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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2013: 2nd International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part IV: Web, Mobile, and Product Design

Fullname:DUXU 2013: Second International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part IV: Web, Mobile, and Product Design
Note:Volume 12 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8015
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39253-5 hcibib: DUXU13-4; ISBN: 978-3-642-39252-8 (print), 978-3-642-39253-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Webpage
  1. DUXU 2013-07-21 Volume 4
    1. DUXU in Business and the Enterprise
    2. Designing for the Web Experience
    3. Product Design
    4. Information and Knowledge Design and Visualisation
    5. Mobile Applications and Services

DUXU 2013-07-21 Volume 4

DUXU in Business and the Enterprise

User-Centered Soft Innovation in Established Business Fields BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Henning Breuer; Zeno Wolze; Elisabeth Umbach
Developments in open and user-centered innovation are usually being discussed in the context of exploration of uncontested market space rather than exploitation of business potentials for established products. The substantial effort to acquire and utilize valid and specific insights from potential users keeps especially small and medium sized companies from taking sidesteps in the shoes of their customers. This paper presents a focused user-centered soft innovation (FUSION) framework that combines discounted user-centered innovation methods with radical steps beyond the innovation funnel in order to substantially and sustainably improve established business with minimal effort. Stepping back into the past, ahead into potential futures, and integrating perspectives from stakeholders beyond the usual suspects help to focus on success critical potentials for soft innovation and tweaks in the offering. A project case dealing with the optimization of entertainment offerings demonstrates the application of the framework.
Keywords: User-Centered Optimization; Soft Innovation; Exploration and Exploitation; Design Thinking; Customer Touchpoints; Detour; Triangulation
The Adoption of Mobile Internet: Industry and Users Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Manuel José Damásio; Inês Teixeira-Botelho; Sara Henriques; Patrícia Dias
Nowadays Internet and mobile phones are blending into portable devices such as smartphones. At the same time that mobile phones' sales are decreasing worldwide, smartphones, and consequently mobile internet (m-internet), are having an exponential growth. M-internet contributes to the emerging of new practices of mobile social networking and mobile communication, as these devices make it easier to maintain networks of relationships. Resulting from this convergence, contemporary mobile user experience also contributes to the blending of local and global through the permanent dynamic articulation of communication and coordination. This paper deals with the emerging adoption drivers of m-internet and the use patterns that characterize it, highlighting the importance of mobility for online activities and confronting the industry's and users' perspectives on the adoption of this technology, its patterns of use, motivating factors and type of activities performed online. Within a theoretical framework that articulates Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory and the theory of uses and gratification, this paper explores the connection between the nature of social interactions allowed by m-internet and the satisfaction of needs as key adoption drivers. In addition, the paper explores a gap in the expectations of the industry and users regarding m-internet adoption, pointing to social activities as an integrative and relevant part of m-internet service.
Keywords: m-internet; mobile phone; mobile user experience; m-activities; m-communication
Branding "for All": Toward the Definition of Inclusive Toolkits of Analysis and Visual Communication for Brand Identities BIBAKFull-Text 23-29
  Giuseppe Di Bucchianico; Stefania Camplone; Stefano Picciani
The construction of brand identities today can not be reduced to a simple set of attributes that consumers/users just accept consenting and as a closed box. It is rather a system that, in a society inclusion-oriented, increasingly appears as the result of an ideal alchemy between social and product values, emotional and rational contents, collective and corporate cultures. the brand/visual designer needs to have conceptual and methodological tools useful to identify, manage, and validate objectively the complex system of the design requirements for a brand identity and a visual identity that are really "inclusive". The paper presents a reflection on the issues of brand identity and brand design related to the Design for All approach.
Keywords: Brand identity; Visual brand design; Design for All
Studies on the Design Marketing Strategies in the Experiential Economy through the Case Study of 'the Starbucks Company' BIBAKFull-Text 30-36
  Yung Joo Jang; Eui Chul Jung
The purpose of the paper is to study the strategies of the experience marketing needed in the experiential economy by analyzing the Starbucks Company. In order to support the purpose of the research, the marketing mix of the Starbucks Company was developed based on previous models of the traditional marketing strategies combined with researches about the experience marketing theories. As the result, the success of Starbucks came from the different strategies that create experiences for the customers.
Keywords: Experiential Marketing; Experiential Economy; the Starbucks Company; Experience Marketing Strategies; Coffee shop Marketing
A Dependency-Sharing Tool for Global Software Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 37-46
  Douglas Lee; Allen E. Milewski; Daniela Rosca
This project explores the design of a tool to facilitate a common task that software engineers find difficult -- the identification and management of dependencies between the many heterogeneous entities created in the course of a software development project. The focus of this tool is the value it might have during the maintenance phase. Maintenance engineers learn and understand the project differently from the original authors of the artifacts. Typically, they come to understand the project by investigating dependencies between entities -- a task that can be very difficult and time-consuming. To deal with these differences, the Global Software Traceability (GST) Tool was designed and prototyped to explore improvements in the usability of maintaining dependency links after the project has been deployed. The GST Tool is a proof-of-concept design prototype used to investigate how to make such a tool both useful and usable. The tool was successful in creating an environment whose overhead was low enough to make it likely that it would be used despite the severe time constraints found in software maintenance.
Keywords: dependencies; traceability; maintenance
Management of Individual and Organizational Design Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 47-56
  Tz-Ying Lin; Ding-Bang Luh
Before starting to formulate design concepts, designers usually gather relevant information to explore design problems and facilitate concept development. The information search behavior is a comprehensive consideration, which differs from the specific search of design methods. The research analyzes the factors that influence design information search behavior and constructs a general information search behavior structure. Through in-depth interviews with designers with various levels of experience and with the code analysis method in Grounded Theory and the Interpretive Structural Modeling approach, a behavior model of design information search is established. The research results can provide design information managers with the reference for information search planning and allow staff who develop design information database to better understand the factors and aspects involved in design information search behavior. This study the knowledge management in design companies' model are designed based on the designer's search behavior structure, and chooses NOVA Design as the case of the research. Deeply investigating the knowledge required during the design process, methods used by the designer to obtain the relevant information, including design knowledge and storage methods made by designer during the designing process.
Keywords: Design Management; Knowledge Management; Design Information; Search Behavior; Grounded Theory
Ultrabooks™ and Windows 8: A touchy UX Story BIBAKFull-Text 57-66
  Daria Loi
This paper demonstrates how a multi-region ethnographically informed study has influenced Intel's Ultrabook™ strategy. In 2011 Intel Corporation launched a $300M fund focused on the next generation of notebooks, called Ultrabook™ (Merritt, 2011a) and at Computex the same year announced the Ultrabook™ concept: a thin (less than 0.8 inches thick) notebook that utilizes Intel processors and can incorporate tablet features such as a touch screen and long battery life (Burt, 2011) that would be priced below $1000. A few months later four Taiwan ODMs (Original Design Manufacturers) showcased prototype Ultrabook™ devices with Intel's 3rd Generation Core™ Processors at Intel Developers Forum (Merritt, 2011b). Within this context, the imminent arrival of Windows 8, Microsoft's Operating System centered around a "touch first" philosophy, opens up a range of questions on whether touchscreens should or should not be part of the clamshell Ultrabook™ experience. In mid-2011 the conventional wisdom in the industry was that touch on vertical screens is a mistake. This existing belief had been strengthened in 2010 when the late Steve Jobs explained during a keynote that "touch surfaces don't want to be vertical. It gives great demo, but after a short period of time you start to fatigue, and after an extended period of time, your arm wants to fall off" (Carmody, 2010). The industry even coined a specific term to describe this issue: Gorilla Arm.During that time, I decided to explore this territory further as I didn't fully buy into the conventional wisdom or negative statements by industry representatives about this usage. In particular, I decided that the best approach to learn about this heated topic was to learn through direct observation of what everyday users really like, think and ultimately do. The qualitative case study at the center of this paper was consequently initiated, ultimately documenting and demonstrating user behavior that is drastically different from what was expected based on industry wisdom. Indeed, not only did people reach for the screen a lot during the study -- they loved doing so. The study, a qualitative user experience investigation focused on the use of touch in clamshell devices, was conducted in 2011 in the US, Italy, PRC and Brazil. The research's key insights, recommendations, strategic impact and influence are discussed in this paper through a number of examples, narrated through users' voices. This paper is divided into five sections. The first section offers a background on Ultrabooks™ and the rationale for the case study. The second section overviews the UX approach and philosophy which underpins the case study. The third section focuses on the actual case study: timelines, aims, methodology, insights and key recommendations. A number of specific user examples are used to illustrate key learning. The fourth part of this paper is dedicated to the impact that this research has generated, with specific emphasis on best known methods for influencing product development and marketing strategy through user experience research and design. The final section offers a number of conclusive remarks and recommendations, with focus on ethno-design methods that assist product development.
Keywords: Anthropology and ethnography in DUXU; Design philosophy of HCI and UX; Design/evaluation for cross-cultural users; Future trends in DUXU; Mobile products and services
The Innovation Machine: Mobile UX Design Combining Information and Persuasion Design to Change Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 67-76
  Aaron Marcus; Megan Chiou; Chirag Narula; Allan Yu
Stimulating and managing innovation in product/service development is a 21st century global challenge that applies to executives and staff in business operations, engineering, marketing, and design in the US, as well as in Europe, India, and China. The Innovation Machine project of 2012 developed effective ways to foster a shift to individuals, using information and persuasion design to change people's behavior in the short- and in the long-term. This paper explains the development of its user interface.
Keywords: culture; dashboard; design; development; incentives; information; innovation; mobile; persuasion; social networks; user interface; user experience
Web-Portal Solution for Supporting In-Country Reviews BIBAKFull-Text 77-83
  Michael Oettli; Tasos Panagis
As a leading language service provider to the Healthcare industry for many years, nlg GmbH has observed the needs and identified problems of Healthcare clients in regards to the mandatory and regulated in-country review of translated content.
   In Europe, Directives such as the Medical Device Directive (MDD) 93/42/EEC describe the localization requirements for Instructions for Use as well as Safety and Warning information for Medical Devices. Each device must be accompanied by the information needed to use it safely and to identify the manufacturer, taking account of the training and knowledge of the potential users.
   If documentation is translated into the required language of the importing country, the manufacturer should have procedures to ensure the accuracy of translated content in connection with the source language. This requirement is usually met through an in-country review process. It is a necessary quality assurance step before final product approval in a foreign country.
Keywords: Verification; In-Country Review; Localization Automation; Customized Technology; Health Care
User Experience Transformation in Telco Companies: Turkcell Case BIBAFull-Text 84-93
  Seda Alpkaya; Cem Sakarya
Turkcell is a telecommunications company in Turkey that places the customer at the center of its organization. Customers physically interact with Turkcell through physical touch points; like Call Center, Turkcell shops, Turkcell web site (www.turkcell.com.tr), mobile devices or applications like Turkcell TV, Turkcell music etc.
   Through a real commitment to the customer; Turkcell business units align themselves with the customer and emphasize long term relationships in order to satisfy customer needs. Value is created both for the customer and the company; by going well beyond selling products but providing comprehensive solutions. Competitive advantage is not based on Turkcell's products and services itself; but also in understanding the behaviours of the customer. Even the organizational structure was re-aligned, based on the needs of the customer.
   This study will evaluate the transformation of Turkcell from product centricity to user centricity. It will also demonstrate how the company emphasizes an outside in approach in order to look from customers' perspective. All the business units were re-aligned cross-functionally to improve processes and to focus on customer-articulated needs.
   For this purpose, user experience (UX) methods that are used within the company, studies conducted to increase awareness about UX, tools used to create solid UX outputs and a UX driven project where customer involvement was secured at all stages will be elaborated.
   The findings will reveal that when a simple and consistent UX is delivered, it is possible to develop a UX strategy that will deliver a ROI, increase competitiveness, drive customer loyalty and innovation within a company. By keeping the market updated on the recent success stories and innovations within global companies, it is also possible to show the benefits of UX, make it tangible and easier to communicate.
Human-Centered Communication Planning: A Conceptual Approach BIBAKFull-Text 94-102
  Tim Schneidermeier; Florian Maier; Johannes Schricker
This paper presents an interdisciplinary approach to transfer knowledge of human-centered design and usability engineering to the field of communication planning. Communication planning is a systematic process to identify target groups for specific marketing goals and when and how to reach them. We believe that by transferring methods and an overall iterative design process effectiveness and efficiency of the communication planning process as well as the overall success could be improved.
Keywords: human-centered design; communication planning
Online Advertising as a New Story: Effects of User-Driven Photo Advertisement in Social Media BIBAKFull-Text 103-112
  Min Shin; Da Young Ju
Mobile devices have infiltrated into our lives. The constant connectivity via wireless technology led to a growth of social media. It is different from traditional media in that it provides interactive communication without restriction of time and place. Marketing industry is struggling to increase its presence by advertising in this new media environment. This paper presents a new advertising model based on user-generated content. This model was theoretically approached by the psychological mechanisms. We show its effectiveness using our experiments that measure users' attention levels and advertisement recall rates. The proposed model can be potentially applied to online advertisements in diverse platforms and devices.
Keywords: Social media; online advertising; self-referential effect; mobile advertising; interaction design
An Applied Ergonomics Study on IT User Interaction in a Large Hydroelectric Company in the Northeast of Brazil BIBAKFull-Text 113-120
  Marcelo Márcio Soares; Fabio Campos; Walter Correia; André Neves; Joao Corte; Saul Mendonca
The aim of this study was to develop an ergonomic methodology to verify the compliance and usability of software, in line with, ISO 9241, which may assist software developers, maintainers and assessors in a power distribution utility in northeastern Brazil to improve the quality of Human-Computer Interactions. It also set out to develop and implement a software tool that might incorporate the methodology developed, thus enabling IT professionals to conduct a compliance review with a view to increasing productivity and reducing failures of the services managed or implemented by using this software which had undergone ergonomic verification.
Keywords: Ergonomic methodology; ergonomic analysis software; usability testing
Design and Usability: A Case Study on Selecting Exhibitors for the National Fair of Craftwork -- FENEARTE -- Recife, PE, Brazil BIBAKFull-Text 121-129
  Tibério Tabosa; Virginia Cavalcanti; Ana Andrade; Erimar Cordeiro; Germannya D'Garcia
The article describes how virtual tools and processes were constructed to develop and manage the processes of registering and selecting craft workers from Pernambuco for the XI and XII National Fair of Craftwork Business -- FENEARTE. The processes and tools were developed by O Imaginário Design Laboratory, Federal University of Pernambuco, from the perspective of adhering to the 10 heuristics described by Nielsen [1]. The main results indicate to the individual FENEARTE exhibitors qualification of portfolio and a knowledge base built about craftwork activities. These were actions that guaranteed more effective, efficient and transparent results besides reinforcing the importance of the contribution of research and university outreach activities towards social transformations.
Keywords: Design; usability; craftwork; virtual tools; heuristics
How to Design Experiences: Macro UX versus Micro UX Approach BIBAKFull-Text 130-139
  Constantin von Saucken; Ioanna Michailidou; Udo Lindemann
User Experience (UX) can be achieved by a user-related product's purpose (Macro UX) as well as by pleasant embodiment design in detail concerning material, usability and interface (Micro UX). Existing approaches mostly represent the Macro UX approach and therefore demand influencing the whole development process, in particular the early stage of goal setting. Furthermore, they are often psychology-driven. For that reason they are hardly implemented in industrial practice. We observe that most development projects are not triggered by user considerations but by market or technology influences. We show how to achieve an impact on the product's emotional quality and UX by supporting the design phase of those projects incrementally (Micro UX). Based on psychological foundation this approach provides pragmatic short-term support to designers in an adequate language to be applicable.
Keywords: Enterprise user-experience structure and process; management of DUXU processes; patterns of DUXU practice
A User Centred Approach to Determining the Impact of Faster Broadband on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises BIBAKFull-Text 140-149
  Doug Williams; Andy Gower; Joshan Meenowa; Jon Wakeling
This paper explores, through interviews with a small number of users, the potential impact of faster broadband speeds on UK based small and medium sized enterprises. The paper describes the actions taken to ameliorate the risk of drawing conclusions from such a small sample of users. The research suggests that all business sectors will benefit from increased broadband speeds with retail, finance, and manufacturing sectors benefitting the most. The business functions benefitting the most are sales and marketing and product development. These insights, which are useful for capacity planners and for marketers, have been reflectively considered using a model for user experience.
Keywords: Broadband; SME; human centred design; user experience; framework
A User Centred Approach to Evaluating the Future Demand for Bandwidth from Consumers BIBAKFull-Text 150-159
  Doug Williams; Andy Gower; Joshan Meenowa; Jon Wakeling
This paper estimates bandwidth demand for consumers using a user-centred model including an extension of the persona concept to describe complete households. Peak demand is calculated by describing when different applications and services are used within each household during the day and by summing the concurrent demands for bandwidth from each concurrent application or service. The value of the peak demand calculation to capacity planning is discussed.
Keywords: Broadband; consumer

Designing for the Web Experience

Examining User Experience of Cruise Online Search Funnel BIBAKFull-Text 163-172
  Asta Adukaite; Alessandro Inversini; Lorenzo Cantoni
While the cruising industry is enjoying significant and stable growth rates, its online communication has not been extensively researched. This may be due to the fact that cruises are still being sold mainly offline. Nonetheless, both cruisers and the industry itself are changing, and the role played by online communication is getting more and more importance. By adopting a user testing approach, this paper presents results of an analysis done on the online search funnel of the four main cruising companies. Such analysis is useful not only to compare the usability of the selected websites, but also to better define critical aspects of the search funnel within cruise websites from the viewpoint of user experience.
Keywords: Usability; e-Tourism; cruise websites
A User Experience Study of Airline Websites BIBAKFull-Text 173-182
  Mahmut Eksioglu; Esin Kiris; Tugba Çakir; Merve Güvendik; Efsane D. Koyutürk; Merve Yilmaz
The aim of this study was to identify and compare user experience issues and provide recommendations for the three airline websites. The websites were evaluated through heuristic evaluation and usability testing methods. Based on the heuristic evaluation findings, two relatively difficult task scenarios were generated for usability testing: A total of 168 student users participated in the study. The participants' performances for user testing were evaluated in terms of task completion time, success rate, and number of page views by a remote usability testing tool, Loop11. Additionally, a post-test questionnaire was administered online. Statistical analysis results indicated a significant 'website-design' effect on task completion times. Overall, the task completion time significantly varied among the three airlines. Notably, 'gender', 'education level' and 'internet use frequency' had no significant effect on task completion times for both tasks. Re-design recommendations are provided for a sample of cases.
Keywords: Heuristic Evaluation; Usability and User Experience; Web Usability; Airline Companies
Exploring Offline Browsing Patterns to Enhance the Online Environment BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Xiaopeng Guo; Jie Gao; Yujing Zeng; Zhenghua Zhang
In the early stage of e-commerce website design, the products for sale were displayed in lists or tables. As the number of products has increased, multiple tools have been introduced to help buyers find their targets, including sorting, searching, tags, and colour collections. However, this type of design does not provide much help for users without clear targets. In this study, we obtained insights from traditional shopping experiences by tracking real customers' in-store behaviour. Based on these observational results, we tested whether in-store behaviour can be adapted to the online-shopping experience.
Keywords: In-store Behaviour; Shelf Display; Web Design; E-Commerce
Usability of County Election Websites BIBAKFull-Text 193-202
  Cyd Harrell; Andrea Fineman; Ethan Newby; Dana Chisnell; Whitney Quesenbery
How well do counties answer voters' questions about upcoming elections? Other studies have reviewed state election department websites [1, 2], but voters vote at the county or town level. How do they get their questions answered? Assuming that one source of election information might be local -- the website for the county clerk or registrar -- we cataloged 147 county websites, and then conducted a large-scale, distributed usability test with 41 voters from across the U.S. using their own county's website. We sought to learn about what local election jurisdictions were offering for content, what terminology they used to describe it, and how useful and usable that content was to voters -- just in time for the 2012 U.S. Presidential election.
Keywords: Usability methods and tools; voting; elections; websites
Analysis of Query Entries of a Job Search Engine BIBAKFull-Text 203-211
  Yeolib Kim
The amount of interest in analyzing log files is growing with the expanding volume of information on the Web. The primary mode for information retrieval without a doubt has been search engines which can help users filter their information needs. While the population is used to general-purpose search engines, domain-specific search engines exist to segment a certain market and cater to underserved minority interests. Job search engines are widely used by job seekers ranging from new college graduates to those that are attempting to change their jobs. As part of this research, we investigate job search engine, indeed.com. We accumulated the query entries of 10 participants and analyzed the trends. We specifically examine their input queries and how they deal with output search results. Results indicate that the participants, on average, enter 1.66 queries into the main search box. The main query type for a job search engine is entering a job title. Participants rarely look beyond the first page for output search results. Instead of checking the content past the first page, they would refine their search terms and focus again on the first page. Overall, interesting patterns emerge from this research on a job search engine, but more studies are required.
Keywords: Job search engine; query length; query type; location; result page
The Effect of Feedback within Social Media in Tourism Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 212-220
  Jeongmi (Jamie) Kim; Daniel R. Fesenmaier; Steven L. Johnson
Recent research indicates that travellers are actively using social media in soliciting feedback from their friends and others before, during and after their trip. However, the impact of this feedback is not clear in terms of how the use of social media mediates the touristic experience. As such, the goal of this study is to identify how social media enable tourists to access their social networks and the mechanisms in which the use of social media shapes tourist's perceptions and emotions during their trip. Using a web-based experiment, this study confirmed that social media such as Facebook has the potential to significantly affect tourists' emotions and thus, improve the tourism experience.
Keywords: Tourism experience; social media; travel; Facebook
Fulfilled and Missed Requirements for Online Reservation Systems: An Empirical Investigation of Austrian and Swiss Hotels BIBAKFull-Text 221-230
  Gerhard F. Knolmayer; Viola Sini; Polina Chelnokova
Temporal data are a core element of a reservation. In this paper we formulate 10 requirements and 14 sub-requirements for handling temporal data in online hotel reservation systems (OHRS) from a usability viewpoint. We test the fulfillment of these requirements for city and resort hotels in Austria and Switzerland. Some of the requirements are widely met; however, many requirements are fulfilled only by a surprisingly small number of hotels. In particular, numerous systems offer options for selecting data which lead to error messages in the next step. A few screenshots illustrate flaws of the systems. We also draw conclusions on the state of applying software engineering principles in the development of Web pages.
Keywords: Usability; Requirements Engineering; Reservation Systems; Travel; B2C Systems; Temporal Data; Tests
Geospatial Web Interfaces, Why Are They So "Complicated"? BIBAKFull-Text 231-237
  Erick López-Ornelas; Rocío Abascal-Mena; J. Sergio Zepeda-Hernández
The usability evaluation is an important element of human computer interaction. The usability which translates to ease of use is the feature that all user interfaces should have. The geospatial interfaces should then follow the basic rules of usability. In this paper, we conducted a series of usability tests for some geospatial interfaces. These interfaces were designed for local users, for example INEGI or Guía Roji in the Mexican context. The results reveal the lack of usability guidelines user testing to be performed in the cases for this type of interfaces.
Keywords: geospatial interfaces; usability evaluation; GeoWeb applications
Behind Livia's Villa: A Case Study for the Devolution of Large Scale Interactive "in-site" to "on-line" Application BIBAKFull-Text 238-247
  Guido Lucci Baldassari; Emanuel Demetrescu; Sofia Pescarin; Joakim Eriksson; Holger Graf
This work presents a methodology for designing online web presentations reusing a large scale, interactive and immersive VR installation by mapping assets as well as interactions to a low capability environment. With the emergence of WebGL plugin-free interactive 3D graphics inside limited information processing environments, e.g. browser technologies, becomes reality. However, macro VR worlds typically use large or even out-of-core data sets in order to produce and communicate scientifically relevant content. The major challenge still remains on how we can redesign and optimize applications that have been planned for macro VR worlds and map those to adequate concepts of micro scale worlds. We showcase this in the area of virtual archaeology for the online virtual museum of "Villa Di Livia", part of the bigger project "Flaminia Reloaded", in which several limitations could become crucial. The elaborated workflow could easily be adopted by other VMs and assist in future migrations.
Keywords: Browser Technology; Virtual Museums (VM); Desktop VR; X3D
Evaluating a Web-Based Tool for Crowdsourced Navigation Stress Tests BIBAKFull-Text 248-256
  Florian Meier; Alexander Bazo; Manuel Burghardt; Christian Wolff
We present a web-based tool for evaluating the information architecture of a website. The tool allows the use of crowdsourcing platforms like Amazon's MTurk as a means for recruiting test persons, and to conduct asynchronous remote navigation stress tests (cf. Instone 2000). We also report on an evaluation study which compares our tool-based crowdsourced approach to a more traditional laboratory test setting. Results of this comparison indicate that although there are interesting differences between the two testing approaches, both lead to similar test results.
Keywords: remote usability testing; crowdsourcing; MTurk; information architecture; navigation stress test
Ergonomic Evaluation of Websites Focusing on the Human-Computer Interface so as to Improve Access to the Web Especially by People with Visual Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 257-264
  André R. Melo; Marcelo Márcio Soares; Fabio Campos; Walter Correia
This study sets out to contribute to making web pages more accessible especially with reference to people with visual impairments. Ways of evaluating of the interfaces of web sites and systems were investigated resulting in new, interim proposals which make use of W3C and Electronic Government tools combined with heuristics and. Thus, an assessment with greater emphasis on ergonomic criteria in terms of the human-computer interface is provided. A case study was used to evaluate three interfaces using the W3C validation tools HTML/ CSS validator and DaSilva. Thereafter, Jakob Nielsen's heuristcs were applied using a screen reader. The outcome was comparative charts and tables that illustrate the possibility of outside experts applying the methods together to achieve a substantially higher level of detailed information on errors. This would provide improvements in correcting errors on interfaces with a view to minimizing ergonomic problems and usability. These are problems that hinder the visually impaired from having full access to websites and systems.
Keywords: Human-computer interface; accessibility; usability; universal design; visual impairment; ergonomic evaluation
Evaluating Interaction with Websites: Case Study of a Government Website of the Brazilian Ministry of Labor and Employment BIBAKFull-Text 265-273
  Fabiane R. Fernandes; Luis Carlos Paschoarelli; José Carlos P. da Silva
This paper presents a usability evaluation of the MTE (Ministry of Labor e Employment) website in order to measure the effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction regarding the website. The participants were 12 users (07 users were female and 05 male). The results indicate that although the education level of all participants and computing experience, many of them have had difficulty in finding information and do not recommend the site.
Keywords: Government websites; ergonomic design; usability; ministry of labor and employment
From the Ground-Up: Role of Usability and Aesthetics Evaluation in Creating a Knowledge-Based Website for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers BIBAKFull-Text 274-283
  Dennis B. Propst; Sarah J. Swierenga; Graham L. Pierce; Eunseong Jeong; Constantinos K. Coursaris
Government agency websites are places where both tacit and implicit organizational knowledge is managed. To maximize benefits to the organization, these websites must be tailored not only to meet immediate employee needs, but they should also be aesthetically pleasing enough to keep workers engaged and interested in exploring and sharing information. Usability testing allows users to interact with websites and give vital feedback. Knowledge acquired during the usability testing process can be used to improve the information architecture of the website and its content. Preferences for aesthetic features can be gauged simultaneously. This study included usability and aesthetics tests with federal employees who interact with the Natural Resources Management Gateway, a complex information-rich website, on a regular basis. The study clarified the relative importance of both usability and aesthetic features on employee satisfaction and identified the most preferred home page design. Involvement of employees in early design stages of knowledge management systems is strongly advised.
Keywords: Usability; aesthetics; knowledge management; public website; outdoor recreation website; home page design
Selection and Implementation of Navigation and Information Search Strategies in Bank Web Sites: Turkish Case BIBAKFull-Text 284-293
  Özgürol Öztürk; Kerem Rizvanoglu
One of the major issues in banking is "consumer loan". Most of the banks allow customers to apply for a "personal" or "generic" loan online. This procedure requires filling out forms with some "familiar data" and calculating the rates and fees for the total cost. Although online banking is a supported feature of banking in general, every system offers a different path for the same experience. This pilot study, which is the first step of a long-term study, focuses on three different bank web sites in Turkey and investigates the "find and search" strategies that users employ in order to apply for a specific amount of loan. For this purpose a qualitative usability test, based on a multi-method approach, was carried out with a sample of 11 Turkish senior year university students who were experienced Internet users and potential new customers. The participants were observed during the task executions and additional data was collected by the "think aloud" procedure, eye-tracking and video recording of the participants. Complementary data on user experience was collected by a final debriefing interview. The findings revealed significant usability problems caused specifically by the user interface features and information architecture of each system and enable to propose guidelines to improve user experience in form design and/or check-out process.
Keywords: Usability; Bank Website; Online Banking; Form Design
Content as Conversation in Government Websites BIBAKFull-Text 294-303
  Janice (Ginny) Redish
Thinking of content as conversation is a very powerful way to plan, organize, write, and test websites. Early government websites seemed to be built as if they were virtual file cabinets -- offering people access to paper documents. Today, that metaphor is dead. A better metaphor is to think of websites as replacing the telephone. Using a case study of transforming a government website, I show how thinking of content as conversation and planning for customer-focused purposes, customer personas, and customers' questions can help government writers give people what they need in words they understand. I also show how walking personas through their conversations is a powerful review technique and how content as conversation helps in planning for usability testing.
Keywords: content; content as conversation; content strategy; government; personas; websites; web content; writing for the web; usability
Re-thinking Bookmark Management -- Less Choice Is More Efficient BIBAKFull-Text 304-312
  Siu-Tsen Shen; Stephen D. Prior
This research investigates the role of a Controlled Vocabulary (CV) in next generation bookmark management systems. The search for a more efficient graphical user interface solution to deal with the massive information overload situation faced by most computer users today is a pressing problem. CVs allow categorization of title words and phrases into the appropriate location recognized by the user, so as to facilitate easier information storage and retrieval. The results of this user study involving 152 individuals indicated that there is potential for a well-defined two-tier controlled vocabulary system to assist user categorization, information storage and retrieval in personal information management systems.
Keywords: Bookmark management; web browser; controlled vocabulary; filing system; information storage and retrieval
User-Centered Evaluation of a Discovery Layer System with Google Scholar BIBAKFull-Text 313-322
  Tao Zhang
Discovery layer systems allow library users to obtain search results from multiple library resources and view results in a consistent format. The implementation of a discovery layer is expected to simplify users' workflow of searching for scholarly information. Previous studies on discovery layer systems focused on functionality and content, but not quality of search results from the user's perspective. The objective of this study was to obtain users' assessment of search results of a discovery layer system (Ex Libris Primo®) and compare that with a widely used scholarly search tool (Google Scholar). Results showed that Primo's search results relevancy is comparable to Google Scholar, but it received significantly lower usability and preference ratings. A number of usability issues of Primo were also identified from the study. Results of the study are used to improve the interface of Primo and adjust relevancy ranking options. The empirical method of search results assessment and feedback collection used in this study can be extended to similar user-centered system implementation and evaluation efforts.
Keywords: Discovery layer; Google Scholar; search results; relevance; user-centered evaluation

Product Design

Modeling Consumer Sensitivity for Product Design and Perceived Usability BIBAKFull-Text 325-333
  Tareq Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski; Nabin Sapkota
The primary objective of this research paper is to investigate the relationship between the perceived qualities of home appliances with respect to various design features. Consumers may define their fondness of the particular system or model over other model(s) by using different sensibility words such as robust, sleek, luxurious, reliable, sturdy, comfortable etc. It is the objective of this study to determine the principal sensibility word(s) consumers use to define their perceived feelings about the particular model and investigate if these words are related to the design elements of the system and if such relationship exits, then the objective is to determine the optimal design criteria(s) so as to attain the maximum possible perceived quality of the system for which the consumer may have upon interacting with other comparable systems. This research is based on statistical regression and correlation analysis with multiple linear objective programming (MLOP) for thirteen selected sensibility words and twelve product models with respect to forty nine design elements (37 unique design elements broken down to 49 independent variables). Results provided significance using statistical modeling arrived at fuzzy set logic and MLOP.
Keywords: Consumer Sensitivity; Product Design; Perceived Usability
Developing ISO 9241-151 Product Certification Process: Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 334-341
  Kürsat Çagiltay; Ozge Alacam; Nihan Ocak; Feride Erdal
ISO 9241 Ergonomics of Human-System Interaction Standard, which is also called as Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals, is a standard containing many parts about ergonomics of human computer interaction. In this paper, we aim to elaborate the challenges evoked during ISO 9241-151 Product Certification Process handled at the Middle East Technical University (METU), Human Computer Interaction Research and Application Laboratory (METU-HCI-LAB), which is the first and only accredited laboratory of Turkish Standards Institute-TSE within the scope of "TS EN ISO/IEC 9241-151".
Keywords: ISO 9241-151 Guidance on World Wide Web User Interface; Usability guidelines
Application of Virtual Reality Technologies in Consumer Product Usability BIBAKFull-Text 342-351
  Christianne Soares Falcão; Marcelo Márcio Soares
Users of consumer products have benefited from companies' growing interest in seeking technological innovation to improve their competitiveness and business performance. In this context, interface design represents an essential task in the product process development to directly influence customer satisfaction and, consequently, the success of the product in the market. Usability is about the product ease of use so it is necessary first and foremost to know who are the user / consumer and what their levels of requirements to serve them efficiently, this research has come to play an important role in interface design. Virtual reality (VR) technologies provide novel and enhanced modes for human computer interaction that can be used as a potential tool to provide product user experience and usability evaluation are more efficient, even in the early stages of the product design. This paper presents a conceptual approach to virtual reality technologies application in the evaluation of usability in consumer product design.
Keywords: Product design; product development process; usability testing
User Experience on Product Display Page: At Tmall.com BIBAKFull-Text 352-358
  Jie Gao; Yujing Zeng; Xiaopeng Guo; Zhenghua Zhang
This research focused on how buyers browse and make purchases on Tmall.com. Specifically, we explored how female buyers process information on the product description pages and how their behaviors are consequently affected. The study was composed of two sessions: an information sorting task and an online test. The purpose of the information sorting task was to explore how buyers prefer to see information presented on the product description page. We hypothesized that if the presentation of information on the product page was consistent with buyers' expectations, then they would process the page faster which would facilitate their purchasing decisions. The purpose of the online test was to examine our hypothesis by measuring buyers' purchasing tendencies. The online test results revealed that the modified pages improved sales.
Keywords: e-commerce; online shopping; product display; discrepancy attribution; fluency
Evaluation of a New Cockpit Color Concept under Mesopic Lighting for Urban Driving BIBAKFull-Text 359-366
  Martin Götze; Antonia S. Conti; Andreas Keinath; Tarek Said; Klaus Bengler
This paper compares two different cockpit color concepts in mid-range cars under mesopic lighting. The analysis tries to confirm that new concepts with white illumination are no worse than the red concepts presently in use. Thirty participants took part in two experiments to determine whether they yielded the same results in terms of interpretability, readability, and differentiability of information. A modified PSSUQ was used to evaluate those factors. The subjective results show that there is no meaningful difference between a white and red color cockpit concept.
Keywords: Illumination; cockpit; color; readability; differentiability; mesopic; scotopic; vision; urban; driving; car; occlusion; PSSUQ; night-time; subjective
Proactive Home Furnishings: Inspiring from Interactive Art for Designing Functional Aesthetics in a Space BIBAKFull-Text 367-375
  Scottie Chih-Chieh Huang
This paper presents our vision of the futuristic product. Proactive Home Furnishings allows user to realize (useful) information embedded of physical objects and/or on the top of architectural surfaces. Proactive Home Furnishings also display as interactive art form through the used of interactive techniques and computer graphics in an augmented physical object. The goal of Proactive Home Furnishings is to create the combination between both the digital aesthetics and the functional information, as well as seamless with living environment in a soothing way. This paper describes five interactive artworks used biomimetic perspective to develop the interaction feature -- MSOrgm, Lbskeletons, Portrait of Dandelion, Artificial Phototropism, River Space. We treat them as pioneers to investigate the ongoing relation between the user and the home furnishings in a future living.
Keywords: Design philosophy of HCI and UX; biologically-inspired computing; responsive environment; digital art; interactive installation
Design and Evaluation of a Predictive Model for Smartphone Selection BIBAKFull-Text 376-384
  Yerika Jimenez; Patricia Morreale
Selecting a mobile phone is a very subjective process; consumers often base their decisions on advertising and their personal expectations for the device. In order to provide consumers with simpler and more objective information, a predictive model for smartphone selection has been developed. Four of the most popular mobile devices were used for the development of this model: Apple's iPhone, Google's Android, Microsoft's Windows and Research In Motion's BlackBerry. Everyday tasks, common to smartphone users, were identified and modeled, using the Keystroke Level Model. Fitts' Law was used to provide additional objective data based on the dimensions and layout of the mobile phone screen. These objective measures were integrated with user preferences, to identify which smartphone would provide superior operation and performance for the features most desired by the smartphone consumer. Research outcomes from this project include the identification of the mobile devices that performed common tasks with efficiency and a user-task model predicting user smartphone selection based on individual utility and task frequency.
Keywords: Keystroke Level Model (KLM); Fitts Law; Human Factors; Mobile Devices; And Human Computer Interaction Factors
TRIGGER: Maximizing Functional Effect of Using Products BIBAKFull-Text 385-391
  Kyung-Bo Min; Eui-Chul Jung
At the merchandise development phase, product vendors make their own strategy in the market. Few of them use existing technology and function, but others make their own technology and function to develop novel product. Despite they have invested vast amount of money, time, and effort, unfortunately most of them don't fall short of their expectations. Then they might decide budget reduction, and it would destroy a virtuous circle in the long run. It means companies which can afford to set the budget will be able to step further, but the others will not afford to do that. Functions and technologies are loaded on devices, and it interacts with user. Therefore, interaction between user and device is important to mitigate the problem above. This paper focuses on notions of 'Nudge' and 'Affordance' in the interaction. 'Affordance' is inherent in device to show how user can use it without instructions, and 'Nudge' can make person who made device possible to induce users' conduct. It makes an element named TRIGGER defined to lead users' behavior and vitalize using device. Furthermore, if its characteristics are found in detail, TRIGGER will be able to apply on device.
Keywords: Affordance; Nudge; Interaction; Function; Digital device; Product vendor; Design; Behavioral economics; Recognition; Coercion; Perception; Instruction; Galaxy note; iPhone; iPod; iPad; e-book
An Experimental Study for Applying Generative Design to Electronic Consumer Products BIBAKFull-Text 392-401
  Ming-Huang Lin; Lin-Chien Lee
This study discusses the advantages of generative design tools, real-time calculation, and easy to modify and quick to review design details, to explore the feasibility of developing new modeling methods. The discussed method uses the MacBook Pro and MacBook Air as a typical type of minimal shape to test the possibility of product refinement, users' response and the need of bridging software interfaces to a stable structure and rational limitations.
Keywords: Usability methods and tools; Generative Design; Design Process; Grasshopper
dJOE: design Jigsaw On sitE BIBAKFull-Text 402-407
  Chia-Hui Nico Lo; Ih-Cheng Lai; Teng-Wen Chang
Design is similar to figure out of displacing jigsaw. Designer often inspires from figures of site. Mobile facility is convenient in nowadays, design is not an activity beside desk anymore. In this paper, We attempt to develop a mobile application to assist designer to understand the underlying structure of assembling ideas in the early design productive process. Designer can use this tool for displacing ideas as playing jigsaw in time.
Keywords: jigsaw; displacing; puzzle making; mobile; design on site
A Proposal of Design Method of Obtaining the Construction Items of Mental Models in Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 408-413
  Naoya Okazawa; Toshiki Yamaoka
The purpose of this paper is to propose a method of obtaining a user's mental model and using it for design. It is necessary to consider a mental model in designing user-friendly products. However, little study has been done to use a mental model in the design process. A mental model can be defined as a system image and operation image which people have about the appliances. It indicated that people operate the appliances according to their mental models. In addition, mental models can be classified into two points of view of a functional model and a structural model. The proposed method uses a protocol analysis. In this study, we conducted a test about two products to verify the effectiveness of the method. The target products of the test are a digital camera and an electronic dictionary. As the results, the effectiveness of the proposed method was verified. According to the construction items of mental models in product design, Designers can feedback them the product design. Moreover, the proposed method can be applied to GUI design.
Keywords: Design; Mental Model; Applied Cognitive Psychology; Product Design; Graphical User Interface Design
Design of Experience: Measuring the Co-production with the Consumer Engagement during the Product Development Process BIBAKFull-Text 414-423
  Sabrina Oliveira; Virgínia Kistmann; Adriano Heemann; Maria Lúcia L. R. Okimoto
The literature discusses about the coproduction of value, emphasizing the involvement of consumers in Product Development Processes (PDP). This concept is associated with the interaction of consumers in creating value for the PDP. Thus, this paper discusses the measurement of user experience as an important factor for the coproduction of value through mechanisms that measure the usability of products. Thus, the User Experience can be treated as a core competency in design management within organizations. This study was conducted through literature review of the principles of Design and Management, User Centered Design, User Experience and about the function of the design department market research through mechanisms of consumer involvement. Shows the correlation of these approaches and issues for further research aimed at Measuring the User Experience with results that can enable feedback into the process of developing new products or incremental and radical innovation.
Keywords: Experience; User; Design Management
Open Design: Non-professional User-Designers Creating Products for Citizen Science: A Case Study of Beekeepers BIBAKFull-Text 424-431
  Robert Phillips; Yelena Ford; Karl Sadler; Sarah Silve; Sharon Baurley
Affiliated technologies have opened up opportunities for people, no matter what their design competency or expertise, to engage in the design of the products they use. The notion of "Open Design" or the open sharing of information relating to the design and manufacture of products, services or objects, can be seen as part of a much more encompassing phenomenon whereby users are the innovators and fabricators of their own products. Digital fabrication can enable the remote fabrication of objects tailoring artefacts to specific users or environmental needs. Open fabrication makes manufacturing processes accessible and can respond to niche needs with bespoke production. Citizen science uses non-professionals to conduct research in their own environment or location, extending the impact of research. This process of "amateur scientist" and community monitoring has positive and negative aspects that design can help to address. The workshop conducted as part of this research involved 15 amateur beekeepers and led to a probe study involving 150 participants in the UK, testing a new approach to co-collaboration yielding positive outcomes. The bee population is currently under threat from environmental change, pollution, disease and they are users with a specific interest, bespoke needs and a knowledge base outside of their profession. The decline in bees is a scientific issue as they are seen as a barometer for the health of the environment. Through analysis of observations and insights gained through active design-led workshops, this paper examines the potential barriers, opportunities, benefits and pitfalls of user-designers engaging with citizen science using open design and open fabrication tools. Workshop results included: methods, motivations, designer and manufacturer opportunities and insights into repeatable processes forming the start of a citizen science toolkit. The objective was to ascertain the possible pitfalls of a group of user-designers creating their own citizen science tools enabled by technologists and designers.
Keywords: User centred design; user-designers; open design; open fabrication; citizen science; beekeeping
Design Guidelines for Coffee Vending Machines BIBAKFull-Text 432-440
  Tim Schneidermeier; Manuel Burghardt; Christian Wolff
Walk-up-and-use-systems such as vending and self-service machines request special attention concerning an easy to use and self-explanatory user interface. In this paper we present a set of design guidelines for coffee vending machines based on the results of an expert-based usability evaluation of thirteen different models.
Keywords: usability; user experience; vending machine; public space; case study; walk-up-and-use-system
Beyond Comprehension: A Usability Study on User Instruction Manual for Stove with Steam Function BIBAFull-Text 441-449
  Carla Galvão Spinillo; Kelli C. A. S. Smythe
This paper presents a study on the redesign of a user manual and pocket guide of a stove with steam function produced in Brazil. The redesigned material was validated through heuristics evaluation, usability and readability tests. The results in graphic presentation were satisfactory. However, the instructions provided were not sufficient to a successful use of some functions, due to ergonomic drawbacks in the product design and in its digital touch panel. This may led to users' cognitive overload in task performance, which could not be prevented, but only minimized by the manual. The possible contributions to the field and the need of a user-centered approach to the design of instructional material by product manufacturers are highlighted.
The Relationship between Preference and Stare Duration on Bicycle BIBAKFull-Text 450-456
  Jin-Han Tseng; Ding-Bang Luh; Zhi-Hong Liang
Take bicycle industry as an example, the purpose of this research is to investigate the preference of consumer. With the using of eye-tracker, we expect to discover the relationship between preference of product form and the focus region of eye sight. With the help of eye-track technique and questionnaire research, this research aims to investigate the key design factor in bicycle design that influences customers' preference the most. According to the physical data of eye-tracker in this research, designers could make a better inference when doing redesign. Instead of starting all over again, changing the little part of an object may have a better chance to enhance overall preference. Hence, the time spent in production and redesign will be reduced. The result shows that there is a high correlation between preference and stare duration, in addition, frame of bicycle is the part that customer consider the most when they were asked to make decision. This result advice that if designers just want to change little part of bicycle but reach a higher return, they can focus on the frame especially the top tube and the down tube.
Keywords: bicycle; eye tracking; eye movement
Exploring Prior Experience and the Effects of Age on Product Interaction and Learning BIBAKFull-Text 457-466
  Christopher R. Wilkinson; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
The purpose of this research was to investigate the extent to which prior technological experience of products is related to age, and if this has implications for the success of subsequent product interaction. The contribution of this work is to provide the design community with new knowledge and a greater awareness of the diversity of user needs, and particularly the needs and skills of older people. The focus of this paper is to present how individual's mental models of products and interaction were developed through experiential learning; what new knowledge was acquired, and how this contributed to the development of mental models and product understanding.
Keywords: Inclusive Design; Prior Experience; Product Interaction; Learning; Mental Models; User Engagement; User Experience; Ageing; HCI

Information and Knowledge Design and Visualisation

Visualizing Information Associated with Architectural Design Variations and Simulations BIBAKFull-Text 469-477
  David Aurelio
As cloud computing becomes more ubiquitous, it produces many advantages for users in the architectural domains, but also some challenges. These advantages include multiple building design variations, energy simulations, structural options, and generations of design options. A literature review was conducted to review information visualizations and the problems that occur with them. The findings from the literature review were comprehensive and provide visualization guidelines for those in architectural domains, as well as for those in numerous other domains.
Keywords: visualization; information; design; variation; simulation; architecture; presentation; navigation; data
Texture and Relative Movement in Moving Image BIBAKFull-Text 478-485
  Yen-Ting Cho
This paper discusses a practice-led research project, Cubic Film, which considers how digital processes distort and disrupt both recorded time and spatial relationships, and secondly, how the processes make the visible become visible in new aesthetic and interesting ways. I will first introduce my core project question and discuss the significance of scanning; second, explain several key stages of my research projects to date and the new aesthetic in the visual outputs; and, third, reflect on my process to assess how the new methods bridge the gap between craft and technology.
Keywords: cubic film; craft and technology; texture; scanning; distortion; time and space; relative movement
Graphical Displays in Eco-Feedback: A Cognitive Approach BIBAKFull-Text 486-495
  Rebecca Ford; Beth Karlin
Psychological research indicates that the provision of feedback is a key element in reinforcing and/or changing behavior, and whilst results from empirical studies on eco-feedback are positive, variation in findings suggests that its effectiveness may depend on both what information is provided and how it is presented. The design of graphical displays is an important component, but past display research has been primarily qualitative and exploratory. This paper introduces and tests a cognitive model of visual information processing applied to eco-feedback to evaluate differences in interpretation and preference between images. Participants were shown images that varied by number of data points as well as display features and were asked to interpret the images and report on image usability. Findings support the cognitive model, suggesting that eco-feedback displays appear to be more successful when they: (1) contain fewer data points; (2) employ data chunking; and/or (3) include pictures.
Keywords: Eco-feedback; Graphical Display; Information Overload; Psychology; User Interface
Dot, Line, Network: Helping Individuals Make Sense of "New Data" BIBAKFull-Text 496-505
  Emilie W. Gould
Ubiquitous computing has led to an ever-increasing cascade of information about us, our friends, our societies, and the planet. Lima and others view this "new data" as an opportunity for individuals to develop network thinking; once people understand the whole, they can better control their contribution to global social issues like climate change. However, at present, such data is difficult to interpret by anyone, let alone by non-specialist users.
   I believe that a variety of issues stand in the way of individuals understanding complex data sets. I will begin by discussing cognitive style (deductive and inductive logic). Then, after considering existing graphic principles for dealing with "visual complexity," I suggest interfaces need to provide indications of place, date, validity, probability, and privacy. Finally, I briefly discuss some of the boundaries that exist between my networks of data and yours due to the hidden algorithms of search engines and the challenge of creating common ground when visualizations are increasingly personalized.
Keywords: ubiquitous computing; visual complexity; network thinking; cognitive patterns; graphics
Developing a Concept Interface Design of ATM Systems Based on Human-Centred Design Processes BIBAKFull-Text 506-514
  Satoru Inoue; Hajime Hirako; Toshiya Sasaki; Hisae Aoyama; Yutaka Fukuda; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
To accomplish our mission smoothly, we need to have good cooperation between human partners and artefacts in complex systems. In particular, it is a critical factor to establish good relationships between human partners and artefact systems. This type of system is also the work of Air Traffic Management (ATM). This research aims to make an interface design concept of the future ATM systems based on a Human-Centred Design approach. First, we discuss the method of design process to develop user interfaces of human consciousness. And then, we attempt to suggest methods of good understanding of Air traffic controllers' knowledge and behaviour based on the perspective of users. After that, we examine to make a prototype interface design concept of the future ATM systems which derived from the results of the task analysis.
Keywords: Design Method; Air Traffic Management; Human-Machine Interface Design
A Study of the Satisfaction Level of User Experience in Digital Media Space Accordance with Differences in Flow Characteristic BIBAKFull-Text 515-524
  Youngtae Kim; Eui-Chul Jung
Today, appearances of new media, digital media, have changed human's perception, communication method and space. And now a day we can easily find digital media space in near personal life. In that kind of digital media space need new design concept. The flow was rise most important fact for digital media space design. In this study, among the digital media space, by taking advantage of the screen golf club. The subjects are both in the experience group and non-experience group, all were equally involved. If the case of non-experiential group, during the flow characteristics of tactile, 'visual', 'auditory', and 'tactile' imposes limitations on the golf simulators. In that case, I want to find out a connection with the flow characteristics and the space satisfaction.
Keywords: Flow; characteristic; space; experience; digital media; screen golf
Trial of Diagnostic to Find Preferable Job Using the Visual Image Information Interaction: Prototype Development and Evaluation in Global Human Resources Matching Site BIBAFull-Text 525-532
  Akira Kondo; Naoko Kondo
This century globalization has progressed, so many Japanese companies willingness to hire global staffs. However, the style of the existing recruiting system is still adopted Japanese domestic schools and one-time new graduate students in spring so it is hard to say that this style is not suitable to hire a wide range of global human resources. IRS as "International Recruit Support" try to improve this situation then providing infrastructure to promote matching of students and graduates of multinational global companies. In this paper, for multinational job seekers, who want to discover a more desirable workplace in the IRS web site, we propose a diagnostic tool, which provides advices from selecting job related visuals. Moreover we evaluate current cooperate information website from viewpoint of foreign student by Evaluation Grid Method (EGM). Then a part of appropriate design of cooperate website for is revealed.
Scaffolding Computer Supported Argumentation Processes through Mini Map Based Interaction Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 533-542
  Nguyen-Thinh Le; Sabine Niebuhr; David Drexler; Niels Pinkwart
Recent prior studies with argumentation systems have shown that, unfortunately, with larger learner groups using argumentation software over longer periods of time, argument maps inevitably increase greatly in size and complexity, often leading to learner confusion. To help users understand and navigate within large and complex argument maps, we implemented an initial version of mini maps within an existing tested argumentation system. This is an implementation of the general usability pattern "overview + detail". In addition, in order to facilitate the interaction with larger argument maps, the "anchor principle" has been implemented to define an anchor area in a workspace. Evaluation studies showed that, using mini-maps and anchors, the orientation of students could be improved.
Keywords: usability patterns; argumentation systems; mini-maps
Designing Discovery Experience for Big Data Interaction: A Case of Web-Based Knowledge Mining and Interactive Visualization Platform BIBAKFull-Text 543-552
  Qing Liu; Mihaela Vorvoreanu; Krishna P. C. Madhavan; Ann F. McKenna
The exponentially growing data in every aspect of human lives is offering both opportunities to gain unprecedented insights and challenges for designing efficient discovery experiences. To respond to the challenge of dealing with big data, our work is designing a web-based, knowledge mining and interactive visualization platform that allows users to interactively synthesize, mine, and visualize large-scale data. In this paper, we extend the classic information retrieval concept of information seeking to more general insight discovery behavior. Our approach is to focus on user's insight discovery workflow rather than data per se. User interviews were conducted to extract workflows and specific requirements to inform and direct design decisions.
Keywords: User experience; user study; user-centered design; big data; data discovery
Interactive Visualization of Evolving Force-Directed Graphs BIBAKFull-Text 553-559
  Walter M. Rafelsberger
This paper explores the possibilities of optimizing layout and design of evolving force-directed graphs. The presented approach combines graph layout techniques and animated transitions to reduce temporal visual clutter introduced by displaying the consecutive steps of force-directed graph layout algorithms. A web based prototype using tagged bookmarks as the data source gets introduced to demonstrate the discussed techniques.
Keywords: Force-Directed Graph; Information Visualization; Animated Transitions
CHARM Pad: Ontology-Based Tool for Learning Systematic Knowledge about Nursing BIBAKFull-Text 560-567
  Munehiko Sasajima; Satoshi Nishimura; Yoshinobu Kitamura; Akemi Hirao; Kanetoshi Hattori; Akemi Nakamura; Hiroe Takahashi; Yoshiyuki Takaoka; Riichiro Mizoguchi
Japan is no exception among developed countries facing healthcare system problems due to aging and low birthrate as the number of patient increases and health care worker numbers shrink. The introduction of high tech medicine has increased the amount of knowledge to be learned by novice nurses. Although vast amounts of implicit knowledge have accumulated among nursing practitioners, this knowledge needs to be communicated when hospitals train younger generations of nurses. In this paper, the authors have proposed an activity model called CHARM (the Convincing Human Action Rationalized Model) and CHARM Pad, tablet PC with browsing software for CHARM models. CHARM explicates multidimensional purpose-oriented procedure relations often existing as implicit knowledge. For this reason, CHARM supports the training and education of novice nurses. We developed CHARM models according to nursing guidelines of hospitals and applied them to training of the nurses in two hospitals. CHARM and CHARM Pad are being evaluated at these hospitals and positive responses are coming from nurses.
Keywords: CHARM; CHARM Pad; nursing process; knowledge representation; activity model
SysML-Based Approach for Automation Software Development -- Explorative Usability Evaluation of the Provided Notation BIBAKFull-Text 568-574
  Daniel Schütz; Martin Obermeier; Birgit Vogel-Heuser
The rising complexity of production automation systems and especially their automation software require new engineering concepts to support their development. Model-based concepts for the interdisciplinary development of production systems have been proposed in many research projects. In previous works of the authors an approach to enable interdisciplinary development of automation software, based on the Systems Modeling Language (SysML), has been developed and evaluated. One of the most important notations for the developed modeling approach is the SysML Parametric Diagram (PD). This paper briefly introduces the newly adapted modeling notation of the PD and presents the evaluation results from empirical usability experiments with human subjects.
Keywords: Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC); Systems Modeling Language (SysML); Usability; Programming languages
Usability Design and Testing of an Interface for Search and Retrieval of Social Web Data BIBAKFull-Text 575-580
  Dimitris Spiliotopoulos; Ruben Bouwmeester; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Pepi Stavropoulou; Dimitrios Tsonos
The vast amount of data on the web has been extensively harvested for many years for the purpose of digital archiving. In the recent years, however, the social networks contain the sources of most of the debating between the people. Recent approaches include social web information to the archived content for various reasons. This work reports on the usability design and evaluation of a search and retrieval user interface that was designed to retrieve web objects along with semantic information analyzed for the social web. The main task of the interface was to combine the social information with the standard archived content in meaningful and usable ways.
Keywords: Search and retrieval user interfaces; social network information; usability
Looking beyond the Single Pane of Glass: Visualization and Perspective in Enterprise Network BIBAKFull-Text 581-590
  Maria C. Velez-Rojas; Serge Mankovskii; Michael Roberts; Steven Greenspan; Esin Kiriss
Managers and operators of modern Enterprise IT environments deal with massive amounts of information in a very stressful environment. They routinely manage hundreds of thousands of interconnected elements while collaborating with multiple business stakeholders under strict time constraints. This paper proposes a visualization method to simplify managing large amounts of information called the LSF view method. The LSF view method simplifies visualization by generating overviews of the network emphasizing the connections that are most salient to the user. This method also provides users with three key capabilities: manipulating of layer semantics, selecting instances of relevant concepts, and focusing on relevant information.
Keywords: Information/knowledge visualization; Visualization; Network Abstraction; IT Enterprise Management; User Centered Design
Investigating the Effect of Visualization on User Performance of Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 591-600
  Xiaojun Yuan
This research investigated if and how users using an information visualization system perform differently from those using a traditional information retrieval system. A between-subjects experiment was conducted involving 32 subjects. One group of subjects engaged the visually oriented CiteSpace system; the remaining subjects searched the textual-based Web of Science system. The results indicated that subjects using the CiteSpace system spent significantly less time, felt significantly more satisfied, and performed significantly fewer mouse clicks than those using the Web of Science system. These results indicate that it would be helpful to consider different visualization methods to represent and organize information in the design of information retrieval systems.
Keywords: Searching; information visualization; user performance
Effects of Domain Knowledge on User Performance and Perception in a Knowledge Domain Visualization System BIBAKFull-Text 601-610
  Xiaojun Yuan; Chaomei Chen; Xiangmin Zhang; Josh Avery; Tao Xu
This study investigated how the level of a user's domain knowledge affected the user's performance and perception of a knowledge domain visualization system called CiteSpace. Sixteen graduate and sixteen undergraduate students participated in a within-subjects user-centered experiment in a US university. Each of them conducted eight searching tasks in CiteSpace. Results demonstrated that there was an impact of level of domain knowledge on users' behavior, performance and perception with CiteSpace. Statistical significance was shown that users with higher level of domain knowledge (HD group) spent significantly more time completing tasks and felt significantly more satisfied with the results than users with lower level of domain knowledge (LD group). Statistical significance was also shown that the HD group perceived the system more usable than those of the LD group. The HD group claimed that they learned more new knowledge on the topics than those of the LD group.
Keywords: Information visualization; domain knowledge; knowledge domain visualization
Exploring Information-Triage: Speculative Interface Tools to Help College Students Conduct Online Research BIBAKFull-Text 611-620
  Liese Zahabi
In many ways, the promise of the Internet has been overshadowed by a sense of overload and anxiety for many users. The concept of information-triage may help mitigate this issue. Information-triage is the process of sorting, grouping, categorizing, prioritizing, storing and retrieving information in order to make sense and use of it. This study examines the role of design in the online search process, connects it to the nature of human attention and the limitations of working memory, and suggests ways to support users with an information triage system. The study centers on a set of three speculative online search interfaces and user-testing sessions conducted with college students to explore the possibilities for information-triage.
Keywords: Information-triage; interface; interaction; search; user-testing; visualization; metaphor

Mobile Applications and Services

M-Commerce Usability: An Explorative Study on Turkish Private Shopping Apps and Mobile Sites BIBAKFull-Text 623-630
  Özgürol Öztürk; Kerem Rizvanoglu
There's a growing interest towards mobile commerce in recent years. This pilot study, which is the first step of an extensive long-term research, investigated mobile usability in mobile "private shopping" applications. Focusing on three different private shopping applications / mobile sites in Turkey, a qualitative mobile usability test, based on a multi-method approach, was carried out with a sample of 11 Turkish senior year university students, who were experienced mobile Internet users and potential customers of private shopping platforms. The participants were observed during the task executions and additional data was collected by the "think aloud" procedure, eye-tracking and video recording of the participants. A short debriefing interview was also made to gain a detailed insight into the user experience. The findings revealed significant mobile usability problems and enabled to propose guidelines to improve user experience in mobile private shopping.
Keywords: Usability; Mobile; Private Shopping
Smart Metering with Smartphones: User-Centered Design of a Mobile Application in the Context of Energy Efficiency BIBAKFull-Text 631-640
  Stephan Böhm; Lee Szwec
The energy sector is currently confronted with huge challenges and undergoing massive transformation due to the integration of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy. Two way communication and computer processing technology can now be integrated into electricity distribution systems creating smart grids. These smart grids can be connected to households by smart meters and smart home infrastructures. Customers can use this infrastructure to identify how much energy they consume at any time and to optimize their consumption patterns. This paper analyses the expectations and preferences of digital natives on the deployment of smartphones and mobile applications as a human-computer interface to smart meter and smart home infrastructures. A user-centered design approach was chosen to identify relevant features and to define a prototype for such a smart metering application.
Keywords: Digital Natives; Energy Efficiency; Mobile Applications; Smart Metering; Smartphones; User-centered Design
End-User Development of Mobile Mashups BIBAKFull-Text 641-650
  Cinzia Cappiello; Maristella Matera; Matteo Picozzi
The spread of mobile devices empowers more and more end users to access services publicly available on the Web. It also encourages users to construct applications satisfying their situational needs, by customizing and combining the huge amount of online resources. Mobile mashups have the potential to accommodate this trend, providing a flexible paradigm for a service-based development of mobile applications. This paper introduces and End User Development (EUD) framework, based on a model-driven approach for the design and the automatic generation of mobile mashups. The approach is characterized by a "lightweight" composition paradigm that exploits visual notations for the specification of data integration and service synchronization rules.
Keywords: Mobile Mashups; End-User Development; Model-Driven Mashup Development; Data Integration; Data Fusion
A New Framework for Increasing User Engagement in Mobile Applications Using Machine Learning Techniques BIBAKFull-Text 651-659
  Merve Gençer; Gökhan Bilgin; Özgür Zan; Tansel Voyvodaoglu
In this paper, it is proposed to build a new framework which anticipates mobile user status and behavior characteristics with the aim of increasing user engagement and provide stickiness in mobile applications (iOS-Android) by using machine learning techniques. Motivation of this study is based on the idea of collecting data from users by non-survey methods because data collection from surveys may mislead the system model according to the literature researches on user experience. User behavior includes forecasting next usage time of the user, user motivation type, user mastery level and current context of the user. In order to find relevant patterns, usage data is obtained from pilot mobile applications at first and then they are processed according to the chosen machine learning algorithm.
Keywords: Engagement; stickiness; mobile applications; machine learning; user experience; human computer interaction; context awareness; mobile devices; push notification
User-Originated Innovation of Mobile Financial Services BIBAKFull-Text 660-665
  Päivi Heikkilä; Heli Järventie-Ahonen; Sirpa Riihiaho
This paper presents a three-phased study in which new mobile financial services were designed iteratively in close co-operation with users and experts on finance. The studies utilized a web platform for open innovation and evaluation of new service concepts. The first study with quite raw concepts revealed needs and worries that were then taken into account in developing the concepts further. The second phase of the study included parallel design utilizing both student assignments and experts on finance. The most interesting and promising concepts from this phase were then selected in cooperation to be assessed by the consumers in the web platform. The different perspectives of the participants in the studies, and the iterative approach engaging potential users right from the beginning, helped us to enhance the quality of the new service concepts in a cost-effective way.
Keywords: User involvement; co-design; iterative design; online ideation; mobile financial services
A Service Design on Driving Like Living BIBAKFull-Text 666-672
  Hung-Pin Hsu
In the development of automobile industry, sedan has already become the major transportation for many people to travel between different cities. Not only the function of traveling, sedan is signified the extension of house. According to different structure, living habit and lifestyle of family members, sedans are individualized their own features from interior to exterior. Nowadays, house security system has already provided a mature service. Family members could set up the protection they need through house security system. However, as the extension of house, sedan is still fewer and need to be discussed. For this reasons, this research tries to design a service structure for sedan security system by applying the concept of service design to the technology from Taiwan Automotive Research and Testing Center (TARTC). The final service planning could combine the technology protecting family members with the business service system. And the safety experience would also be extended from house to its extension -- sedan.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Interface Design; Usability Research; Service Design; Contextual Inquiry; Security System; Sedan
Feature Evaluation for Mobile Applications: A Design Science Approach Based on Evolutionary Software Prototypes BIBAKFull-Text 673-681
  Bodo Igler
The success of mobile applications depends on the incorporation of key features specific to their intended use. This paper proposes a light-weight process model to facilitate the identification of key user interface features and key application logic features.
   The iterative, incremental process model is aligned with design science research and is based on software product line engineering ideas. In each iteration several prototype variants are built and evaluated by the customer. Both construction and evaluation of prototypes are based on feature models.
Keywords: mobile computing; design and evaluation methods; design science research; feature-oriented development; software product lines
ARS Module of Contents Management System Using Cell Phones BIBAKFull-Text 682-690
  Toshikazu Iitaka
I developed an ARS (Audience Response System) module of Xoops CMS (Contents Management System) using cell phones. The module has already been used in some lectures. When we analyze data of the users, we can confirm a statistically significant effect. This paper will first explain the background of this research. Then, the functions and use of the module are explained. Thirdly, this paper explains, how the module is used in association with practice module. Lastly, the effects of the modules are analyzed.
Keywords: e-learning; ARS (Audience Response System); Cell Phones; CMS (Contents Management System)
9/11 Memorial App: A Case Study of Serious Smart Phone UX Design BIBAKFull-Text 691-695
  Tobias Komischke
Most smartphone apps can be characterized as flashy, colorful, playful and trendy. A reason for this is the target audience which is still composed of mainly young and IT savvy persons that casually and shortly use an app in their leisure time to stay connected with others, to access information or to play games. Another reason is that apps are typically either inexpensive or free of charge, so word of mouth and good ratings are critical for their success. This case study traces the design and development of a smart phone app that was very different from typical apps -- hence the addition of "Serious" to the paper title.
Keywords: User Experience; Design; Smartphone App; Mobile
The Travel Machine: Mobile UX Design That Combines Information Design with Persuasion Design BIBAKFull-Text 696-705
  Aaron Marcus; Theresa Karolina Schieder; Lorenzo Cantoni
Travel and tourism is a booming sector of the 21st century world economy. In an era of increasing leisure tourism or "part-time leisure tourism" tacked on to business trips, coming into contact with other cultures risks fading into the background. The Travel Machine project of 2012 developed effective ways to foster a shift from leisure to cultural tourism by changing people's travel behavior in the short- and in the long-term. Travel Machine, conceived by the author's firm, combines information design/visualization and persuasion design. This paper explains the development of its user interface.
Keywords: culture; dashboard; design; development; incentives; information; mobile; persuasion; social networks; tourism; travel; user interface; user experience
Sharing Life Experiences with Friends Based on Individual's Locality BIBAFull-Text 706-713
  Mohsin Ali Memon; Jiro Tanaka
There are numerous events that transpire in one's life. Since, the need to make the most of these life logs is the ultimate goal of life logging; therefore, we present an approach to share one's life experiences with friends. The proposed mechanism assists one's friends who are involved in identical situations with shared life logs, provided that they check-in the same location where the logs were originally produced. A user of the system can capture and share images, audio recordings, QR-code or barcode as well as real objects via the prototype life log device. The friends in response can send feedback about the shared data to support the sharer of the log. The prototype application is developed on an Android-based smart phone that works as a life log device and employs Facebook and Dropbox API for fetching one's friends list and storing life log data in the cloud respectively.
Usability Testing of Mobile Applications Store: Purchase, Search and Reviews BIBAKFull-Text 714-722
  Wilson Prata; Claudia Renata Mont' Alvão; Manuela Quaresma
The objective of this research was to evaluate the process of purchase, search and evaluation of apps in the two main mobile stores available in Brazil, Google Play Store and iPhone App Store. It takes place in Brazil, from September to October of 2012. Sixteen users were selected based on a socio-demographic profile. The results helped to evaluate the overall opinion and attitude of the Brazilian users regarding each system. The debriefing confirmed issues in both stores, some similar between them but others quite particular. It also helped to identify some minor's preferences regarding each task in each store.
Keywords: Smartphone; App Store; Mobile Usability Test
Addressing Animated Transitions already in Mobile App Storyboards BIBAKFull-Text 723-732
  Marcus Trapp; René Yasmin
Animated transitions are key elements that contribute to the user experience (UX) of mobile Apps. Unfortunately, animated transitions are usually addressed too late in software development. We recommend to consider animated transitions already during user interface (UI) storyboarding. Typically, UI storyboards do not address the kind of transition, they focus on the screens and visualize a transition just with a simple arrow. Therefore, we investigated the leading mobile phone operating systems iOS 5, Windows Phone 7.5 and Android 4 with respect to their utilization of animated transitions. We developed a catalog consisting of 21 different types of animated transitions. Based on this catalog of 21 different types of animated transition we developed a vocabulary of 66 simple icons. These icons enhance the abilities of storyboards to the extent that they are now able to illustrate animated transitions.
Keywords: mobile apps; user interface; storyboards; animated transitions; user experience
Meta-design Approach for Mobile Platforms Supporting Creative Tourism Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 733-739
  Iis P. Tussyadiah
This paper conceptualizes the application of meta-design approach in the development of a mobile system supporting creative experiences for tourists. Specifically, for those working in creative industries, adaptive mobile system will facilitate effective tourists' interactions with and interpretations of the local attributes of tourism destinations. The mobile system will integrate the sensory stimuli, the intense contact with cultural nuances and social network, the brand-based reputation, and the creative communities at tourism destinations into the iterative process of perception, conception, and expression of creative ideas among tourists. For destinations trying to highlight their unique characteristics as their value proposition, the development of such system may benefit them from a heightened sense of place due to on-going value co-creation. Individuals will benefit from such system from enhanced creative performances.
Keywords: Creativity; Mobile Technology; Tourism; Meta-design; Mobility
Determining the Effect of Menu Element Size on Usability of Mobile Applications BIBAKFull-Text 740-749
  Shelly Welch; Si-Jung Kim
As smartphones gain more and more prominence in the life of the public and are increasingly used for daily tasks, the usability of mobile applications accessed through smartphones becomes a growing concern. This two-part study looks at the usability of such applications, focusing on how the size of menu elements affects the usability of mobile applications. In the first study, users were asked to complete an online questionnaire regarding their preferences in relation to smartphone use and mobile applications. In the second study, a non-parametric t-test was used to identify how the size of menu elements affects the usability of mobile applications. Users were asked to complete a specific task navigating two different prototype mobile applications by clicking specific menu options and answering questionnaires to document their experiences. The results of this study found increased element size does increase user preference and overall usability.
Keywords: Fitts's law; usability; navigation; smartphones; design; human factors; performance