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SGDA Tables of Contents: 11121314

Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Serious Games Development and Applications

Fullname:SGDA 2012: Third International Conference on Serious Games Development and Applications
Editors:Minhua Ma; Manuel Fradinho Oliveira; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge; Heiko Duin; Klaus-Dieter Thoben
Location:Bremen, Germany
Dates:2012-Sep-26 to 2012-Sep-29
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7528
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-33687-4 hcibib: SGDA12; ISBN: 978-3-642-33686-7 (print), 978-3-642-33687-4 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
Don't Panic: Enhancing Soft Skills for Civil Protection Workers BIBAKFull-Text 1-12
  Ines Di Loreto; Simone Mora; Monica Divitini
Don't Panic is a serious game created to enhance soft skills in the crisis management field. The game is conceived to (i) add the fun element to training about stressful situations linked to panic management and (ii) teach skills such as communication styles, team management and coordination, time management, stress management and coping strategies. In this paper we present the first paper-based version of the game and its evaluation. The paper discusses the game design motivations, the methodological reasons behind its conception, and presents a pilot study. Results show that, even in its paper version, the game is a promising tool if linked with adequate and realistic procedures. This opens methodological questions about the role of computer based serious games.
Keywords: Serious Games; Crisis Management; Civil Protection; Board Games; Evaluation; Soft Skills
Health Games BIBAKFull-Text 13-30
  Alex Gekker
This paper presents an exploratory research of health games in EU, focusing on the role of multiplayer in the health-games experience, utilizing the health-game taxonomy suggested by Sawyer and Smith [1], combined with a preliminary survey of fity existing European health games in order to point out existing trends and suggest currently untapped venues of exploration. First, a theoretical review is presented, utilizing framework from the humanities and cultural studies in order to address what seen as a design issue with contemporary serious health games. Then, the results of a quantitative study of existing health games are presented, and analyzed through an existing taxonomy. Last, based on the lacunas found in the taxonomy, a thorough theoretical analysis is undertaken on their possible reasons, and suggestions on design methodologies are introduced through a comparison with existing commercial multiplayer games.
Keywords: serious games; health games; game taxonomy; multiplayer; procedural rhetoric; asynchronous multiplay
A Serious Game for Training Balance Control over Different Types of Soil BIBAFull-Text 31-42
  Bob-Antoine J. Menelas; Martin J. D. Otis
It is known that the type of the soil can affect balance. Here we report a serious game designed for training users at maintaining balance over five types of soil (broken stone, stone dust, sand, concrete and wood). By using an augmented shoe and proposed navigation metaphor, in this game, the user is invited to browse a maze while standing balance over the physical grounds. During the exploration, exercises targeting assessment of balance control are suggested. To insure the effectiveness of this training program, four exercises based on the Berg Balance Scale and the Tinetti Balance Assessment Tool are incorporated in the game.
Constructionist Learning in Anatomy Education BIBAKFull-Text 43-58
  Minhua Ma; Kim Bale; Paul Rea
In this paper we describe the use of 3D games technology in human anatomy education based on our MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy teaching practice, i.e. students design and develop serious games for anatomy education using the Unity 3D game engine. Students are engaged in this process not only as consumers of serious games, but as authors and creators. The benefits of this constructionist learning approach are discussed. Five domains of learning are identified, in terms of what anatomy students, tutors, and final users (players) can learn through serious games and their development process. We also justify the 3D engine selected for serious game development and discuss main obstacles and challenges to the use of this constructionist approach to teach non-computing students. Finally, we recommend that the serious game construction approach can be adopted in other academic disciplines in higher education.
Keywords: Serious games; game engines; game development; medical education; human anatomy; anatomy education; constructionist learning
Interdisciplinary and International Adaption and Personalization of the MetaVals Serious Games BIBAKFull-Text 59-73
  Margarida Romero; Mireia Usart; Maria Popescu; Elizabeth Boyle
Serious Games (SG) in Higher Education should be able to be adapted to particular learning needs and different university contexts in a sustainable way. In this respect, this study aims to describe the adaptation and personalization mechanism through the analysis of a case study developed in three countries and learning contexts. The adaptation is analyzed through the perspective of the perceived usability, utility and ease of use of the game in Spain, the UK and Romania. First results point to a positive evaluation by users of adaptable games, in the particular field of SGs for adult formal education. Future releases of the MetaVals game will be addressed towards the implementation of a complete and multi-language management interface, together with an improvement of the present static design.
Keywords: Serious Games; Adaption; Personalization; Higher Education
Serious Games Adoption in Corporate Training BIBAKFull-Text 74-85
  Aida Azadegan; Johann C. K. H. Riedel; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge
Corporate managers are constantly looking for more effective and efficient ways to deliver training to their employees. Traditional classroom methods have been used for a long time. However, in the last decade electronic learning technology has gained in significance. Serious Games are games that educate, train and inform using entertainment principles, creativity, and technology. Serious Games are proven as a learning method for conveying skills on complex tasks by incorporating sound learning and pedagogical principles into their design and structure. Therefore, it is believed that Serious Games have got the potential to be used to meet government or corporate training objectives. However, the awareness and adoption level of serious games by industry is not known.
   In this research we designed and conducted a pilot survey among UK-based companies. We used the survey in order to assess the level of awareness and adoption of Serious Games in companies for corporate training. We aim to understand what kinds of skills development Serious Games-based trainings are desired by companies and to know what they perceive the benefits and barriers of using Serious Games are in companies. This paper describes the stages of the design of the survey questionnaire, presents and analyses the results and ends with conclusions and a discussion about the future research work.
Keywords: Serious Games; Innovation Adoption; Awareness; Corporate Training
Towards Participative and Knowledge-Intensive Serious Games BIBAKFull-Text 86-97
  Nour El Mawas; Jean-Pierre Cahier
We propose the "Architecture for Representations, Games, Interactions, and Learning among Experts" (ARGILE) for participatory and knowledge-intensive serious games. Faced with the problem of training on professional practices in areas of advanced expertise, reference knowledge are neither stabilized nor unanimous, but rather dynamic and continuously evolving. Moreover, the practitioner does not make decisions based on pre-established recipes, but it is brought to trial and error, to discuss with peers and to discover solutions in complex situations that are proposed. That's why the rules and the game objects must be easily annotated, discussed and modified by trainers and players themselves. We present in this paper a methodology, tools and technical architecture to design, use and evaluate such serious games. ARGILE allows ensuring the participatory design of rules of the game and involving debate among designers. We illustrate concretely the ideas presented on an example related to "Aidcrisis" an ongoing project which uses this architecture for training in action in a crisis situation (Aidcrisis project).
Keywords: participation architecture; e-training; serious games; Knowledge Engineering; cooperation; discussion forum
Towards Designing for Competence and Engagement in Serious Games BIBAKFull-Text 98-109
  Erik D. van der Spek
Through a series of game design experiments evidence was found signifying the importance of feeling competence as a driver for engagement during gameplay. Engagement during gameplay is important both as a motivation to play games, as well as for serious games to improve cognitive interest and thereby the learning efficacy of the game. Consequently, a number of design guidelines are proposed, both on the local and global level of the game, to enhance the feeling of competence and thereby engagement of the game.
Keywords: game design; designing for competence; engagement; serious games; experiential learning; self-determination theory
Blended In-Game and Off-Game Learning: Assimilating Serious Games in the Classroom and Curriculum BIBAKFull-Text 110-122
  Tim Marsh; Li Zhiqiang Nickole; Eric Klopfer; Jason Haas
This paper describes a comparative study to investigate the efficacy of interactive games, non-interactive media and traditional instructional teaching on mathematics and science learning with high school students (aged 13-14). Utilizing a blended in-game (narrative and puzzle games) and off-game (machinima/animation and teacher) learning approach to assess the efficacy, together with survey of teachers' opinions on the introduction of serious games and blended learning approaches, the results shed some light on the integration / assimilate of serious games into the classroom and curriculum.
Keywords: Narrative; Puzzle; Games; Learning; Machinima; Analysis
A Computer Game Based Motivation System for Human Physiology Studies BIBAKFull-Text 123-134
  Tintu Mathew; Jochen Zange; Joern Rittweger; Rainer Herpers
Maximal strength testing of different muscle groups is a standard procedure in human physiology experiments. Test subjects have to exert maximum force voluntarily and are verbally encouraged by the investigator. The performance of the subjects is influenced by the verbal encouragement, but the encouragement procedure is not standardized or reproducible. To counter this problem a game-based motivation system prototype is developed to provide instant feedback to the subjects and also incentives to motivate them. The prototype was developed for the Biodex System 3 Isokinetic Dynamometer to improve the peak torque performance in an isometric knee extensor strength examination. Data analysis is performed on torque data from an existing study to understand torque response characteristics of different subjects. The parameters identified in the data analysis are used to design a shark-fish predator-prey game. The game depends on data obtained from the dynamometer in real time. A first evaluation shows that the game rewards and motivates the subject continuously over a repetition to reach the peak torque value. It also shows that the game rewards the user more if he overcomes a baseline torque value within the first second and then gradually increases the torque to reach the peak value.
Keywords: serious game; human physiology study; game based motivation system; visual encouragement
Lessons Learnt from Contextualized Interactive Story Driven Development Methodology BIBAKFull-Text 135-149
  Manuel Fradinho Oliveira; Heiko Duin
The advances in innovative responsive educational and training delivery platforms has not cease, with serious games taking centre stage in new crop of solutions promising to deliver reduced time-to-competence of employees at anytime and anywhere. Irrespective of the technical and pedagogical merit of such solutions, the challenge remains the same, how to develop the required content that is grounded in the relevant learning domains (eg: project management) and provide effective learning experiences at good value. This paper presents the Contextualized Interactive Story Driven Development (CISD2) methodology to develop content for serious games aimed at providing situated contexts for the development of competences, relying on the contributions of a multidisciplinary team. The framework has two distinct strands, one focuses on the contextualization of situated contexts, whilst the other focuses on the desired competences to acquire and their model, leading to the observed behaviours that may be measured and calculated as performance of the desired competences. Both strands have four distinct layers, starting at conceptual level and finishing with the actual story implementation that provides the effective transformation of learners according to the intended learning outcomes and that such transformation can be measured. When progressing through the layers, CISD2 recognizes the need of making decisions to reduce the scope and avoid feature creep.
Keywords: Game design; competence development; serious game
Value Propositions for Serious Games in Health and Well-Being BIBAKFull-Text 150-157
  Rosa García Sánchez; Alasdair G. Thin; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge; Giusy Fiucci; Thierry Nabeth; Michel Rudnianski; Angelo Marco Luccini; Kam Star
There are many different potential applications for Serious Games (SGs) in the field of Health and Well-being. While a significant number of SGs have already been produced, there is often a lack of consideration of the business aspects of the development including the market realities for a particular SG application. The development of a value dimensions framework and the analysis of a representative sample of SGs across a range of different Health and Well-being functional (market) sectors revealed significant diversity between functional sectors. Furthermore, an additional level of complexity may be added when the end-users of a SG are separate and distinct entities from the stakeholder(s) commissioning (and paying) for the development of a SG and as a result may differ in their perceptions of value. It is recommended that value propositions need to be carefully considered when planning the development of SGs in the field of Health and Well-being.
Keywords: Serious Games; Value Dimension; Value Proposition; Health; Well-being
Dealing with Threshold Concepts in Serious Games for Competence Development BIBAKFull-Text 158-169
  Stefano Bocconi; Yulia Bachvarova; Martin Ruskov; Manuel Fradinho Oliveira
This paper presents an approach to integrate Threshold Concepts into a Serious Game based learning platform aimed at learning soft skills such as leadership, stakeholder involvement and negotiation. Threshold Concepts are concepts that once grasped, transform the way a learner sees a discipline, marking the difference between a novice and an expert. However, learners have difficulties when dealing with Threshold Concepts as they are counter intuitive. Therefore the design of a Serious Game needs to take into account the existence of Threshold Concept that may affect the overall learning experience of the learner, and subsequently design recovery actions when the hoped learning effect does not take place. In this paper we describe what Threshold Concepts are and how they were taken into consideration in the scope of the TARGET project when doing the design of the Game-Based learning platform.
Keywords: Threshold Concepts; Serious Games; Game-Based; Learning; Competence Development
Betaville -- A Massively Participatory Mirror World Game BIBAKFull-Text 170-173
  Martin Koplin; Carl Skelton
Changes to the urban fabric share some of the same characteristics as new software applications, whether at the relatively small scale of a new public sculpture or the very large scale of new buildings, parks, roads, or entirely new districts. In particular, they present overlapping issues with special regard to the question of participation. This paper addresses some of those issues by discussing the Betaville project in particular.
Keywords: Participatory design; 3D-modelling; real-world games; urban development; user-generated culture
Logical Thinking by Play Using the Example of the Game "Space Goats" BIBAFull-Text 174-182
  Thorsten Wahner; Moritz Kartheuser; Stefan Sigl; Jördis Nolte; Axel Hoppe
The idea of "Serious Games" mainly describes games that generate overvalue.
   According to James P. Gee's learning theories, game worlds are some of the best learning environments imaginable as they encourage the utilization of the actively learned skills in other domains.
   The game "Space Goats" is designed according to these principles. The graphical scripting interface it uses encourages logical thinking, while the "game characteristic" is retained. Thus, the player does not realize he is being taught.
Squaring and Scripting the ESP Game: Trimming a GWAP to Deep Semantics BIBAFull-Text 183-192
  François Bry; Christoph Wieser
The ESP Game, like other Games With A Purpose (GWAP), tends to generate "surface semantics" tags. This article first discusses why this is the case, then proposes two approaches called "squaring" and "scripting" to collecting "deep semantics" tags that both consist in deploying the ESP Game in unconventional manners. It also reports on a very positive first experimental evaluation of the two approaches. It finally briefly discusses the relevance of squaring and scripting for other GWAPs than the ESP Game.
The Application of the CISD2 Methodology for the Definition of a Serious Game Competence-Based Learning Scenario in the Domain of Sustainable Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 193-207
  Gregor Cerinsek; Heiko Duin; Fiorella Colombo; Borzoo Pourabdollahian; Stanislaw Plebanek
The main aim of this paper is to follow the Contextualized Interactive Story Driven Development (CISD2) Methodology to support the definition of a serious game competence-based learning scenario in the domain of sustainable manufacturing. The core competence to be addressed by the scenario is the "Ability to perform a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)" in a globally acting manufacturing enterprise. The resulting content can be used as input by the serious game developers in specifying the stories to be implemented. Finally, some first evaluation results on learning outcomes are provided.
Keywords: serious game; sustainable manufacturing; life cycle assessment; content development; competence-based learning
Evaluating the Validity of a Non-invasive Assessment Procedure BIBAKFull-Text 208-218
  Paul C. Seitlinger; Michael A. Bedek; Simone Kopeinik; Dietrich Albert
Recent developments in serious games allow for in-game adaptations to enhance the learner's current cognitive, motivational or emotional state. Providing suitable adaptations requires a valid assessment of the psycho-pedagogical constructs the game should adapt to. An explicit assessment, e.g. by questionnaires occurring repeatedly on the screen, would impair the learner's game flow. Therefore, a non-invasive and implicit assessment procedure is required. In the course of the European research project TARGET, we established an assessment procedure which is based on the interpretation of the learner's actions in the virtual environment, called Behavioural Indicators (BIs). A set of 16 BIs has been formulated to assess the learner's current emotional, motivational and clearness state. In this present work, we describe how these BIs can be validated and focus on the innovative elements of the methodological procedure, the material, experiential considerations and the statistical analysis to be applied in an empirical study.
Keywords: Evaluation; Validation; Non-invasive Assessment; Motivation; Emotion; Problem Solving
Challenges and Opportunities in Evaluating Learning in Serious Games: A Look at Behavioural Aspects BIBAKFull-Text 219-230
  Sobah A. Petersen; Michael A. Bedek
In this paper, we describe an approach to modelling competences as learning resources in a serious game environment, where competences are described in detail to identify observable behavioural indicators. This enables the evaluation and assessment of learning, where specific behaviours indicate if a player does or does not have a competence. We have used the OKEI Competence Modelling Framework to describe the competences, where the application of a competence in a specific situation or within a context can be modelled. The main focus of this paper is to analyse and discuss the opportunities and challenges that we have experienced during this work. While the approach is resources intensive to describe the competences in sufficient level of detail, it provides a reusable set of Behavioural Indicators that can be used both in designing and evaluating other Technology Enhanced Learning applications. Most importantly, the work provided important input for the design of the game scenarios in describing situations and relevant contextual information as well as input for improving the believability of the avatars in the game.
Keywords: Evaluation; Serious Games; Behaviour; Competence Assessment; Game Design; Character Design
AmbiLearn: Enhancing the Learning Environment for Primary School Education BIBAKFull-Text 231-242
  Jennifer Hyndman; Tom Lunney; Paul Mc Kevitt
Technology is at a stage where it has infiltrated the education system with the potential to enhance teaching and learning. In Northern Ireland a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) infrastructure is in place. However, statistics and government reports suggest that VLE use amongst the primary school sector is quite limited. In an attempt to redress the limited use of VLEs in the primary school sector this research investigates the potential of serious games and how they may compliment the National Curriculum with the development of AmbiLearn, an enhanced learning environment with a content neutral game-based approach and content creation and reporting modules. This paper presents the design and implementation of AmbiLearn. Preliminary analysis of data from evaluation of AmbiLearn shows promising results and directions for future work are discussed.
Keywords: Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs); Educational Games; Assessment for Learning; AmbiLearn; Content neutral; Game-based approach
Developing Serious Games Specifically Adapted to People Suffering from Alzheimer BIBAKFull-Text 243-254
  Bruno Bouchard; Frédérick Imbeault; Abdenour Bouzouane; Bob-Antoine J. Menelas
To face new challenges caused by society aging, several researchers have initiated the experimentation of serious games as a re-education platform to help slowing down the decline of people suffering from Alzheimer. In the last few years, academic studies have been conducted and some commercial products (Nintendo's Brain Age, Big Brain Academy, etc.) have emerged. Nevertheless, these initiatives suffer from multiple important limitations since they do not really suit perceptual and interaction needs of silver-aged gamers, more specifically people suffering from Alzheimer disease. In an effort to address this important issue, we present in this paper a set of specific guidelines for designing and implementing effective serious games targeting silver-aged and Alzheimer's patients. Our guidelines cover the following aspects: (i) choosing right in-game challenges, (ii) designing appropriate interaction mechanisms for cognitively impaired people, (iii) implementing artificial intelligence for providing adequate assistive prompting and dynamic difficulty adjustments, (iv) producing effective visual and auditory assets to maximize cognitive training. Also, as a case study, we present the prototype of our new serious game for Alzheimer's patients.
Keywords: Serious games; Cognitive training; Alzheimer disease; Adaptation; personalization
Experience in Serious Games: Between Positive and Serious Experience BIBAKFull-Text 255-267
  Tim Marsh; Brigid Costello
This paper discusses the conceptual, practical and ethical considerations towards the development of a framework of experience to inform design and assessment of serious games. Towards this, we review the literature on experience in interaction design, HCI, and games, and identify that the dominant focus for design has been, and still remains, on positive and fun experience. In contrast, anything other than positive experience is often loosely and sometimes inappropriately lumped together under the broad label "negative experience" which can imply bad experience and something to be avoided, while at the same time suggesting it's not useful to design. While work in HCI and the games literature begins to address experience beyond positive, it just scratches the surface. By turning to drama, performance, literature, music, art and film that has shaped experiences and emotion beyond the positive and fun for many years, we describe what experience beyond positive looks like, show how it is not always "uncomfortable" and how it can be classed as entertainment, and argue for the more appropriate term "serious experience". We propose that the focus for design of interaction and serious games should be an appropriate rhythm between positive and serious experience. Finally, we discuss the importance of the take-away message and positive and serious experience in serious games to linger or resonate post-encounter for players in order to encourage reflection and fulfill purpose, and describe associated ethical concerns and make recommendations for designers, evaluators and practitioners in order to safeguard players/users.
Keywords: Positive Experience; Negative Experience; Serious Experience; Framework; Design; Assessment; Linger; Resonate; Reflection