trespassing real world boundaries and without becoming fatigued.
Keywords: natural interaction; in-place navigation; body gestures
Beyond Fingers and Thumbs -- A Graceful Touch UI BIBAKFull-Text 562-573
  Sue Hessey; Szu Han Chen; Catherine White
Recent developments in multi-touch screens and gesture based in-air devices provide scope for the design of UIs with multi-digit control. Software functionality choices that were traditionally controlled using buttons on pointing devices can now be selected by different gestures and/or combinations of touches. However, requiring the user to memorize complex gestures can create a barrier to use. In our UI design, we consider it important to aid the users' awareness of their current state of interaction with the system. In this paper we introduce the concept of a UI component called a "Personicon" which can be used with multi-touch screens or multi-digit in-air control. We discuss user experience tests of this design with in-air control, revealing the degree to which our novel UI is learnable and the comfort of in-air use. Early results are covered here as a reference for further developments in this area.
Keywords: Gesture; multi-touch; in-air; usability; user testing; UX; UI Design
Embodied Tele-Presence System (ETS): Designing Tele-Presence for Video Teleconferencing BIBAKFull-Text 574-585
  Muhammad Sikandar Lal Khan; Haibo Li; Shafiq ur Réhman
In spite of the progress made in tele conferencing over the last decades, however, it is still far from a resolved issue. In this work, we present an intuitive video teleconferencing system, namely -- Embodied Tele-Presence System (ETS) which is based on embodied interaction concept. This work proposes the results of a user study considering the hypothesis: "Embodied interaction based video conferencing system performs better than the standard video conferencing system in representing nonverbal behaviors, thus creating a 'feeling of presence' of a remote person among his/her local collaborators". Our ETS integrates standard audio-video conferencing with mechanical embodiment of head gestures of a remote person (as nonverbal behavior) to enhance the level of interaction. To highlight the technical challenges and design principles behind such tele-presence systems, we have also performed a system evaluation which shows the accuracy and efficiency of our ETS design. The paper further provides an overview of our case study and an analysis of our user evaluation. The user study shows that the proposed embodied interaction approach in video teleconferencing increases 'in-meeting interaction' and enhance a 'feeling of presence' among remote participant and his collaborators.
Keywords: Embodied Interaction; Multimodal Interaction; HCI; Audio-Video Conferencing; Head Gesture; Tele-Presence
Gestures: The Reformer of the User's Mental Model in Mobile HCI BIBAKFull-Text 586-597
  Tian Lei; Luyao Xiong; Kun Chen; Xu Liu; Yin Cao; Qi Zhang; Dongyuan Liu; Sisi Guo
This paper, by making a usability testing of four Chinese mainstream apps, finds that the mental model's spatial consistency can directly affect the mobile performance. Meanwhile, it also finds that in the touch-screen environment, the concept of direction is ignored by the app users when they construct mental models. Further experimental studies show that: 1) mental model's spatial consistency and Gestalt can influence the gesture's direction, and the Gestalt's impact on it is stronger than that of mental models; 2) in performance the subjects have ignored the time's growth caused by the misdirected gestures, and the completion time is no longer an evaluation criteria for the satisfaction; 3) information type significantly affects completion time, and the hints produced by the continuity of the information content do not influence the direction of gesture; 4) the difference of interaction devices is actually the reason that a user notices the direction or not.
Keywords: spatial consistency; direction of gesture; user experience; mobile usability
Sound Bending -- Talking Bodies Quantum Sound Suits BIBAKFull-Text 598-605
  Kristin Neidlinger; Wendy Ju
The QuantumSound Suits are an innovative technological solution for creating sounds from movement. Made in collaboration with contortionists, a multidisciplinary team designed custom body-painted silicone suits embedded with flexible sensors. A healing sound artist mapped the tones of the eleven sensors to movement, animating the physical motion and providing sonic feedback of body's position. This is an exploration of real-time movement notation and human activity recognition of body location in space.
Keywords: human activity recognition; wearables; sonification; performance; Arduino; dance; transdiscliplinary collaboration
Augmenting a Wearable Display with Skin Surface as an Expanded Input Area BIBAKFull-Text 606-614
  Masa Ogata; Yuta Sugiura; Yasutoshi Makino; Masahiko Inami; Michita Imai
Wearable devices such as the wristwatch-type smart watch, are becoming smaller and easier to implement. However, user interaction using wearable displays is limited owing to the small display area. On larger displays such as tablet computers, the user has more space to interact with the device and present various inputs. A wearable device has a small display area, which clearly decreases its ability to read finger gestures. We propose an augmented wearable display to expand the user input area over the skin. A user can employ finger gestures on the skin to control a wearable display. The prototype device has been implemented using techniques that sense skin deformation by measuring the distance between the skin and the wearable (wristwatch-type) device. With this sensing technique, we show three types of input functions, and create input via the skin around the wearable display and the device.
Keywords: Skin Deformation; Wearable Display; Photo reflectivity
Affordances and Gestural Interaction on Multi-touch Interface Systems: Building New Mental Models BIBAKFull-Text 615-623
  Adriano Bernardo Renzi; Sydney Freitas
This paper investigates users' gestural interaction mental models using touch screen technology for the first time. The research used Think-aloud Protocol technique for behavioral observation while performing tasks on two different Apps using an iPad2 device. The tasks helped perceive users' recognition of functionality and gestural responses for each objective completion. The conclusions based on the observed results are discussed through mental model directives and Buxton and Spool theories of innovation and factors to achieve high acceptance of users on new technology.
Keywords: user experience; mental model; think-aloud protocol
Augmented Reality in Design BIBAKFull-Text 624-635
  Christine Schranz
This paper investigates how the technology of augmented reality and mixed media will shape and affect future design strategies. Although the technology was developed back in the 1990s, its dissemination has been slow. Particularly in the field of design practice, as well as in design research, new media technologies offer an interesting alternative for producing, visualizing, and embodying (data-enhanced) spaces. For scenography in terms of an integrated space-related design discipline, (focusing on spatial access to topics including perception and analysis of spaces) the use of interactive spaces provides a new variety of possibilities in organizing and solving problems by applying a spatial perspective. Therefore it is important, not to leave the emerging media spaces exclusively to the rapidly changing information-age technologies. This contribution aims at making designers aware of the technical possibilities and fosters their participation in its development and application.
Keywords: Design; Design Research; Space; Spatial Design; Scenography; Augmented Reality; New Media; Mixed Media; Graphical Representation; Orientation; Navigation
Diving in? How Users Experience Virtual Environments Using the Virtual Theatre BIBAKFull-Text 636-646
  Katharina Schuster; Max Hoffmann; Ursula Bach; Anja Richert; Sabina Jeschke
Simulations are used in various fields of education. One approach of improving learning with simulations is the development of natural user interfaces, e.g. driving or flight simulators. The Virtual Theatre enables unrestricted movement through a virtual environment by a Head Mounted Display and an omnidirectional floor. In the experimental study presented (n = 38), the effects of objective hardware characteristics were being tested in two groups. The task was the same: Remembering positions of objects after spotting them in a maze. One group fulfilled the task in the Virtual Theatre, the other group on a laptop. Personal characteristics (gaming experience, locus of control) and perception measures for immersion (spatial presence, flow) were also assessed. Analyses show that the Virtual Theatre indeed leads to more spatial presence and flow, but has a negative effect on the task performance. This contradicts the common assumption that immersion leads to better learning.
Keywords: Immersion; Spatial Presence; Flow; Learning; Simulators; Natural User Interfaces
Designing Information for Mediated Reality Systems BIBAKFull-Text 647-658
  Luis A. Vasconcelos; Felipe Breyer; Bernardo Reis; Aline Silveira; Daniela Falcone; Judith Kelner; Ubiratan Carmo
Mediated reality systems introduce the possibility to alter users' perception of the surrounding environment by adding or removing information. These particular innovative features made this technology attractive for several adjacent fields. However, despite their direct impact on the presentation of information, mediated reality systems are still poorly explored by information designers. Over the years, information design researchers have investigated and proposed tools and practices when planning information for different platforms and contexts. With respect to technical operations, visual instructions are very effective to convey information, and therefore a great opportunity for technology aided operations. This work establishes a dialogue between information design and mediated reality systems, and introduces some of the several concerns of this joint context. Based on correlated research, we identify general principles, challenges and opportunities for mediated reality applications, and for information designers willing to use them. Finally, we also introduce an early-stage system for technical operations as an opportunity to take further lessons and establish detailed recommendations.
Keywords: Mediated Reality; Information Design; Technical Operations; Visual Instructions

Games and Gamification

Cutscenes in Computer Games as an Information System BIBAKFull-Text 661-668
  Daniel Ríha
While computer game's cutscenes are predominantly used for a cinematic narrative development, in many computer games cutscenes might serve not only as a basic orientation hint about next level in a gaming environment but might play a role of an information system. This contribution will discuss the eventualities to understand cutscenes and their implementation in a gaming environment as a sort of an information system useful for the interpretation and reconfiguration performed by the player with the respect to the rapid prototyping for serious games. Further, will be briefly discussed the potential to author the cutscenes for a sample concept of a serious game (documentary computer games) in the rapid animated movie production tool Moviestorm.
Keywords: Cut Scenes; Computer Games; Documentary Computer Games; Moviestorm; Creativity; Gameplay; Machinima; Digital Filmmaking; Visual Communication
Challenge Design and Categorization in Video Game Design BIBAKFull-Text 669-677
  Michael Brandse; Kiyoshi Tomimatsu
In this paper, we examine how challenge is designed in games. Building on the paralitic system proposed by Stenros, we approach challenge design in two ways; first we look at how challenge is designed by the game creators, and then we look at how players approach games with challenges of their own as well as how often they participate in this kind of behavior. Since challenge is an important component to the majority of games, we argue that understanding how challenge is designed is important for further research into challenge in games.
Keywords: Design Patterns and DUXU; Motivation in DUXU; Challenge design; Video game design
A Study about Designing Reward for Gamified Crowdsourcing System BIBAKFull-Text 678-687
  Joohee Choi; Heejin Choi; Woonsub So; Jaeki Lee; JongJun You
The goal of this study is to understand the mechanism of gamification in crowdsourcing by investigating the ways of giving rewards. Perceived reward diversity is proposed as a construct to induce fun experience from participants based on previous studies about gamified crowdsourcing. With respect to system manipulation, explicating the anticipated level of rewards before task phase is conducted. The effect of explication on task outcome and psychological outcome is compared with control group. As a result, both perceived reward diversity and explicating the anticipated level of rewards significantly affect both quality and quantity of submitted answers, as well as feeling of fun during the task phase. The limitation and implication of the study is stated in the end.
Keywords: gamification; crowdsourcing; reward; perceived diversity; fun experience
Evolution of the Physical Interfaces in Videogames as a Support to the Narrative and the Gaming Experience BIBAKFull-Text 688-698
  Alan Richard da Luz
This paper proposes a classification of videogames by their physical interfaces (controls, keyboards, joysticks, mouse etc.) and how they interact with narrative complexity in videogames. By now, classifications of videogames never took into account of the play element and the aesthetic experience the player had with games. This analysis comprehends the commercial operation of the videogame industry, basically from 1971 to the present day. The classification proposed here is independent of the traditional ones, although there are some similarities and parallels.
Keywords: Videogames; interface; narrativity
Skyfarer: Design Case Study of a Mixed Reality Rehabilitation Video Game BIBAKFull-Text 699-710
  Marientina Gotsis; Vangelis Lympouridis; Phil Requejo; Lisa L. Haubert; Irina C. Poulos; Fotos Frangoudes; David Turpin; Maryalice Jordan-Marsh
This paper outlines a design case study for Skyfarer, a mixed reality rehabilitation application developed for upper body exercise of individuals aging with disability. We describe how experience, experiential and participatory design methodologies were combined to develop a game, which was publicly exhibited at IEEE VR and ACM SIGGRAPH, and formally evaluated in a biomechanical study at Rancho Los Amigos National Rehabilitation Center RLANRC.
Keywords: Mixed reality; virtual reality; rehabilitation; games; experience design; experiential design; participatory design; spinal cord injury
Wanting the Unwanted -- What Games Can Teach Us about the Future of Software Development BIBAKFull-Text 711-719
  Daniel Hellweg
Do you know anyone who likes to engage in uncomfortable topics like tax return, household chores, diseases or death? Nevertheless, this is necessary in various life situations. The presentation of suitable motivational factors can offer an answer to the problem. In terms of Gamification, corresponding approaches have already been finding their way into the development of business and educational software. But we can still learn from the games industry that motivational problems can be overcome easier by taking into account game design mechanisms in early conceptions of interactive applications. As an example this paper considers the platformer Limbo [1], dealing with death crucially. The game which has been published in 2010 has experienced global success until today by providing its recipients a framework to reflect upon this topic, frustration and motivation factors being balanced skillfully. This paper examines how gaming systems can facilitate engagement in otherwise uncomfortable topics, analyzing one game within the entertainment business and describing two implementations of gaming systems in medical and educational fields.
Keywords: Game Design; Emotional Design; E-Learning; Achievements
Empirical Analysis of Playability vs. Usability in a Computer Game BIBAKFull-Text 720-731
  David Novick; Juan Vicario; Baltazar Santaella; Iván Gris
This paper reports our experience in applying an empirical user-experience testing method to improve a computer game. We sought to understand the differences in practice between usability and playability, and correspondingly to assess the usefulness of different approaches to taxonomies for playability. Our experience suggests that the evaluation technique for playability can be the same as for usability and that some existing taxonomies for playability do not provide effective support for translating experience of evaluation into heuristics for design. For formative evaluation, understanding episodes for playability depends on specific circumstances of each episode; taxonomies may be more useful for summative evaluation.
Keywords: Playability; usability; games; empirical analysis
The Study of the Relations between the BrainHex Player Profiles, MBTI Psychological Types and Emotions as Means to Enhance User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 732-741
  Rafael Eduardo Paulin; André Luiz Battaiola; Márcia Maria Alves
This paper, firstly, develops the BrainHex player profiles into a more robust set, enriched by the psychological characteristics of the MBTI system. The characteristics of each one of the seven profiles was directly compared and contrasted with the characteristics of each one of the sixteen personality types. Those that have more in common were grouped together, resulting in what has been called "expanded profiles".
   Secondly, the most relevant emotions in games are related to the expanded profiles, evidencing which one have more influence over each one of the seven expanded profiles.
   The result is a complex tool that can be used by developers to get acquainted with their costumers, and also to design better user experience for players and, consequently, more appealing games.
Keywords: Games; MBTI; Psychological Types; Player Profiles; Emotions; User Experience
A Review of Gamification for Health-Related Contexts BIBAKFull-Text 742-753
  Pedro Pereira; Emília Duarte; Francisco Rebelo; Paulo Noriega
Gamification is an approach which seeks to positively impact diverse wellness and health-related contexts, not only because it can get people more engaged and make them more responsible for their health-related decisions, but also because it can enhance the performance of healthcare workers. It, therefore, affects both the costs of personal wellness and the healthcare. Gamification is an informal umbrella term for the use of video game elements in non-gaming systems that aim to improve user experience and user engagement. The current paper's focus is to introduce theoretical aspects of gamification and its potential impact on health-related contexts, as well as present the state-of-the-art on how gamification is being employed in such contexts. Examples from contexts such as exercise, nutrition, weight control, medication adherence, and hands' hygiene, among others, are included. Finally, the challenges inherent to the design of successful gamification strategies and approaches are discussed.
Keywords: gamification; health; motivation; behavior
Game Design Techniques in User Research Methods -- A New Way to Reach the High Score in Development Teams BIBAKFull-Text 754-762
  Eva Rügenhagen; Theo Held
Frequently, project teams who participate actively in usability tests show more trust in the results, but they also tend to build up some frustration during the process of conducting the study itself. In multidisciplinary teams, user research methods and the skills required are not used by every team member on a daily basis. Therefore, the felt ownership mostly lies within the roles of user researcher and/or interaction designer, who guide the teams through the process. SAP's central user research team wanted to enhance method literacy and empathic involvement in multidisciplinary teams. Therefore, we have introduced an emotional component into the process through applying slight modifications to user research methods by using game mechanics. In this paper, we want to describe the application of game mechanics to the method 'usability test' as an example for this approach. We elaborate on the prerequisites and considerations that led to the approach, describe the game that has been created and the experiences we made so far.
Keywords: Game mechanics; Gamification; User Centered Design; User Research; Formative Usability Testing
A New Design Process for Viewer Participation in Interactive TV Program: Focused on the Interactive TV Game Show Hae-un-dae BIBAKFull-Text 763-772
  Jeongbeom Shin; Hyun Jung Kim; Jea In Kim; Bong Gwan Jun; Chung-Kon Shi
It is no easy thing to insert viewer participation seamlessly within a narrative structure when planning interactive TV program, and moreover there are not any existing processes to solve such difficulty in practice. Thus, in this paper, we proposed a new design process to be suitable to map out viewer participation of interactive TV program and demonstrated the application of our design process to the development of the iTV game show Hae-un-dae.
Keywords: interactive television; viewer participation; design process
Immersive Interactive Narratives in Augmented Reality Games BIBAKFull-Text 773-781
  Bruno Santos Viana; Ricardo Nakamura
The industry of digital games is marked by innovation. Currently, augmented reality has been added to those games, to provide new experiences for players. However, those efforts have been focused on attracting players based on novelty devices. Digital games seem to have high potential for realizing novel interactive narratives. At the same time, there has been some academic discussion about narratives in augmented reality. In this paper, we discuss some relationships between interactive narratives, digital games and augmented reality. We then propose an approach and a specific technology setup for exploring augmented reality games as providers for innovative interactive narratives. In this augmented game space, new technology and devices are not the focus but rather the means for the realization of new experiences.
Keywords: interactive narrative; augmented reality; digital games
Serious Economic Games: Designing a Simulation Game for an Economic Experiment BIBAKFull-Text 782-793
  Danilo Wanner
This project proposes the design of a Serious Game for an economic experiment. The analysis of existing games and research into current practices and requirements in economic experimentation are combined to create a Serious Economic Game. It is found that laboratory experiments are conducted in a way that prevents immersion. A game using a visual representation of the economic model and presenting input in the form of gameplay decisions has the potential to provoke a naturalistic player response through immersion. Case studies of existing games show various ways in which to achieve player engagement and immersion. The employed "aesthetic" approach to game design involves detailed, photorealistic graphics and sound bound to diegesis to demand the attention of players and therefore facilitate immersion.
Keywords: Serious Games; Economic Experiment; Design Research; Digital Aesthetics; Game Aesthetics; Aesthetic Approach; Game Design
Interface Design for Somatosensory Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 794-801
  Qiong Wu; Xun Rong Li; Guan Shang Wu
Motion and gesture recognition technology has promoted a significant development of interaction design recently. Especially in game industry, controlled by the player's movement and gesture, along with appropriate content and interface design, the game can afford strong immersive feelings to the player. The paper talked about the interactive interface design of a somatosensory game prototype in 3D space, and proposed the full use of parameters in three directions captured by Kinect and corresponding technological solutions.
Keywords: Interface Design; Somatosensory Interaction; Interaction Design