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DUXU Tables of Contents: 11-111-213-113-213-313-414-114-214-314-415-115-215-3

DUXU 2014: Third International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part I: Theories, Methods, and Tools for Designing the User Experience

Fullname:DUXU 2014: Third International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, Part I: Theories, Methods, and Tools for Designing the User Experience
Note:Volume 8 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Aaron Marcus
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8517
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07668-3 hcibib: DUXU14-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-07667-6 (print), 978-3-319-07668-3 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DUXU 2014-06-22 Volume 1
    1. Design Theories, Methods and Tools
    2. User Experience Evaluation
    3. Heuristic Evaluation
    4. Media and Design
    5. Design and Creativity

DUXU 2014-06-22 Volume 1

Design Theories, Methods and Tools

Experience Report: The Effectiveness of Paper Prototyping for Interactive Visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Bastian Bansemir; Franziska Hannß; Berit Lochner; Jan Wojdziak; Rainer Groh
This article describes the designing process of an interactive visualization at BMW. Paper prototyping is introduced as a part of the user-centered-design process and put into practice as a novel method for software development. During the development process paper prototypes have been used as a tool for communicating and testing within the interdisciplinary team of operational experts, visualization experts, designers and software developers. In conclusion the integration of paper prototyping benefits the design process positively. The interactive visualization meets the expectations of the user.
Keywords: paper prototyping; design research; interaction design; interface design; software development; interactive systems
A Review of Empirical Intercultural Usability Studies BIBAFull-Text 14-24
  Victoria Böhm; Christian Wolff
In this paper, we discuss the applicability of usability engineering methods to software engineering projects in intercultural contexts. We have conducted a review of 55 empirical studies from the field of intercultural usability engineering. Categories from ISO TR 16982 were used as a classification framework.
Towards a Vocabulary of Prototypes in Interaction Design -- A Criticism of Current Practice BIBAKFull-Text 25-32
  Arne Berger; Michael Heidt; Maximilian Eibl
A methodological framework and a constructivist meta theory for formulating a vocabulary of prototype characteristics in interaction design are presented. Motivation for this research approach is drawn from cognitive psychology which hypothesizes that the aesthetic cognition of artifacts lies outside the scope of verbal appreciation. First, the shortcomings of the related design research literature are discussed in an attempt to frame a suitable methodology for overcoming these issues. It is also shown how the analysis of existing literature, protocols and observations will fit into this research scheme. Second, an accompanying meta theory building on Latours [15, 16] account of artifact-subject relations within the actor network theory, is described.
Keywords: aesthetic cognition; ANT; design theory; prototypes; methodology
Agile Usability Patterns for UCD Early Stages BIBAKFull-Text 33-44
  Ana Paula O. Bertholdo; Tiago Silva da Silva; Claudia de O. Melo; Fabio Kon; Milene Selbach Silveira
The integration between agile methods and UCD has been addressed by several authors in recent years. However, a gap remains regarding how the practices have been described, lacking a standard that both designers and agile practitioners can understand and apply.
   This study aims to propose agile usability patterns based on the literature, with a focus on the User-Centered Design early stages. The goal of the proposed patterns is to facilitate the use of the best agile usability practices by identifying more clearly in which context the pattern can be applied, and what is the problem that each pattern solves, presenting examples.
Keywords: agile usability; agile UCD; agile UX; best practices; patterns
Ideologies in HCI: A Semiotic Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 45-54
  Jan Brejcha
The user-interface (UI) of interactive systems is the meeting point of people with interactive communication technology (ICT). As a human product, it forms a part of culture that determines us, often without our full awareness. The values and goals of the designers are implicitly encoded in the interface and the documentation but can be in conflict with the values of the user. This is when both the intentional and unintentional manipulation with the user starts because he or she is presented with inappropriate choices or even inappropriate goals. The aim of this article is to show how this manipulation works, in which regards it is unavoidable and how can we deal with it. Ideologies are a special means of manipulation and we can counter them by suitable education and analysis.
Keywords: User-interface; ideology; values; ethics; manipulation; persuasion; rhetorics; culture
The Language Game BIBAKFull-Text 55-63
  Roman Danylak; Kyeong Kang
With rise of the computer since the 1950's there has been a constant evolution for ways to further enable calculating capacities. It is ironic, that a machine derived with such thoughtful and sophisticated process mathematically, has found a key and increasingly dominant expression in games, which has a reputation for a lack of seriousness. Games continue to rise as a very popular form of interaction. The paper examines the notion of language as a game to partly explain the phenomenon. The paper reflects upon the philosophical writings of Wittgenstein who proposed that language is a game. In addition semiotic analysis, a linguistic meta-tool, will be applied to a game with the aim of shedding light on the usefulness of semiotics in user interaction design.
Keywords: Semiotics: Sign/symbol/icon design and DUXU; Games; Philosophy
On the Idea of Design: Analyzing the Ideal Form of Cars BIBAKFull-Text 64-73
  Arash Faroughi; Semir Maslo
This paper calls the Renaissance the 'Golden Age of Design' due to the high meaning of the original design theory. It seeks to answer the question what was the 'Idea' behind 'Disegno'. To achieve this, we analyze different books of the Classical Antiquity and the Renaissance that were mainly important for its invention. Then, the paper will introduce an investigation concept, which takes the peculiarities of the original design into account. Finally, parts of the proposed concept will be tested by analyzing the ideal form of cars.
Keywords: Disegno; Design theory; Renaissance; Design philosophy; Platonic Idea; car; automobile
M4REMAIP: Method for Requirements Elicitation Based on Mobile Applications under an Interaction Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 74-85
  Sarah Gomes Sakamoto; Leonardo Cunha de Miranda
In recent years mobile usage has increased remarkably, attracting new adopters. Mobile applications, or mobile apps, have become essential tools for daily tasks, enhancing productivity, communication and entertainment. Nowadays, there is a great demand for updated software in order to meet customer expectations. Interaction aspects and aesthetic characteristics stand out as an important differential, which must guide the product development process. Therefore, it is necessary to elicit functional requirements based on existing products, which are available in repositories, i.e. mobile app stores. We present M4REMAIP, a method for requirements elicitation based on mobile applications under an interaction perspective, as well as results of this method's application in order to demonstrate its practical usefulness for requirements elicitation in the context of home control applications.
Keywords: apps; requirements engineering; mobile interface; home control; home automation; smart home
A Mixed-Method Approach for In-Depth Contextual User Research BIBAKFull-Text 86-95
  Walkyria Goode; Caroline Little; Andrew Schall; Renae Geraci; Vanessa Brown
Successful design requires an in-depth understanding of user behavior. The paper will describe how we applied a mixed-method research approach, which combines a traditional contextual inquiry with a modified diary study, in three different studies. The proposed methodology permits the inclusion of more participants in a larger geographical area, maximizing research resources, and the collection of longitudinal data. A summary of lessons learned from the new hybrid method will be presented.
Keywords: contextual inquiry; diary study; design research; HCI
Reframing Design under Technical Conditions BIBAKFull-Text 96-103
  Moritz Greiner-Petter; Claudia Mareis
In recent years concepts and approaches of scientific epistemology and sociology of science have been applied to the field of design and thereby considerably exposed the epistemological qualities and socio-material configurations in the practice of designing. However, technical paradigms and characteristics of design practice as a specific form of technical activity have been slightly neglected. In considering positions from the philosophy and sociology of technology as well as media theory, we attempt to resume promising approaches that move in this direction and indicate what the implications of such approaches might be for creative practices. By elaborating these aspects, we aim to reframe contemporary design cultures and practices within technical conditions.
Keywords: Design Theory; Design Philosophy; Epistemology; Technical Cultures in Design; Science and Technology Studies (STS); Tools; Software
Developing UX for Collaborative Mobile Prototyping BIBAKFull-Text 104-114
  Isabella Hastreiter; Sascha Krause; Tim Schneidermeier; Christian Wolff
Prototyping is an essential part of the user-centered design process (UCD). Since the emergence of touch-based mobile devices in recent years, a broad range of efforts has been taken to adapt professional prototyping tools to the mobile context. However, none of the existing mobile prototyping solutions adapts sufficiently to the needs of multidisciplinary teams or considers the experience of the users' working environments explicitly. Our goal was to develop a mobile prototyping tool that supports the users in their tasks with special attention to the context of use. We especially considered the holistic experience relating all tasks of the human-centered design process. Our approach of requirements engineering focused on UX methods to get a deep insight not only on pragmatic features but also emotional demands (i.e. hedonic qualities). Therefore we tried to strengthen the hedonic qualities to support action mode usage for leveraging creative potentials. We'd like to reveal whether and to what extent a detailed look on UX can ensure the working progress efficiency and motivation of a multidisciplinary software engineering team practicing agile methods. We will illustrate this by presenting the development process of our mobile prototyping tool Prime, especially concerning new perspectives of a design process that focuses on hedonic parameters.
Keywords: user experience; user centered design; prototyping tools; mobile applications; hedonic quality; joy of use; holistic experience
Deconstructivist Design within HCI BIBAKFull-Text 115-122
  Michael Heidt; Andreas Bischof; Paul Rosenthal
Every HCI artefact reproduces a specific stance towards its users. Influential within the academic sphere is the notion of a User-Centered-Design process. However, observing actual design practice renders the assumption of the centrality of users problematic. To this end, the text conducts an exploration of the relationship between discourse within the fields of HCI and architecture. A special focus are the formal expressions of deconstructivism within architecture and their potential counterparts within HCI design.
Keywords: deconstruction; interdisciplinarity; cultural informatics; critical technical practice
Using Agile Methods in Intercultural HCI Design Projects BIBAKFull-Text 123-129
  Rüdiger Heimgärtner; Alkesh Solanki
In this paper, examples from intercultural HCI design projects are presented and analyzed with regard to applying agile methods to expedite the HCI design process while reducing resources. First, the products and the processes are considered with regard to culture. Then, the reasons of paradigm-shift from Waterfall/V-model to the application of agile methods are put forward. At same time, the benefits of using agile methods (SCRUM) in the user-centered design process are identified.
Keywords: Agile; SCRUM; User-Centered Design; ISO 9241-210; Culture; HCI; Approach; Process; Structure; V model; Waterfall model; Product; Cultural Dimension; HCI Dimension; HCI Style; Intercultural; Intercultural User Interface Design; Standard; Usability Engineering; Intercultural Usability Engineering
Revisiting Graspable User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 130-141
  Mandy Keck; Esther Lapczyna; Rainer Groh
The use of metaphors can support the understanding of novel interfaces approaches and increase the ease of use. But the design of novel holistic and adaptable metaphors is still challenging for interface designers. While most literature provides no systematic instruction for metaphor design or recommend to use a repertoire of known metaphors, we present a method that focuses on the generation of new metaphors based on the analysis and abstraction of everyday objects and the separate analysis of the given problem domain. Several methods of the field of human-computer interaction and traditional design support these analyzes. The methods presented in this paper are suitable especially for graspable user interfaces and illustrated by examples from several workshops.
Keywords: Metaphor design; Interface design method; Rapid prototyping; Operation metaphor; Graspable User Interfaces
Tracing Design Work through Contextual Activity Sampling BIBAKFull-Text 142-152
  Tarja-Kaarina Laamanen; Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen; Kai Hakkarainen
The present study investigated professional designers' practices in context, the role of their design tools and materials, the organization of their daily work and social connections related to their ongoing design projects. We examined the feasibility of using contextual event sampling as a method of studying professional design practices; this method involves repeated sampling of design events and actions in their social and cultural context. The data were collected electronically with Contextual Activity Sampling System (CASS), the rationale and usage of which are described in detail. The data analysis provided a view of the basic features of designers' work; their activity, social interaction, and changes in location as well as the emotional dimensions of their experiences. Results indicated that designers' work was multilayered, but they were not disturbed by the fluid and varying nature of the work and found satisfaction in it. We found the CASS- technology suitable for design research as it captures multimodal data and is applicable to variety of design interests and fields. Methodological implications regarding the contextual study of design practices and ideas of the tool development are discussed.
Keywords: design; event sampling; design practice
Techno-Theoretical Paradigm: Performance, Fashion and Wearables BIBAKFull-Text 153-162
  Valérie Lamontagne
This paper seeks to formulate a theoretical ground from which to analyze wearables as performative. My aim is to argue that wearables are theoretically (and practically) situated somewhere between the performance art costume and that of the fashion garment.
Keywords: Wearables; performance; laboratory culture; design; embodiment; interface culture; textiles; prototyping
A User Experience Design Toolkit BIBAKFull-Text 163-172
  Ioanna Michailidou; Constantin von Saucken; Simon Kremer; Udo Lindemann
User experience design (UXD) is a user-centered and interdisciplinary process, throughout which designers need applicable and feasible methods, tools and criteria. Still only few methods and tools supporting designers in understanding, creating and evaluating user experience systematically are to be found. This paper aims at creating a framework of selected methods, which support designers, even non-UXD-experts, in these activities. The methods come from the fields of product development-engineering, industrial design and interface design and have been applied and adapted in a research project with collaboration with industry. With reference to current state of the art, the methods applied are reviewed and extended with recommendations identified by the researchers. The recommendations should support UXD-practitioners in selecting appropriate, usable and applicable methods, which are most likely to result in positive user experience.
Keywords: DUXU methods and tools; Management of DUXU processes; Story telling
How Two become One -- Creating Synergy Effects by Applying the Joint Interview Method to Design Wearable Technology BIBAKFull-Text 173-184
  Ulrike Schmuntzsch; Lea H. Feldhaus
This paper addresses the design of wearable technology and its user acceptance by applying the Joint Interview Method. In order to further develop a wearable warning system in form of a glove, five semi-structured joint interviews were held by a trained human factors specialist. Each joint interview consisted of one respondent with an engineering background and one respondent with a psychological or cognitive-science background. In this process, the Joint Interview Method revealed two advantages: First, the interviews benefited from the discussion between both participants and, second, it enabled an observation from two different perspectives (i.e. one implementation-oriented view, which focused on the technological capabilities and the other user-oriented view, which focused on human perception and information processing). Both aspects mentioned led to synergy effects. To sum up, the Joint Interview Method turned out to be a promising usability approach to explore new technologies' potential and user acceptance and therefore, can be recommended for its use in the process of designing and evaluating wearables.
Keywords: dyadic interview; two-person-interview; user-centered design; user acceptance; smart clothing; wearable warning system; industrial maintenance
In-Depth Analysis of Non-deterministic Aspects of Human-Machine Interaction and Update of Dedicated Functional Mock-Ups BIBAKFull-Text 185-196
  Stefano Filippi; Daniela Barattin
Increasing product complexity makes usability matters more and more important to account for in product development processes. For this reason, tools to design and evaluate interaction are studied and developed day by day. Unfortunately, user non-determinism is difficult to manage. When problems occur during interaction, users can react in several, different ways, depending from their behavioral characteristics. The research described in this paper analyzes non-determinism in depth, characterize situations where it can raise and exploits an existing tool to model and manage it as best as possible.
Keywords: Human-machine interaction; Simulation of non-determinism; Functional mock-up
Grammatical Analysis of User Interface Events for Task Identification BIBAKFull-Text 197-205
  Yonglei Tao
Modern window-based applications are event-driven. User interface events carry valuable information about user behavior and are considered as an important source of data for usability evaluation. Aspect-oriented techniques provide an effective way to capture user interface events. However, it is insufficient to analyze event traces based on the information carried within events themselves. We describe a grammatical approach to analyzing event traces and identifying user tasks in the context of a task model. We also describe a proof-of-concept experiment to demonstrate its feasibility. Our approach paves the way for automatic support for task identification and therefore is beneficial to user interface evaluation that relies on task-based usability data.
Keywords: Automatic Support for Usability Evaluation; Analysis of User Interface Events; Aspect-Oriented Programming
Model-Based User Interface Development for Adaptive Self-Service Systems BIBAKFull-Text 206-213
  Enes Yigitbas; Holger Fischer; Stefan Sauer
Self-service systems are complex technical systems and provide products and services for the end user. Due to heterogeneity of the users of such systems the usability of the user interfaces is of great importance. The user interfaces have to be adapted or adapt itself to the various skills and preferences of the users. Due to the monolithic system architecture of existing self-service systems, a simple and flexible usage of the user interface is often restricted. The development of adaptive user interfaces involves challenges for developers that are addressed partially by frameworks like the CAMELEON Reference Framework (CRF). However, no concrete approaches to support the development of flexible and adaptive user interfaces for distributed self-service systems exist in industry. In this paper we describe an integrated model-based approach for the development of adaptive user interfaces.
Keywords: Model-Driven Software Development; User Interface; Usability; Models; Self-Adaptiveness; Self-Service Systems; Model-Based User Interface Development

User Experience Evaluation

Usability Evaluation of Mobile Passenger Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 217-228
  Shirley Beul-Leusmann; Christian Samsel; Maximilian Wiederhold; Karl-Heinz Krempels; Eva-Maria Jakobs; Martina Ziefle
Public transportation becomes increasingly diverse because of innovation in transport modalities and a large number of service providers. For facilitating passengers' comfort, intermodal passenger information systems are required, which combine data of different providers and transport modes. Therefore, context sensitive mobile applications are promising solutions to supporting passengers at every stage of their trip. Crucial for the success of these applications is their usability. In this paper, a prototype of an intermodal passenger information system is investigated in a usability evaluation and tested in comparison to the leading mobility application in Germany. Both iOS apps were evaluated with a questionnaire using the system usability scale (SUS) in a lab setting (n=20) and in a field test (n=20). Additionally, participants of the field test were interviewed retrospectively about app and setting. The user feedback was beneficial in learning about users' expectations towards information retrieval procedure in and functionalities of a passenger information system. The usability evaluation basically revealed easy to improve usability problems, but also a trust issue and the need for a participatory component in public transportation, probably by integrating social media.
Keywords: mobile applications; smartphone app; travel information; passenger information system; usability; evaluation methods
SCENE: A Structured Means for Creating and Evaluating Behavioral Nudges in a Cyber Security Environment BIBAKFull-Text 229-239
  Lynne Coventry; Pam Briggs; Debora Jeske; Aad van Moorsel
Behavior-change interventions are common in some areas of human-computer interaction, but rare in the domain of cybersecurity. This paper introduces a structured approach to working with organisations in order to develop such behavioral interventions or 'nudges'. This approach uses elements of co-creation together with a set of prompts from the behavior change literature (MINDSPACE) that allows researchers and organisational stakeholders to work together to identify a set of nudges that might promote best behavioral practice. We describe the structured approach or framework, which we call SCENE, and follow this description with a worked example of how the approach has been utilised effectively in the development of a nudge to mitigate insecure behaviors around selection of wireless networks.
Keywords: stakeholder involvement; user-centred design; user experience; management of design; methodology; MINDSPACE framework; decision-making; nudging
Attempts to Quantitative Analyze for the Change of Human Brain Activity with Physical and Psychological Load BIBAKFull-Text 240-249
  Hiroaki Inoue; Shunji Shimizu; Hiroyuki Nara; Takeshi Tsuruga; Fumikazu Miwakeichi; Nobuhide Hirai; Senichiro Kikuchi; Eiju Watanabe; Satoshi Kato
Recently, Japan (also world-wide countries) has become aged society, and a wide variety welfare device and system have been developed. Various companies are trying to enter the welfare device and system. Successful cases of the attempt are rare. There are several problems. For example, it is difficult to sell to the user because it does not known the effect. Thus, the direction of development is hard to determined. Because there is no evaluation method is the main cause of those. Evaluation of welfare system and device are limited only stability, intensity and partial operability. So, evaluation of usefulness is insufficient. Therefore, we will attempt to establish the standard to evaluate usefulness for objectively and quantitatively on the basis of including non-verbal cognition. In this paper, we measure load of sitting and standing movement to use Electoromyogram (EMG) and 3D Motion Capture and set a goal to establish objective evaluation method. We think that establishing objective evaluation method is necessity to develop useful welfare device. We examined possibility of assessing load and fatigue from measuring brain activity to use Near Infra-Red Spectroscopy (NIRS). The idea of universal design is widespread in welfare device and system. Measuring requires verification of all generations. But, we performed to measure younger subjects as a first step. We think that younger subjects were observed the significant difference, because they had enough physical function. Considering younger subjects as a benchmark is appropriate for creating evaluation method.
Keywords: Evaluation; Movement; Exercise; 3D Motion Capture; NIRS; EMG; Care; Welfare Technology; Usefulwelfare device evaluation; Evaluation method
Measuring Confidence in Internet Use: The Development of an Internet Self-efficacy Scale BIBAKFull-Text 250-260
  Mary Joyce; Jurek Kirakowski
With the Internet distinguished across so many environments today, the need to measure how individuals relate to the Internet has become an extremely important aspect of Human-Computer Interaction research. However, the measurement of users' confidence with using the Internet is a poorly researched topic. This concept of confidence with using the Internet is known as Internet self-efficacy, described as a person's belief in their personal capabilities to achieve specific goals with the Internet [1]. Only a small number of studies [2, 3] have actually attempted to measure Internet self-efficacy through the use of psychometric scales. Regrettably, these attempts have produced unsatisfactory means of measuring Internet self-efficacy. Such issues include the failure to follow methodologies for the measurement of self-efficacy, wording of statements representing constructs other than Internet self-efficacy, and references to computer rather than Internet related tasks. One of the aims of this research was to develop a statistically reliable scale which measures Internet self-efficacy. This paper focuses on outlining the development of the Internet Self-Efficacy Scale.
Keywords: Internet; Self-Efficacy; Measurement; Scale Development; Validity; Gender differences; Age factors
Customer Journey Mapping of an Experience-Centric Service by Mobile Self-reporting: Testing the Qualiwall Tool BIBAKFull-Text 261-272
  Inka Kojo; Mikko Heiskala; Juho-Pekka Virtanen
A focus on the user experience and user-centric perspective are considered to be essential in today's product and service development processes. Technological advancements during the last two decades have made user studies based on digital, mobile self-reporting possible. The goal of this study is to report on our experiences using a mobile self-reporting tool called Qualiwall for the customer journey mapping of an experience-centric service. The results indicate that the Qualiwall tool is especially suitable for mapping the customer experiences because it enables the collection of rich, real-time and in-situ data; however, it also possesses certain disadvantages. To arrive at more general conclusions, future research will focus on piloting the Qualiwall tool in other service-related user research situations as well.
Keywords: Service experience; customer journey mapping; mobile self-reporting
Evaluation of Tablet PC Application Interfaces with Low Vision Users: Focusing on Usability BIBAKFull-Text 273-284
  Cínthia Costa Kulpa; Fernando Gonçalves Amaral
This article described the results of a qualitative research by analyzing a focus group, on the accessibility of Tablet PC application interfaces regarding the digital inclusion of low vision users, which brought evidence of the need for studies on how those users view, recognize and interpret the information presented by this new technology, with the purpose of making it possible to provide better usability of those interfaces. For such, it presents the themes involved such as: mobile technologies, low vision disability and accessibility, leading on to discussions on the digital inclusion of those users.
Keywords: Tablet PC; low vision; accessibility; usability
Relationship between Elements of the Usability and Emotions Reported after Use: A Mexican Case BIBAKFull-Text 285-295
  Irma Cecilia Landa Ávila; Lilia Roselia Prado León
This paper presents the study of Mexican users of design software to find out if there is any relationship between any of the elements of usability and emotions reported after using said product.
   A usability test was conducted with inexperienced users who had to perform three tasks in sequential order, under a spoken protocol. After each task, participants responded to the SMEQ mental effort questionnaires, the ASQ satisfaction questionnaire and used the PrEMO tool to report their emotions and feelings while using the software. Subsequently, video recordings of the tests were reviewed to find the level and quality of completed tasks and the number of errors.
   We found that there is a relationship between some of the usability metrics and the emotions of the users, which is manifested more significantly between subjective usability metrics. The perception of the perceived mental effort turned out to be the element with the biggest relationship to the reporting of emotions, however, this relationship appears to affect both positive and negative emotions and some assumptions point to factors such as the sudden increase in the complexity of a task, which increases the force with which negative emotions are reported.
Keywords: Web Usability; User's Emotions; Mexican Usability Test; Software Design
Experimental Research in Applying Generative Design and 3D Printers in User Participating Design BIBAKFull-Text 296-307
  Lin-Chien James Lee; Ming-Huang Lin
This research applied an open structure of generative design in order to provide parametric sliders for users to adjust a digital model under the designer's plan. Moreover, the design outcome can be printed immediately using 3D printing technology, to experiment with users' preferences and see the effects of generative design in modifying pattern, regular/irregular and detail transformations on a product. Three types of feature modification on i-phone4 case were chosen as simulations by 3 design experts. Five experienced and five young designers were asked to manipulate a digital generative design model as they want. Then 2D rendering images and 3D printed mockups were presented for subjects to compare with their original design. The result demonstrated that experienced and young designers both can recognized their work in 3D print mockups. Experienced designers can use the limited tool to make distinct outcomes for more satisfaction form tan subjects. Young designers expected to obtain 3D printed mockup to help their design decision in design process.
Keywords: Generative design; Design process; Grasshopper
Building a Semantic Differential Scale as Tool for Assisting UX Evaluation with Home Appliances BIBAKFull-Text 308-317
  Vanessa Macedo; Caio Marcio Silva
This paper presents the development process of a semantic differential scale, to support the UX evaluation with home appliances, specifically, generating a database of Portuguese adjectives related to the interaction with home appliances. We performed a survey with three fonts: users and designers perception about home appliances usage; perception from researchers on home appliance UX, towards efficiency; and marketing search, examining disclosure materials of a home appliance manufacturer. Then, we performed a data analysis from hierarchies, binary matrix of correlation and antonyms generation. After the method application, the research resulted in 20 adjectives, which can assist the UX evaluation with home appliances.
Keywords: Semantic Differential Scale; Home Appliance; User Experience
Evaluating Quality and Usability of the User Interface: A Practical Study on Comparing Methods with and without Users BIBAKFull-Text 318-328
  Caio Marcio Silva; Vanessa Macedo; Rafaela Lemos; Maria Lúcia L. R. Okimoto
This paper aimed to verify the suitability of the methods "Rehearsal Technique" with users and "Heuristic Evaluation" in the evaluation process of the usability of appliance's control panel, during the product development process. Both methods were applied with the same goal, identify usability issues with emphasis on information design, and with the same product, a functional prototype of a washing and drying machine's control panel. The heuristic evaluation was applied by three analysts, and the rehearsal technique, applied with ten participants. Each of the methods resulted on usability issues, which were evaluated by criticality and related to design fields. It was concluded that the heuristic evaluation allowed the verification of broader usability problems, early detecting about 85% of the issues identified on the rehearsal technique. However, the rehearsal technique enabled the identification of user feedback, as well as actual behaviors, and confirming some usability issues. Therefore, it is indicted the consideration of heuristic evaluation as a helpful strategy on evaluation of usability, not only as a preliminary evaluation for the usability test.
Keywords: user experience; home appliance; usability assessment
Multicultural Text Entry: A Usability Study BIBAKFull-Text 329-339
  Cristina Olaverri-Monreal; Maria Lúcia L. R. Okimoto; Klaus Bengler
A detailed study of cultural differences can facilitate the process of introducing a product into a particular market. Such an analysis can be used to decide to what extend a global design of a product needs to be considered and which subsequent measures related to localization or adaptation to a specific target culture need to be taken. In the particular case of text entry input methods to interact with electronic systems, consideration of cultural preferences could lead to a better usability and user experience. Cognitively demanding multimodal interaction with an interface might be reflected in an increased error rate or a decreased typing speed, factors that affect the success and accuracy of a task. We examine in this paper cultural differences through a cross cultural electronic system to determine the degree to which they can affect the ease of use in textual input methodology. Results indicated that users' performance varied depending on the selected language to perform the tasks.
Keywords: text input method; cultural differences; target culture
Subjective and Objective Assessment of Mashup Tools BIBAKFull-Text 340-351
  Tihomir Orehovacki; Toni Granollers
Mashup tools are platforms that enable end users to combine components from multiple sources and thus create, deploy, and share their own web applications. The aim of this paper is to present and discuss the findings of two empirical studies on evaluation of mashup tools by means of subjective and objective measuring instruments. In the first study, data were gathered with the employment of SUS post-use questionnaire and Tobii eye-tracking device, and in the second, by applying the retrospective thinking aloud method. The analysis of collected data uncovered strengths and weaknesses of evaluated mashup tools. In addition, the relevance that users assign to quality in use attributes in the context of mashup tools has been determined.
Keywords: Mashup Tools; Subjective and Objective Evaluation; Post-use Questionnaire; Eye-tracking; Retrospective Thinking Aloud; Empirical Findings
Usability Analysis of Smartphone Applications for Drivers BIBAKFull-Text 352-362
  Manuela Quaresma; Rafael Gonçalves
This article shows the results of a benchmarking conducted of four different GPS navigation apps intended to be used while driving. The analysis was based on usability guidelines for smartphones and safety guidelines for the use of in-vehicle information systems (IVIS). The analysis aimed to observe and compare the main issues and solutions related to the use of these apps in a very particular context of use (driving a vehicle). The results demonstrate that, although there are some good interface solutions, there are potentially dangerous issues to a specific context of use that can lead to driver distraction.
Keywords: GPS app design; usability; driver distraction
Eye Tracking Insights into Effective Navigation Design BIBAKFull-Text 363-370
  Andrew Schall
An intuitive and easy to navigate interface is the cornerstone to good user experience (UX). Usability issues often arise from navigation that has been poorly designed, often because of the organization, placement, visual design, or terminology used. Current methods for measuring the effectiveness of navigation are limited to observable behaviors and verbal feedback from participants. Eye tracking is becoming an increasingly common tool in UX testing, in part to discover new ways to optimize navigational elements. This paper addresses how eye tracking can be used to understand the effectiveness of commonly used navigational elements in interface design.
Keywords: Eye tracking; usability; user experience; navigation; menu systems; interface design
Changing Paradigm -- Changing Experience? BIBAKFull-Text 371-382
  Tim Schneidermeier; Franziska Hertlein; Christian Wolff
With the introduction of MS Windows 8, Modern UI / Metro Design was established as a new design paradigm for interaction. In this paper, we evaluate the usability of Windows 8 in comparison with Windows 7 with respect to effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Our test was conducted on three sample rates with differing experience on MS Windows systems. The findings concerning each of the three dimensions are presented as well as results for the overall usability.
Keywords: comparative usability evaluation; flat design; Windows 8
Applying the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) in Different Evaluation Scenarios BIBAKFull-Text 383-392
  Martin Schrepp; Andreas Hinderks; Jörg Thomaschewski
A good user experience is central for the success of interactive products. To improve products concerning these quality aspects it is thus also important to be able to measure user experience in an efficient and reliable way. But measuring user experience is not an end in itself. Several different questions can be the reason behind the wish to measure the user experience of a product quantitatively. We discuss several typical questions associated with the measurement of user experience and we show how these questions can be answered with a questionnaire with relatively low effort. In this paper the user experience questionnaire UEQ is used, but the general approach may be transferred to other questionnaires as well.
Keywords: User Experience; Usability; Questionnaire; Pragmatic Quality; Hedonic Quality
Online Psychometric Design (OnPsyD) Tool BIBAKFull-Text 393-401
  Shiny Verghese; Paul van Schaik; Steve Green
This paper discusses the architecture, and design of a research tool for online psychometrics. A few limitations of the current web-based tools available for psychometric research are discussed and the need for the OnPsyD Tool is laid. We provide a description of the database structure, and the architecture of the questionnaire presentation manager. The focus for OnPsyD Tool in this paper is the design of an extensible software architecture. Hence, new question types, extensions to existing question types, design style of questionnaires, and appearance of questions could be adapted easily. The paper concludes with a brief note on its limitations and extensions.
Keywords: online psychometrics; extensible database; design parameters for online questionnaires
Comparing Effectiveness, Efficiency, Ease of Use, Usability and User Experience When Using Tablets and Laptops BIBAKFull-Text 402-412
  Werner Wetzlinger; Andreas Auinger; Michael Dörflinger
Initially perceived as a consumer device, in recent years tablets have become more frequently used in business contexts where they often replace laptops as mobile computing devices. Since they follow different user interaction paradigms we conducted a study comparing effectiveness, efficiency, ease of use, usability and user experience when using tablets and laptops in typical private and business tasks. To measure these characteristics we used the task completion rate, the task completion time, the Single Ease Question (SEQ), the Software Usability Scale (SUS) and AttrakDiff. Results indicate that there is a difference between effectiveness, efficiency and the users' assessment of the devices. Users can carry out tasks more effectively and efficiently on laptops, but rate tablets higher in perceived usability and user experience, indicating that a pleasant and meaningful experience depends on more characteristics than work-related qualities such as effectiveness and efficiency.
Keywords: usability; user experience; satisfaction; ease of use; AttrakDiff

Heuristic Evaluation

Heuristics for Evaluating the Usability of Mobile Launchers for Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 415-424
  Muna S. Al-Razgan; Hend S. Al-Khalifa; Mona D. Al-Shahrani
Touch based mobile phone launchers are programs used by elderly people to ease their use of mobile phones. Despite their varieties in the mobile phone market, little has been done to evaluate their applicability to the target users. In this paper we describe a systematic approach to convert design guidelines and recommendations for touch-based phones into heuristics targeting elderly people. Then an assessment of the heuristics is carried out by creating personas and conducting usability evaluation.
Keywords: Heuristics evaluation; usability; elderly people; touch-based mobile phones; personas
Heuristic Inspection to Assess Persuasiveness: A Case Study of a Mathematics E-learning Program BIBAKFull-Text 425-436
  Eric Brangier; Michel C. Desmarais
This research extends existing heuristic inspection with criteria grids to include emotional and persuasiveness factors. We first review the existing criteria and categorize them into four major groups, aligned along a historic perspective of HCI. Hence, we find criteria that fall into (a) accessibility, (b) usability, then (c) affective, and finally (d) persuasive categories. In the second part of the paper, we focus on heuristic inspection based on persuasive criteria. We show their importance and apply them to the example of an e-learning platform for college mathematics. Results of the heuristic inspection of the persuasive factors are reported along with their prescribed recommendations.
Keywords: Persuasive technology; Heuristic inspection; Ergonomics criteria; E-learning
Design as a Tool for Managing Risks and Vulnerabilities Regarding Artifacts of Public Safety BIBAKFull-Text 437-444
  Walter F. M. Correia; Sérgio Ximenes da Silva; Fábio F. C. Campos; Marina L. N. Barros; Marcelo Márcio Soares
It is on man's interaction with the environment, taking into account all objects whether or not they are natural that design is focused. However, the relationship between the quantity and quality of what is produced and the creative processes of design do not always bring about the responses that the end user wants. This paper puts forward a proposal for designing a tool that may contribute to design methodologies for evaluating the safety of artifacts the use of which are restricted in the activity of Law Enforcement by Managing their Risks and Vulnerabilities. The paper sets out to include the knowledge of an expert in this subject area who is working on the risks and vulnerabilities that are present so as to obtain the most appropriate artifact possible for the demand proposed. The process of making such artifacts adequate and selecting them is permeated by such a large number of factors that they can only be matched, in amount, to the number of possible combinations between pieces of a chessboard. Hence the importance of producing a scale of values by using a rational and practical tool.
Keywords: Design; End User; Design methodologies; Safety of Artifacts; Public Safety; Risks; Vulnerabilities; Scale of Values
Enhancing Usability Engineering in Rural Areas Using Agile Methods BIBAKFull-Text 445-452
  Rüdiger Heimgärtner; Alkesh Solanki; Bernd Hollerit
Usability engineering is all about developing usable products and/or services for a certain user group in a specific context. In this paper, we present some ideas about how to enhance usability engineering in rural areas (i.e. for users in rural contexts) taking agile methods into account. First, rural areas, rural users and rural products are illustrated. We elucidate the cultural, technological and social differences and the specifics of rural areas. Then, we look at the most important steps according to the standard user-centered design process defined in ISO 9241-210 in order to identify possible challenges and implications for usability engineering in rural areas. Finally, we analyze how usability engineering profits by using agile methods in this context.
Keywords: Rural; Agile; HDI; Developing Countries; Newly Industrialized Countries; User-Centered Design; ISO 9241-210; Culture; HCI; Approach; Process; Structure; Intercultural; Intercultural User Interface Design; Standard; Usability Engineering; Intercultural Usability Engineering
Serious Games and Heuristic Evaluation -- The Cross-Comparison of Existing Heuristic Evaluation Methods for Games BIBAKFull-Text 453-464
  Natalia Jerzak; Francisco Rebelo
Learning by playing has been a desire in the educational domain. The use of serious games may offer the possibility to learn and train at the same time the learner is playing. It makes us consider the serious games as an important research area that can have huge implications in the way the new generations are learning, getting experience, practice knowledge, gain skills, train their habits and reactions. There are many heuristics available in the area of video games, several are presenting repetitive aspects, some are isolated up to the point of reaching contradictory outcomes. The main purpose of this article is to define the nature of serious games and the process of evaluating game. We are taking as the references existing heuristics for games together with their weaknesses and strengths. In order to approach the problem we grouped together and present the most important HEs for games and complied three sets of heuristic evaluation to identify the areas of tangency.
Keywords: heuristic evaluation; serious games; simulators; usability evaluation; design guidelines; video games; computer games; HCI
Towards the Development of Usability Heuristics for Native Smartphone Mobile Applications BIBAKFull-Text 465-474
  Ger Joyce; Mariana Lilley
This paper reports on initial work in the identification of heuristics that may be most usefully applied in the heuristic evaluation of native smartphone applications. Given the prevalence of such applications, this work seems pertinent, particularly as it also seems under-represented in the literature. Once defined, the heuristics were developed further based on the quantitative and qualitative feedback received from sixty Human-Computer Interaction experts in eighteen countries. The resulting heuristics could be beneficial to HCI researchers and educators, and could also potentially expedite and cut the cost of smartphone application usability evaluations for HCI practitioners.
Keywords: Usability; Heuristic Evaluation; Smartphone; Mobile Application
Common Industry Format (CIF) Report Customization for UX Heuristic Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 475-483
  Llúcia Masip; Marta Oliva; Toni Granollers
The ISO/IEC 25062:2006 standard presents the Common Industry Format template for the user test results. This standard only considers usability results of a specific evaluation technique: the user test. Nowadays, more aspects apart from usability are considered to get a product quality. In addition, other evaluation methodologies are also very used and different types of results can be obtained (formative/summative and qualitative/quantitative). This research proposed how to adapt the Common Industry Format report for the heuristic evaluation methodology and considering more aspects apart from usability.
Keywords: CIF; ISO/IEC 25062:2006; customization; heuristic evaluation; UX
Evaluating the Usability on Multimodal Interfaces: A Case Study on Tablets Applications BIBAKFull-Text 484-495
  Edvar Vilar Neto; Fábio F. C. Campos
Usability has become the main quality attribute on the development of digital devices. Meanwhile, the new interaction paradigms represent a great challenge for usability. Traditional methods for usability evaluation may not be appropriated to the nature of these new interaction models. This paper introduces a new set of usability heuristics for multimodal paradigm, specially multitouch and speech-based interaction. We analyzed traditional usability heuristics, characteristics of multitouch and speech-based interaction, and guidelines for developers, aiming to reach a satisfactory result. A comparative case study between our proposal and Nielsen's heuristics is then conducted.
Keywords: usability heuristics; new usability; multimodal interaction
Developing Playability Heuristics for Computer Games from Online Reviews BIBAKFull-Text 496-505
  Miaoqi Zhu; Xiaowen Fang
This paper demonstrates a revised lexical approach for developing game playability heuristics by examining a large number of online game reviews. Game usability, which is better labeled as playability, has been receiving attention from researchers in the areas of HCI and Game Studies. Despite some early research efforts on this topic, most studies are generally qualitative in nature and don't cover a wide range of games. Inspired by the lexical approach used in personality psychology, we employed a revised method to investigate playability by analyzing players' languages. In our previous research, 6 factors were extracted about essential characteristic of game play experience [39]. This study aims to develop playability heuristics rules based on adjectives converging on factor perceived as playability, the top factor among the six.
Keywords: usability; playability heuristics; lexical approach

Media and Design

Designing Real-Time: On How Events Affect Audiovisual Narrative BIBAKFull-Text 509-518
  Marcus Bastos
Eventuality: designing real-time events presents projects developed by Marcus Bastos aiming to explore new formats of filming and editing, as a result of real-time technologies and their effects on audiovisual cultures. Design aspects will be highlighted, and contextualized by a broader discussion about concepts such as event, constructed situation, heterotopy, and others that describe momentarily occurrences capable of shifting the functioning of an established system (be it a narrative, an algorithmic procedure, a form of occupying a stage or a specific region of a city).
Keywords: Event; constructed situation; heterotopy; real-time; audiovisual; filming; editing
Post Media: Towards a User Interface Architecture BIBAKFull-Text 519-526
  Jirí Bystrický; Jan Brejcha
The issue of the so-called "lived reality" of the contemporary world is largely dependent on the mediation process of "presence", especially on the technology of rapid data transport, covering a space of media reality such as an image of every day's living space. To explain the relationship between the reality of the mass media and conventional reality of everyday life it is needed to restore confidence to the present moment. The framework for understanding this relationship is through a certain revision of immediacy, i.e., the way we report about the subject on a new spatial law in the media reality. Only then we get closer to the possibility of presenting the construction of a world in which man will be in control of forms in which the "presence" takes place.
Keywords: image; mediality; transparency; art; imaging; instrumentality
Interactive Film: The Computer as Medium BIBAKFull-Text 527-536
  Roman Danylak
The focus of this paper is to attempt to define some key qualities of what will be described as interactive film. Interactive film is the description of user interface experience, where the screen surface is seen as a continuous piece of film altered by data interactions, which are but edits to the film observed on screen. As such computer screen representations as a user experience are seen as the convergence of the medium of film with computer databases. The paper also examines the history of two other media, namely the book and painting over the last five hundred years as examples to understand how media -- its form -- and its content -- the message behave, leading to interactive film.
Keywords: Science-fiction and DUXU; Interface Design and Convergence
Digital Self: Fiction and Non-fiction on the Internet BIBAKFull-Text 537-547
  Ana Carol Pontes de França; Luciano Rogério de Lemos Meira; Marcelo Márcio Soares
By tradition, cognitive science uses the computer metaphor and psychological models that attempt to explain human complexity isolating the subject of sociocultural plot. Breaking with Cartesian dualism, we invite the reader to consider the virtual-real continuous, in which the self is constituted as a discursive construction, social and narratively structured that emerges and develops in sequences of dialogical action established by partners located in time and space. Accordingly, we address aspects of communication and interaction on subjective relationships and intimacy we have with others while navigating on the internet. Paradoxically, in digital culture, fiction and non-fiction walk intertwined, supporting our practices with resources that allow us to compensate for the lack of a physical body. Basing on these assumptions, we investigated how the continuities and discontinuities occur in discursive ways in which people relate to themselves while transits on virtual and physical scenarios. For that, we turn to the ethnographic method. More specifically, we used: video version of the classic A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens; interview protocol about personal continuity interrelated to the film, the self and Orkut, and clippings Orkut profiles of respondents. Three subjects participated in the study: one male and two females, aged between 20 and 30 years. Paying attention to the pragmatic aspect of the utterance or speech, we chose the enunciation because it reveals the voices of the "I" positions that connects the agent of speech to the audience in communicative practices of sustaining themselves. In the analysis, we grouped the responses according to the content that corresponded, in this case, to the "I" positions in the narrative act. Thus, we identify two levels of analysis: in the first one, the subject is engaged in a process of authorship, in the second one, the subject acts as if he/her were another. In such circumstances, the positions taken by the subject allow him/her to move through the imagination, as though in space, in accordance with changes in situation and time. By this study, we concluded that: 1) affinities, likes and interests are anchors that people use at virtual world to bring them what they know of the physical world, 2) the number of singularities (other "I" s) are interconnected to affinities, likes and interests, whose associations are located in the virtual environment on the links (symbolic places) between profiles and communities (writing, photos, images, audio, video), as well as between users and developers (aid terms, security center, etc.), 3) people do not connect to the internet just because they are geographically distant, but mainly because they seek answers, seek to establish that the communicative ties closer together; 4) while communicating, the user may oppose the idea that others have of him/her, if different from the others, although simultaneously is engaged in groups that make he/she similar to and different from each other as a communal.
Keywords: Digital Culture; Semiotics; Human-Computer Interaction; Sense of Self
The Bridge -- A Transmedia Dialogue between TV, Film and Gaming BIBAKFull-Text 548-559
  Herlander Elias
The goal is to discuss the transmedia (TM) relationship in the game-film and game-TV dialogue. First we will analyze previous game-film transitions and releases so that a background is set up and further examinations become sustained. Secondly, we are to find how exactly works transmedia gaming (TMG) as the main object of study, the video game Quantum Break (QB) sets a new trend, which leads us to take on digital media studies, communication sciences, as a framework, to better understand this new "dialogue".
   Instead of going for narratology or ludology we see this transmedia event of QB as a change in digital media. We start with concepts such as narrative, fiction, virtuality, but as the new audience condition is shaped by a TM dialogue, storytelling is marketing-driven, thus turning the public into a searcher/connector. We will explain how changes are leading to a new scenario.
Keywords: bridge; narrative; digital media; Lost; transmedia; videogames; searchers; interactivity; TV series
Fishtank Everywhere: Improving Viewing Experience over 3D Content BIBAKFull-Text 560-571
  Lucas S. Figueiredo; Edvar Vilar Neto; Ermano Arruda; João Marcelo Teixeira; Veronica Teichrieb
The goal of this work is to analyze the user experience of the motion parallax effect on common use displays, such as monitors, tvs and mobile devices. The analysis has been done individually for each device and comparing each other to understand the impact on the immersion of such media. Moreover, we focused on understanding the user impression on the change of an usual passive visualization paradigm to the interactive visualization possibility allied to the motion parallax effect.
Keywords: depth perception; cross platform experience; fishtank effect; interactive visualization
The Database on Near-Future Technologies for User Interface Design from SciFi Movies BIBAKFull-Text 572-579
  Jun Iio; Shigeyoshi Iizuka; Hideyuki Matsubara
Science fiction (SciFi) feature films offer viewers a glimpse into the future, revealing unique interfaces, social systems, and complex human relations. In this paper, we report a trial conducted by the Science Fiction Special Interest Group (SIG-SciFi) to gain insight into probable human-centered design (HCD) trends and the database of scenes collected to be used as good references for futuristic design. Characteristic scenes from the movie Minority Report, X-Men II, and The Island were analyzed. Our argument and analysis began with a top-down arrangement of scenes in descending order of importance. Then, extracted characteristic scenes were classified hierarchically while considering the worldview of the movie. As a result, suggestions were obtained pertaining to the direction of HCD in the near future. The results of this analysis are arranged into the database which can be immediately applied as a design tool.
Keywords: human centered design (HCD); user experience (UX); science fiction (SciFi) movie; user interface; database
User Interfaces That Appeared in SciFi Movies and Their Reality BIBAKFull-Text 580-588
  Masaaki Kurosu
In this paper, future image of the user interface (UI) that appeared in SciFi movies are critically reviewed, especially in terms of their reality. Some ideas of the UI in SciFi movies were actually manufactured as the product but most of them are not. Reasons for the validity in the real world are examined and it is proposed how we should deal with the ideas of the UI in SciFi movies. The concept of meaningfulness is examined as the criterion for validating ideas of the future UI.
Keywords: Science-fiction and DUXU; SCI-FI and DUXU: Film as the Future Information System
Bridging the Gap BIBAKFull-Text 589-600
  Deborah Schmidt; Grit Koalick; Sebastian Gassel; Christian Sery; Rainer Groh; Markus Wacker
Bridging The Gap discusses necessities and methods of a transdisciplinary approach at the intersection of art, science and technology, including human computer interaction (HCI) and its various subjects. Research work that combines artistic and scientific approaches benefits substantially from artistic perception and the sensibility to questions beyond their regular environment beyond the work's associated environment. The transfer of knowledge, methods and communication strategies foster a transdisciplinary debate, discussing impacts of existing and emerging technology driven phenomenons. The paper provides a depiction of methods and communication of each discipline to carve out the coherence of transdisciplinarity in praxis. F-A-S-T is introduced as a cooperative project of scientific and artistic institutions where a student's existing profession is amplified by complementary knowledge, methods and collaborative project oriented work. It explores new roles and formats within the interaction between art, science and technology. The aim of the paper is to encourage further research regarding transdisciplinarity and the establishment of corresponding educational programs.
Keywords: design philosophy and duxu; education
Film -- System -- Communication BIBAKFull-Text 601-609
  Katrin Vodrazkova
The paper shows the relation between two models of reality, possibilities of media thinking and combination of binary and complex systems -- film as the social and mainly future information system, and fundamental way of operations and usability. We should draw a line between the two types of reality -- the real reality and the film reality, and two levels of observing -- what we are observing (primary reality, facts) and how we are observing (secondary reality, film imaginary double-reality, the reality of mass-media, observing of an observation). Film as the social and information system creates a special form of the construction of fictional reality.
   The most important point for complex information systems is to understand one informative message. On the basis of understanding of information further communication can continue in each social system. Film communicates in its second reality through the mediation of Other-reference. So there is a difference between Self-reference and Other-reference in the information system. This difference produces new information and new relations, surprise and new cognition and knowledge. Other-reference is the clue for understanding of information and communication systems, relation between the system and its environment, sci-fi and film interface.
Keywords: difference; double-reality; complexity; film; future information system; future design; mediated reality; Other-reference; recursive structure; system communication; system reference; usability

Design and Creativity

User Experience Technique in Computer Digital Arts Production: Paper Prototyping Used as Material to Define Intentionality BIBAKFull-Text 613-621
  Marília Lyra Bergamo
This papers aims to describe the historical introduction of paper prototyping techniques into interface development, what they basically consist of, and how such techniques can be applied on the development of Computer Digital Arts. With some examples applied on Digital Arts graduation courses at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil, this technique has proven to help the development of the artist's intentionality, rather than blocking creativity. It helped students to focus on important concepts that needed to be transmitted by interaction, while usability made the piece friendly where it needed to be friendly. Thus, young art students have been acting in a traditional way when experimenting with materials, not only physically and visually, but also with the interactive environment that should be considered as material in Computer Digital Arts.
Keywords: Mental Model Design; Usability Methods and Tools; Computer Digital Arts
Cultural Creativity in Experience Design Model BIBAKFull-Text 622-630
  Shu Hsuan Chang; Chi-Hsien Hsu; Rung Tai Lin
Experience economy is on the upgrade in the world and experience has become a new type of marketing mode and brand value. Its connotation is to satisfy the mental and spiritual needs of consumer. Popular cultural concept of consumption in global village era emphasizes on local culture value of itself on the contrary. Therefore, the study believes it makes the consumer experience local culture through marketing design and identify the local culture via interaction further. In the marketing design taking local culture as experience can make the consumer understand the historic background, characteristics and cultural essence deeply. With additional story and entertainment design and construction, it is conductive to promote identification of consumer to local industries and increase consumption willingness. The study takes Majoee as case to study and analyze local culture. On the basis of experience literature overview, it takes conversion as experiential marketing design, proposes design conversion method and construction mode. The purposes of the study are as the following. First, it discusses experiential marketing design related literature theoretical basis. Second, it takes "Local Culture" as the theme of experiential marketing design mode. Third, case study takes Majoee as the theme of experiential marketing design mode. In the conclusion, it proposes to take "Cultural Creativity" as the theme of experiential marketing design strategy and feasibility. The importance of the study is to apply humanity and characteristics of local culture to convert into design transfer media through theoretical basis of semiotics. Then it merges cultural design as experiential marketing to promote local culture values and construct an experiential marketing design conversion mode to be taken as reference for cultural experiential marketing application.
Keywords: Local Culture; Experiential marketing; Majoee; Semiotics
Keeping Creative Writing on Track: Co-designing a Framework to Support Behavior Change BIBAKFull-Text 631-642
  Paul Doney; Rebecca Evans; Marc Fabri
The application of persuasive technology in web-based and mobile phone-based systems is well established, particularly in the health domain. However, a greater understanding of the effectiveness of the techniques deployed is needed to facilitate the successful transfer of research findings into practical applications. The context explored here is that of creative writing and the potential use of persuasive technology to foster and support a productive writing routine. Employing a user-centered design approach, we conducted surveys and a co-creation workshop with writers. Goal setting and regular writing, combined with self-monitoring, were key indicators of an effective writing practice. Group and mentor support were also highlighted. Based on our findings, we developed the architecture for a mobile personal writing coach. We evaluated the architecture against existing frameworks, finding good congruence. This supports our long-term goal of creating a universal framework, applicable to a wider range of behavior change interventions, domains and users. The design considerations reported in this paper go some way towards that goal.
Keywords: Behavior Change; Goal Setting; Design Thinking; User-Centered Design; Co-Design; Methodology
Challenges in Designing New Interfaces for Musical Expression BIBAKFull-Text 643-652
  Rodrigo Medeiros; Filipe Calegario; Giordano Cabral; Geber Ramalho
The new interfaces are changing the way we interact with computers. In the musical context, those new technologies open a wide range of possibilities in the creation of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME). Despite 10 years of research in NIME, it is hard to find artifacts that have been widely or convincingly adopted by musicians. In this paper, we discuss some NIME design challenges, highlighting particularities related to the digital and musical nature of these artifacts, such as virtuosity, cultural elements, context of use, creation catalysis, success criteria, adoption strategy, etc. With these challenges, we aim to call attention for the intersection of music, computing and design, which can be an interesting area for people working on product design and interaction design.
Keywords: design challenges; digital musical instrument; new interfaces for musical expression; user experience; interaction design
Collaboration Space for Creative Knowledge Work -- Analysis of Industrial Pilots BIBAKFull-Text 653-662
  Mika P. Nieminen; Mikael Runonen; Mari Tyllinen; Marko Nieminen
In this paper we describe our experiences piloting a collaboration space DiWa that supports creative group-based knowledge work. The developed prototypes of the system were piloted at three industry and public sector partners in Finland conducting product development and city zoning and at one research institute involved in service design in Beijing, China. The system design was based on extensive literature review, observations and interviews at the partners. The results presented in this paper are derived from four one month long pilots using the DiWa prototype that were studied using observations, interviews and questionnaires. Main results are the observed differences in the use of collaborative spaces and work practices between the Finnish users and their Chinese counterparts. The paper concludes with eight recommendations for the design of collaboration spaces.
Keywords: Collocated collaboration; interactive spaces; supporting knowledge work; cultural differences
Ornamental Images and Their Digital Occurrences BIBAKFull-Text 663-674
  Michael Renner
In the first part of this paper, the historical debate about ornamental images is summarized and interpreted. This leads to the understanding that ornamental images can be seen as a recurring phenomenon, welcomed or abolished, but always present in different occurrences throughout cultural history. In the second part, three different periods of digital technology are distinguished and ornamental images of those eras are analyzed. Based on these studies a conclusion is inferred isolating specific aspects, positioning the chosen digital examples as a continuation of a historic sequence of ornamental images.
Keywords: Digital Aesthetic; Iconic Research; Ornament; Complexity; Generative Design; Visual Communication; Practice Led Iconic Research
Affording Creativity and New Media Possibilities BIBAKFull-Text 675-685
  Zoie So
Developers compete to design the computational commodity with the most user-friendly interface. While this allows massification, it also defines boundaries. In operating these devices, users are afforded little creative freedom. We do well to question a technology that is not conducive to freedom. By no means should our interactions with computers force us into robotic submission. Following commands unreflectingly only serves to dull the mind. On the other hand, designing programs that allow users to decide over operational parameters serves to point the direction to human technological freedom. They share a common approach to the object, which should adjust to the body as the body does to it, in a reciprocal alliance that responds to particular situations. In addition, DIY and studio art practices afford the necessary skills and mindsets for sensible HCI and yield us the power to optimize our chances of designing a world defined by openness.
Keywords: Affordance; Creativity; Skill Development; Coupling; Embodiment; Disembodiment; DIY; Frugal Innovation; Studio Art; Modular Design; Openness
basil.js -- Bridging Mouse and Code Based Design Strategies BIBAKFull-Text 686-696
  Ludwig Zeller; Benedikt Groß; Ted Davis
In this paper we present our JavaScript library basil.js that makes scripting and automation in Adobe InDesign accessible to designers with little previous knowledge in programming. We outline how we derived our API design from the Processing project and applied it to Adobe InDesign. We explain the benefits of combining code and mouse based design strategies within one software package and show how creative users can benefit from the possibility to extend their existing software tools. Lastly the current state of our project is reported and application examples in the form of student projects are given.
Keywords: Generative design; computational aesthetics; tool development; tool modification; educational programming language; Adobe InDesign; Processing; JavaScript