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SGDA Tables of Contents: 11121314

Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Serious Games Development and Applications

Fullname:SGDA 2014: 5th International Conference on Serious Games Development and Applications
Editors:Minhua Ma; Manuel Fradinho Oliveira; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge
Location:Berlin, Germany
Dates:2014-Oct-09 to 2014-Oct-10
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8778
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-11623-5 hcibib: SGDA14; ISBN: 978-3-319-11622-8 (print), 978-3-319-11623-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Games for Health
  2. Games for Medical Training
  3. Serious Games for Children
  4. Music and Sound Effects
  5. Games for Other Purposes
  6. Game Design and Theories

Games for Health

PhysioVinci -- A First Approach on a Physical Rehabilitation Game BIBAKFull-Text 1-9
  Tiago Martins; Miguel Araújo; Vitor Carvalho; Filomena Soares; Luís Torrão
Several studies have shown very positive results regarding the use of serious games as rehabilitation tools for individuals with physical disabilities, mainly because the game environment gives them the necessary motivation to continue their treatment with enthusiasm. Thus, the objective of this paper is to describe the first steps on the development of a 3D game for physical therapy of patients with motor disabilities as a result of neurological disorders.
Keywords: Serious games; rehabilitation tools; motor disabilities; motivation; physical therapy; neurological diseases
A Pilot Evaluation of a Therapeutic Game Applied to Small Animal Phobia Treatment BIBAKFull-Text 10-20
  Maja Wrzesien; Mariano Alcañiz; Cristina Botella; Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Juana Breton Lopez; Alejandro Rodriguez Ortega
This study presents Catch Me game, a therapeutic game for teaching patients how to confront to their feared animals during spider and cockroach phobia treatment, and evaluates whether inclusion of gaming elements into therapeutic protocol does have an added value for the treatment. The Catch Me game was designed in order to help patients learn about their feared animals and to learn how to apply adapted confrontation strategies and techniques with the lowest possible anxiety level. In this study, Catch Me game was evaluated in terms of knowledge acquisition, anxiety level, self-efficacy belief acquisition, and appeal to both participants and therapists. Data collection consisted of quantitative measures on a sample of 14 non-clinical population. The results showed that the game significantly improved knowledge and self-efficacy belief regarding the feared animal, and significantly decreased the anxiety level of participants. Moreover, both participants and the therapists were highly satisfied with the game.
Keywords: Therapeutic games; augmented reality; phobias
Effect of Ecological Gestures on the Immersion of the Player in a Serious Game BIBAFull-Text 21-33
  Nicolas Bourgault; Bruno Bouchard; Bob-Antoine J. Menelas
In the last decade, several researches have promoted the use of serious games in the medical field. Such solutions are generally played with ecological interfaces in order to attract elderly. It is unclear whether or not these controllers make their respective games more immersive. In this paper, we report the first step of our ongoing research toward the understanding of the relationship between the use of tangible interface with ecological gesture recognition and the immersion level of a serious game adapted for individuals affected by Alzheimer's disease. This first step of our project aimed at investigating the impact of such an interface with healthy people. Initial results suggest that the use of such a controller does not impact the immersion score of the game. Nevertheless, findings indicate it may increase the immersion score when the player has not an extensive contact with video games.
Using Serious Games for Cognitive Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 34-47
  Rita Marques Tomé; João Madeiras Pereira; Manuel Oliveira
Serious games have increasingly become a good option with regards to professional training. However, the majority isn't appropriate for people with cognitive disabilities, since there are several obstacles when developing for such a heterogeneous population.
   This paper's objective is to contribute for the development of serious games for people with cognitive disabilities by presenting a list of recommended design principles, collated from recent literature. A strong emphasis is placed on the adaptability of games since this is an important characteristic that ensures the game can be configured to fit to the needs of each player, minimizing the obstacles encountered and providing a personalized environment for learning.
   In some cases cognitive disabilities can have motor control implications and consequently the traditional devices commonly used may not be the most appropriate for this population. In order to help developers choosing an adequate device, this paper also surveys and compares the most common devices used nowadays for serious games.
Atmosphaeres -- 360° Video Environments for Stress and Pain Management BIBAKFull-Text 48-58
  Eric Fassbender; Wolfgang Heiden
The Atmosphaeres project aims to reduce sufferers' stress and pain levels by using 360° video environments that are presented in a highly immersive Head-Mounted Display (HMD). Here we report first insights of our prototype combination of the 360° video environments and the Oculus Rift, the HMD used for our project. We find that our 'Atmosphaeres' are capable of truly transporting the user to another, virtually created location, however, there were a number of restrictions with the first system, including image quality and nausea which we hope to eliminate with the system we present in this paper. There are also a number of research questions that need to be considered for the use of the Atmosphaeres in stress and pain management or for general relaxation purposes. These questions include whether 360° video environments are capable of reducing stress and experienced pain and whether changes to the Oculus Rift DK2 do in fact reduce the nausea that was often caused by the DK1. Sound is another important yet often under-considered factor in many Virtual Reality applications and questions we seek to answer revolve around how the quality and type of audio contribute to users' feeling of presence and ultimately their stress and pain levels.
Keywords: Immersive Virtual Environments; Head-Mounted Displays; Restorative Virtual Environments; Stress Management; Pain Reduction

Games for Medical Training

Sense: An Interactive Learning Application That Visualizes the Nerve Supply of Face BIBAKFull-Text 59-67
  Yeshwanth Pulijala; Minhua Ma
Human Nervous System is one of the basic yet most difficult topics in medical education. With millions of neurons from varied origins, pathways and types regulating different functions, it is the least understood system of human body. Among all the organs, the face has a dense nerve innervations in a compact area making it a challenge for students to gain the required anatomical expertise. The Sense project is an effort made to overcome this challenging task by enabling interactive learning with the help of an intuitive user interface. The ability to learn and test the anatomical knowledge based on a novel three-dimensional head with particle flow animations to visualize nerve impulse propagation makes this application stand out from the conventional and interactive methods of anatomy education. This paper presents the design and development of this application using the Unity 3D game engine. Possible future improvements for evaluation are also discussed.
Keywords: Medical education; 3D visualization; interactive learning; human anatomy; nerve supply of face; Unity 3D; serious games
Sepsis Fast Track: A Serious Game for Medical Decision Making BIBAKFull-Text 68-81
  Claudia Ribeiro; Micaela Monteiro; João Madeiras Pereira; Tiago Antunes; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge
Severe sepsis and sepsis shock are major healthcare problems, affecting millions of people around the world. In order to undermine its potential threat and effect on patients, a medical decision protocol based on evidence was developed to help healthcare professionals to both identify as well as treat these patients in a timely manner. Keeping updated with the algorithm guidelines implies healthcare professionals attending workshop classes, which further complicates the management of resources in an Emergency Department. In this paper we describe the Sepsis Fast Track serious game aimed at teaching healthcare professionals the Sepsis Fast Track guidelines. A set of game mechanics where proposed and developed in order to integrate the guidelines pedagogical goals in the sepsis fast track serious game's gameplay cycle. A case study was conducted in order to validate if these mechanics are appropriate to both teach and refresh healthcare professionals' knowledge.
Keywords: Serious Games; Sepsis Fast Track; Game Mechanics; Work Practices

Serious Games for Children

iBUAT: Paper Prototyping of Interactive Game Design Authoring Tool for Children BIBAKFull-Text 82-92
  Laili Farhana Md Ibharim; Maizatul Hayati Mohamad Yatim
There are variety of authoring tools for game design in our market nowadays that can be accessed via online or software installation. However, the main question is if the authoring tools are child-friendly, especially in using the touch screen device? This paper describes the preliminary development process of authoring tool for game design known as paper prototyping with children aged between 7 and 12 years old. The evaluation applied the Think Aloud technique in observation and semi structured interview. This study focused on the seven elements of usability, which are i) interface design; ii) features and functionality; iii) interaction; iv) satisfaction; v) effectiveness; vi) efficiency; and vi) learnability of the authoring tool.
Keywords: Authoring tool; children; creativity and skill; game design
A Review of Serious Games for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) BIBAKFull-Text 93-106
  Hanan Makki Zakari; Minhua Ma; David Simmons
This paper reviews 40 serious games designed for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and these games/studies are classified into four categories; technology platform, computer graphics, gaming aspect and user interaction. Moreover, the paper discusses serious games designed for the improvement of communication skills and social behavior, social conversation, imaginative skills, sensory integration and learning accounts in ASD children. The children usually interact with these games by ordinary IO (input/output) e.g. keyboard and mouse or touchscreen tools. Previous researches show the effectiveness of playing serious games on mobiles or tablet devices in helping ASD children to express their feelings and improve the level of engagement with others. However, there are limitations in designing games for helping autistic children with sensory processing disorder (SPD), improving imaginative play, and teaching first aid. Further, there is not much research that addresses repetitive behavior in ASD children.
Keywords: Serious games (SG); Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Education and therapy; Interactive tools; Technologies platforms; Computer graphics
Jumru 5s -- A Game Engine for Serious Games BIBAFull-Text 107-118
  Natascha Schweiger; Katharina Meusburger; Helmut Hlavacs; Manuel Sprung
An increasing number of children are suffering from autism or other psychological disorders. These children have difficulties in social interactions or communications, i.e. interpreting emotions or non-verbal expressions. In the framework of the Games4Resilience Lab at the University of Vienna we developed a computer game for autism therapy, as a joint effort between Clinical Child Psychology and Computer Science. Since none of the existing HTML5-based game engines proved to be usable, we implemented our own web game engine Jumru 5s based on HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript, having been especially developed for serious games. Furthermore, we introduce the serious game EmoJump, being implemented with our framework and aiming to improve emotion recognition skills.

Music and Sound Effects

Serious Music Game Design and Testing BIBAKFull-Text 119-133
  Szu-Ming Chung
This experimental research intends to design a serious music game for preoperational children. Based on Piaget's cognitive developmental theory, Kodály and Orff's approach, the researcher integrates the Taiwanese folk tunes and folksongs materials, the western music system, and multi-touch screen technology to create serious music games. These games are developed as mobile applications to run an experimental study with 21 preschoolers from a local private kindergarten. The testing process collects data by participant observation, video recording, and learning records on tablet PCs. This paper presents the exploration and discussions of the problems and solutions for developing a valid serious game testing for preschoolers.
Keywords: serious music game; preschoolers; android system; interface design; qualitative research
Immersive Composition for Sensory Rehabilitation: 3D Visualisation, Surround Sound, and Synthesised Music to Provoke Catharsis and Healing BIBAKFull-Text 134-149
  Jessica Argo; Minhua Ma; Christoph Kayser
There is a wide range of sensory therapies using sound, music and visual stimuli. Some focus on soothing or distracting stimuli such as natural sounds or classical music as analgesic, while other approaches emphasize the active performance of producing music as therapy. This paper proposes an immersive multi-sensory Exposure Therapy for people suffering from anxiety disorders, based on a rich, detailed surround-soundscape. This soundscape is composed to include the users' own idiosyncratic anxiety triggers as a form of habituation, and to provoke psychological catharsis, as a non-verbal, visceral and enveloping exposure. To accurately pinpoint the most effective sounds and to optimally compose the soundscape we will monitor the participants' physiological responses such as electroencephalography, respiration, electromyography, and heart rate during exposure. We hypothesize that such physiologically optimized sensory landscapes will aid the development of future immersive therapies for various psychological conditions, Sound is a major trigger of anxiety, and auditory hypersensitivity is an extremely problematic symptom. Exposure to stress-inducing sounds can free anxiety sufferers from entrenched avoidance behaviors, teaching physiological coping strategies and encouraging resolution of the psychological issues agitated by the sound.
Keywords: Surround sound; Ambisonics; Anxiety; Physiological monitoring; Exposure therapy; desensitization; immersive virtual environment

Games for Other Purposes

Gaming the Future of the Ocean: The Marine Spatial Planning Challenge 2050 BIBAKFull-Text 150-162
  Igor Mayer; Qiqi Zhou; Xander Keijser; Lodewijk Abspoel
The authors present and discuss the conceptual and technical design of the game Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) Challenge 2050, developed with and for the Netherlands' ministry of Infrastructure and Environment. The main question in this paper is: What constitutes the socio-technical complexity of marine areas and how can it be translated into a simulation model for serious game-play with marine spatial planners? MSP Challenge 2050 was launched in March 2014 in a two day session with twenty marine planners from six countries. It aims to initiate and support MSP in the various Atlantic regions by bringing policy-makers, stakeholders, scientists together in a 'playful' but realistic and meaningful environment. In the North Sea edition of the game, six countries make and implement plans for this sea basin over a period of 35 years, with cumulative effects of their sectoral and national decisions emerging. The authors conclude that the combined and iterative use of complexity modelling and gaming is effective from the perspectives of design (development of a MSP model), research (insight acquired on MSP) and policy (policy-oriented learning and analysis for MSP). Further development and global dissemination of MSP Challenge 2050, as well as research and data collection, is foreseen.
Keywords: Complexity; Global System Science; Integrated Planning; Marine Spatial Planning; Policy game; Simulation-game; Serious game; Design
Off the Beaten Track! The Infinite Scotland Serious Game Design Approach BIBAKFull-Text 163-175
  John Truesdale; Neil Suttie; Sandy Louchart; Ruth Aylett
In this article, we discuss the development of the Infinite Scotland Facebook serious game. The Infinite Scotland serious game was supported by the Scottish National Heritage, Creative Scotland and Creative Services Scotland in order to promote the links between biological and cultural diversity in Scotland. To engage a younger demographic, Infinite Scotland developed a knowledge-based, puzzle-centric serious game for a social media platform (Facebook); projecting the links between biodiversity and cultural diversity via player exploration and competitive gameplay. In this article, we describe our motivations for conducting the work, discuss the game design in detail, and finally speak about the implementation and development of Infinite Scotland.
Keywords: Serious Game; Cultural Heritage; Infinite Scotland; Reinforcement Learning; Social Media
Measuring the Commercial Outcomes of Serious Games in Companies -- A Review BIBAKFull-Text 176-191
  Johann C. K. H. Riedel; Yanan Feng; Aida Azadegan; Margarida Romero; Mireia Usart; Jannicke Baalsrud Hauge
The objective of this paper is to review the work on the measurement of the commercial outcomes of serious games in companies and to provide a framework for their measurement in companies. The literature on the evaluation of training and in particular serious games is presented. A systematic literature review of studies of the impacts of business games in companies was undertaken. The paper summarises the existing studies on measuring the effectiveness of serious games in companies. A search of the grey literature was also conducted to establish what kinds of commercial outcomes have been measured and how. Finally, the paper presents some examples of measuring the commercial outcomes. It also provides some advice on how to measure commercial outcomes.
Keywords: Serious games; commercial outcomes; evaluation framework; evidence; literature review
Designing and Testing a Racing Car Serious Game Module BIBAKFull-Text 192-198
  Babatunde Adejumobi; Nathan Franck; Michael Janzen
We present a serious game module to insert into an entertainment video game and examine if knowledge and skills gained from the module can transfer into real life usage. The module consists of a map of a post secondary educational institute based on the real life layout. 21 people participated in a physical scavenger hunt around the institute (3 participants in a pilot study and 18 in a second study), where some played the video game prior to the scavenger hunt. The pilot study shows a large decrease in the time required to complete the scavenger hunt by those who first played the video game. A second study showed no statistically significant difference in the average time to complete the scavenger hunt by those who first played the video game; the results suggest an effect but are limited by large variation in the individual completion times in the scavenger hunt. The limitations of the study are discussed.
Keywords: serious game modules; virtual skills transfer; racing game
The Construction of Serious Games Supporting Creativity in Student Labs BIBAKFull-Text 199-212
  Heiko Duin; Klaus-Dieter Thoben
Solving challenges and complexities of today's businesses, organizational members need to come up with creative solutions that arise from joint ideation which harnesses the combined knowledge and abilities of people with different perspectives. Integrated to the creativity process is the act of play. Playing is considered as a powerful mechanism to support creativity, encourage exploration, inspire thinking out of the box and support cooperation and collaboration. Creativity is also the cornerstone of innovation and new product development generating a flow of new ideas ensuring not to stay behind of competitors in today's economic world characterized by high volatility and increasingly complex, fast-paced change.
   In a lecture given at the University of Bremen master degree students of industrial engineering and management were introduced to diverse creativity supporting techniques with the goal to extract creativity inspiring elements of the various techniques to be used in Serious Games constructed by those students using a given online multiplayer engine. This paper reports on the outcomes and discusses approach and results.
Keywords: creativity methods; serious games for creativity; game based learning; game development; student lab

Game Design and Theories

The Choice of Serious Games and Gamification BIBAKFull-Text 213-223
  Manuel Oliveira; Sobah Petersen
When analyzing past and existing trends, gamification has unarguably invaded the mainstream media in a more pervasive way than serious games. In the literature, there has been a wide range of meanings for gamification, some detractors abhorring the term to others stating it encompasses everything to do with games and entertainment. This inconsistent nomenclature and undefined scope has led to the erroneous belief that gamification and serious games are synonymous. The aim of this paper is to present the distinct differences supported by case study of the use of both gamification and serious games within the same project aimed at social innovation within the neighbourhoods.
Keywords: Serious Games; Gamification