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Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce 17

Editors:Clyde W. Holsapple
Publisher:Taylor & Francis
Standard No:ISSN 1091-9392 (print) 1532-7744 (online)
Links:Table of Contents
  1. JOCEC 2007 Volume 17 Issue 1
  2. JOCEC 2007 Volume 17 Issue 2
  3. JOCEC 2007 Volume 17 Issue 3
  4. JOCEC 2007 Volume 17 Issue 4

JOCEC 2007 Volume 17 Issue 1

Designing Quality Into Project Organizations Through Computational Organizational Simulation BIBAFull-Text 1-27
  Jan Thomsen; John C. Kunz; Raymond E. Levitt
This article shifts the focus of quality management from measuring and controlling the quality of work processes to the next level upstream -- measuring and controlling the quality of the organizations that execute work processes. Starting from an organizational information-processing perspective, we have developed the Virtual Team Alliance, a computational model of project participants' information-processing behavior. The model produces 2 measures of efficiency -- project duration and cost -- and 3 measures of work process quality -- problem-solving quality, coordination quality, and decision-making quality. In addition to providing a project manager with measures to support specific and detailed organizational design decisions involving trade-offs between efficiency and work process quality, our model predicts organizational risks that might adversely affect project performance. Users can identify and test feasible and useful interventions to mitigate organizational risks contingently. We prospectively applied our model early in the development process of an industrial project team within the aerospace industry. Our model forecasted backlogs arising from extra coordination and rework and the resulting problems that might occur without organizational change. Based on simulations and analysis of our model, we made specific recommendations to the project manager for improving work process performance. After considering our recommendations, the cooperating manager intervened in the engineering process to reduce some of the organizational risks that we predicted might adversely affect project performance. In our subsequent observations of the project, the potential organizational risks that our model had initially identified as being likely to affect project performance adversely were avoided by the manager's intervention.
Organizational Assimilation of Web Services Technology: A Research Framework BIBAFull-Text 29-52
  Narasimha Bolloju; Efraim Turban
Web services is an extremely promising technology that has the potential to revolutionize many aspects of information systems. Web services facilitates vendor-, platform-, and language-independent, loosely coupled, inexpensive integration of both internal and external systems. Although there is a general agreement that Web services will have a significant impact on applications of information technology in organizations, there is a disagreement regarding the speed and spread of assimilation due to a multitude of inhibitors. In this article, we identify 3 areas of assimilation of Web services in organizations: information systems departmental assimilation, intraorganizational assimilation, and interorganizational assimilation. We propose a research framework for investigating various issues related to organizational assimilation of Web services. In addition, we developed a projection of the assimilation patterns for the 3 areas of organizational assimilation of Web services. Based on the proposed framework, we outline a research agenda on the organizational assimilation of Web services.
Online Purchase Intentions: An Empirical Testing of a Multiple-Theory Model BIBAFull-Text 53-74
  Jonna Jarvelainen
Security and privacy issues have drawn much attention in the electronic commerce research area, and e-vendors have adjusted their online shopping systems to convince customers that vendors and systems are trustworthy. Therefore, this study concentrates on how consumers choose their purchasing channel when the environment is relatively secure. Is the choice based on preferring conversation with customer service, complexity of product, prior online shopping experience, social influence or perception of system usefulness or ease-of-use? The technology acceptance model, media richness theory and social influence model were combined in a research model tested with a Web survey. Based on the responses of 1,501 customers of a passenger cruise company, prior experience of traditional and online channels and perceived usefulness had a substantial effect on behavioral intention to use the online channel in the future.
Understanding Personal Web Usage in Organizations BIBAFull-Text 75-99
  Younghwa Lee; Zoonky Lee; Yongbeom Kim
Personal web usage, that is, non-work-related use of the Internet for personal purposes during work hours, is a pervasive behavior observed in the daily work environment. U.S. companies have implemented several countermeasures to cope with personal Web usage, but those measures have not successfully mitigated this behavior. Considering the significance of personal Web usage, we need to understand why personal Web usage is not alleviated in current organizations. The goal of this study is to present an empirical investigation of why employees continue personal Web usage based on an extended theory of planned behavior. We are particularly interested in how people's perceptions of moral dimensions contribute to personal Web usage, recognizing that our work environment becomes more Web-embedded. We conducted a field survey of 426 U.S. business professionals and analyzed the data by using partial least squares. As a result, we demonstrate that an individual's attitude, subjective norm, denial of responsibility, self-efficacy, personal computer availability, seclusion of office, and workload are significant factors affecting personal Web usage. Interestingly, current organizational preventive efforts (e.g., Web-based activity monitoring and filtering systems and policies) and moral obligation are not as significant as we originally expected. Key implications for theory and practice are discussed.

JOCEC 2007 Volume 17 Issue 2

Avoiding Malicious Agents in E-Commerce Using Fuzzy Recommendations BIBAFull-Text 101-117
  Javier Carbo; Jose M. Molina; Jorge Davila
This paper presents a complex computing reputation mechanism to be applied in a domain of e-commerce, that handles reputation as a fuzzy set while decision making is inspired in a cognitive human-like approach. This reputation algorithm has been proved in several scenarios where the goal is to avoid (in other words, filter out) the disturbing influence of wrong recommendations from agents with malicious intentions, such as a collusion between a merchant and a recommender. Results show how the evolution of reputation computed with our fuzzy reputation algorithm is compared with other previous reputation models.
The Effectiveness of the Escrow Model: An Experimental Framework for Dynamic Online Environments BIBAFull-Text 119-143
  Han Zhang; Zhangxi Lin; Xiaorui Hu
This article investigates the mechanism of an online escrow service (OES) in online consumer-to-consumer (C2C) auctions. We develop a discrete-event driven simulation model for the dynamics of an OES adoption in electronic markets that involves four types of agents: the strategic trader, the moral trader, the OES provider, and the law-enforcement agent. By applying the Monte Carlo method in computer-based simulations, we demonstrate that the OES business model can effectively block fraud attempts and promote security in online C2C auction markets. However, our findings reveal that the prevailing OES fee rates are not necessarily set at the profit maximization level. Meanwhile, the simulation results show that the legal mechanisms in electronic markets directly impact the profit of escrow services.
A Smart Card Based Internet Micropayment Infrastructure: Technical Development and User Adoption BIBAFull-Text 145-173
  Kar Yan Tam; Shuk Ying Ho
As online shopping services proliferate, the need for a secure and convenient payment infrastructure becomes critical. While credit card payment has become common for online purchases, a payment solution has not yet been developed that can be used to support transactions involving a monetary value in the range of a few dollars or even cents. In this study, the authors report their experience in developing a smart card based micropayment infrastructure in collaboration with a major bank. The infrastructure makes use of Mondex, a cash card standard adopted by major financial institutions worldwide. The infrastructure provides a platform to support online transfer of Mondex value over the Internet. Unlike other cash card products, Mondex is the only standard that can support card-to-card transfer without a mediating party. The transactions are immediate and anonymous. This article outlines the technical approach used in the development of the infrastructure and presents a behavioral adoption model to identify and assess factors that may affect its adoption. The findings indicate that the use of the adoption model in the early stages of product development can provide valuable insights to a development team. Theoretical contributions and practical implications specific to the Mondex Internet micropayment infrastructure are also discussed.
An E-Valuation Framework for Developing Net-Enabled Business Metrics Through Functionality Interaction BIBAFull-Text 175-203
  Frederick J. Riggins; Sabyasachi Mitra
Managers engaged in net-enabled business planning seek metrics to help them analyze the success of their e-business investments. Likewise, researchers require metrics to build analytical models and conduct empirical research on the impact of e-business strategies on firm performance. In this article, the authors develop a comprehensive E-Valuation Framework for identifying net-enabled applications and their resulting user-based functionalities for activities across the value chain. The authors propose that the real value from net-enabled applications can be found in functionality interactions, where one application enables or enhances functionality in another application. The comprehensive framework can be used to generate three types of metrics managers can use to evaluate their net-enabled strategic initiatives. Further, a classification of net-enabled organizations provides the basis for selecting applications critical to a firm's strategic thrusts. We make use of the resource-based view of the firm and real-options analysis to discuss how successful application deployment is based on the resources and assets the firm possesses as well as managing the rollout of an applications portfolio over time. The framework allows managers to map their organization's net-enabled initiatives into a coherent, easily understood visual representation and provides direction for researchers evaluating the efficacy of net-enabled business strategies.

JOCEC 2007 Volume 17 Issue 3

Digital Preservation: Organizational Commitment, Archival Stability, and Technological Continuity BIBAFull-Text 205-215
  Su-Shing Chen
The archives of e-culture, e-government, e-learning, and e-business have grown by leaps and bounds worldwide during the last several years. Although the IT industry has invested significant time and effort to create and maintain those archives, IT professionals do not have the ability to make all digital records generated by the processes available across generations of information technology, making them accessible with future technology and enabling people to determine whether they are authentic and reliable. This is a very serious problem -- called digital preservation -- for which no solutions have yet been devised. This article discusses practical technologies needed for digital preservation to succeed, and describes a general framework of the life cycle of information to address this important problem so that IT professionals may find reasonable ways to preserve digital records that can be analyzed and evaluated in quantitative measures and incremental manners.
What Prevents Electronic Lemon Markets? BIBAFull-Text 217-246
  Byungtae Lee; Byungjoon Yoo
It is well known that the "lemon" problem can cause market failure. Because difficulties in quality discovery of nonstandardized and complex products will increase transaction costs, it was predicted that the "electronic market" would prevail only with less complex and more standardized goods. However, it has been observed that there are many successful electronic (auction) markets for seemingly typical "lemon" goods such as used cars, raw minerals, and agricultural products. It is argued that in such markets, the equilibrium price of electronic trading appeared higher than in the nonelectronic market. Many speculative explanations have been offered for this, but to the best of our knowledge, no analytical studies have been presented. This study is an attempt to fill this gap. In this paper, we look at the problem of quality discovery in the electronic trading of physical goods especially when the goods are not standardized. The information asymmetry between buyer and seller creates the possibility of a "lemon" in the nonstandardized market. To mitigate this problem, several auction markets have devised third party quality grading systems and limited auctions to only relatively higher quality products. Through analytical modeling, we rationalize these mechanisms; that is, the intervention of an impartial third party for quality inspection, market segmentation by quality measure, and the sellers' willingness to pay the cost of quality inspection.
A Portable DRM Scheme Using Smart Cards BIBAFull-Text 247-258
  Wei-Bin Lee; Wei-Jhen Wu; Chen-Yi Chang
The Internet is a relatively friendly and convenient environment for allowing music, audio, video files, and other digital contents to be copied, modified, and distributed easily. Nevertheless, from the point view of content owners, copyrights protection and intellectual property rights are critical issues that involve revenue loss. The current digital rights management (DRM) systems provide an acceptable copyright protection solution. The DRM venders usually provide a function allowing consumers to migrate their authorized license from one device to another. Still, this function is restricted by the device type and network domain, which does not completely satisfy consumers' needs. However, a successful DRM system should make consumers willing to use it. Therefore, improving copyright protection convenience for consumers is a significant issue. In this paper, a portable DRM scheme in which the usage-rights follow the consumer, but not the device, is presented for constructing a flexible DRM system that improves portability, therefore allowing users to have content use rights on any devices. In addition, an awkward storage system for encrypted data does not need to be maintained by the proposed scheme, thereby giving a more secure, cost-effective solution.
Customer Efficient Electronic Cash Protocols BIBAFull-Text 259-281
  Chun-I Fan; Bo-Wei Lin; Shi-Ming Huang
The technology of electronic cash makes it possible to transmit digital money over communication networks during electronic transactions. Owing to the untraceability and unforgeability properties, electronic cash can protect the privacy of customers and guarantee security of payments in the transactions. This paper introduces a customer-efficient electronic cash protocol where each customer only needs to store 1 coin for w dollars and transmit 1 coin for a w-dollar payment. Compared with traditional electronic cash protocols, the proposed method greatly reduces not only the storage required for the customers, but the communication traffic in the payments as well. Furthermore, the computation cost of each customer in the payment stage is greatly reduced by more than 99% as compared with other storage efficient electronic cash protocols. The proposed protocol is quite suitable for situations where storage and computation capabilities are limited, such as smart-card or mobile environments. In addition, both the problem of money laundering and the unlimited-growth problem of the bank's database, which records all spent coins for double-spending checking, are also considered in the proposed protocol. Especially, our basic idea is independent of the underlying cryptographic primitives such that it can be implemented by any public-key encryption, symmetric encryption, digital signature, and partially blind signature scheme.

JOCEC 2007 Volume 17 Issue 4

Impact of Consistency in Customer Relationship Management on E-Commerce Shopper Preferences BIBAFull-Text 283-309
  A. Ant Ozok; Kristen Oldenburger; Gavriel Salvendy
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in e-commerce is concerned with retaining the existing customers on a long-term basis, motivating them to come back to shop for more and to talk positively to their peers about the products and services provided. Fourteen items have been identified in a developed questionnaire to measure CRM factors in consistency of customer treatment. They are consistencies of: price-quoting, steps to execute a transaction, design of the shopping Web page, site navigation, promotions offered, indication of in-stock products, product variety, alternative product suggestions, fraud protection, presented guarantees involving the product, fairness of the site, help offered, return policies, and personal information. To determine the validity of the items, 100 e-commerce experts from academia were presented the questionnaire and asked to rate the importance of the individual items. The developed tool had a Cronbach's Alpha internal consistency value of 0.81. A multivariate analysis was conducted to cluster the aspects of consistency in CRM. For this purpose, two factors were identified: Technical and Customer Treatment Factors. The individual Cronbach's Alpha values were 0.84 for Treatment Factor and 0.74 for Technical Factor. The analysis indicated that the Technical Factor included the consistencies of shopping steps, site design, and navigation, while the Customer Treatment Factor included the consistencies of promotions, in-stock indication, product variety, fraud protection, presented guarantees, customer fairness, and return policies. Based on the analysis, 10 guidelines for Consistency in CRM were produced. The guidelines can be applied to Business-to-Consumer (B2C) e-commerce sites as part of their CRM policy.
Efficiency Considerations in Online Auction Markets BIBAFull-Text 311-328
  Ram D. Gopal; Y. Alex Tung; Andrew B. Whinston
The main contention of this article is that online auction markets are amenable to efficiency considerations akin to traditional financial markets. While the underlying assets traded are dissimilar between the financial and online auction markets, the fundamental principles that drive these markets are consanguineous in that similar efficiency notions are applicable. Based on the principles of arbitrage, we develop a set of efficiency criteria to evaluate the auction activity of new and identically described items. Two arbitrage principles, seller arbitrage and buyer arbitrage, are developed. These principles can be employed to evaluate the price behavior of temporally proximate auctions and to generate a useful benchmark to make efficiency evaluations. We find evidence of inefficiency for each of the items we empirically tested based on the data from eBay, currently the largest online auction house.
Piracy on File-sharing Networks: Strategies for Recording Companies BIBAFull-Text 329-348
  Jeevan Jaisingh
In this article, we study the impact on piracy of selling music as downloadable files and the strategies that recording companies should adopt to increase profits. We find that total music sales and profits of firm (recording company) are higher, and total piracy (demand on file-sharing networks) is lower when the firm sells a downloadable version of a music track. We also look at the firm's optimal level of digital rights management (DRM) protection. We found that revenue decreases with increased protection. It is therefore optimal for the firm not to employ any DRM protection in the absence of network externality (NE). Listening to music or watching videos protected by DRM is cumbersome to users because they have to download license files and there are restrictions on the number of times the file can be copied and on the type of devices that can play the file. As a result, DRM protection is a disutility to the legal consumer and the firm must charge lower prices with more DRM protection. When NE is high and a nominal search cost is above a certain threshold, then non-zero protection becomes optimal.
Book Review: Global E-Commerce: Impacts of National Environment and Policy, by K. L. Kramer, J. Dedrick, N. P. Melville, K. Zhu. Cambridge University Press, 2006 BIBFull-Text 349-352
  F. Warren McFarlan