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SGDA Tables of Contents: 11121314

Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Serious Games Development and Applications

Fullname:SGDA 2013: 4th International Conference on Serious Games Development and Applications
Editors:Minhua Ma; Manuel Fradinho Oliveira; Sobah Petersen; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge
Location:Trondheim, Norway
Dates:2013-Sep-25 to 2013-Sep-27
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8101
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40790-1 hcibib: SGDA13; ISBN: 978-3-642-40789-5 (print), 978-3-642-40790-1 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Games for Health
  2. Games for Education and Training
  3. Games for Other Purposes
  4. Game Design and Theories
  5. Gaming Interface
  6. Policy Matters

Games for Health

Emotion Recognition for Mobile Devices with a Potential Use in Serious Games for Autism Spectrum Disorder BIBAKFull-Text 1-14
  Olav Brenna Hansen; Adiljan Abdurihim; Simon McCallum
The continued improvement in the processing power of mobile devices, has enabled the deployment of complex processing and analysis in real time on personal devices. The prevalence of mobile devices, and the primary use as a gaming platform, provide an opportunity to create Serious Games based on complex image processing. This article focuses on the communication skills of children with autism, and develops a game using automated emotion recognition to assist in learning to interact in emotionally rich situations. This paper is an initial technology demonstration, which will lead, in future publications, to a full assessment of effect. The game uses automatic recognition of smiling to provide a scoring mechanism for player who collect facial expressions from people around them.
Keywords: Mobile devices; serious games; games for health; games for education; autism spectrum disorder
Dementia Games: A Literature Review of Dementia-Related Serious Games BIBAKFull-Text 15-27
  Simon McCallum; Costas Boletsis
Serious games find wide application in the health domain, occupying their own place in the video game industry (games for health). Currently, there is a proliferation of cognitive training, exercise and social games, targeting one of the most dangerous disease of the era: dementia, as well as its various symptoms and stages like Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the dementia-related gaming field is still uncharted. In this literature review, we list studies on serious games related to dementia, that are supported by evaluation tests on dementia, MCI and AD patients with published, peer-reviewed results. This review discusses the effects that games, which include Wii Fit, Wii Sports, Big Brain Academy, Lumosity, SmartBrain Games, MasterQuiz, MINDs et al., have on dementia-related conditions. The review leads us to the conclusions that, firstly, even though many games were developed for entertainment purposes, they are being used for health reasons (usually after technical or conceptual modification), acquiring the characteristics of serious games and, secondly, dementia games do have an effect on cognitive impaired people. If that effect is long-lasting and/or transferable to the daily activities is a matter of further scientific investigation.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; dementia; literature review; mild cognitive impairment; serious games
Training Adapted to Alzheimer Patients for Reducing Daily Activities Errors and Cognitive Decline BIBAKFull-Text 28-36
  Julien Vandewynckel; Martin J. D. Otis; Bruno Bouchard; Bob-Antoine J. Menelas
Alzheimer disease becomes a major issue in elder population. To enhance their autonomy and solve future financial issues, we propose an adaptive game based on a non-intrusive shoe-mounted accelerometer able to recognize daily activities and errors. By solving puzzles, the user can train himself his erroneous activities, and re-learn a few. The main goal behind this game is to delay the cognitive decline while creating an evaluation tool for the health-care professional by the computation of a score taking into account the correctitude and the perseverance.
Keywords: Alzheimer; memory training; instrumented shoe
SimClinic -- An Auxiliary Tool for Evaluation on Clinical Case Settings BIBAFull-Text 37-50
  Francisco Raposo; Guilherme Santos; João Pereira
Physicians have one of the most important professions in society. It is imperative to make sure that they are up to the challenges they will face throughout their careers, and that can be achieved by having the adequate evaluation methods. However, current assessment methods do not take advantage of the latest technologies. With this in mind the objective of this project was to test the potential of serious games as auxiliary assessment tools for doctors or students. Serious games allow the simulation of cases that are hard to recreate in real life, and therefore they can complement other types of evaluation methods that are already used.
   To achieve the proposed goal, an application was developed where the objective is to solve a cardiology-related clinical case using all actions that a doctor can usually perform in such settings. The application records the user's actions and rates them according to Key Performance Indicators. These rating tools serve to automatically evaluate how the player performed. So, in order to test their effectiveness, the automatic scores were compared with ratings made by healthcare professionals on the same sequences of actions. The final results were very satisfactory, showing some similarities between the tool and the opinion of the medics. The difference between both results reached a maximum of 30%, occurring only in rare situations.
A Kinect-Based System for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Simulation: A Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 51-63
  Voravika Wattanasoontorn; Milan Magdics; Imma Boada; Mateu Sbert
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) training is a crucial procedure to reduce the decease from cardiac arrest in pre-hospital situation. Due to the importance of CPR its knowledge is required not only by professions prescribing CPR certification such as fire fighter, life guard, police or daycare, but also by laypersons. To learn CPR skill, practice is highly recommended and 3D simulators with effective interaction tools are one of the best options to practice CPR anywhere and anytime. In this paper, we present a pilot study in developing a Kinect-based system focusing on two key parameters of the CPR procedure: the chest compression rate and correct arm pose, implemented in our existing CPR training system, LIfe Support Simulation Application (LISSA). Our system falls into the category of markerless tracking using commercial depth-cameras, making the proposed method flexible and economic. We also present a comparison with different CPR feedback systems with regard to the chest compression rate and correct arm pose.
Keywords: Kinect; CPR; serious games; interaction
Towards a Serious Game for Trauma Treatment BIBAKFull-Text 64-69
  Simon Mayr; Paolo Petta
Serious games deliver interactive worlds in support of a wide range of application areas. Addressing the current paucity of scientific empirical studies in game-based psychotherapy, we present a principled concept for the design and deployment of a Trauma Treatment Game aimed at the support of individualised interventions to children suffering from childhood trauma. Focusing on the particular methodological challenges of IT-based psycho-therapeutic support, we detail a domain-general staged process that is fully embedded in a scaffolding of validation and evaluation assessments. We motivate the structural decomposition, explain the nature and requirements of quality insurance measures, identify suitable instruments for their implementation, and specify success criteria and contingency measures.
Keywords: cognitive psychotherapy; trauma treatment; Mexican protocol; serious game concept design; evaluation and validation; ethics
Game Design for All: The Example of Hammer and Planks BIBAKFull-Text 70-75
  Ines Di Loreto; Benoit Lange; Antoine Seilles; Sebastien Andary; William Dyce
The last years have seen a growing interest in the Serious Games topic -- and in particular in Games for Health -- from both scientific and industrial communities. However not only is the effectiveness of this kind of game not yet demonstrated but the distribution and adoption of these games by the mainstream market is still very low. In this paper we present a game for hemiplegic rehabilitation called "Hammer and Planks". The game was developed with the adoption by the general public in mind and has shown interesting results during a first experimentation at a game exhibition.
Keywords: Serious Games; Games for Health; Movement based games

Games for Education and Training

Learning by Playing and Learning by Making BIBAKFull-Text 76-85
  Barbara Garneli; Michail N. Giannakos; Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Letizia Jaccheri
Serious video games have been proposed as a means to engage students with the Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) curriculum, but there is limited research on the required game elements and teaching practices. In particular, there is limited evidence on the effects of the storytelling element and of student involvement in making games on the learning performance and on the attitudes of the students. For this purpose, we designed a between groups experiment with eighty students (12 to 13 years old). They formed three equivalent groups of twenty students each who practiced with a serious game in three different ways. The first group played the storytelling game, the second played the same game but with no story, and the third was engaged with modifying the game code. Finally, the last (control) group practiced traditionally by solving exercises on paper. We found that girls with low grades benefited the most by playing the game and by engaging with the code and that the game making group wishes to repeat the exercise. Further research should perform similar studies with a focus on involving students in serious game modification, over longer periods of time and for additional curriculum topics.
Keywords: Serious game; programming environment; behaviorism; constructivism; storytelling element; code engagement; CS education
The Table Mystery: An Augmented Reality Collaborative Game for Chemistry Education BIBAKFull-Text 86-95
  Costas Boletsis; Simon McCallum
Educational games constitute a major field inside the serious games ecosystem, attempting to educate the players, while entertaining them. Augmented Reality (AR) has found application in educational games, introducing properties that improve gameplay and that potentially produce unique educational affordances. In this study, we present the "Table Mystery" game, an under-development mystery-adventure game utilising Augmented Reality to provide an exciting and engaging educational experience related to chemistry and, more specifically, to the elements of the periodic table. The game is developed for the Science Centre in Oppland county, Norway (Vitensenteret Innlandet). The long-term study's purpose is to examine the effect of Augmented Reality on providing engaging and exciting, short-term educational experiences.
Keywords: Augmented Reality; educational games; game-based learning; periodic table
Enhancing the Reading Experience through User-Generated Serious Games on the MyGame-4u Platform BIBAKFull-Text 96-107
  Christopher De Marco; Christine Evain; Francisco Gutierrez
The characteristics of generation Z, or the digital generation, have led us to rethink our pedagogy for bringing challenging literature into the classroom. Our research is based on creating a serious game platform in collaboration with a team of students who were involved both in the programming and testing of our platform called MyGame-4u. This platform allows students to share contributor-generated games in the field of literature. Using the Bloom taxonomy of learning objectives, our team of researchers developed a bank of question templates for the platform corresponding to the five levels of learning in the taxonomy. This paper also refers to the findings of techno-culture theorists in relation to the generation Z profile as well as Csikszentmihalyi's eight dimensions of the flow experience. Having tested MyGame-4u, we believe that such tools can help students break down the reading activity into achievable tasks and thus allow them to develop their capacity to read and to appreciate long novels.
Keywords: Game-based learning; reading; social reading; Gen Z; literature; participative culture
Work Safety and Health Games-Based Learning BIBAKFull-Text 108-117
  Peter Leong; Vincent Goh
Games-based learning is being explored by adult learning trainers in various vocational domains such as Work Safety and Health (WSH). One of the big challenges in deploying games-based learning in a larger scale is the high costs associated with customized development of the WSH games. Games development often requires specialized programming skills, and also content expertise from academic specialists. Our Rapid, Easy Authoring Platform for Serious Games (REAPSG) empowers academics and trainers to create the games-based learning content on their own without the need for specialized programming skills.
Keywords: Serious games; Rapid Authoring Tool; Work Safety and Health; Adult Learning
Learning Efficacy of the 'Hazard Recognition' Serious Game BIBAKFull-Text 118-129
  Igor Mayer; Arthur Wolff; Ivo Wenzler
The authors present the study design and main findings of a quasi-experimental evaluation of the learning efficacy of the Serious Game (SG) 'Hazard Recognition' (HR). The SG-HR is a playable, two-level demonstration version for training supervisors who work at oil and gas drilling sites. The game has been developed with a view to developing a full-blown, game-based training environment for operational safety in the oil and gas industry. One of the many barriers to upscaling and implementing a game for training is the questioned learning efficacy of the game. The authors therefore conducted a study into the game's learning efficacy and the factors that contribute to it. The authors used a Framework for Comparative Evaluation (FCE) of SG, and combined it with the Kowalski model for Hazard Detection and the Noel Burch competence model. Four experimental game sessions were held, two involving 60 professionals working in the oil and gas industry, and two with engineering students and consultants. Relevant constructs were operationalized and data were gathered using pre and post-game questionnaires. The authors conclude that the SG-HR improves players' skills and knowledge on hazard detection and assessment, and it facilitates significant learning efficacy in this topic. The FCE proved very helpful for setting up the evaluation and selecting the constructs.
Keywords: Hazard Recognition; Serious Game; Emergency Management; Virtual Training; Oil and Gas industry
Serious Gaming in Manufacturing Education BIBAKFull-Text 130-144
  Manuel Oliveira; Gregor Cerinsek; Heiko Duin; Marco Taisch
The human capital for the European Factories of the Future is the key enabler to competing in high value manufacturing. Therefore, the education and training schemes for young talents, supported by new and rapidly developing ICT technologies, have to be flexible and adaptable to the future manufacturing needs. New approaches for managing knowledge and developing skills will be required so that the manufacturing decision making can be dispersed in the production level. In order for the best of European human capital to be a center of attention, the weak societal appeal of manufacturing has to be overcome as evidenced in the decline of student interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) subjects.
   The aim of the paper is to focus on a sample of current offer of serious games in manufacturing education. Although manufacturing education have been using simulations in facilitating a better understanding of the theoretical concepts, the transition to using serious games is prone to mistakes. This paper presents the comparative analysis of three existing serious games in manufacturing education, assessing the game design and pedagogical underpinnings of the serious games. The result of the analysis has yielded a set of guidelines that supports the development of serious games in manufacturing education.
Keywords: serious games; manufacturing education
The Rake and the X BIBAKFull-Text 145-150
  Tine Rosenthal Johansen; Thomas Duus Henriksen
This paper illustrates two models for using learning games to teach across disciplines and classes. Two different learning games are used for bringing together students from different courses to facilitate cross-disciplinary classes on management and organisational learning.
Keywords: Learning Game; Didactic Design; Higher Education

Games for Other Purposes

The Ambience Table: A Serious Gaming Interface for Aiding Sound Design BIBAKFull-Text 151-164
  Andreas Jönsson; Ronan Breslin; Minhua Ma
Ambient sound plays a critical part in all media related to the moving image, video games, and live performance. It defines its place and time, temporalizes it to towards a future goal and is key in creating audience immersion and belief in what we see. The process of recording, manipulating or designing audio elements is usually handled by competent professionals. Can a different approach be had to the way we design sound ambiences and what relationship and role does ambient sound have to media such as film and games? Using object-oriented programming environment, Max/MSP, a low-cost serious gaming interface was designed and implemented -- the Ambience Designer. This rids the process of its esoteric nature and together with an especially crafted tabletop interface allows amateurs to design and interact with the ambient sounds of birds, wind and traffic for home movies and indie games. The Ambience Designer removes the esoteric ways of audio design in a Digital Audio Workstation (DAW) and use intuitive user input that connect with our every day subjective experience of sound -- such as distance, placement, and intensity -- in place of parameters that only professionals could understand and use. Future developments include moving the Ambience Designer to a commercial multi touch table/tablet such as Microsoft Surface or Apple iPad which will enable us to utilise more intuitive, multi-touch gestures such as tap, scroll, pan, rotate, and pinch. The Ambience Designer was evaluated among working professionals, amateurs and the general public and initial findings were promising. During the survey, participants also suggested some future applications of the Ambience Designer, such as a creative and educational tool for children or people with special needs, for therapeutic purposes, to trigger memories in elderly, for digital storytelling and post-production sound dubbing for picture.
Keywords: Serious games; ambient sound; audio design; sound design; sound for moving image; game audio; intuitive user interface
Supporting Crisis Training with a Mobile Game System BIBAKFull-Text 165-177
  Ines Di Loreto; Emil A. Mork; Simone Mora; Monica Divitini
Crisis training is highly complex and it requires multiple approaches. Games have a high potential in this context because they might support players in exploring different situations and experience different crisis scenarios. This paper proposes a mobile game system for crisis training. The system aims to promote soft skills and basic procedures learning. The system is composed by (i) a website that allows to set up the game and review game results and (ii) a mobile game. The set up supports the tailoring of games that better fit the specific learning needs of the players. The actual play promotes gaining of experience. The final review is intended to promote reflection on the gained experience, mirroring debriefing sessions that are common in crisis situations. Results from the initial evaluation show that the game and the post-game reflection are useful to train soft skills and to improve behavior.
Keywords: Serious Games; Crisis Management; Mobile Games; Soft Skills
Serious Game for Quantum Research BIBAFull-Text 178-187
  Oliver T. Brown; John Truesdale; Sandy Louchart; Suzanne McEndoo; Sabrina Maniscalco; Judy Robertson; Theodore Lim; Stephen Kilbride
In this article, we discuss the development and evaluation of a game designed to harness non-expert human intuition for scientific research in the field of Quantum Physics (Quantum Information). Since many physics problems are represented and analysed in a geometric space, we hypothesized that human predispositions such as geo-spatial intuition could be considered as a means to reduce the search space in some optimisation problems in quantum information which are currently solved through brute force approaches. We developed a 3D digital game in order to investigate players' ability to solve a known and quantifiable current research problem in quantum physics. In this article, we describe our motivations for conducting this work, the game design and its implementation, our experimental design and an analysis of the results obtained via player evaluation. Initial results are promising, indicating that players can indeed find known solutions to the example problem.
The Evaluation of Serious Games Supporting Creativity through Student Labs BIBAKFull-Text 188-199
  Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge; Heiko Duin; Klaus-Dieter Thoben
The success of the European economy is to a large extent depending on the ability of European industry to foster innovation and to develop new product and services. Innovation is perceived to be Europe's key to economic success in the current market environment in which strong competition from both the established and emerging Asian economies concern companies and politics. A key role is here played by people in the culture and creative sector as a driver for new ideas. It is the aim of the Cultural and Creative Industry (CCI) to move towards a creative economy by catalyzing the spill-over effects of CCIs on a wide range of economic and social contexts, such as manufacturing, education, etc. Creative thinking, especially when performed collaboratively, is an engaging activity that fosters participation, discussion and deep reflection about real-world problems. Creative thinking is thus one of the competencies expected from tomorrow's worker. These are all highly desirable characteristics in any learning process, and represent the core of the rapidly increasing academic effort towards using educational games to engage students in situated deep learning activities. This article presents a game used for stimulating the creative thinking process among students aiming at facilitating the application of creativity as part of the learning process.
Keywords: radical innovation; incremental innovation; games for creativity; learning experience; curriculum changes; game based learning; creativity methods
HiNTHunt -- A Pervasive Game to Support and Encourage Desired Activities for New Students BIBAKFull-Text 200-205
  Trygve Pløhn; Trond Aalberg
Gameplay has proven to be a useful tool in many types of training and learning situations. This paper presents the game HiNTHunt, an experimental pervasive game designed to encourage students to socialize and learn the basics about the campus when they arrive as new students at a university. Our analysis of the game usage and gameplay experience shows that this approach for motivating students to perform specific activities is well accepted, but we have also identified some challenges that must be considered in the development of such games.
Keywords: serious games; pervasive gaming; learning; training
Serious Game Modules for Entertainment Games BIBAKFull-Text 206-211
  Darren Eymundson; Michael Janzen
Following in the work of Bellotti et al. we present a forest simulator serious game module. Such a game module could be included with a strategy game primarily designed for entertainment, in order to teach the player lessons in ecology. The ecology in our module is simple, primarily focused on competition for resources of sunlight in the air, and nitrogen in the soil. We simulate three scenarios: growth of a forest, a forest take over by an invasive species, and selectively harvesting a forest compared to clear cutting a forest.
Keywords: serious game modules; virtual plants; genetic algorithms; L-systems
Serious Games Integration in an Entrepreneurship Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) BIBAKFull-Text 212-225
  Margarida Romero; Mireia Usart
The current crisis in Europe has raised the need to increase the entrepreneurship orientation of students and adult citizens. At the same time, Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) has appeared as a disruptive innovation that permits to engage a large number of persons in an online open course available through Internet to anyone aiming to enrol. MOOC has been deployed based on basic technologies such text-based materials, video-lectures and forum based interactions. In this study we introduce the design of a MOOC for Entrepreneurship education that aims to go one step further by integrating the use of Serious Games as a key part of the methodology for teaching and learning entrepreneurship basics in the context of a MOOC.
Keywords: Serious Games; Game Based Learning; Massive Online Open Course; Entrepreneurship

Game Design and Theories

Simulating Ability: Representing Skills in Games BIBAKFull-Text 226-238
  Magnus Lie Hetland
Throughout the history of games, representing the abilities of the various agents acting on behalf of the players has been a central concern. With increasingly sophisticated games emerging, these simulations have become more realistic, but the underlying mechanisms are still, to a large extent, of an ad hoc nature. This paper proposes using a logistic model from psychometrics as a unified mechanism for task resolution in simulation-oriented games.
Keywords: games; characters; skills; task resolution; simulation; psychometrics
Design for Transfer BIBAKFull-Text 239-246
  Derek A. Kuipers; Bard O. Wartena; Ate Dijkstra; Jelle T. Prins; Jean-Pierre E. N. Pierie
This paper explores the use of design for transfer in simulations and serious games. Key in this study is the hypothesis that meaningful play can be achieved by designing for figural transfer by the use of metaphorical recontextualisation. The Game Transfer Model (GTM) is introduced as a tool for designing and thinking about serious game design, stretching the possibilities from high-fidelity simulations to metaphorical fantasy worlds. Key for in-game learning experience is the presence of conceptual continuity defined by the congruence of fidelity-elements. The GTM differentiates between realisticness and realism. Where simulations use the road of literal transfer and therefore relies on realisticness and high-fidelity, figural transfer can be a guiding principle for serious game design, using metaphorical recontextualisation to maintain conceptual continuity. Conceptual continuity aligns fidelity and enables the game to connect its serious content to the realities of life.
Keywords: Serious video games; figural transfer; game transfer model; metaphorical recontextualisation; fidelity dissonance; conceptual continuity; meaningful play
Designing Well with Others BIBAKFull-Text 247-253
  Thomas Duus Henriksen
Have you ever been sitting in a game-design workshop trying to make a game work when suddenly someone suggested incorporating elements like drawing a card or rolling a die as a contribution to creating a functional design? How did that make you feel? Yes, so did I, but please read a bit further -- there might be a solution for that. This paper proposes a model for using your customer's key competencies, not to design the game, but to qualify the processes of establishing and meeting learning criteria.
Keywords: Learning game; game design; key competences; co-design
An Emerging Model of Creative Game-Based Learning BIBAKFull-Text 254-259
  Anja Sisarica; Neil Maiden
We consider the integration of creative approaches to problem solving into pervasive games is a natural extension of play for creative thinking -- one that can innovatively drive technology-led changes to the facilitation of creative thinking and pose a new genre in serious gaming for learning. This paper presents an initial proposal of a new model of creative game-base learning (CGBL), which emerged through mapping of established characteristics of climates that encourage creativity and innovation to characteristics of effective serious games.
Keywords: Creativity; serious games; game-based learning; model
Exploiting Psychological Needs to Increase Motivation for Learning BIBAKFull-Text 260-265
  Malin Aas Berg; Sobah Abbas Petersen
This paper presents a mobile game for supporting language learning, which is motivated by the challenges faced by students starting university in acquiring technical terminology, particularly in a foreign language. The mobile game is designed based on the psychological needs of learners and adopts user generated content for gathering and creation of the learning material. The research questions addressed are: i) Does generating your own learning content affect motivation and learning? ii) Does addressing the psychological needs affect motivation and learning? User studies indicate that learners are motivated by the fact that they can create their own content and their motivation increases significantly as they create the quizzes and play the games.
Keywords: Mobile Games; Language Learning; Situated learning; Motivation; Psychological needs; User Generated Content; Quiz games
Towards Effective Evaluation of Serious Games in Relation to Educational Objectives BIBAKFull-Text 266-272
  Afef Ghannem; Maha Khemaja
Serious games allow immersion and interaction with a virtual world that can be used to support training. To be engaging and encourage learning, games must include a clear educational gain and must be scripted by the objectives of the course designer. Games' evaluation is therefore essential. Finding the right game that best suits the needs of any Instructional Designer is often a laborious task. In this paper, we aim applying ontology matching algorithms to both games and IMS-LD compliant Learning processes to decide whether a game could be entirely integrated to the e-Learning process or should be adapted. For that aim, we have chosen ontologies as a relevant formalism for both IMS-LD and game theory.
Keywords: Serious game; Game Based Learning; evaluation; ontology; alignment; education
Using Learning Games to Meet Learning Objectives BIBAKFull-Text 273-277
  Thomas Duus Henriksen
This paper addresses the question on how learning games can be used to meet with the different levels in Bloom's and the SOLO taxonomy, which are commonly used for evaluating the learning outcome of educational activities. The paper discusses the quality of game-based learning outcomes based on a case study of the learning game 6Styles.
Keywords: Learning game; Bloom's taxonomy; SOLO; leadership
Cognitive Maps of Serious Games: An Exploratory Approach of Learners' Representations BIBAKFull-Text 278-287
  Hélène Michel
Serious games can be defined as "games in which education (in its various forms) is the primary goal, rather than entertainment" (Michael and Chen, 2006). These applications use the characteristics of video games to engage individual in a learning experience. They belong to the type of computer-mediated environments of human learning, combining mediatized learning by machines, simulation, emotional reactions and professionalization.
Keywords: Serious Games; Systems of representations; Mean-end chains; Cognitive maps

Gaming Interface

A Serious Game for the Learning of Vibrotactile Feedbacks Presented under the Foot: How Many and How Fast? BIBAFull-Text 288-298
  David Gagnon; Martin J. -D. Otis; Bob-Antoine J. Menelas
Vision and auditory channels are often used to convey information quickly. Knowing that hearing and vision are generally loaded with plenty of stimuli, the use of touch as an alternative medium of communication could unload those senses. Although many studies have been conducted on haptic icons or tactile icons, few of them have focused on the foot as a medium of communication. This paper particularly investigate the maximum number of vibrotactile messages that could be memorized when displayed under the foot. The method is based on a daily training wrapped in a serious game. In the latter, the avatar must be led to different locations through risky path. Risky events are displayed along the route through vibrotactile feedbacks, which have to be identified by the player. A preliminary experiment shows the usability of this serious game for learning a large number of vibrotactile stimuli.
Idle Motion Synthesis of Human Head and Face in Virtual Reality Environment BIBAKFull-Text 299-306
  Maja Kocon
In this paper, a way of head, face and eyes blinking idle motion synthesis for virtual characters was proposed. Idle mode is interpreted as subtle moves that occur in animation when a virtual person is waiting for external events. In our approach for head and face movements analysis the translations of characteristic points obtained from video sequences were used. Based on the motion parameters the transitions between facial and head states were obtained by the motion probabilities. Finally, an algorithm for creating head, face and eyes blinking idle animation was proposed. Such type of animation eliminates the freeze moments while the character is waiting for the event making it more friendly to the user in the game or other artificial environment.
Keywords: game character; human-computer interaction (HCI); face-head motion; idle mode

Policy Matters

Serious Games in a European Policy Context BIBAKFull-Text 307-320
  Igor Mayer; Johann C. K. H. Riedel; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge; Francesco Bellotti; Alessandro de Gloria; Michela Ott; Sobah Abbas Petersen
The authors analyze the policy discourse on the utility of games for society at the level of the European Union, and for five EU countries, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Norway. The ongoing study is part of a Research Roadmap developed within the GALA Network of Excellence on Serious Games (2010-2014, EU FP7). The authors identify four policy discourses on the utility of serious games that they label as Technology Enhanced Learning; Creative Innovation; Social Inclusion and Empowerment and Complex Systems. The policies applicable to SGs in the five European countries are briefly described and compared. It was seen that some countries have explicit policies for SGs (the Netherlands, Germany); whereas most of the countries only have implicit policies not directly addressing SGs but which can be used to support SGs development and use.
Keywords: Serious Games; Policy Discourse; European Union; Innovation Policy; Creative industries; Netherlands; UK; Germany; Italy; Norway