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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2014: Third International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part III: User Experience Design for Everyday Life Applications and Services

Fullname:DUXU 2014: Third International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part III: User Experience Design for Everyday Life Applications and Services
Note:Volume 10 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8519
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07635-5 hcibib: DUXU14-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-07634-8 (print), 978-3-319-07635-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DUXU 2014-06-22 Volume 3
    1. Design for Health
    2. Design for Reading and Learning
    3. Design for Mobility, Transport and Safety
    4. Design for Rural, Low Literacy and Developing Communities
    5. Design for Environment and Sustainability
    6. Design for Human-Computer Symbiosis

DUXU 2014-06-22 Volume 3

Design for Health

User Experience in Training a Personalized Hearing System BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Gabriel Aldaz; Tyler Haydell; Dafna Szafer; Martin Steinert; Larry Leifer
In this paper, we introduce Awear, a context-aware hearing system comprising two state-of-the-art hearing aids, an Android smartphone, and a body-worn Streamer to wirelessly connect them. Awear aims to improve the sound quality perceived by individual hearing aid wearers by learning from their stated preferences. Users personalize, or "train," the system by performing several listening evaluations daily. The Awear app features two types of user-initiated listening evaluations, the A/B Test and the Self-Adjustment Screen. After a longitudinal (6-week) study in which hearing impaired participants (n = 16) used Awear, 10 of the participants stated a preference for training their system using the A/B Test, 3 preferred using the Self-Adjustment Screen, and 3 stated No Preference. Of the 10 who chose the A/B Test, 7 named simplicity or intuitiveness as the primary reason for this preference. We also found a strong correlation between user level of functionality and listening evaluation preference, and a supplemental interview (n = 24) verified this correlation. Lastly, we discuss the most important aspects of the user experience: cognitive, functional, and psychological dimensions.
Keywords: User experience; hearing aids; smartphones; personalization; mobile apps; listening evaluations
Developing mHealth Apps with Researchers: Multi-Stakeholder Design Considerations BIBAKFull-Text 15-24
  Michael P. Craven; Alexandra R. Lang; Jennifer L. Martin
The authors have been involved with developing a number of mHealth smartphone Apps for use in health or wellness research in collaboration with researchers, clinicians and patient groups for clinical areas including Sickle Cell Disease, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, asthma and infertility treatment. In these types of applications, end-users self-report their symptoms and quality of life or conduct psychometric tests. Physiological data may also be captured using sensors that are internal or external to the device. Following a discussion of the multiple stakeholders that are typically involved in small scale research projects involving end-user data collection, four Apps are used as case studies to explore the issue of non-functional requirements.
Keywords: m-Health; Requirements Engineering; Software Engineering; User experience; Ethical issues in DUXU; Healthcare/Medical systems and DUXU; Management of DUXU processes; Medical/healthcare and DUXU; Mobile products and services
Accessing Web Based Health Care and Resources for Mental Health: Interface Design Considerations for People Experiencing Mental Illness BIBAKFull-Text 25-33
  Alice Good; Arunasalam Sambhanthan
A significant proportion of society experience mental illness, many of which uses the Web for advice and support relating to their illness. With a high proportion of society experiencing anxiety and depression, it is important that web designers are informed of specific requirements to ensure Websites are accessible, particularly those websites that provide support and advice for mental health. Anxiety and depression can affect cognitive functioning, which can then impact upon the accessibility of web based information. The premise of this research is to look at design elements that are most likely to cause issues for people experiencing anxiety and depression. During a focus group, people who have a diagnosis of anxiety and depression were asked to discuss difficulties they experienced when carrying out specific tasks. The results from the study show that the problems encountered can be categorized under three main themes: information retrieval; information presentation and the understanding of information.
Keywords: Web Accessibility; Guidelines; Health Care; Mental Illness; Anxiety; Depression
Reading Digital Medicine Leaflets in Mobile Devices an Interactive Study Conducted in Brazil BIBAKFull-Text 34-43
  Christopher Hammerschmidt; Carla Galvão Spinillo
This paper describes an interaction study conducted in Brazil that aimed to investigate how people read a digital medicine leaflet in a mobile device. This insert summarizes the main typographic characteristics of Brazilian current digital leaflets. Tests were held with the participation of 20 volunteer individuals and consisted of four stages: (1) definition of participants' profile, (2) task 1: finding specific information in the digital leaflet, (3) Task 2: reading the digital leaflet in a mobile device, (4) follow-up interview. According to the results of the interaction test, there is evidence that the current structure of the digital medicine leaflets in Brazil is not designed for access via mobile devices. The findings of this study point to the need of information design guidelines for the Brazilian digital medicine leaflets, considering interactivity and navigability aspects. It is important to propose new solutions for digital leaflets and test them with people, in order to ensure the legibility and usability of these documents.
Keywords: patient information leaflets; mobile devices; usability
Visual Design in Healthcare for Low-Literate Users -- A Case Study of Healthcare Leaflets for New Immigrants in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 44-55
  Yah-Ling Hung; Catherine Stones
Healthcare material is an effective communication platform to offer an innovative professional care system which provides a more accurate, accessible and applicable educational platform for patients in a diversified society. However, immigrant populations are vulnerable to serious health disparities, and language barriers may further exacerbate their limited health literacy in accessing health information. Recent studies indicate that visual design might service as a powerful mean for the delivery of health information because vivid information combined with visual elements seems to affect both affective and cognitive processes to maximize comprehension. Yet, ways to identify the visual factors of healthcare material that best affect low-literate users to learn is a question that remains unanswered. The purpose of this study is to identify the visual factors of healthcare leaflet that affect low-literate users' satisfaction, thus establishing guidelines for designing visual healthcare materials for low-literate users. The study was implemented in three stages, the first of which reviewed existing literature to survey current strategies to evaluate visual design in healthcare for low-literate users. Secondly, 36 appropriate leaflets from existing health educational materials in Taiwan were collected and analyzed. Thirdly, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Vietnamese participants who were new immigrants with a low level of education in Taiwan. The results showed that the factors of healthcare material that affect low-literate users' satisfaction range from creative ideas, design layout of cover, design layout of index, typeface design, color design, pictorial illustrations to realistic photos and cultural factors. A checking list for designing visual healthcare materials for low-literate users was also listed. Successful health communication depends on the health information properly coded by the providers and correctly decoded by the consumers. The findings of this study are expected to be valuable, not only for the providers and consumers of health information, but also for the designers of healthcare material.
Keywords: Visual Design; Health literacy; Healthcare Material
Enhanced Hospital Information System by Cloud Computing: SHEFA'A BIBAFull-Text 56-62
  Lamiaa Fattouh Ibrahim; Suzan Sadek; Shahd Hakeem; Lana Al-Sabban; Asmaa Ibrahim Mohammed Ahmed; Alaa Hassan Al-Sayed
Information Technology is an important part of the healthcare environment. Accuracy and integrity of the information in any hospital system is necessary. Then, this information has to be up-to-date as well to achieve continuous quality improvement in any organization and particularly in a complex area like healthcare. Therefore, diverse information systems must be integrated across the healthcare enterprise. The main objective of this research is to develop a framework for the exchange of patients records located in different hospitals in Saudi Arabia, adding insurance and prescriptions information along with the patient's record to facilitate the insurance process and to automate the medicine prescription process that is currently manual in most hospitals. The proposed framework aims to improve the regular ways of obtaining patients medical records separated in each hospital. For instance, if a particular patient has different medical records in different hospitals visited by that patient, our architecture focuses on the method by which data should be searched and retrieved efficiently from a database on the cloud from different hospitals by preprocessing the data in current hospital's and saving them in the database that resides on the cloud. Our system design is based on cloud computing service oriented architecture. Some of the information included in these medical records is: medical history, prescribed medications and allergies, immunization status, laboratory and test results, radiology images, personal stats like age and weight, diagnoses, order tests and appointments. All of these records are identified by the national ID of the patient. These systems will be utilized by web services asp.net based framework, the doctor will use his/her ID and password to enter the system for security and then enter the patient's ID to send a request for that patient's record that will be sent back to the doctor, the record will be up-to-date since the last visit of the patient to any hospital in Saudi Arabia. The main aim of this study is to provide a data exchange model of patients records, it is used to decrease the time and cost of patients, and help doctors to get up-to-date and accurate information of patients from the records from any hospital in Saudi Arabia. By using e-Patient medical records and Mirth Connect program which use HEALTH LEVEL 7 (HL7) protocol. HL7 protocol is a standard information format of healthcare for data exchange. We provide a single, complete automated patient medical record to give a better patient care that avoids medical mistakes due to lack of information and unavailability of medical records.
Exploring Possibilities of Designing Virtual Personal Health Coach in Relation to Gender Differences BIBAKFull-Text 63-71
  Hakan Kuru; Armagan Kuru
Nowadays, technology affects our quality of life in various ways. One necessary aspect of using technology as a tool is to achieve optimal health, in other words, to make health focused decisions about everything in life. Different applications of technology now enable people to track their activity or food intake through applications, web-sites or mobile products. Now, the challenge is to interpret and use large sums of available data in order to improve people's wellbeing and promote health. In order to understand the possible approaches to promoting health, a study was designed with an aim of understanding what people would expect from a virtual personal health coach and whether there is a difference by gender on priorities. The paper makes conclusions of the possibilities of designing according to the different needs and expectations of women and men from a virtual health coach.
Keywords: Health promotion; virtual health coach; personal technologies
Wayfinding in Hospital: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 72-82
  Laura Bezerra Martins; Hugo Fernando Vasconcelos de Melo
The purpose of this study is to understand how the human displacement in large buildings takes place and suggest solutions to improve its flow. The type of installation to be focused on is the hospital environment. For case study, we took as example a hospital based in Recife, capital of Pernambuco -- Brazil. The importance of this research lies in the fact that it opened new horizons for the study of accessibility, bringing together areas of management and design, which are often treated in an isolated manner, but actually complement each other in order to reach an overall result for the various users of this type of system.
Keywords: Wayfinding; Design; Ergonomics and Usability; Healthcare
Health Care Professionals vs Other Professionals: Do They Have Different Perceptions about Health Care Waste and Dangerous Products Pictograms? Some Findings Using a Digital Device in Field Survey BIBAKFull-Text 83-90
  Cláudia Renata Mont'Alvão
This paper presents a part of a wider research about GHS symbols comprehensibility. Here, a field survey was conducted using a digital device, instead of traditional platform -- printed paper. Participants were health care professionals and other professionals and a comparison among the results about these groups is presented and discussed.
Keywords: symbols; comprehensibility testing; ergonomics
"How am I Doing?" -- Personifying Health through Animated Characters BIBAKFull-Text 91-102
  Andreas Schmeil; Suzanne Suggs
In this paper we present an experimental study that investigates the effects of a Virtual Representation of Health (VRH) -- an online virtual character that personifies an individual's health. Testing four different variations of the VRH, we aimed to understand which variation yields the strongest overall positive effect on triggering health behavior change. The results from data collected from 512 participants in three countries indicate that all tested variations can have a positive impact on health behavior change, and show that the 'richest' VRH variation, a virtual character that models health behavior using animations, juxtaposed by an animated personification of a possible future health, has the strongest overall positive effect, compared to the other tested variations.
Keywords: Health; behavior change; personification; VRH; 3D; animated characters; virtual representation; visual communication
SPARK: Personalized Parkinson Disease Interventions through Synergy between a Smartphone and a Smartwatch BIBAKFull-Text 103-114
  Vinod Sharma; Kunal Mankodiya; Fernando De La Torre; Ada Zhang; Neal Ryan; Thanh G. N. Ton; Rajeev Gandhi; Samay Jain
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder afflicting more than 1 million aging Americans, incurring $23 billion in annual medical costs in the U.S. alone. Approximately 90% Parkinson patients undergoing treatment have mobility related problems related to medication which prevent them doing their activities of daily living. Efficient management of PD requires complex medication regimens specifically titrated to individuals' needs. These personalized regimens are difficult to maintain for the patient and difficult to prescribe for a physician in the few minutes available during office visits. Diverging from current form of laboratory-ridden wearable sensor technologies, we have developed SPARK, a framework that leverages a synergistic combination of Smartphone and Smartwatch in monitoring multidimensional symptoms -- such as facial tremors, dysfunctional speech, limb dyskinesia, and gait abnormalities. In addition, SPARK allows physicians to conduct effective tele-interventions on PD patients when they are in non-clinical settings (e.g., at home or work). Initial case series that use SPARK framework show promising results of monitoring multidimensional PD symptoms and provide a glimpse of its potential use in real-world, personalized PD interventions.
Keywords: mHealth; Smartphone; Parkinson Disease; Pervasive Healthcare; Personalized Health; Telemedicine
How Do Patient Information Leaflets Aid Medicine Usage? A Proposal for Assessing Usability of Medicine Inserts BIBAKFull-Text 115-124
  Carla Galvão Spinillo
This Patient information leaflet -- PIL provides support to medicine usage. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence on the usability of PILs since most research has focused on their readability and legibility, and legal regulations worldwide have neglected their usability aspects. Considering the importance of this matter, a proposal for assessing PILs' usability is presented here, consisting of three phases: (1) task analysis diagram flow, (2) interaction test, and (3) follow-up interview, and the outputs are analyzed in a qualitative manner. To validate the usability assessment proposed, a study was conducted in Brazil with 60 participants on using medicines differing in their pharmaceutical presentation, based upon the instructions in their PILs. The results showed a direct relation between task complexity-errors; and the decision points-actions/ steps. The usability assessment aids in identifying drawbacks in the PILs design and information flow, thus, providing support to improvements towards their effectiveness in medicine usage.
Keywords: patient information leaflets; usability; assessment
Usability Improvement of a Clinical Decision Support System BIBAKFull-Text 125-131
  Frederick Thum; Min Soon Kim; Nicholas Genes; Laura Rivera; Rosemary Beato; Jared Soriano; Joseph Kannry; Kevin Baumlin; Ula Hwang
This paper focuses on improving the usability of an electronic health record (EHR) embedded clinical decision support system (CDSS) targeted to treat pain in elderly adults. CDSS have the potential to impact provider behavior. Optimizing CDSS-provider interaction and usability may enhance CDSS use. Five CDSS interventions were developed and deployed in test scenarios within a simulated EHR that mirrored typical Emergency Department (ED) workflow. Provider feedback was analyzed using a mixed methodology approach. The CDSS interventions were iteratively designed across three rounds of testing based upon this analysis. Iterative CDSS design led to improved provider usability and favorability scores.
Keywords: clinical decision support; CDS; clinical decision support system; CDSS; usability; emergency department; emergency medicine; human-computer interaction; HCI; SUS; system usability scale; favorability score; mixed methodology; Healthcare IT & Predicting Adoption; Medical Error & Simulation; Patient Safety; Quality in Healthcare; iterative design
Information about Medicines for Patients in Europe: To Impede or to Empower? BIBAKFull-Text 132-140
  Karel van der Waarde
Information about medicines in Europe does not really fulfil its potential. For patients, it is often very hard to understand and to apply information in a specific situation. For the pharmaceutical industry, it is hard to develop (writing-designing-testing) due to strict regulations. And for the Regulatory authorities, the current situation is hard to control and check. One of the main causes is that legal-, economic-, and health-criteria are simultaneously applied to information about medicines. However, these three criteria are fundamentally different, and have proved to be unbridgeable in the last 20 years. In order to provide patients with usable information, it seems essential to develop a legal system that is not based on standardization of processes and results, but instead is based on required performances in context.
Keywords: Patient information; medicine packaging; labeling; information design
A Collaborative Change Experiment: Telecare as a Means for Delivery of Home Care Services BIBAKFull-Text 141-151
  Suhas Govind Joshi; Anita Woll
This paper presents a collaborative change experiment that introduces telecare as a means for delivery of home care service. The television is used as platform for delivery of services from the home care nurses to the elderly care recipients. Through the collaborative change experiment, we seek to address the interdependent relationship between the home care nurses and the elderly by studying the usability and user experiences on both sides of the interaction. Our work includes usability testing with the aim of optimizing the design of telecare. This paper reports findings concerning the spatial design, compensation of declined motor skills, audiovisual considerations and control mechanisms.
Keywords: usability testing; elderly; telecare; collaborative change experiment

Design for Reading and Learning

Innovative Educational Technology for Special Education and Usability Issues BIBAKFull-Text 155-163
  Kursat Cagiltay; Filiz Cicek; Necdet Karasu; Hasan Cakir; Goknur Kaplan Akilli
The purpose of this study is to introduce educational technology project, OZTEK, for special education students and present usability issues related to those developed technologies. With the OZTEK, the researchers intend to develop innovative, technology enhanced learning environments to support the education of children with such special needs and to investigate effectiveness of such learning environments.
   Within the scope of the OZTEK, to provide support for special education, various instructional technologies have been developed, which are unique in terms of innovation regarding not only in Turkey but also other countries in the world. Throughout the project the following products will be developed which can either be used separately as standalone tools or together as a whole obtained by integration to each other: Interactive multimedia educational software that will detect body movements, interactive multi-touch table/board, applications and smart/interactive toys.
   In this paper, the findings regarding how computer supported educational materials for special education have been developed, what kind of usability challenges were faced with, how challenges have been overcome and how those technologies are used by teachers and students are presented.
Keywords: Usability; innovative technology; technology enhanced learning environments; special needs; students with special needs
Examining the Interfaces to E-journal Articles: What Do Users Expect? BIBAKFull-Text 164-172
  Mary C. Dyson; Elizabeth M. Jennings
Researchers are increasingly relying on e-journals to access literature within their fields. The design of the interfaces to these journals is determined by the individual host or publisher and there appears to be little standardization. This exploratory study samples a set of sixteen home screens of e-journals from different disciplines and identifies common features across the set. The particular wording used to identify the features and their locations are recorded. An online survey of e-journal readers investigates where users would normally expect to locate features when first accessing a journal article. Comparison of observed and expected locations confirms inconsistencies across interfaces in terminology and locations. Mental models of the interface design do not appear to be well developed. A move toward standardization, based on some existing conventions, is desirable.
Keywords: conventions; standardization; screen layout
The Impact of Media and Background Color on Handwriting BIBAKFull-Text 173-183
  Chao-Yang Yang; Wei-Lin Hsu; Ting-Yi Chou Huang
Handwriting is an important issue in Taiwan's school system, and it remains to be determined if tablet computers are a suitable medium for the development of good handwriting. The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether visual and tactile instructional strategies can be used to help students improve their handwriting performance. The study recruited 31 6th grade elementary school students to hand write a short phrase on backgrounds of various colors (white, red, yellow, green and blue), both on pen and on tablet computer. Finally, a questionnaire was administered to determine emotional associations with the various background colors. Results showed that media type does have an impact on handwriting performance, with familiar media (paper) providing better results. Descriptive statistics indicate that using a red background provided the best subjective and objective performance, and consistently produced characters of better proportional size. Red was also found to have an emotional association with excitement and triggered positive emotions among the students.
Keywords: tablet computer; color; writing; handwriting; educational strategy
The Relation between Online and Print Information Graphics for Newspapers BIBAKFull-Text 184-194
  Ricardo Cunha Lima; Rafael de Castro Andrade; André S. Monat; Carla Galvão Spinillo
In this article we make a critical assessment of the relation between online and print design, focusing on the graphic language of newspaper infographics. A lot of the work done in this area consists in adapting print newspaper infographics to online versions. The problem with many of these adaptations is that there are losses in reading strategy and structure of their online versions, offering readers a mainly linear reading experience. To understand this fact, we compare print infographics and their digital versions through the analysis of layout and cognitive load. In a time when the knowledge of computer programming seems to be crucial to editorial design, we reflect on the importance of layout, which is the principle design structure to help readers access and understand information.
Keywords: Information graphics; information design
Prototyping in a Learning Environment -- Digital Publishing Projects from the Escola Superior de Desenho Industrial BIBAKFull-Text 195-206
  Marcos André Franco Martins
This paper focuses on the educational role prototyping plays on interaction design projects. Three case studies from ESDI (Escola Superior de Desenho Industrial, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) will show different solutions for displaying visual information on tablets. Each case will show different approaches, namely: low and high fidelity and experience prototyping. It will be argued that the activity of prototyping stimulates student's critical thinking and encourages the search for innovation.
Keywords: Low and high fidelity prototyping; experience prototyping; visual information; digital publishing; pedagogy
Logograms: Memory Aids for Learning, and an Example with Hearing-Impaired Students BIBAKFull-Text 207-216
  Ligia Medeiros; Marcos Brod Júnior; Luiz Vidal Gomes
This paper describes a methodology for teaching design based on the use of a set of memory aids named logograms. Users' experiences involving the usability of logograms as a teaching support are being registered throughout empirical research during the last ten years by the authors. More recently, the technique was applied with success to hearing-impaired students. The material described here includes phonographic and iconographic elements aiming at the organization of a logographic system that, in addition to sign language, supported a more inclusive education. Some of the logograms presented refer to stages and procedures of the design process, and were converted into LIBRAS -- the Brazilian Sign Language with the intensive participation of the users (interpreter, students and teacher). The process consisted in: establishment of keywords; denotative and connotative analysis of keywords; search of applicable signs within LIBRAS; creation of new signs when there were no codified signs for design technical terms in dactylology; validation by the interpreter and student; systematization of use through photographs; verbal description of the agreed gestures. The logograms are perceived as innovative ways to teach product and graphic design in undergraduate and graduate courses, and their use can be combined to software programs and Internet resources in new curricular approaches.
Keywords: perception of visual information; teaching of hearing-impaired and speech-impaired people; logograms
SMART Note: Student-Centered Multimedia Active Reading Tools for Tablet Textbooks BIBAKFull-Text 217-229
  Jennifer George-Palilonis; Davide Bolchini
Active reading is a fundamental task for the study experience, yet existing tablet textbook platforms fail to provide the wide range of flexibility required for active reading, particularly when multimedia content is included. To address this, we propose SMART Note, a set of active reading tools that provides learners with novel annotation and reorganization methods intended to better support active reading in the tablet environment. In an evaluation study with SMART Note prototypes, users had high success rates with usability inspection tasks and rated novel annotation and reorganization tools more favorably than tools offered by most existing tablet textbook platforms. Our work builds a foundation for future research that explores how SMART Note affects active reading and learning with multimedia tablet textbooks.
Keywords: Active reading; tablet textbooks; educational multimedia; usability
Design, User-Experience and Teaching-Learning BIBAKFull-Text 230-241
  Cristina Portugal
This paper has a reflection about how to design digital environments that offer quality of experience to the user. It assumes that the user experience is the set of sensations, values and conclusions that the user gets from using equipment. The values coming from this interaction are not product of the functional experience, but also of the esthetical experience. The quality of this experience may be found in the result of the user goals, of the cultural variables and of the interface design. This article presents a brief discussion about the concept of user experience and after that presents the use of a hypermedia e-book as a pedagogical tool in a graduation course in Design and observations about this digital environment.
Keywords: Design; Hypermedia; User experience; Teaching-learning

Design for Mobility, Transport and Safety

Challenges in Implementation of TVM (Ticket Vending Machine) in Developing Countries for Mass Transport System: A Study of Human Behavior while Interacting with Ticket Vending Machine-TVM BIBAKFull-Text 245-254
  Mazhar Abbas
This article aims to identify the problems faced by passengers in developing countries of suburbs and city containing facility of mass transportation system. The research was focused on the difficulties of common passengers that rises up to 80,000 passengers each day in acquiring ticket/tokens for travelling on Metro Bus System (MBS). Particularly the article focuses on the Ticket Vending Machine (TVM) procedure for tokens acquiring and smart card facility procedure for regular MBS users. Beside the role of literacy and training this article also aims the user behavior in adaptation of newly introduce intelligent ticketing system for MBS facility in Lahore. Absence of user friendliness in TVM and few other key issues has been also investigated in this Article. A discussion on highlighted fact that the interface has been adopted from turkey where the scenario and user both have vast difference from the user and scenario here in Pakistan; therefore users found confused in adaptation of such smart facility for MBS in shape of TVM. A rigorous field work was conducted for collecting behavioral and other routine practicing data. It has been done by visual observation (incl. photography), the behavior of everyday commuters and interviewing them using a structured questionnaire. Identification of negligence factor was the part of study in the efforts made by the government; to provide ease for passengers, who interact with TVM, specifically by elderly, disabled and underage travellers at MBS.
   Therefore beside the other prospects of this research the main focus of this study is to identify the TVM usage as ignored facility. Suggestions for the future prospects of TVM in Pakistan are also addressed.
Keywords: User experience; Ergonomics; Interface Design; Modern technologies
Simulation of Wireless Sensor Network for Flood Monitoring System BIBAKFull-Text 255-264
  Manal Abdullah
Monitoring environmental disaster such as flooding is highly improved using ICT. Deployment of sensor networks to monitor physical environment is one of the most important applications for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, we model and simulate flood monitor case in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Using OMNET++ simulator, we employ Direct Diffusion DD routing protocol to operate flood case.. We first have developed one of the well-known sensor network protocols which is DD. Then, we evaluate the performance of our simulated case by computing several statistics including power consumption, end-to-end delay, throughput to measure the availability and scalability of the network and decide the best possible configuration that well monitor our case. Our results determined that the best sensor network configuration for flood monitor system in the area of interest is 135 sensors with memory capacity of 80 to 120 message entries.
Keywords: WSN; Flood control; Direct Diffusion; Discrete Event Simulation; OMNET++
Enhance User Experience Moving in Campus through Understanding Human Spatial Cognition BIBAKFull-Text 265-272
  Szu-Miao Chen; Yi-Shin Deng; Sheng-Fen Chien; Hsiao-Chen You
There are always interactions between people and environment involved in our daily activities. People gather different kinds of information from their surroundings; after interpreting by mental models, they give responses to environment. Among all the information, spatial information is the one which played an important role in supporting our living activities such as traveling or commuting. Besides, people in the same environment will form cognitive map differently owing to their mental model, which process perceived information, and purpose of activities. Therefore, to construct better information architecture for providing needed information, the understanding of differences of spatial cognitions between individuals is essential. This paper explored different kinds of users' spatial representations about a specified semipublic space, university campus; and through applying user interview as well as living lab concept, the findings can be referred for future study to build an customized, comprehensive spatial information providing system.
Keywords: User Experience; Spatial Cognition; and Information Architecture
Pilgrim Smart Identification Using RFID Technology (PSI) BIBAKFull-Text 273-280
  Abeer Geabel; Khlood Jastaniah; Roaa Abu Hassan; Roaa Aljehani; Mona Babadr; Maysoon Abulkhair
Yearly, from all around the world, different nations millions of pilgrims gather for Hajj season in holy Makkah to perform Hajj rituals, so Saudi government and Hajj institutions facing a big challenge and a lot of problems summarized in losing the official identification documents, language barrier in communicating with the authority especially in emergency cases (need guidance when missing directions, and medical problems) and determining the identity of dead pilgrims.
   The aim of Pilgrim's Smart Identification (PSI) system is to improve the current identification method by using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology.
Keywords: RFID Technology; Hajj; Hajj Campaign; Smart Identification
Timeaxis Design of a Service System Growing Values of Mobility Using the M-V Model BIBAKFull-Text 281-292
  Kei Kamiya; Akira Kito; Jaime Alvarez; Koichiro Sato; Hidekazu Nishimura; Yoshiyuki Matsuoka; Satoru Furugori
This paper describes the design of a service system which belongs to a basic system realizing a Value Growth Mobility: a concept of next generation mobility intended to increase the different values that the user feels towards the mobility. The concept is proposed based on Timeaxis Design incorporating the viewpoint of time into the theory and methodology of design. To design this service system, the M-V model is used. This model is an integrated model of the M model, which focuses on design activity, and the V model, which visualizes a system development process. As the result of design, it is proposed a system consisting of subsystems including an emotion recognition system, a camera system, and a social networking service. These subsystems provide services encouraging the growth of values through interactions between the user and the mobility system.
Keywords: Timeaxis Design; M Model; V Model; Service Design
Developing the HMI of Electric Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 293-304
  Christian Knoll; Roman Vilimek; Inken Schulze
BMW i, as a sub-brand of the BMW Group, targets on delivering sustainable solutions for individual mobility. One of the most important steps on this path was the introduction of the all-electric BMW i3 in 2013. In order to design not only the vehicle in itself, but also especially the newly developed electric vehicle related functions for optimal customer experience, the HMI design process substantially relied on repeated usability testing and large international field trials. With more than 34 million test kilometers absolved during the MINI E and the BMW ActiveE field trials an extraordinary knowledge base about customer needs related to e-mobility contributed valuable input to the development of the user interface of the BMW i3 and HMI challenges beyond the vehicle like charging wallbox, smartphone app and web portal related to driving electric. The paper reports on the unique process of defining the user interface of the BMW Group's first purpose-designed electric vehicle including the non-vehicle-based e-mobility infrastructure components. Based on selected use cases, the interplay between evolutionary steps in the HMI and continued usability testing shows how user-centered design is applied for a completely new kind of vehicle, thus providing insights on the necessities of iterative testing for disruptive innovations.
Keywords: MINI E; BMW ActiveE; BMW i3; BMW i; user interface; HMI; ConnectedDrive; 360° Electric; BMW iRemote App; web portal; wallbox Pure & Pro; charge; AC; DC; car sharing; DriveNow; ChargeNow; eDRIVE
Examining the Functionality and Usability of Interactive Wayfinding Design within Cities in China BIBAKFull-Text 305-316
  Fung Ha Sandy Lai
In recent years, wayfinding is one of the aspects in urban city design that emerge with digital technologies in the smart city [1] development in China. However, before building a smart city, some issues need to be solved in the wayfinding system within cities in China such as misleading signs, irrational roadway design in transportation. This field study report is part of my research project, in which examples of three prime cities (Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong) and two 2nd tier cities (Suzhou, Nanjing) are discussed to examine the functionality and usability of interactive wayfinding design. The findings of this report showed that emerging new technologies with wayfinding concept and theory that is based on user experience makes wayfinding more effective and functional. Some alternative guidelines and solutions of usable wayfinding design are provided to help people live in a safe environment rather than live in just a fully digitalized city.
Keywords: interactive wayfinding; wayfinding design; user experience; urban infrastructure; mobile internet
The Encourage Operators to Promote Manual Flight Operations -- a Pandemic in Modern Aviation BIBAKFull-Text 317-325
  Edgard Thomas Martins; Isnard Thomas Martins; Marcelo Márcio Soares
Advances in technology have enabled increasingly sophisticated automation to be introduced into the flight decks of modern airplanes. Generally, this automation was added to accomplish worthy objectives such as reducing flightcrew workload, adding additional capability, or increasing fuel economy. To a large extent, these objectives have been achieved. Safety also stood to benefit from the increasing amounts of highly reliable automation. Indeed, the current generation of highly automated transport category airplanes has generally demonstrated an improved safety record relative to the previous generation of airplanes. Vulnerabilities do exist, though, and further safety improvements should be made. To provide a safety target to guide the aviation industry, the Secretary of Transportation and others have expressed the view that the aviation industry should strive for the objective of none accidents. Training standards and currency in manual flying skills may well have deteriorated, but are these changes in proportion to the tasks and situations typical of modern operations, or really at the root of handling related safety concerns [9].
Keywords: Automation; Manual procedures; Pandemia
Hardwired Critical Action Panels for Emergency Preparedness: BIBAKFull-Text 326-337
  Bojana Petkov; Alf Ove Braseth
Critical action panels (CAPs) are hardwired safety panels installed in control rooms of oil and gas platforms. They are used as redundant backup for safe shutdown in cases where software systems fail. The panels of many installations in the North Sea today do not follow modern standards and regulatory requirements, while other installations have not yet implemented CAP panels. These use instead large safety matrices, which can cause information overload as they are also used for process operation. This paper presents design principles for modern CAP design followed by a conceptual CAP design layout. The design rationale is primarily based on a study for an operational installation on the Norwegian continental shelf. Regulatory demands as well as user requirements and needs were followed to create a functional display. The objective of the design was maintaining the user's situation awareness while harmonizing with the software-based interfaces in the control room. The CAP design was reviewed against requirements and proved acceptable.
Keywords: Critical action panel; control room; petroleum platform; interaction design
Designing the User Experience for C4ISR Systems in the U.S. Army BIBAKFull-Text 338-346
  Pamela Savage-Knepshield; Jeffrey Thomas; Christopher Paulillo; James Davis; Diane Quarles; Diane Mitchell
A unique set of challenges exist for implementing user-centered design principles in the context of military acquisition over and above those typically encountered by user experience designers. This paper focuses on the tools and techniques that we have utilized to help ensure that a positive user experience (UX) will result when Soldiers and systems interact under harsh conditions on the battlefield. Insights gained from applying these techniques to system design and evaluation early in the acquisition process and the impact that their use has had on training and system design are discussed.
Keywords: Agile development incorporating DUXU; design philosophy and DUXU; usability methods and tools
A Mobile Application for Controlling Domestic Gas Cylinders Remotely BIBAKFull-Text 347-356
  Wafaa M. Shalash; Salha Al-Behairi; Nada Al-Qahtani; Mashael Al-Muzaini; Bayan Sharahili; Aisha Alawi
The domestic gas cylinders or cooking gas are considered as the source of energy commonly used at homes but, the potential for a serious accident such as gas leak from organizations or flow valves if the gas cylinder or its attachments are not treated properly or simply if the user forgot to close the gas before leaving home. The current project aims to develop a mobile application in order to control the gas cylinder remotely by mobile application in an effective way. The system consists of two parts. A specially designed controller connected to the gas cylinder organizer and an android mobile application to control the cylinder remotely through it. The main functions of this application are, controlling one or more domestic gas cylinder remotely, sending an audio alarm to the user if he leave while the gas cylinder opened and close it, providing an alarm if there is a gas leakage and close it and finally if the system fail to close it due to any reason it call the civil defense.
Keywords: Intelligent home; gas remote control; GSM; PIC controller; Android application
Virtual Personas: A Case Study on Truck Cabin Design BIBAKFull-Text 357-368
  Jos Thalen; Mascha van der Voort
User involvement can help designers reach beyond functionality and usability, and identify the user's deeper needs for a pleasurable product experience. In practice, direct user involvement can be limited by a lack of knowledge of appropriate techniques, confidentiality constraints or limited access to end-users. Alternatively, personas can be used as a substitute for direct user involvement. Personas, however, often end up as posters in the hallway of a design department without being used, for instance because personas are not sufficiently realistic, or because the personas are insufficiently communicated within the design department. This paper presents a case study featuring Virtual Personas. This application allows designers to create and review use scenarios in a virtual world, featuring digital avatars. Although the application has been successfully deployed, it was found that additional effort is required for designers to really reach beyond the level of functionality and usability.
Keywords: personas; scenarios; roleplaying; virtual reality; case study
A Pilot Study Using Virtual Reality to Investigate the Effects of Emergency Egress Signs Competing with Environmental Variables on Route Choices BIBAKFull-Text 369-377
  Elisângela Vilar; Emília Duarte; Francisco Rebelo; Paulo Noriega; Ernesto Vilar
Emergencies (e.g., fire egress) into complex buildings are stressful situations which can provoke unexpected, undesired and sometimes unsafety behaviors in the users. Thus, the main objective of this pilot study was to investigate the relative influence of new technology-based exit signs, when compared to the conventional static ISO-type counterparts, in the users' wayfinding behavior during an emergency egress. A critical situation was designed in which the environmental variables and exit signs, at the 12 decision points, were giving conflicting directional information. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to the two groups (i.e., Static signs and dynamic signs), and their route-choices in the 12 decision points displaced along a route into a virtual hotel were collected using a Virtual Reality-based methodology. Findings suggest that for the group exposed to static ISO-type exit signs, the reliance on environmental variables decreased along the egress route, and for the first intersection about 73% of participants preferred to follow by the direction which was the opposite of that posted on the egress sign. However, when technology-based signs were used, the influence of the environmental variables was weak from the first decision point to the end, as suggested by a compliance rate with the exit signs reaching almost 98% along the entire route.
Keywords: Emergency egress; wayfinding; virtual reality; technology-based signs; exit signs
Impact of Multi-sensory On-Bicycle Rider Assistance Devices on Rider Concentration and Safety BIBAKFull-Text 378-388
  Chao-Yang Yang; Yu-Ting Wu; Cheng-Tse Wu
This study evaluated the impact of multi-sensory information cues from on-bicycle rider information assistance devices (OBRAD) on hazard perception performance. Experiments tested the impact of distraction from different combinations of visual, auditory and tactile sensory aids on the subject's ability to maintain peddling frequency while conducting eight different tasks. The results indicate that the integrated use of different sensory cues (e.g., text, audible alerts and vibration) can decrease cognitive loading, with each sensory combination, particularly those involving tactile stimulation, having different levels of effect. Tactile sensory aids helped reduce the degree of rider distraction, thus helping maintain a high sensitivity to danger (hit rate mean: 0.34). Cycling performance was further improved through combining tactile stimuli with auditory cues for assistance in the secondary task. The implications of these findings and the need to integrate and manage complex OBRAD information systems are discussed.
Keywords: cycling performance; multi-sensory; hazard perception; cognitive loading

Design for Rural, Low Literacy and Developing Communities

Barriers and Reforms for Promoting ICTs in Rural Areas of Pakistan BIBAKFull-Text 391-399
  Aneela Abbas; Mubbashar Hussain; Muddesar Iqbal; Sidra Arshad; Saqib Rasool; Muhammad Shafiq; Wasif Ali; Nadeem Yaqub
Pakistan is a developing country and peoples of more than 50,000 areas, cover 64% of the whole population, belong to rural. ICTs are the essence of this modern age but unfortunately, the services of ICTs have failed to trickle down the rural masses of Pakistan. We believe that the inadequacy of infrastructure, i.e., behavioral, cultural and social barriers, is debarring ICTs to strengthen its roots in the rural areas. The most vital task is to wipe out this digital division to change the patterns of thoughts and behaviors of the masses of rural areas. In Pakistan many efforts are in the pipeline to reveal the concrete paybacks of ICTs for rural population. The need of the hour is to do so in a way that makes economic reimbursements. This paper deals with the potential barriers barring ICTs in far wide areas of the Pakistan, various fruitful steps taken by the Government of Pakistan to introduce ICT reforms, various policies framed for boosting ICTs and computer literacy in rural areas.
Keywords: Digital divide; IT infrastructure; ICT reforms; Computer literacy
Positive Technology and User Experience for Human Needs in Developing Countries: Some Considerations BIBAKFull-Text 400-410
  Nils Backhaus; Stefan Brandenburg; Anna Trapp
The present paper highlights the importance of positive technology, user experience, and needs fulfillment in developing countries. It proposes a theoretical framework that enables engineers and interaction designers to develop products that help users to fulfill their interaction needs in this special environment. Put in other words: the proposed environment-sensitive user-centered design framework elicits positive technology for users in developing countries. Adequate methods corresponding to this framework are summarized and effects of positive technology in developing countries are discussed.
Keywords: Rural areas; developing countries; user experience; human needs; socio-technical system approach; user-centered design
Transforming Data into Information Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 411-422
  María González de Cossío
The focus/perspective described in this paper relies on the different experiences visitors have through the interaction with an information space, in this case an exhibition on social mobility. Two levels of knowledge appropriation are described. First, the exhibition takes visitors from a general / local environment; to an individual space; to an intimate introspection life and planning; and finally, to the integration with others. Second, the exhibition provides valuable information to understand social and economic issues; invites visitors to identify and see themselves reflected on the information; creates the environment to share ideas with others and learn from success stories; and lastly, the exhibition presents examples that show that social mobility is easier when one works within a group. Information design is at the core of the exhibition and brings together verbal graphic language using a variety of means to convey the message of social mobility through education.
Keywords: Information; interaction; knowledge appropriation; graphs; rhetoric
Design for Rural Community Regarding Health BIBAKFull-Text 423-431
  Shahzaib Iftikhar; Umar Muzaffer; Abbas Illyas; Tayyab Asif Butt; Hassan Ejaz; Muhammad Faraz Khokhar
Pakistan is a developing country and it has lot of issues but health is its one of the leading issue because up to 67% of its population is currently in rural areas. Rural community of Pakistan is badly affected by this issue. Allocation and distribution of resources in the Pakistan is un equal because of this inequality, rural community suffers a lot regarding serious health issues and facing many dangerous diseases. Both developed and developing countries report geographically skewed distribution of healthcare professionals, favoring urban and wealthy areas, despite the fact that people in rural communities are experiencing many health related problems. To prevent from this big problem govt. should distribute the resources equally and provide the necessary staff and skilled professionals to rural community and introduce such a system which helps them to decrease the healthcare issues. We are going to propose a design for the rural community which helps them to facilitate with first aid in emergency problems and give them relief. It can help them in a cases like maternity etc.
Keywords: Facilities; Maternity; Resources; Health; Govt. Expenditures; Rural Areas; Pakistan; Problems
Content Management and User Interface for Uneducated People BIBAKFull-Text 432-441
  Zainab Mahmood; Syeda Sana Shahzadi; Sahar Tariq
This study will be conducted to propose such system that contains contents that meet capability and preference of Un-Educated user of rural community of Pakistan by making the websites more interactive and understandable for them. Visually with pictures, video or text, acoustically with sound or spoken Language considering regional languages (Voice Directions gives you turn by turn navigation instructions in voice), icons and menus. Our Proposed interface will robust the needs of Un-Educated people including information retrieval and learning. It will meet needs of illiterates and deal with the barriers they face in communicating to web. This work will help them to reduce their anxiety and fear of technology. The proposed prototype will support Un-Educated users through an interface that does not require reading skills to understand or use.
Keywords: Web Contents; Uneducated people; Text-Free Interface; Auditory Interface; Sensor Based Interface
Rural Area Development through Multi-interface Technology and Virtual Learning System BIBAKFull-Text 442-451
  Faizan ul Mustafa; Adeel Mushtaq; Shakra Mehak; Salman Akbar; Usman Ahmad; Sara Mobeen; Hassan Ejaz; Tayyab Asif Butt; Muhammad Faraz Khokhar
This paper presents the concept of multi interface technology based on psycho-logical factors of an individual that determine likes and dislikes of a person. According to this concept modern devices will be able to read an individual's likes dislikes and then automatically change their interface including color combination, language, design etc. based on a person's desire. In this paper e-learning concept is also introduced through which we can educate enough to understand a particular technology. After implementing this approach, we will be able to bring people close to the modern technology and can minimize the gap between technology and understanding of a common person living in a backward area.
Keywords: Multi interface; smart interface; interface that can automatically change; rural area development; human likes and dislikes and technology
Traffic Management in Rural Networks BIBAKFull-Text 452-461
  Rodrigo Emiliano; Fernando Silva; Luís Frazão; João Barroso; António Pereira
The internet is increasingly present in people's lives, being used in diverse tasks, such as checking e-mail up to online gaming and streaming. The so-called "killer applications" are applications that, when not properly identified and prevented, have more impact on the network, making it slow. When these applications are used on networks with limited resources, as happens in rural networks, they cause a large load on the network, making it difficult its use for work purposes. It is important then to recognize and characterize this traffic to take action so that it does not cause network problems. With that in mind, the work presented in this paper describes the research and identification of cost free traffic analysis solutions that can help to overcome such problems. For that, we perform preliminary testing and a performance comparison of those tools, focusing on testing particular types of network traffic. After that, we describe the analysis and subsequent modification of the source code for storing important traffic data for the tests, as well as the test scenarios in laboratory and real-life environments. These tasks are aimed on collecting information that assists in taking action to improve the allocation of network resources to priority traffic.
Keywords: Internet; Network Traffic; Rural Networks; Traffic Analysis; Deep Packet Inspection
Usability Guidelines for Designing Knowledge Base in Rural Areas BIBAKFull-Text 462-469
  Javed Anjum Sheikh; Hafsa Shareef Dar; Farzan Javed Sheikh
The paper discusses issues related to Design, User experience Usability involved in designing the interface to be used in rural areas. This study analyses the problems based on tests done on the interface in the villages of Punjab, Pakistan. Rural development is based on economic, social and human development. Whereas, Software Requirement Engineering focuses on how requirements can be gathered to achieve better end product. We aim to discuss software requirement gathering process in rural areas and attempting to elicit requirements from Pakistani rural woman. This could help us in bridging the technological gaps exist between rural and remote areas. Our aim is to find a solution for this barrier by designing software for rural woman of Pakistan. Further break down of our study is health issues with rural woman by adopting software requirement gathering on various e-health issues.
Keywords: software Requirement Gathering; Requirement Elicitation; Software Development Life Cycle; SDLC; Rural Development
The Contemporary Rural Landscape in the South-Western Region of Poland (Sudeten Region) -- A Search for Spatial Order BIBAKFull-Text 470-481
  Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska
Architecture of rural settlements situated in the south-western region of Poland is distinguished by its vernacular character -- the so-called "Sudeten architecture". Characteristic features of this architecture are visible in pre-war buildings of Sudeten villages both in two-story and single-story structures and include pitched gable roofs, a wooden residential section and a brick maintenance section. Another characteristic feature of Sudeten villages, also called "chain villages", is their homogenous layout, i.e. a detached but uniform arrangement of buildings. On the other hand, buildings which were erected in the southern part of the Lower Silesian province after 1945, which was a new economic and political situation, evolved away from the pre-war Sudeten vernacular architecture. With their randomly chosen architectural forms, flat roofs, concrete constructions, inappropriate colors and excessively dense arrangement, these new buildings introduced spatial chaos into the homogeneous structures of villages. Due to the landscape qualities of this region, it is important to establish precise rules for erecting new buildings in the existing context, and to popularize traditional architecture of the region (e.g. by organizing architectural contests for contemporary Sudeten buildings). Such projects could help residents to better understand the qualities of existing settlements and justify the requirement to follow rules when renovating and modernizing buildings. The purpose of these actions is to create new vernacular architecture for villages, which will both fulfill the requirements and needs of contemporary work and life, and also harmoniously complement the existing cultural and rural landscape.
Keywords: Corporate culture and/or country culture; rural landscape of Sudeten region
Mobile Money System Design for Illiterate Users in Rural Ethiopia BIBAKFull-Text 482-491
  Mesfin F. Woldmariam; Gheorghita Ghinea; Solomon Atnafu; Tor-Morten Grønli
Current mobile money systems provide users with hierarchical user interface and represent money as a positive rational numbers of the form 1, 3, 4.87...N. However, research indicates that rural communities that cannot read and write have a challenge entering such numbers in to mobile money system. Navigating through hierarchical text menu is also difficult to illiterate individuals. The present study uses concepts like memory placeholders, dragging & dropping; swiping, temporary holding space, and frequency counter and proposed a system that consists of three layers. The first layer denotes user interface and uses photos of currency notes, second layer is a placeholder memory that keep record of the frequency of currency bill, and the last layer keeps record of the total digital money in the system. We believe that the proposed system enables illiterate to identify currency notes while making payments and receiving payments, count digital money while making payments and or receiving payments during transaction.
Keywords: Color of money; mobile money systems; interface for Illiterate users; counting money

Design for Environment and Sustainability

Using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) in Understanding Current User-Support Scenario in the Climate Science Domain of Cyber-Infrastructures BIBAKFull-Text 495-506
  Hashim Iqbal Chunpir; Thomas Ludwig; Amgad Ali Badewi
Cyber-infrastructures have transformed the practice of research. Researchers can now access distributed data worldwide with the help of cyber-infrastructures. User support services play an important role to facilitate researchers to accomplish their research goals with the help of cyber-infrastructures. However, the current user-support practices in cyber-infrastructures are not properly organized (at least in climate cyber-infrastructures) thus over-burdening human support agents. The paper describes the study conducted to evaluate the geographically distributed user-support system currently in practice in the leading cyber-infrastructure namely Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). The members of the investigation team found out that the user-support in ESGF, a global climate cyber-infrastructure need more attention to make it resourceful as well as standardized. The findings about end-user support system were modelled using soft systems methodology (SSM). This approach helped to present the findings of this study to stakeholders in order to capture their feedback about the current system to further improve the system.
Keywords: Information visualization; e-Science; systems; research; user support; help desk; soft systems methodology; rich picture building
Improving Sustainability through Usability BIBAKFull-Text 507-519
  Vincent G. Duffy
This article proposes methodologies and applications for sustainability solutions through usability. Usability and sustainability are defined in the context of human factors and ergonomics. Economic, social and ecological considerations form the basis for the three leg platform for sustainable development. A return to fundamentals in human factors, ergonomics and industrial and operations engineering can provide insight into effective implementation of sustainability solutions. Principles such as learning curves and economies of scale are highlighted in the context of sustainable energy. It is also suggested that exposure-response curves can be derived using Bayesian networks, giving insight into potential causal effects in existing ecotoxicology data. Ergonomists have used these tools in the past to evaluate performance of other engineering implementations while toxicology can initially provide some common basis for the historical and modern view of ergonomics in the context of sustainability. Sustainability can benefit from such tools that can evaluate potential interventions under uncertainty. From other engineering literature it appears that technical solutions are already available to support sustainability, while the lag may be occurring in coordinating the social, organizational and cultural response. Lessons learned in human factors and ergonomics can support sustainability related interventions building on experience in human-system interface design and visualizations that have been an integral part of the digital human modeling community especially over the last two decades.
Keywords: Usability; Sustainability; Design; Visualizations; Digital Human Modeling; Green Chemistry; Risk Management; Health and Safety
Energy Graph Feedback: Attention, Cognition and Behavior Intentions BIBAKFull-Text 520-529
  June A. Flora; Banny Banerjee
Behavioral science has long acknowledged that informational and performance feedback is a key to behavior change. The graph features prominently as a feedback modality. Driven by the large scale deployment of energy sensing devices, graphs have become a ubiquitous visualization of household energy consumption. We investigate the influence of three energy graph formats (bar, line and radial) and two cue conditions (color or numeric cues) within four group conditions (cost or kilowatt hour subject matter with single graph or comparison graph feedback) on five outcomes. Ease of understanding, positive attitudes and involvement were higher for bar and line graphs. Novel graph formats -- the radial graph, were attended to longer and associated with more learning. There were no overall behavioral change intention effects by condition, although a few individual energy behavior intentions did differ by condition. The importance of multiple outcomes of graph feedback and the relationships among outcomes are discussed.
Keywords: Energy feedback; graph perception; graph comprehension; graph formats; graph content
User-Centred Design of an Audio Feedback System for Power Demand Management BIBAKFull-Text 530-541
  Rebecca Ford; Joe Penn; Yu-Chieh Liu; Ken Nixon; Willie Cronje; Malcolm McCulloch
Low-income houses in South Africa are supplied with a pre-payment meter and a circuit breaker that trips at a low power level (about 20A, 4.5kW), resulting in many nuisance trips. Four categories of audio cues, each being able to represent five levels of power consumption, are assessed. A survey of 62 people was conducted. The numerical analysis of the results and the perceptions of the respondents both indicate that the use of changing tempo and texture is the most effective at conveying feedback information on the power consumption in the home.
Keywords: audio cues; demand management; low cost; energy feedback
Personalized Energy Priorities: A User-Centric Application for Energy Advice BIBAKFull-Text 542-553
  Rebecca Ford; Ondrej Sumavsk; Auren Clarke; Paul Thorsnes
This research presents a new web-based application, called Personalised Energy Priorities (PEP), that provides households with personalised and tailored advice on practices or technologies they might adopt to improve the energy efficiency of their home. PEP proceeds in a manner similar to an online energy audit, but combines a user centric design approach with relatively new choice modelling software that allows recommendations to be tailored to individual preferences. The tool also provides links to further information about each energy recommendation, creating a more successful, one-stop-shop for persuasion.
Keywords: energy demand management; personalised advice; energy efficiency; choice modelling
Experiencing CSR in Asia: A Social Media Perspective from the Outside In BIBAKFull-Text 554-561
  Constance Kampf
This paper focuses on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as strongly linked to expectations for corporations in the cultural contexts in which they operate. Using an approach based in a macro-level for socio-technical design, it examines the interaction between digital activist efforts to (re)define CSR and corporate responses to these efforts. Two cases of interaction between stakeholders and corporations with activist interventions are examined. Findings demonstrate that this interaction around CSR is often indirect, and misses a critical interaction around contesting knowledge. This calls into question the viability of CSR practices mediated by policy and NGOs, because businesses appear to be simply adopting mediators' perspectives to avoid a crisis rather than building a strategy based on critical engagement with the issues.
Keywords: Socio-Technical Design; Culture; Knowledge
Pumping Up the Citizen Muscle Bootcamp: Improving User Experience in Online Learning BIBAKFull-Text 562-573
  Beth Karlin; Birgit Penzenstadler; Allison Cook
This paper introduces and presents preliminary findings from the Citizen Muscle Bootcamp (CMB), an online learning program designed by The Story of Stuff Project for environmental activism. We first introduce the program and its potential to leverage online learning for citizenship training. Next, we report findings from two pilot studies in which we identify strengths and weaknesses of the current user experience. Finally, we present a revised course design that integrates insights from the fields of HCI, psychology, and requirements engineering to improve participant engagement and retention. Suggestions focus on variables related to recruitment, topic, process, and completion to identify key leverage points for improving user experience. It is our hope that this partnership represents the potential of research to inform practice to support best practices in HCI for sustainability.
Keywords: sustainability; citizenship; online learning; user experience
Enhancement of Usability for Farmers: User Interface for Rural Community BIBAKFull-Text 574-582
  Muhammad Faraz Khokhar; Hassan Ejaz; Tayyab Asif Butt; Shahzaib Iftikhar; Umar Muzaffer; Abbas Illyas; Faizan ul Mustafa; Adeel Mushtaq; Usman Ahmad; Usman Asghar
This research covers how to empower or improve the role of technology and bridge rural digital divide via ICT solutions in the agriculture sector of rural belt of Pakistan and suggests some new ideas like interconnection of web communities with e-boards and mobile phones for sake of giving access to all latest agricultural updates and news. Farmers will be encouraged towards the use of technology for their betterment, ease and efficient output in simple way while using HCI techniques.
Keywords: Farmers; Rural area; Pakistan; E-board; Mobile Phones; linkage
User-Experience for Personal Sustainability Software: Applying Design Philosophy and Principles BIBAKFull-Text 583-593
  Aaron Marcus; Jennifer Dumpert; Laurie Wigham
Business developers worldwide seek to develop sustainability software with a user experience that provides usability, usefulness, and appeal. We describe using previously determined design principles on an application under development. The design and usability testing undertaken were intended to make a rewards program regarding sustainability more compelling and engaging. The approach sought to take advantage of people's interests, expertise, and experience with sustainability.
Keywords: business; design; development; enterprise software; management; rewards; sustainability; user experience; user interface
Energy Consumption Feedback: Engagement by Design BIBAKFull-Text 594-604
  Ruth Rettie; Kevin Burchell; Tim Harries
This paper reports two energy feedback studies and explores the role of design in increasing householder engagement with energy feedback. The paper discusses a range of design issues that arise when developing an energy feedback system. It argues 1) that it is important to provide feedback in terms of activities rather than energy units, which have little relevance to householders, and 2) that emphasising the avoidance of waste could help to make energy consumption visible and prompt changes in energy consuming behaviours.
Keywords: energy consumption feedback; social norms approach; feedback design; randomised control trial; community research
The Design and Evaluation of Intelligent Energy Dashboard for Sustainability in the Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 605-615
  Ray Yun; Azizan Aziz; Bertrand Lasternas; Chenlu Zhang; Vivian Loftness; Peter Scupelli; Yunjeong Mo; Jie Zhao; Nana Wilberforce
Office workers typically don't know how much energy they consume at work. Since the workers don't pay the energy bills, they tend to waste energy. To support energy conservation and motivate workers, the Intelligent Dashboard for Occupants (ID-O) was developed using multiple intervention strategies -- eco-feedback (self-monitoring, advice, and comparison), remote controls, and automated controls. The baseline data was collected for fourteen weeks from eighty office workers and ID-Os with different features were deployed for seven weeks. The results show that the group with all the features (eco-feedback, remote controls, automated controls) made the biggest energy savings at 35.4%, the group that had eco-feedback and the remote controls showed 20.2% energy savings, the feedback only group achieved 9% energy savings, and the last group (the control group) produced 3.6% energy savings. The automated control feature produced the biggest energy savings, and was most effective in energy management for lights and phones, but not for computers and monitors.
Keywords: energy dashboard; sustainability; workplace; behavior change; ecofeedback; remote and automated control; plug load management; organization
Investigating Sustainability Stages in the Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 616-627
  Ray Yun; Peter Scupelli; Azizan Aziz; Bertrand Lasternas; Vivian Loftness; Nana Wilberforce
Prior research on stage-based, behavior-change models investigated intervention effectiveness for stress management, smoking cessation, weight management, adherence to lipid-lowering drugs and the like. Few sustainability centered studies identify people's stage-based levels for energy use reduction or sustainability. In this paper, we investigate sustainability stages with measured behavior and eco-awareness scores based on Geller's behavior change model. Eighty office employees were assigned to one of four experimental energy dashboard conditions: (a) no energy dashboard; (b) feedback only; (c) feedback and manual on/off controls; and (d) feedback, manual on/off controls, and on/off calendaring. We measured with pre-post surveys change in sustainability levels, energy efficiency discussions frequency, and organizational efforts to understand the work environment. We found that the dashboard with feedback, controls, and on/off calendaring were significantly associated with reported greater energy saving behavior compared to no energy dashboards, and dashboards with fewer features (i.e., feedback only; feedback and on/off control).
Keywords: behavior change; stages; sustainability; energy dashboard; persuasive system; workplace; organization
Public Perception and Acceptance of Electric Vehicles: Exploring Users' Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks BIBAKFull-Text 628-639
  Martina Ziefle; Shirley Beul-Leusmann; Kai Kasugai; Maximilian Schwalm
In this research, we describe an empirical study, which aimed at identifying influencing factors on acceptance of electric vehicles. Understanding individual arguments and to reach a high usage rate of these vehicles in the public and a broad acceptance, the identification of possible pro-using motives as well as perceived drawbacks is essential, which would allow a sensitive and individually-tailored communication and information policy. Using an exploratory approach, a questionnaire study was carried out in which participants were requested to indicate the level of acceptance and the intention to use electric cars. The questionnaire items were taken from several focus groups, which had been carried out prior to the questionnaire study. Outcomes show that the traditional car is perceived still as much more comfortable, and receives a high trustfulness in comparison to electric cars. In addition, user diversity in terms of age and gender was found to considerably the perceived benefits and barriers. Female users but also aged persons show a higher level of acceptance, which might be due to their higher environmental consciousness in contrast to male persons and younger participants. Interestingly, the self-reported level of domain knowledge (significantly higher in men) did not show a large influence on the level of acceptance.
Keywords: Electro-Mobility; electric vehicles; technology acceptance; user diversity; adoption behavior of novel technologies

Design for Human-Computer Symbiosis

FX e-Makeup for Muscle Based Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 643-652
  Katia Vega; Abel Arrieta; Felipe Esteves; Hugo Fuks
Our aim with Beauty Technology is to transform our body in an interactive platform by hiding technology into beauty products for creating muscle based interfaces that don't give the wearer a cyborg look. FX e-makeup is a Beauty Technology prototype that applies FX makeup materials embedded with electronics for sensing the face's muscles. This work presents Winkymote and Kinisi as proof of concept of the FX e-makeup.
Keywords: Wearable Computers; Beauty Technology; Electronic Makeup; Muscle Based Interface
The HARSim Application to the Task of Carrying School Supplies BIBAKFull-Text 653-661
  Ricardo Dagge; Ernesto Filgueiras
This paper presents the use of a software called Humanoid Articulation Reaction Simulation (HARSim) to a field study with the intended purpose of understanding which is the approximate intensity of the loads applied to the spine of children attending middle school while carrying their school supplies on their way to and from school, using a common backpack. HARSim proved to be an efficient and effective way of further understanding this task. Its results allowed to demonstrate that in most of the cases of forces applied to the spine of the simulated models, the use of both carrying handles, that compose the common backpack, proved to be better than the use of only one of these handles. Furthermore it was found that scientific software allows designers and development teams to create more efficient, safe and effective products ultimately resulting in better ergo design ones, allowing them to change some paradigms that surrounds product design discipline.
Keywords: Humanoid simulation; Backpack and back pain; Product design; User behaviors; Spine efforts
Human-Bed Interaction: A Methodology and Tool to Measure Postural Behavior during Sleep of the Air Force Military BIBAKFull-Text 662-674
  Gustavo Desouzart; Ernesto Filgueiras; Filipe Melo; Rui Matos
The behavioral and postural habits and sleep rhythm of air force military change depending on the specialty work at the airbase or other types of events but we did not find anything in the literature to analyze and evaluate this behavior through sleep disorders. Perhaps this is related to the fact that the evaluation of this behavior is complex and the observation of these postural behaviors in the environmental context is needed. However the observation methodology based on ISEE software [9] allows the classification and registration of postural behaviors for long periods of time and can be applied in this context. This paper presents a study whose objective was to research the human interaction with postural behaviors during sleep in the residences' bedrooms of male air force military during the periods in which the subjects were asleep, awake, out of bed, doing activities, using a pillow in different time periods and with ecological validation with observation method and Visual Analogical Scale (VAS). A sample of 8666 observations, which corresponds to 240 sleep-hours of 12 air force military, was classified into six (6) Interaction Categories (IC). The results show that 50,2% of the participants presented the Lateral position (25,38% on the left and 24,86% on the right) as the most common postural behavior during sleep and 94,1% used only one pillow under their head. In the IC's, the most common interactions were sleep period using the pillow with 66,47%, followed by category Out of bed with 25,32% and followed the category the activities and using the pillow with 6,95%. Findings of this study allow suggesting what graphical interface designers must seek as new strategies and solutions for behavior change in posture in bed, exploring other peripheral equipment for sleep position; or, at least, to improve the posture of the participants when using the number and the placement of the pillow in bed and if these Ergonomic changes can influence the reduction in back pain indications.
Keywords: sleeping position; air force military product interaction; health care professionals procedures; back pain; ISEE
A Vibrant Evolution: From Wearable Devices to Objects as Mediators of Experience BIBAKFull-Text 675-686
  Patricia J. Flanagan
This article envisages objects and materials in terms of actants (entities that have the ability to modify other entities). Things are temporary assemblages of vibrant matter in emergent systems. In the context of human computer interaction, a flat ontology enables a discussion of 'counter-consciousness' where a traditional interface 'user' is better described as a 'co-producer' and, further, materials and objects are crafted with an appreciation of their life beyond the conscious realm of the human perspective. Proposing tactics that engage with physical and electronic realms, this article promulgates vibrant matter as artistic media to sculpt creative experiences. We are glimpsing the periphery of a paradigm shift in our understanding of the world, in ways that are no longer static but dynamic, where change is ubiquitous but never predetermined. Wearable tangible interfaces are central to the shift that will profoundly affect the way we interact in societies of the future.
Keywords: Wearables; Haptic interface; Object; Onticology; Art; Design; Vibrant matter; Flat ontology; Actants; Reciprocity; Feedback loops; Entropy; Reverse predictive practices; Blinklifier; Snoothood; Wearables Lab; Systems thinking; Embodied knowledge; Human technogenesis; Critical design
Extended Senses in Responsive Environments BIBAKFull-Text 687-698
  Christiane Heibach; Andreas Simon; Jan-Lewe Torpus
Mobile, networked, multi-sensory systems and technologies with open and modular interfaces are about to change our established concept of technical extensions for humans. It will not be on the level of prosthesis or implants that humans are connected with machines, but rather on the level of wearable sensors and intelligent environments, which make interfaces disappear and allow "unmediated" contact between the human user and the technological systems. Departing from a notion of holistic bodily experience and media developed in current phenomenological approaches [1-3], we want to examine the affective human perception in a mediated responsive environment. By this, we aim to explore the connecting area between the human body and a sensitive environment that feels like it connects to the body as a "second skin".
Keywords: Extended Human Senses; Embodied Interaction; Responsive / Sensitive Environment; Holistic Experience; Atmosphere; Affective Computing; Media Art; Artistic/Design Research; Adaptive Architecture
Ultralight Backpack System for Heavy Loaded Users BIBAKFull-Text 699-709
  Michal Pelczarski
It is known that because of the vertical position of the human body, there are few serious imperfections in the human musculoskeletal structure. These critical defects, results in the uncomfortableness of heavy loaded backpack users. Proposed in the article system, can greatly reduce that imperfections. That can be done, by considering the right "flow of forces", "running" through the ultralight structure, supporting the safe way of transmission of the loadings through the body. The ultralight exoskeleton walking system combines of two subsystems: pneumatic cushion system, and attached, to the backpack ultralight structural system. Pneumatic one, saves the human spine structures and the second one gives the right way of force transmission. Both systems, are made, to reduce the muscles fatigue, and the uncomfortableness during long the loading periods.
Keywords: backpack; heavy loadings; spine; flow of forces; musculoskeletal disorders; musculoskeletal strain reduce
Human Interactive Wearable Devices: Applications of Artificial Electronic Skins and Smart Bandages BIBAKFull-Text 710-718
  Kuniharu Takei
Wearable devices have high potentials for a wide range of applications for future electronics. One of the possible applications is human interactive devices for health monitoring system. In this study, we present high performance flexible and stretchable devices for artificial electronic skins and health monitoring system utilizing inorganic nanomaterial films patterned by printing methods as a proof of concepts. Inorganic-based flexible devices realize a low voltage operation <5 V compared to other flexible devices using organic materials. Mechanical flexibility and stretchability are experimentally characterized, and different types of applications are demonstrated. This inorganic-based printing method may lead the field in high performance flexible electronics and open new fields in human interactive wearable devices.
Keywords: electronic skin; smart bandage; interactive device; nanomaterials
Aesthetically Enhanced RFID Inkjet Antenna Logos on Skin (AERIALS) BIBAKFull-Text 719-730
  James Tribe; Will Whittow; John Batchelor
This paper will present antenna designs for RFID tags which can be tattooed directly onto the skin's surface. The antennas presented will be functional wearable technology with aesthetic principles which will contribute to the emerging area of Beauty Technology. These tags are suitable for the monitoring of people for a wide variety of applications. The antennas with an equivalent impedance of an RFID chip are simulated on a layered human body cubic model. Results indicated that the slot determined the operational frequency (915MHz) while the shape had only a secondary effect on the performance of the antenna. This paper shows that any shape could function as an RFID tag.
Keywords: aesthetic design; body centric communication; conducting ink; RFID
ReFlexLab: Designing Transitive Wearable Technologies towards Poetic Aesthetics BIBAKFull-Text 731-738
  Clemens Winkler; Soomi Park
This paper investigates new ways of expressing emotions and desires through adaptable and wearable devices. Therefore a conceptual framework is being developed to clarify questions on new upcoming interfaces and their relation to body expression. What kind of aesthetic practices do we have for novel wearable interfaces to guide social interactions? The platform ReFlexLab is proposed, being situated in the academic and market research field, to design wearable interfaces that are changing in response to gestures, both affecting our physical and intellectual selves. Focusing on combining human expressions and emotional design with the responsiveness of new material and computational technologies, this research aims to bring up a new understanding for wearable technologies. These investigations will push novel ways to further express the complex methods of communication -- methods that linger behind every bodily expression.
Keywords: Smart Material Interface; Body Interface; Transitive Materials; Transient Electronics; Adaptive Environments; Ubiquitous Computing; Clothing Physiology; Information Experience; Ecological and Environmental Concerns; Emotional Design