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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2013: 2nd International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part III: User Experience in Novel Technological Environments

Fullname:DUXU 2013: Second International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part III: User Experience in Novel Technological Environments
Note:Volume 11 of HCI International 2013
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8014
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39238-2 hcibib: DUXU13-3; ISBN: 978-3-642-39237-5 (print), 978-3-642-39238-2 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Webpage
  1. DUXU 2013-07-21 Volume 3
    1. Designing for Safe and Secure Environments
    2. Designing for Smart and Ambient Devices
    3. Designing for Virtual and Augmented Environments
    4. Emotional and Persuasion Design

DUXU 2013-07-21 Volume 3

Designing for Safe and Secure Environments

Rap Backs: Continuous Workforce Monitoring to Improve Patient Safety in Long-Term Care BIBAKFull-Text 3-9
  Fuad Abujarad; Sarah J. Swierenga; Toni A. Dennis; Lori A. Post
The Michigan Workforce Background Check (MWBC) system is a Web-based application that centralizes the screening process for job applicants at long-term care facilities by integrating the checking of registries and databases, and by providing secure communication between the system and state agencies. A key feature of the system is the rap back, which is a process whereby fingerprint images submitted by healthcare workers are maintained in a database and compared against arrest fingerprints to track subsequent criminal activity. Rap backs eliminate the need for subsequent fingerprinting to update criminal record information. A user-centered design process was used to create the interaction design during the development process, resulting in very few post-release adjustments and saved time and financial resources. Patient safety is improved due to this rap back process because unfit workers are immediately identified and removed from long-term care facilities.
Keywords: Criminal background checks; rap back; long-term care; health information technology; usability; user-centered design; patient safety
Join the Ride! User Requirements and Interface Design Guidelines for a Commuter Carpooling Platform BIBAKFull-Text 10-19
  Katrin Arning; Martina Ziefle; Heike Muehlhans
Carpooling might be a solution for maintaining mobility and reducing traffic problems of cities. In order to exploit the potential of carpooling for congested cities, to enhance the awareness of carpooling platforms among commuters and citizens, and to improve the interaction with existing carpooling web solutions, user-centered research methods (focus groups and usability analysis) were applied to understand the key motivators, acceptance barriers, and design requirements associated with carpooling platforms. The diversity of potential commuter platform users regarding age, gender, carpooling- and Internet expertise was also considered.
Keywords: carpooling; requirement analysis; focus groups; usability analysis; acceptance
SustainDesign -- A Project with Young Creative People BIBAKFull-Text 20-29
  Roby Attisano
Roby Attisano and his team of "young creative minds" introduce their approach to the topic sustain design. After a period of long and intense work, two interesting and sustainable projects from two completely different areas emerged. The young students from the little North-Italian province of South Tyrol focused on sustainability in waste prevention issues and on consciousness-raising concerning gambling addiction. All work steps and developments on logos, campaigns, apps and much more will be presented hereinafter. Our main focus relied on interactivity, sustainability as well as the contact to other people. Answers to the question of all questions -- "can design contribute to sustainability?" -- were searched and possible solution processes were revealed.
Keywords: Sustain Design; Sustainability
Using Virtual Reality to Examine Hazard Perception in Package Design BIBAKFull-Text 30-39
  Hande Ayanoglu; Francisco Rebelo; Emília Duarte; Paulo Noriega; Luís Teixeira
Informing users about the correct hazard level associated with products can be one of the most important measures to help promote user safety while they handle hazardous household chemicals. The aim of this paper is to present pilot study's results about the effectiveness of using a VR-based methodology to examine the influence of a container's features (e.g., shapes) on the users' perception of hazardousness. Previous works have mostly used 2D drawings for this type of study. Issues which may compromise the quality of future experiments: e.g., adequacy of VR devices, interaction quality, simulator-sickness, procedure and quality of the instruments (i.e., questionnaires) are discussed. Despite the fact that the key experiment has not yet been completed, very promising results have been obtained, suggesting that the VR simulator and the methodology adopted may provide a successful evaluation of the packages' hazardousness.
Keywords: Package Design; Virtual Reality; Virtual Prototyping; Hazard perception
Multi-touch Based Standard UI Design of Car Navigation System for Providing Information of Surrounding Areas BIBAKFull-Text 40-48
  Jung-Min Choi
Recognizing current location and surrounding areas is one of the default tasks to utilize car navigation systems. Due to the information and communication technologies, features in in-vehicle navigation systems are getting complicated and require more drivers' visual attention. This research aims to develop UI design for enhancing drivers' performance in the situation of recognizing and exploring surrounding areas with car navigation systems. In order to make drivers' eyes on the road, a standard feature definition and efficient operation methods are required. First of all, standard features are defined by analyzing top-selling navigation systems in Korean market. Drivers' can get route guidance from their in-vehicle system and personal handheld devices. However, the differences amongst the systems make drivers confused and waste time. The development of standard features of car navigation systems can reduce drivers' cognition load. Secondly, multi-touch interaction methods and drivers' behaviors are investigated in order to develop basic rationale to introduce multi-touch operation to a car navigation system. Current systems in market except smart applications adopt tactile and single-touch based interaction methods. These methods require more visual workload than multi-touch based methods in certain cases. User research has been conducted in tandem with researches of standard features and multi-touch interaction to figure out problems and their needs regarding to exploring surrounding areas in relation to current location. As results of this research, TF (Task Flows) of a multi-touch based standard UI design is suggested. The UI design can offer more values to drivers in terms of the amount of information with efficient and less eyes-on-the-system operations.
Keywords: in-vehicle information system; touch-based interaction; location-based service; interaction design
Designing Technology for Older People -- The Role of Technical Self-confidence in Usability of an Inclusive Heating Control BIBAKFull-Text 49-56
  Nicola Combe; David Harrison; Hua Dong
The ageing population of the UK is providing a large market opportunity for inclusive products and services. Yet older people are often excluded from using new technology due to inadequate consideration of their needs during the design process. This study focused specifically on including older people (aged 50-80) in the testing of a novel heating control interface under development. Recent studies have used two scalar methods to assess self-confidence; building upon this a technical self-confidence questionnaire was developed and completed by participants prior to attempting a usability task using the prototype. This study found that high technical self-confidence was inversely correlated to successful task performance. The participants who rated themselves as most technically self-confident were not successful in completing the task. Whereas, participants that rated themselves less confident had greater success completing the task. In general older people reported high levels of technical self-confidence and they were found to be willing to engage with the technical prototype. This highlights the high expectations of the older users group to be able to effectively engage with new technological systems. Designers should aim to instill further confidence amongst older users and provide systems that both support and include older people.
Keywords: Inclusive design; usability testing; older people; technical self-confidence; technology
Effects of In-Car Navigation Systems on User Perception of the Spatial Environment BIBAKFull-Text 57-64
  Mehmet Göktürk; Ali Pakkan
This study aims to understand how navigation devices affect driver's awareness of the environment. The hypothesis of this study suggests that use of in-car navigation systems diverts driver's attention from outside of the car to the inside where external objects are less likely to be recognized. These objects may include landmarks, buildings, traffic signs and even pedestrians. Further, internet connected navigation devices cause the amount of information presented to user become very large in size during driving. This study conducted a multiuser field experiment in order to understand basic effects of in-car navigation systems on user perception of external world outside of the car. It was also hypothesized that technology aptitude of driver has significant contribution on how these devices affect user's perception. Results suggested that in-car navigation systems has adverse effects on external world perception. Technology aptitude of the driver played significant role on navigation device interaction as well.
Keywords: navigation system; situational awareness; technology aptitude; driving aids
Analysis and Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc Network Performance for a Disaster Communication Model and Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 65-74
  Koichi Gyoda
When a large-scale disaster occurs, the telephone network and the cellular phone network may not be able to be used because of the hardware destruction and/or congestion. The wireless ad hoc network is expected to be a means of communication in such cases because it can be configured without network infrastructure. One of the most important problems in the wireless ad hoc network is maintaining high connectivity by autonomous routing according to the movement of the terminals. Another important problem is reducing the power consumption of the mobile terminals because the power resource of each mobile terminal is limited. In this study, it is aimed to solve both these problems and try to clarify the relationship between the quantity of routing packets and the data arrival rate when packet transmission intervals are changed in our model by use of a network simulator. The parameter values of Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol also changed to improve the network performance. Three communication scenarios termed the two-way communication, the one-way data delivery, and the browsing that could occur in disaster situations are used.
Keywords: Disaster communications; Ad hoc network; AODV
Improving Management of Medical Equipment BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Yu Hao; Yida Gong; Young Mi (Christina) Choi
The wide array of devices used in critical care areas of hospitals creates difficulties in keeping order. Disorganized equipment in these areas can lead to numerous issues including lower task efficiency for health care workers, potential safety hazards and infection control issues. An equipment mounting rail and adapter system is one of the best tools available to help manage and organize critical equipment. Current rail systems perform well in many respects yet but there are still a number of areas that may be improved. Improved interfaces for attaching and positioning equipment are needed to enhance safety and improve ease of use. As equipment rail systems are widely used backward compatibility is important to allow health care facilities to deploy enhanced equipment management systems while still leveraging their investment in current hardware. This will aid effectively and efficiently managing the deployment of new technologies in these settings.
   This paper discusses the process undertaken to design and test a new mounting rail for medical equipment aimed at improving the device organization and workflow in critical care areas. The project was sponsored by an equipment management manufacturer, so initial requirements were gathered through meetings with product experts as well as the sales and marketing director. This step helped to ensure that current market conditions and realistic business objectives were considered. Further requirements were gathered through on site observations and interviews. This included observations at the cardiac intensive care unit at Egleston Children's Healthcare of Atlanta in order to gather data on the using environment, to observe users in their natural work environment, and then to follow up the observations with one-on-one interviews to bring further clarity to observed issues. A participatory design process was utilized to engage stakeholders at various stages of the design process in order to identify potential design issues and continually evaluate the usability of the evolving concept.
   These were followed by end user usability testing and analysis. The new rail system under development was show improvements in control, secure and flexibility, which will take more care on user experience. The usability evaluation was measured by effectiveness and satisfaction of the design, namely their impact on task efficiency, the impact on infection control and ergonomics of use. The final result showed the design almost meet the requirement, though some features need to be further improved.
Keywords: user experience; rail&adapter; usability; healthcare; medical equipment mounting system
Safety of Natural Disasters BIBAKFull-Text 85-94
  Lamiaa F. Ibrahim; Reem Albatati; Samah Batweel; Rudainah Shilli; Mai Bakeer; Tsneem Abo Al Laban
Recently, Jeddah has witnessed catastrophic events that have caused the environment pollution, detention of people in one area and the inability of people to go to other safe places. For instance, flood has caused the sinking and destruction of homes and the private properties. Also, the existence of excavation works at Jeddah streets has been the main reason for the traffic disruption and the occurrence of many traffic accidents. All these incidents have been happened because these instructions have not been given to all individuals whereas the guidance and advising means were limited to the SMS. The occurrence of such events could be prevented in case that there is a consciousness program and if the civil protection forces play its significant role in these hard times. The goal of this work which will be available for free download, will deliver real-time disaster and road constructions information and notification to users such as fires, floods, constructions. It also receives warnings and tips on how to react before, during and after the disaster, direct to mobile phones. The use of GPS technology through this application could allow location-specific information to be fed to the citizens providing them with the nearest safe location and the shortest path to get there. Moreover, it will receive Google map updates for any newly added information. In time of a trouble, the user can benefit from the knowledge-based system feature that will give him a feedback on what action the user should take upon a specific situation. The knowledge-based system was building through interview with the Experts domains. All these features will improve access to the needed information at the needed time.
Keywords: safety; Natural disasters; smartphone; Knowledge-based system
Interaction Design Using a Child Behavior-Geometry Database BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  Hiroyuki Kakara; Yoshifumi Nishida; Hiroshi Mizoguchi
Unintentional injuries, that is, injuries due to accidents, account for a large share of the cause of death in children. Some accidents can be prevented by designing products that are based on an understanding of the interaction between children and the object. Improving products to prevent injuries requires a system that helps product designers predict the behavior that the object induces in children. In this paper, we developed a behavior-geometry database that consists of 1) data on children's behavior with common objects, 2) for various objects, data from 3D shape models for which the feature vectors are calculated by a 3D discrete Fourier transform, and 3) two kinds of models for using a 3D shape-feature vector to predict the induced behavior, the barycentric behavior model and the multiple linear regression model. We also developed the following behavior-symmetry-search functions that use the database: a) a shape-similarity search, b) an induced-behavior search, which is a function for predicting the behaviors induced by an object's 3D shape, and c) a behavior-symmetry search, which is a function for finding objects that induce behaviors similar to those induced by the shape of a target object. The third function is useful for finding shapes that are similar in terms of inducing child behavior. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the implemented system using data from 275 accidents and 3D shape data from 45 objects.
Keywords: Injury prevention; interaction design; safety; 3D object retrieval
Classifying Energy-Related Events Using Electromagnetic Field Signatures BIBAKFull-Text 105-111
  Anand S. Kulkarni; Karla Conn Welch
We propose a system that uses a set of mobile sensors, which fit on a keychain or ID/ access badge, for real-time feedback on a user's energy consumption. The work presented here is the first phase of the project where we demonstrate the feasibility of recognizing electrical activity in an un-instrumented space (e.g., home or office) with a simple sensor. We present a sensor which can eventually be made small enough to be able to install on a keychain or ID badge to be carried around during daily activities. The current phase of the project focuses on comparing the electromagnetic fields of several common appliances to determine unique signatures. In the next phase of this project, using our mobile sensors we can attribute energy-related events to an individual occupant over multiple locations and time.
Keywords: Energy consumption; EMF signatures; Decision Trees
Department of Homeland Security Websites Uncoupled: An Evaluation of Online Counterterrorism and Security Information across Agencies BIBAKFull-Text 112-119
  Anna L. Langhorne
The purpose of this paper is to describe the content focus and hyperlink structure of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) websites. This exploratory research is the first phase of a long-term effort to assess the degree to which information provided by DHS websites reflects the communication and information requirements of U.S. citizens. The present study uses content analysis and web link analysis methodologies to examine nine primary DHS websites. The findings reveal there are differences among the primary DHS agency websites in the use of hyperlinks and the coverage of national security topics.
Keywords: Department of Homeland Security; national security; content analysis; hyperlink analysis; information sharing; usability; communication; cyber security
Development of an Unconventional Unmanned Coaxial Rotorcraft: GremLion BIBAFull-Text 120-129
  Feng Lin; Kevin Z. Y. Ang; Fei Wang; Ben M. Chen; Tong Heng Lee; Beiqing Yang; Miaobo Dong; Xiangxu Dong; Jinqiang Cui; Swee King Phang; Biao Wang; Delin Luo; Shiyu Zhao; Mingfeng Yin; Kun Li; Kemao Peng; Guowei Cai
In this paper, we present an unmanned system design methodology for a fully functional unmanned rotorcraft system: GremLion, developed with all necessary avionics and a ground control station. It has been employed to participate in the 2012 UAVForge competition. The proposed design methodology consists of hardware construction, software development, dynamic modeling and flight control, as well as mission algorithms. The test results have been presented in this paper to verify the proposed design methodology.
Heuristic Evaluation of iCalamityGuide Application BIBAKFull-Text 130-139
  Aaron Marcus; Scott Abromowitz; Maysoon F. Abulkhair
Researchers at King Abdulaziz University are developing an application intended to assist people during natural and man-made disasters. The iCalamityGuide presents two distinct user experiences based upon a user's credentials. This paper reports on a heuristic evaluation of the application and suggests revisions that combine the two experiences when they are the same and differentiate them when they are different.
Keywords: calamity; design; development; evaluation; experience; heuristic; interface; mobile; Saudi Arabia; safety; university; user
The Driving Machine: Mobile UX Design That Combines Information Design with Persuasion Design BIBAKFull-Text 140-149
  Aaron Marcus; Scott Abromowitz
Travel and tourism is a booming sector of the 21st century world economy. Vehicles are becoming smarter and using advanced graphical displays. The Driving Machine seeks to provide an innovative vehicle dashboard that combines information design and persuasion design to change the driver's behavior, promoting safety and fuel efficiency, or sustainability.
Keywords: dashboard; design; development; experience; incentives; information; interface; mobile; persuasion; safety; social networks; sustainability; user; vehicle
Human Error in Aviation: The Behavior of Pilots Facing the Modern Technology BIBAKFull-Text 150-159
  Isnard Thomas Martins; Edgard Thomas Martins; Marcelo Márcio Soares; Lia Giraldo da Silva Augusto
All the official records of aircraft accidents investigated by official preventing and detecting agencies always has concluded that the human as guilty or as a major component in accidents, a rate close to eighty percent. One must consider that the pilot receives an artifact that started its manufacturing project a few years before being delivered into his hands. He is now responsible for keeping it in the air, safely, weighing 50,000 pounds or more and carrying five tonnes of highly flammable fuel and has about two hundred people aboard. This complex machine depends on the perfect working condition. Human beings are fallible and aviation history shows that these devices have and will continue presenting defects. Innserido this way for technical perfection and operating the aircraft, the pilot is invariably, in the end, is the one who is always within the artifact when it crashes and usually pay a high price: his life.
Keywords: Mental Health Pilots; modern technology in aviation
Breaking Technological Paradigms -- Sustainable Design in Air Transport Multi-mission BIBAKFull-Text 160-168
  Edgard Thomas Martins; Isnard Thomas Martins; Marcelo Márcio Soares
Since the successful experiences of the human being for flying since the late nineteenth century, the Air Transport has established itself like a technological presence. The aerostat has been treated as the "ship-to-air" and has been more adaptable to transport of passengers and cargo, even after the appearance of heavier-than-air. In expanding of road systems, the option for airship resurges like the best option. The Blimp-Hybrid-Multimission is the great solution as the best and single complement than all other types. In 1982 an airplane for 200 passengers costs U.S. $25 million, while the Airship should cost half or less, with the same load capacity. The price of oil derivatives are vectors that push the world for employment-intensive transport almost extinct in the last century. Favorable weather and conditions, in many places of the world, allow uninterrupted operation almost all the year with economic advantages and high rate of return on investments.
Keywords: Product design; product development process; sustainability
Ergonomics Aspects in Operators of the Electric Power Control and Operation Centers BIBAKFull-Text 169-178
  Miguel Melo; Luiz Bueno Silva; Ana Almeida; Francisco Rebelo
The activity of the operator of the electrical power control centers is the prevention of incidents and errors that disrupt the operation of the electrical system. They have to do it by mobilizing knowledge and reasoning for which they have received training, which from the point of view of the existing rules are adequate. However, there are some factors that need to be improved, because there are still accidents and incidents, caused manly caused by fatigue, lack of concentration or due to inadequacy of human Computer Interface. This article aims to analyses ergonomics aspects and human factors in the electric power control centers and contribute with a methodology of studies including the topics of Human; Machine; Interface IHM; and critical factors.
Keywords: IHM in Electric Power Control Centers; Workload in Operators; Fatigue
HALO the Winning Entry to the DARPA UAVForge Challenge 2012 BIBAKFull-Text 179-188
  Stephen D. Prior; Siu-Tsen Shen; Mehmet Ali Erbil; Mantas Brazinskas; Witold Mielniczek
The DARPA UAVForge challenge was designed to bring together a diverse group of UAV enthusiasts to develop the next generation, low cost, small unmanned air system (SUAS) for perch and stare operations in a military context. The challenge combined a web-based collaboration site with a live competitive fly-off event held at Fort Stewart, Georgia, USA in May 2012. UAVForge was a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, Atlantic (SSC Atlantic) initiative to leverage the exchange of ideas among an international community united. More than 140 teams and 3,500 registered citizen scientists from 153 countries participated in this year long event. From several selection rounds, a core of nine teams competed in the fly-off event and in June 2012 Team HALO from the UK was declared the winner scoring 47.7 points out of a maximum possible 60 points, with their co-axial tri-rotor Y6 design.
Keywords: DARPA; UAVForge; SUAS; Crowd Sourcing; NLOS
Main Usability Issues in Using Virtual Environments for Older Population Warning Studies BIBAKFull-Text 189-198
  Lara Reis; Emília Duarte; Francisco Rebelo
Over the last decades, Virtual Reality (VR) technology has emerged as a promising tool for numerous human performance assessments. Together with the expansion of such systems, several Virtual Environment (VE) usability criteria have been developed to ensure their optimal production and efficiency. However, the current status of such measures for warning research is scarce; and most importantly, design guidelines for defining VEs for middle-aged and older adult interactions with warnings are even more rare. In order to create effective and inclusive VEs for older age groups, warning researchers must be informed of the main age-related perceptual and cognitive changes that may hinder the experience, as well as should determine which of the usability issues are most important for a particular VE system. This paper provides a theoretical framework which seeks to highlight the main subject matters that embrace the design, implementation and evaluation of VE studies for older population warning research.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Virtual Environments; Usability; Warnings; Aging; Inclusive Design
Merging Two Worlds Together BIBAKFull-Text 199-204
  Alex Schieder
Nowadays campaigns are not running anymore just below or above the line. To create meaningful experiences for customers we need to get them involved and connect to them in a physical and digital way. Customers need to interact with brands and create content for them, which will be spread out on different platforms. We created a campaign for the Surf Life Saving Club in Australia to connect to their customers on an out door event where customers can compete with the Surf Life Savers. The collected data/content was spread out on different digital platforms to create an ongoing interaction between the brand and their customers and to create their own branded story.
Keywords: Design; User experience; Human Interface Design; Digital Design; Out Door; Installation; Integrated Campaign; Brand story; Simplicity; Social Media; Smartphone; Tablet; Touchscreen; Case Study
Are Emergency Egress Signs Strong Enough to Overlap the Influence of the Environmental Variables? BIBAKFull-Text 205-214
  Elisângela Vilar; Francisco Rebelo; Paulo Noriega; Luís Teixeira; Emília Duarte; Ernesto Filgueiras
This paper aims to explore the strength of environmental variables (i.e., corridor width and brightness), in directing people to indoor locations during emergency situations. The existence of contradictory information was manipulated by inserting posted signs pointing to the opposite direction to the one suggested by the environmental variables. A Virtual Reality-based methodology was used to collect participants' directional choices. Sixty-four participants had to find a specific room as quickly as possible in a virtual hotel in which they navigated through 12 corridor intersections (two-forced-choices). Two experimental conditions were considered (i.e., Signs and No-signs conditions) according to the exit signs availability. Results indicated that for the first decision point in an emergency situation with signs, 65.6% of the participants preferred to follow the wider corridor instead of the exit sign direction. Percentages of choices favoring the path opposite to that posted by the sign decreased along the escape route suggesting that with the repeated exposure to an exit sign people increased their compliance with it.
Keywords: wayfinding; route-choice; virtual reality; emergency egress; corridor width and brightness; signage
Calculation of Areas of Permanence in Public Spaces, According to Solar Radiation Simulated Conditions BIBAKFull-Text 215-223
  Julie A. Waldron; Jorge H. Salazar
Permanence of people in public spaces is conditioned to several environmental factors, such as solar insolation. This specific factor is of particular interest in tropical countries, since it determines the comfort levels of people staying in public places for a length of time.
   This paper contains the analysis of people's Areas of Permanence in public spaces, taking into account solar radiation. The solar radiation data was obtained through simulations developed with a LISP routine named Torres 15.0 [1] executed in AutoCAD, which registers the number of hours that each point is affected by direct solar radiation.
   Resulting solar data were transformed to data of Areas of Permanence by creating Tolerance Ranges to sun exposure. The ranges were divided into five types of areas: Long and Short Permanence, Pause, Slow and Fast Traffic. These areas correspond to the time that people are willing to tolerate sun in different activities.
   The objective of this analysis is to collect data of environmental influence on the human body and its response, allowing the creation of principles for enhanced design.
Keywords: Public Spaces; Solar Insolation; Areas of Permanence; Tolerance Ranges

Designing for Smart and Ambient Devices

Design Methodology for Body Tracking Based Applications -- A Kinect Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 227-236
  Felipe Breyer; Bernardo Reis; Luis Arthur Vasconcelos; Aline Cavalcanti; João Marcelo Teixeira; Judith Kelner
Along with the popularization of new body tracking technologies such as Microsoft Kinect, and the increasing individual initiatives in order to design solutions for such platforms, it is necessary to improve and to adapt all the framework of methods and processes for developing new applications for this context. Just like that, this paper proposes a direction towards the formalization of an agile methodology for developing new applications on the background of body interaction, suitable for modest innovation projects with short schedules and small teams. To achieve that, we executed an experiment during a graduate course in Informatics, due to its similarities to the start-up context. The participating students followed a four-step methodology comprehending the stages of requirements identification, ideas generation, prototyping, and evaluation. The experiment outcomes are described in a way to enlighten the methodology techniques. As a conclusion, the students provided an extremely positive feedback regarding the adoption of the proposed methodology during the development of body interaction applications.
Keywords: Design methodology; body tracking; interaction applications
Empowering Electronic Divas through Beauty Technology BIBAKFull-Text 237-245
  Katia Fabiola Canepa Vega; Hugo Fuks
The evolution of Wearable Computers is making it possible for wearers to move and interact freely with the world with nearly invisible technology embedded into clothing. Our aim is to create technology that is not just in clothing but on the skin surface as removable and hidden electronics. In this paper, we introduce the term 'Beauty technology' as an emerging field in Wearable Computing that hides electronic components within beauty products. This work outlines the technology used to hide electronic components in eyelashes, make-up, tattoos and nails, and it presents examples of the use of Beauty Technology in everyday beauty products.
Keywords: Wearable Computers; Beauty Technology
An Empirical Study of the Characteristics of Interactive Projection Systems in Multi-media Exhibits BIBAKFull-Text 246-254
  Ting-Han Chen; Shiau-Yuan Du
This paper defines and summarizes the characteristics of interactive projection systems based on an empirical study of the authors' past design works. The characteristics are analyzed and reflected in several application examples, with implications for future study suggested at the end of the paper.
Keywords: Interactive projection; interactive material; interactive exhibit; projection material; tangible interface
Evaluation of Effects of Textures Attached to Mobile Devices on Pointing Accuracy BIBAKFull-Text 255-263
  Yoshitomo Fukatsu; Tatsuhito Oe; Yuki Kuno; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
When a user holds a mobile device that has a touch screen, his/her fingers and palm touch the back of the device. For this reason, we think that input accuracy can be improved by attaching textures on the back of the device. We selected ways to attach textures and then evaluated pointing accuracy with each texture. In the results, the texture attached to the center of the device achieved the best results of accuracy.
Keywords: eyes-free interaction; single-handed interaction; touch screen
A Proposal for Optimization Method of Vibration Pattern of Mobile Device with Interactive Genetic Algorithm BIBAKFull-Text 264-269
  Makoto Fukumoto; Takafumi Ienaga
The vibration patterns are often used in mobile devices such as cellular phone, tablet computer and smartphone, etc. However, these vibration patterns are ready-made patterns. Most of the users do NOT use vibration pattern suited to each user's preference and objectives to use. Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) was known as effective method to create contents suited to each user, and IEC was applied for creating various media contents. This study proposes an Interactive Genetic Algorithm (IGA) creating vibration pattern. Although some previous IEC studies have tried to optimize media content related to sense of touch, an IEC method optimizing vibration pattern of mobile device have not been proposed. The proposed method will dedicate to use of the vibration pattern by improving its ability of notice and/or by enhancing its suitableness in preference.
Keywords: Interactive Evolutionary Computation; Preference; Vibration Pattern; Genetic Algorithm
NUI-Based Floor Navigation -- A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 270-279
  Ulrich Furbach; Markus Maron
In this paper, we describe a nui-based application using a Microsoft Kinect. The system displays a digital representation of a university building, where users can navigate virtually through contact-less gestures. Users can step up and couple their hand with a virtual mouse cursor to navigate through the program such that hand movements to the right lead to cursor movements to the right for example. We present an evaluation of the system, which is based on a 100' day operation by logging 2.000 user sessions.
Capturing Nursing Interactions from Mobile Sensor Data and In-Room Sensors BIBAKFull-Text 280-289
  Sozo Inoue; Kousuke Hayashida; Masato Nakamura; Yasunobu Nohara; Naoki Nakashima
In this paper, we show two approaches for capturing nursing interactions in a hospital: 1) finding nursing intervals from mobile sensors with accelerometers and audio on nurses, and 2) recognizing nurses' entrance to a patient's room from in-room sensors of bed, loudness, and illuminance sensors. For 1), we firstly detect the nurses' entrance to the patient's room by walking detection from accelerometers and noise level on mobile sensors, and detect the interval of interaction between nurses and the patient. For 2), we recognize the nurse's entrance to the patient's room with in-room sensors, using separate algorithms between day and night. We developed the algorithms using the sensor data collected in a cardiovascular center in a real hospital for one year. It could be a important baseline technique to find valuable intervals from long and big data of sensors.
Keywords: Activity Recognition; Annotation; Speech Interval Estimation; Nursing Activity
Creating Instantly Disappearing Prints Using Thermochromic Paint and Thermal Printer in an Interactive Art Installation BIBAKFull-Text 290-295
  Miu-Ling Lam
This paper outlines the techniques used in an interactive art installation, called Time Axis, created by the author. The installation invites viewers to take a portrait of themselves in front of a wall-mounted device that is embedded with a camera and thermal printers. The image captured by the camera will be printed on paper by the thermal printers. One of the thermal printers is loaded with some custom-made thermochromic paper that changes color reversibly when temperature is changed. Images printed on the thermochromic paper will disappear due to heat loss to surroundings after a few seconds of being printed out. Thus, the participants will witness the silhouettes of their portraits appearing and dissipating on paper instantly. The mechanical noise generated by the printers is manipulated by a digital resonator and sent through a pair of headphones to be listened by the participants to intensify their experience.
Keywords: Thermochromism; thermal printer; temporary image; ephemeral; fading; interactive art; installation
Fashioning Embodied Interfaces: Open Wearables Crafting BIBAKFull-Text 296-305
  Valérie Lamontagne
This paper investigates the role of the designer in the "opening" of culture in fashion and technology. In particular it explores the convergence of "open practices" in vanguard technologies and fabrication processes found in the history of Modernist fashion, as well as recent popular uses of technology, and engineering, and more specifically wearables design practices.
Keywords: Wearables; fashion; open design; embodiment; interface culture; textiles; prototyping; performance
InTouch: Crossing Social Interaction with Perception BIBAKFull-Text 306-315
  Rung-Huei Liang; Wei-Ming Chung; Hsin-Liu Kao; Tsen-Ying Lin
With visual feedback serving as a major output of current social interaction through Internet, we aim to explore how alternative sensory outputs can enrich the experience of mediated social interaction. Thoughtfully making design choices, we deliver an artifact called InTouch to address the qualities we are interested in. InTouch consists of four sections in a wooden box surfaced with elastic Lycra. Each section stands for a communication link with a friend. By pressing a link, an individual can express her consideration for a friend. When pressed, the color changes from blue to red, while raising the temperature on a friends' device. The temperature of each link is provided from a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), turning hot or cold based on the input electrical current. One movement triggers two senses, namely touch and vision, forming perceptual-crossings as perceiving while being perceived. In addition to the description of the system, we discuss the motivation and concept behind design, present a pilot test and point out directions for future work.
Keywords: Perceptual crossing; social interaction; tangible interaction design
A Pilot Study of the Intuitiveness of Smartphone Camera Interface for Elderly Users BIBAKFull-Text 316-323
  Hyunju Shin; DaeSung Ahn; Junghyun Han
We propose a ZUI (zoomable user interface)-based smartphone interface for elderly users. The proposed interface extends the application design space to provide an overview that allocates space to each function of the application according to its importance. According to the feedback of interviewees, an overview augmented by text-based guidance facilitated their understanding of the application.
Keywords: Design philosophy of HCI and UX; Zoomable User Interface

Designing for Virtual and Augmented Environments

Sharing Kinetic Interactions for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 327-336
  Bashar Altakrouri; Darren Carlson; Andreas Schrader
Infrastructure for sharing, adapting and deploying interaction techniques remains an enduring challenge for real-world pervasive computing ecosystems (ambient spaces). In this paper, we address this challenge by introducing the concept of Interaction Plugins, which enables interaction techniques to be constructed as shareable units of functionality and dynamically deployed into a variety of ambient spaces during runtime. To this end, this paper will discuss two important issues in detail: community-based creation of interaction plugins and runtime deployment of interaction plugins. The paper also features a mobile-based implementation of this approach based on the Dynamix context framework.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; Natural Interactions; Kinetic Interactions; Sharing Interactions
Virtual Reality Immersion: An Important Tool for Diagnostic Analysis and Rehabilitation of People with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 337-344
  Helda O. Barros; Marcelo Márcio Soares; Epitácio L. Rolim Filho; Walter Correia; Fábio Campos
This paper sets out the case for the importance of using virtual reality immersion for diagnostic analysis and rehabilitating people with disabilities. To do so, a review of the literature was undertaken by examining articles published between 2000 and 2012. The results show that browsing in virtual immersion environments simulates real-world situations, with the advantage that this enables there to be full control over the variables analyzed and consequently over the health aspects involved. Furthermore, when using multisensory channels, the human-task-system interface tools enable there to be simultaneous treatment of multiple morbidities, which characterizes there having been an important advance made in the functional independence of people with disabilities.
Keywords: virtual reality; people with disabilities; rehabilitation
Virtual Reality Applied to the Study of the Interaction between the User and the Built Space: A Literature Review BIBAKFull-Text 345-351
  Alexana Vilar Soares Calado; Marcelo Márcio Soares; Fabio Campos; Walter Correia
This article examines from a theoretical academic research, concepts, definitions and elements that consist the universe of virtual reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR), with the goal of applying them to spaces constructed both by professionals specialized in developing environments, as many by its users.
Keywords: Architecture; Interior Design; Virtual Reality; Augmented Reality
Gestural, Emergent and Expressive: Three Research Themes for Haptic Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 352-361
  Jared Donovan; Gavin Sade; Jennifer Seevinck
Drawing on three case studies of work in the fields of participatory design, interaction design and electronic arts, we reflect on the implications of these studies for haptic interface research. We propose three themes: gestural; emergent; and expressive; as signposts for a program of research into haptic interaction that could point the way towards novel approaches to haptic interaction and move us from optic to haptic ways of seeing.
Keywords: Haptic interaction; gesture; emergent interaction; expressive interaction; passive haptics; ways of seeing
Sense of Presence in a VR-Based Study on Behavioral Compliance with Warnings BIBAKFull-Text 362-371
  Emília Duarte; Francisco Rebelo; Luís Teixeira; Elisângela Vilar; Júlia Teles; Paulo Noriega
Recent researches suggest that Virtual Reality (VR) is amongst the best tools for examining behavioral compliance with warnings, therefore overcoming some ethical and methodological constrains that have been limiting this type of research. Yet, such evaluation using VR requires both usable and engaging virtual environments (VEs). This study examines the sense of presence experienced by the participants after having been immersed in a VE designed for evaluating the effect of sign type (static vs. dynamic) on compliance. The VR simulation tested here allowed participants to perform a realistic work-related task and an emergency egress, during which they were supposed to interact with warnings and exit signs. A neutral condition (i.e., no/minimal signs) was used as a control condition. Subjective and objective data were gathered from two sources, respectively, i.e., a post-hoc questionnaire administered to the participants, and a video analysis of the participants' interaction behavior during the VR simulation. Results reveal high levels of presence across the three experimental conditions.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Presence; Behavioral Compliance; Warnings
Interactive Shopping Experience through Immersive Store Environments BIBAKFull-Text 372-382
  Kunal Mankodiya; Rolando Martins; Jonathan Francis; Elmer Garduno; Rajeev Gandhi; Priya Narasimhan
In the era of high competition with E-commerce and online shops, brick-and-mortar retail industry seeks new opportunities to enhance shopping experience through engaging technologies. Even though retailers are applying their omnichannel strategies to attract more shoppers through technology-driven solutions including websites, mobile apps, and so forth, we find that these technologies are somewhat basic and do not represent the "disruptive" innovations. Along with these current technologies, retailers should leverage their store physical real estate, and transform it into immersive store environments (ISEs) that allow shoppers to navigate in 3D store aisles through rich media interface ported onto networked devices. Therefore, we propose our own study of what ISE use-cases are most desirable by customers and retailers in such contexts; we describe the implementation of our cloud-based interactive shopping interface for ISE, before discussing the promising results of its deployment in a "real-world" store.
Keywords: AndyVision; retail technology; human-computer interaction; immersive shopping
Minimal Yet Integral -- Designing a Gestural Interface BIBAKFull-Text 383-392
  Martin Osen
Minimalism and simplicity have become key success factors in the post-PC era. Touchscreens have superseded physical buttons as the dominant user interface of mobile devices. Some of the industry's most successful products tightly integrate hardware, software and services into one convenient solution. All this transformed the setting in which we are designing user experiences today. This paper describes the two-year development of a gestural user interface for a mobile app. Our design process can be broken down into five basic principles: Find a tangible metaphor, understand your hardware, care for your content, reduce it to the essence, and if you feel you can do better, iterate. Finally some yet unsolved issues are described that may impede the design of truly natural interfaces on a fundamental level.
Keywords: Design Philosophy; Minimalism; Mental Model Design; Metaphor Design; Gestural UI; Natural UI; Card-based UI; Smartphone; Tablet; Touchscreen; Casual Reading; Digital Publishing; Case Study
Efficient Information Representation Method for Driver-Centered AR-HUD System BIBAKFull-Text 393-400
  Hyesun Park; Kyong-ho Kim
Providing a suitable and efficient representation of a driver's perspective is a way to reduce traffic accidents. In this paper, we first introduce a driver-centered AR (augmented-reality) HUD (head-up-display) system that superimposes augmented virtual objects onto a real scene under all types of driving situations including unfavorable weather (such as rainy, foggy, overcast, and snowy) conditions. We next explain the scenario and method used in our comparative experiments on a method for improving both the cognitive usability and visibility of drivers. For this, we comparatively analyzed not only information display locations but also information representation for six information types using a driving simulator with thirty subjects. For the effects on safety, the situational driver awareness of safety-related road events was measured. To determine the differences in the visual cognitive workload placed upon drivers, we tracked their eye movements. The subjective workload of the participants was assessed using the RSME (Rating Scale Mental Effort).
Keywords: Efficient Information Providing Method; Information Representation; Information Display Location; Driver Centered System; AR (augmented reality); HUD (head up display); Vehicle Simulator; Cognitive Usability; Visibility; Subjective Workload
Towards Medical Cyber-Physical Systems: Multimodal Augmented Reality for Doctors and Knowledge Discovery about Patients BIBAFull-Text 401-410
  Daniel Sonntag; Sonja Zillner; Christian Schulz; Markus Weber; Takumi Toyama
In the medical domain, which becomes more and more digital, every improvement in efficiency and effectiveness really counts. Doctors must be able to retrieve data easily and provide their input in the most convenient way. With new technologies towards medical cyber-physical systems, such as networked head-mounted displays (HMDs) and eye trackers, new interaction opportunities arise. With our medical demo in the context of a cancer screening programme, we are combining active speech based input, passive/active eye tracker user input, and HMD output (all devices are on-body and hands-free) in a convenient way for both the patient and the doctor.
Border Crosser BIBAKFull-Text 411-418
  Anke Tallig; Wolfram Hardt; Maximilian Eibl
Expositions are offering many information regarding the exhibits. These facts are normally presented in the form of charts and audio guides. For more and supplementary information some museums have robot guides or interactive touch tables. This paper describes a mixed device consisting of a robot guide and a touch table. This mobile robot connects the real exhibition environment and the virtual channel which contains all the interesting information. Therefore the Border Crosser itself is mixed reality device and produces and presents a mixed reality. It combines the advantages of real and virtual world. In this setting the Border Crosser also works as a mediator. A mediator which perceives the people, the environment and the possible interactions with the virtual channel. The robot is a friend, a host and a teacher. In this way the visit of an exhibition becomes to an adventure.
Keywords: Robot mediator; mixed reality; human-robot interaction; human-computer interaction
Strategy for the Development of a Walk-In-Place Interface for Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 419-426
  Luís Teixeira; Elisângela Vilar; Emília Duarte; Paulo Noriega; Francisco Rebelo; Fernando Moreira da Silva
Many features of a Virtual Reality system can influence the immersion and the sense of presence. Navigation is one of those features, since proprioceptive and vestibular cues can have a positive impact on immersion and sense of presence. This is especially important for studies about human behavior, where behavioral responses should be as close as in the real world. Different types of interfaces are been developed to be more natural and closer to moving in a real environment. A Walk-In-Place (WIP) interface can be used in small rooms and gives some proprioceptive and vestibular cues. A participant walks in the same place and a device captures that movement and translates it to movement inside the Virtual Environment. This paper presents a strategy for implementing a WIP interface using only one inertial orientation sensor, placed above the knee, mainly about the calibration and real-time detection phases and the approach taken on direction changing.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Navigation interfaces; Walk-in-place technique

Emotional and Persuasion Design

Exhibiting Emotion: Capturing Visitors' Emotional Responses to Museum Artefacts BIBAKFull-Text 429-438
  Genevieve Alelis; Ania Bobrowicz; Chee Siang Ang
The museum provides the perfect setting for the convergence of culture, reflection, personal connections, and communication, and many museums supplement these visitor experiences through the use of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) systems. While there has been past HCI research on various combinations of these four areas, the overall goal of this study is to explore the emotional links museum visitors make while encompassing all four areas through the use of engaging HCI technologies. This paper reports on the results of a study carried out at the Powell-Cotton Museum, a local ethnographic museum located in south-east Kent, UK. Using structured interviews and thematic analysis, visitors' emotional responses to museum artefacts were analysed. Findings suggest that when given the task of providing emotional responses to artefacts, visitors are motivated to find meaningful and personal connections.
Keywords: cultural artefacts; emotion; heritage; meaning-making; story-telling
Blinklifier: A Case Study for Prototyping Wearable Computers in Technology and Visual Arts BIBAKFull-Text 439-445
  Katia Fabiola Canepa Vega; Patricia J. Flanagan; Hugo Fuks
The Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition in 1968 [1] and the Computer in Art book in 1971[2] represent some remarkable initial approaches in collaborative art-technology projects. Over the years, projects have evolved through thinking influenced by other areas such as psychology, sociology and philosophy. Much of art theory and practice is exploratory and its outcomes may be challenging. The advent of novel materials and increasingly evolution of smaller and more affordable electronic components made it possible for anyone to make their own wearable devices. Moreover, people with different skills get together and share their knowledge to create new products. This work describes our prototyping process for developing wearable computers in multidisciplinary teams. In this paper, we present the implementation of our collaborative and iterative prototyping process in the development of Blinklifier, an art and technology project that amplifies human expressions and creates a feedback loop with the wearer.
Keywords: Wearable Computers; Feedback Loops; Blank Model Prototyping
Emotional Experience and Interactive Design in the Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 446-454
  Kuo-Pin Chen; Wen-Huei Chou
The negative emotions accumulated at work are easily overlooked, and unknowingly influence our lives and health. Happy emotions, positive interactions, and pleasant experiences can all effectively provide some opportunities to prevent fatigue and mitigate negative emotions and troubles. This study uses User-Centered Design (UCD) to investigate the needs of office workers dealing with work pressure, in the hopes that improved design can improve actual working conditions. ORID and empathy maps were used to elicit relevant experience and needs from the participants. Results showed that office workers tend to a certain degree to project emotional qualities on physical aspects of their work space, including furnishings and decorations. In the second stage, the Semantic Differential Scale was used to identify research limitations and scope, and identify a clear design direction. Finally, this study presents recommendations for the appropriate application of interactive design in office environments with the aim to provide points of reference for designers working in similar areas.
Keywords: Office work stress; interactive design; emotional design; empathic design; user-centered design
A Study on Time Differences between Actual Advertisement Viewing and Retrospective Perception BIBAKFull-Text 455-464
  Miao-Hsien Chuang; Chiwu Huang
Upon entry into the digital age, the number and importance of images in media has increased considerably. This paper discusses the similarities and differences between implicit and explicit memory produced by the subjective perception of time when viewing images and text in advertisements. The durations involved in implicit memory were measured using scientific instrumentation (eye-tracking devices), while explicit memory was gauged via a self-administered questionnaire. Three out of ten subjects retrospectively perceived browsing times that differed from the actual times measured through eye tracking, indicating a difference between implicit observation and explicit memory. We also investigated the layout preferences of subjects with various backgrounds in terms of images, text, and logos. These results could assist advertisers to enhance the effectiveness of communication regarding content as well as brand recognition through the use of strong narrative methods.
Keywords: Eye movement; Explicit memory measurement; Psychological time; Layout
Semiotic Analysis for Gestural and Emotional Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 465-474
  Roman Danylak
The discussion that follows describes the design of an interactive artwork To be or not to be using semiotics. The goal of To be or not to be was to create a user experience that was coherent and continuous, generating gestures and emotions -- not uncommon Human Computer Interaction (HCI) objectives. The design problem was to isolate what could be elements of user experience as inputs and outputs in a multimedia interactive system. Essentially there were five parts to the process: the first was an understanding of gesture and its modeling within the framework of generating expressive gestures in theatre -- defining media before simulation; the second, was to define the input and output process by which gestural interaction using HCI media might proceed; the third was to create a semiotic matrix of both the theatrical and HCI terms as equivalences, creating a system by which the design could follow; the fourth was evolving an experience, in this case an interactive film-game, that generated gestures and associated emotional content; the fifth was a user evaluation and statistical analysis (results summary only). The emphasis presented here is on the preparatory stage of correct process modeling, leading to the effective application of semiotic analysis. Readers are encouraged to access the URL for youtube description of the work.
Keywords: theatre; game; gesture; emotion; metaphor; metonymy
Evaluating Emotional Responses to the Interior Design of a Hospital Room: A Study Using Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 475-483
  Susana Dinis; Emília Duarte; Paulo Noriega; Luís Teixeira; Elisângela Vilar; Francisco Rebelo
Many studies have shown the ability of interior design elements (e.g., artwork, nature, home elements) to elicit positive emotions on hospital users thereby enhancing the healing process. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether such elements can affect users' emotional responses during a VR experience. In this study we explored the influence of interior design elements (i.e., landscape poster, painting, plant and home chair), on the participants' emotional responses after being exposed to 3D virtual hospital rooms. We used a short version of Zipers scales, developed by Zuckerman, to explore participants' emotional responses regarding 28 rooms, resulting from all the possible combinations of the identified elements plus a neutral and a negative room. Our sample included 30 university students. The results show that the more elements present in the hospital room the more positive the emotional response. The landscape and artwork elements emitted positive responses, whereas the home chair did not.
Keywords: Interior Design; Hospital; Emotion; Virtual Reality
Changing Eating Behaviors through a Cooking-Based Website for the Whole Family BIBAKFull-Text 484-493
  Marc Fabri; Andrew Wall; Pip Trevorrow
This paper reports on the results of a study investigating how nutritional eating behaviors can be improved by presenting a cooking-based website for parents to use with their children. Participants' eating behaviors were closely monitored via questionnaires and food diaries. Results show that over the course of the study, children's willingness to consume fruit and vegetables had improved and they enjoyed participating in food preparation. This was supported by the participants' food diaries, which showed a statistically significant increase in the number of portions of fruit and vegetables consumed by both children and parents. An attempt was made to place participants in a stage of change before and after the study (Transtheoretical Model). This was flawed, however, due to inaccurate measurements and the short study duration. Overall, this study provides support for the use of educational websites, in particular a cooking website, to improve nutritional eating behaviors in children.
Keywords: Obesity; Nutrition; Behavior Change; Persuasive Technology
Design for Relaxation during Milk Expression Using Biofeedback BIBAKFull-Text 494-503
  Loe Feijs; Jeanine Kierkels; Nicolle H. van Schijndel; Marjolein van Lieshout
Many women experience difficulty expressing milk using a breast pump. A negative influence upon their success is stress, hampering the milk ejection reflex. We explore biofeedback to enhance relaxation during milk expression. We discuss context, the principles of biofeedback and the design of an experiential prototype. The effect of biofeedback on milk expression shows promising trends towards increased relaxation, shorter time to milk ejection, and more milk production. Themes that emerged are: control, distraction, endorsement, setting of milk expression session, and pragmatism.
Keywords: Breastfeeding; milk expression; stress; relaxation; biofeedback; smart environments; oxytocin; aesthetics of interaction
Designing Ludic Engagement in an Interactive Virtual Dressing Room System -- A Comparative Study BIBAKFull-Text 504-512
  Yi Gao; Eva Petersson Brooks
The phenomenon of creating virtual dressing room (VDR) environments has currently been widely recognized. Most of the existing VDR systems are of a goal-oriented, rather than open-ended, nature. This study is comparative and investigated two VDR solutions: LazyLazy and a new VDR user interface (UI). The systems were tested by 426 participants. The study applies a qualitative approach including video observations, questionnaires and interviews. The comparison targeted an investigation of the users' experience and behaviour when interacting with the two VDR systems. The results showed that ludic activities can be enhanced without interfering with goal-oriented desires of the user.
Keywords: Ludic activities; motivation; goal oriented; ludic engagement; virtual dressing room
Humor Illustration Design, a Summary of Illustrations, Designs, and Projects BIBAKFull-Text 513-519
  Jochen Gasser
This paper summarizes my work as an illustrative designer; it covers details of my inspiration, ideas, final works, and specific projects that I have worked on throughout my career. This paper is organized in parts; Humor Illustration Design as a Solution Mechanism for Various Problems describes my view on how humor functions in the world today and how it alleviates issues. Illustration as a Tool is where I explain the workings behind and the outcome of an ongoing project and the goals I'm aiming for as a designer in terms of reaching my audience. I then show how I incorporate my work into marketing strategies in Humor Illustration Design as Marketing Strategy. Finally I focus on the project that I will present in Las Vegas in July.
Keywords: Humor Illustration Design; Humor; Andreas Hofer; Humanity; Emotional Connection; Gondola
Increasing Trust in Personal Informatics Tools BIBAKFull-Text 520-529
  Luis G. Jaimes; Tylar Murray; Andrew Raij
Personal Informatics (PI) systems help individuals collect and reflect on personal physiological, behavioral and/or contextual data. Typically, these systems offer users interactive visualizations that allow meaningful exploration of the data. Through this exploration, PI systems have great potential to facilitate self-reflection and encourage behavior change.
   One of the challenges facing PI systems is a general lack of transparency about the uncertainty, noise or measurement error in the information they display. Data acquisition, processing/inference, and wireless transmission, can each inject errors into the data. However, most PI systems do not provide a way to help users understand what types of errors could be in the data, where these errors come from, and to what extent they can trust the data they see is correct. This paper describes how errors can affect the perception and use of PI data and discusses ways to integrate more transparency into PI systems.
Keywords: personal informatics; data provenance; information visualization; transparent user interfaces
Feed-In Tariff Personal Carbon Allowance: A Case Study of Psychological Change BIBAKFull-Text 530-539
  Takayoshi Kitamura; Asao Takamatsu; Hirotake Ishii; Hiroshi Shimoda
The scheme of Personal Carbon Allowance (PCA) system which has been under discussion in United Kingdom is one of the innovative policies which have the potential to solve energy and climate issues. The authors have been proposed Feed-in Tariff PCA (FIT-PCA) as a suitable policy for Japan. The main purpose of this scheme is to encourage citizens to manage their CO2 emissions from their daily lives, furthermore, it is expected to improve their attitudes to global environmental issues. In the psychological model to express their behavioral changes, it is assumed that the experience of FIT-PCA causes loss aversion, goal setting and eudaimonia, and they change their life styles to pro-environmental ones. In this study, a case study has been conducted for half a year in cooperation with 30 households to investigate the validity of the model and the change of their energy reduction behaviors and attitudes to global environmental issues.
Keywords: social system; case study; personal carbon allowances; energy issues; psychological changes
Positive Design: New Challenges, Opportunities, and Responsibilities for Design BIBAKFull-Text 540-547
  Anna Elisabeth Pohlmeyer
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the scientific study of happiness and wellbeing. However, so far, there has been only little discussion about the relevance and applicability for design. This paper provides a brief overview of related developments in the field of psychology and user experience, before it introduces and illustrates the emerging field of positive design. Positive design builds on insights from positive psychology to create and improve products and/or services that increase human flourishing.
Keywords: Positive Design; Human Flourishing; Subjective Wellbeing; Experience Design
Tassophonics: Nanotechnology as the Magical Unknown BIBAKFull-Text 548-557
  Audrey Samson; Kristina Andersen
This paper outlines a set of experiments designed to explore how we can embed memories in objects augmented with non-discernable nanotechnological interfaces. It explores whether the object can successfully embody a wish or fear and how the participant experiences living with a physical reminder of these secrets. As such the experiments draw on more traditional paper-prototyping and body-storming techniques. The goal is to assess if the introduction of nanotechnology as a magical unknown can be used to seed and affect our relationships to objects and archived memories.
Keywords: Magical unknown; Nanotechnology; probe; secret; desire; archaeoacoustics; archive; performative consultation
Engineering Awareness™: An e-Service Design Approach for Behavioral Change in Healthcare and Well-Being BIBAKFull-Text 558-567
  Alberto Sanna; Sauro Vicini; Sara Bellini; Ilaria Baroni; Alice Rosi
Personalized interventions that empower users through pertinent and reliable information alongside ubiquitous and user-friendly services can provide them with the opportunity of adopting healthy lifestyle choices which improve quality of life and help prevent a vast number of chronic diseases. The eServices for Life and Health research unit alongside the City of the Future Living Lab strives to apply an e-Service Design approach to deploy innovative ICT and multi-device based services, aimed at truly responding to user needs and aspirations -- both inside and outside hospital walls.
Keywords: Design philosophy of HCI and UX; heuristics; healthcare and well-being
Designing a Product Satisfaction Model Using Customer Segmentation and Information Consolidation BIBAKFull-Text 568-577
  Meng-Dar Shieh
This study proposes a prediction model, based on Kansei Engineering, which applies the concept of consumer segmentation and information consolidation. When constructing a mutual satisfaction model for each cluster, the extracted parameters showing different levels of consumer influence were then treated as retrieval data by applying Ordinal Regression (OR). This study also tried to construct a satisfaction model for a cluster of consumers instead of just focusing on an individual satisfaction model, which is less valuable in real-life situations. The combined application of Fuzzy C-means and Ordinal Regression are considered worth using as the data needed. The combined application is less complicated compared to other forms of numerical regression analysis. It is a great benefit to designers as it lessens the time required to explore consumer satisfaction data at the early stages of the design process.
Keywords: Consumer Satisfaction; Kansei engineering; Ordinal Regression; Information consolidation
Design Matters: Mid-Term Results from a Multi-Design Fuel Economy Feedback Experiment BIBAKFull-Text 578-584
  Tai Stillwater; Kenneth S. Kurani
Energy feedback to drivers is one method to engage drivers in energy saving driving styles. In contrast to the occasional broadcasting of general driving tips, in-vehicle energy feedback gives drivers access to accurate information about their specific driving situation on an ongoing basis. The increasing prevalence of such feedback in new vehicles suggests a belief that ongoing, in-vehicle feedback is better. However, there is little reliable evidence of the effectiveness of energy feedback in real-word driving in passenger vehicles. This study begins to fill this gap. Participants are given a commercially-available fuel consumption display and recording device to use in their personal vehicle for two months. For the first month the display is blank as the device records a baseline of driving and fuel consumption. For the second month the display is switched on to show drivers one of three feedback designs. This paper presents preliminary results (N=75) of a larger study that will include 150 drivers along the California-Nevada Interstate-80 corridor. Using a mixed-effects linear model, we find an average driving efficiency improvement of between 1.5% and 6% (gallons/100 miles) between the without- and with-feedback months, depending on the feedback designs. Categorizing trips into types based on distance and multiple speed characteristics, there are differences in the apparent effectiveness of feedback across trip types. Finally, an overall decrease in fuel consumption of 10% between periods was observed. While approximately 3% of that is explained by changes in driving behavior, the remaining 7% is due to reduced VMT.
Keywords: Driver Behavior; HMI; Human Machine Interface; Behavior Change; Energy Conservation; Ecodriving
Running to Behavior Change BIBAKFull-Text 585-593
  Pip Trevorrow; Marc Fabri
Levels of overweight and obese individuals have been seen as rising across the globe. This has caused concerns with regard to how active individuals are and realization that a high percentage of the population do not meet the weekly requirement of physical activity. Current focus has been on the capabilities that new technologies can offer as an intervention technique. This paper offers an initial investigation into one such technology, namely the iPod Nike+ kit, which acts as a tracker for running behaviors. This scoping study was conducted via a questionnaire and analysis of customer reviews. Participants were assessed on their stage of change for physical activity behavior, based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), before and after using the technology. The results from this study showed that the technology was received positively from those who used it and the predominant outcome was that individuals were more enthusiastic about running.
Keywords: Behavior change; physical activity; iPod Nike+ kit; Transtheoretical Model of Change
Well-Being on the Go: An IoT Vending Machine Service for the Promotion of Healthy Behaviors and Lifestyles BIBAFull-Text 594-603
  Sauro Vicini; Sara Bellini; Alice Rosi; Alberto Sanna
Vending machines are often considered mere dispenser facilities that elicit only low engagement in their users. Instead, it is a market that is not only growing and expanding, but also evolving from a technological as well as service point of view. The City of the Future Living Lab in Milan has designed alongside its users an interactive Internet of Things vending machine based service which has been successfully deployed and is being tested in a public space within the Living Lab. This paper would like to present this as a case studies of designed experiences for behavior change.