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Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce 11

Editors:Andrew B. Whinston
Publisher:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Standard No:ISSN 1054-1721
Links:Table of Contents
  1. JOCEC 2001 Volume 11 Issue 1
  2. JOCEC 2001 Volume 11 Issue 2
  3. JOCEC 2001 Volume 11 Issue 3
  4. JOCEC 2001 Volume 11 Issue 4

JOCEC 2001 Volume 11 Issue 1

Decision Criteria Consolidation: A Theoretical Foundation of Pareto Principle to Porter's Competitive Forces BIBA 1-14
  Jason Chou-Hong Chen; P. Pete Chong; Ye-Sho Chen
Also known as the 80/20 rule, the Pareto Principle separates a class of significant few from the trivial many. With this classification, Pareto Principle has managerial and strategic implications in many disciplines. A recent mathematical model of the Pareto Principle identifies several important factors that cause such separation; the most important 2 are the probability of new entry (can be viewed as "entry barrier") and the recentness of usage. Because the probability of new entry determines the upper bound of the usage concentration, it is deemed to be the most important factor. Observing that Porter's [1] five competitive forces are all closely related to the barrier of entry, it is apparent that the theoretical model of Pareto Principle can be used as the theoretical foundation for Porter's Five Competitive Forces. We further argue that, similar to what has been described in microeconomics, the barrier of entry is the most important factor that determines the market structure-be it monopoly or pure competition. Thus, the decision criteria in strategic planning can be greatly simplified to its effect on the barrier of entry. Furthermore, we suggest that the recentness of usage (i.e., a product not recently in use may be forgotten by customers, thus reducing the probability of its future usage), though not emphasized in Porter's theory, should also be part of the strategy formation.
The Value of Information Integration in Meeting Delivery Dates BIBA 15-30
  Elgar Fleisch; Stephen G. Powell
In this article, we consider the value of shared information within a business network. To make the problem concrete, we focus on a specific operational problem: How the final supplier to the customer determines promised delivery dates. In a traditional supply chain, the final supplier has little or no information on the delivery performance of intermediate suppliers and thus, has limited information with which to set delivery dates. On the other hand, in an information-integrated business network, the final supplier's enterprise resource planning (ERP) system can interact with all the intermediate suppliers' ERP systems to determine exactly how far ahead or behind schedule the network is in meeting the needs of a specific customer. This information should improve the final supplier's ability to set realistic delivery dates. We attempt to quantify the value of this information and determine precisely why it is valuable so that management can best exploit information integration.
   We use a modeling approach in this research, beginning with simple analytic models and progressing to more realistic simulation models. Our analytic model establishes an important principle: Information integration not only significantly improves the average on-time delivery performance of a business network, but also dramatically improves its worst-case performance. Because customer dissatisfaction is generally associated with worst-case performance, information integration may be highly beneficial even if its effect on average on-time delivery is small. Simulation models allow us to compare the performance of more realistic business networks. These models suggest, for example, that the value of information integration is dependent on both the structure of the network itself (whether serial or arborescent) and on the typical customer order date in the production cycle. These insights allow us to begin to identify the types of business networks in which information integration will have the highest value.
A Conceptual Model of an Intelligent Catalog Search System BIBA 31-46
  Chanan Glezer; Surya B. Yadav
In this article, we review the role of electronic catalogs in developing electronic commerce applications within the context of consumer buying behavior models. These models view the customer buying experience as a stagewise process, starting with need identification and proceeding through product and merchant brokering to negotiation, purchase, and service. Electronic product catalogs can be used in all of the just mentioned stages; however, their most common use is in the product and merchant brokering stages.
   From a customer's perspective, however, the variety and heterogeneity of electronic catalogs create a major problem in integrating information from various sources. There have been several attempts to overcome this problem using architectures and protocols that enable interoperabilty of electronic catalogs using software-agent technology. The extant architectures and protocols emphasize semantic integration of different catalogs as a mean for achieving interoperability.
   In this article, we expand previous work on this topic and propose a comprehensive agent-based conceptual model of an intelligent catalog search system (ICSS) [1]. The ICSS incorporates knowledge to analyze, enhance, filter, and synthesize a raw query and replies provided by various types of electronic catalogs and intercatalog brokering systems. The main benefit of the proposed architecture is an increase in the ability of a customer to locate, compare, and evaluate relevant product offerings in a network of heterogeneous electronic product catalogs.
Consumer Costs in Electronic Commerce: An Empirical Examination of Electronic Versus Traditional Markets BIBA 47-58
  Ross A. Malaga
Business to consumer electronic commerce has been growing at a rapid pace over the last few years. This growth is only sustainable in the future if consumers feel they are receiving a good value. In this article, I explore the costs to the consumer of participating in electronic markets and compare those costs with traditional retail outlets. Empirical data were collected and analyzed. The results show that there is no significant difference in the price of goods sold via electronic markets versus traditional markets. The results also indicate that consumers perceive electronic commerce as more risky (as measured by concern over credit card and personal data) than traditional markets. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Interpersonal Influence Goals and Computer-Mediated Communication BIBA 59-76
  E. Vance Wilson; Ilze Zigurs
Computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems have become ubiquitous in organizations worldwide. However, much remains to be learned about actual use of these systems and of how the CMC channel might affect a variety of factors important to communication. Interpersonal influence goals are one set of factors that have been reported in the general communication literature to be important predictors of the content and characteristics of messages. Our study applied an influence goals model to study how system features are used in CMC. We found the model to be robust within the CMC context and that several goal types within the model are significant determinants of CMC system feature usage.

JOCEC 2001 Volume 11 Issue 2

A Workflow-Based Methodology for Developing Hypermedia Information Systems BIBA 77-106
  Heeseok Lee; Woojong Suh
Recently, many enterprises have attempted to construct hypermedia systems for electronic commerce innovation by the use of Internet technologies. In this hypermedia-enabled environment, hypermedia development can be considered in terms of workflow. In this article we propose a workflow-aware hypermedia development methodology, workflow-based hypermedia development methodology, to guide developers in creating hypermedia information systems. The methodology employs a workflow model based on corporate documents and is thus more likely to utilize users' business requirements in a natural fashion. The methodology consists of four phases: workflow analysis, document analysis, hypermedia design, and implementation. The emphasis of each phase is on aligning business requirements with hypermedia development technologies. To demonstrate the practical usefulness of the methodology, a real-life case is illustrated.
Factors Affecting Information Technology Usage: A Meta-Analysis of the Empirical Literature BIBA 107-130
  Mo Adam Mahmood; Laura Hall; Daniel Leonard Swanberg
With an estimated investment of over 1 trillion dollars to date on information technology (IT) products and applications, one would hope that there exists a corresponding improvement in organizational performance and productivity. The level of IT usage has widely been accepted as an important indicator of IT success within organizations. This research synthesizes and validates the construct of IT usage using a meta-analysis. It accomplishes that by analyzing the empirical results of various studies over a period of time covering a broad scope of characteristics of both users and information systems (IS), and it examines the relation between these characteristics and the level of IT usage within organizations. In general, the results of this meta-analysis lead to the conclusion that there exists a strong and significant positive relation between the perception of ease of use and the perceived usefulness of an IT system to the actual amount of usage. Another factor that indicates a high level of IT usage is the organizational support of IT within an enterprise. Although the factors of education level, training level, and professional level were found to have a substantial effect on IT usage, the magnitude of these effects were lower than those of the perceptions of the user and organizational support. Managers and IT professionals may have a better chance of avoiding IT system ineffectiveness and even failure by paying attention to the results of this research, especially in view of the fact that it synthesized and validated the results of a significant number of empirical studies published in some of the best IS journals. Rarely do single research experiments provide definitive answers on which to base policy decisions.
Building Electronic Trading Infrastructures: A Public or Private Responsibility? BIBA 131-151
  Jan Damsgaard; Kalle Lyytinen
In this article we analyze the creation of electronic trading infrastructures using electronic data interchange standards and associated technologies. We compare the genesis and evolution of such infrastructures in Denmark, Finland, and Hong Kong. This article analyzes 8 specific attempts to build trading infrastructures in these 3 countries. The article probes how these initiatives support the building efforts by analyzing them with a 2-D framework. The framework distinguishes between the strategic intent of the initiative and the type of initiator. In each case, the dynamics of the initiative and its success are examined. The analysis shows that the building of trading infrastructures can take place through multiple paths-called patterns in this study-and it can be pulled or pushed by multiple forces. As a result, this article draws conclusions on how each pattern can help in building the infrastructure. The analysis demonstrates that the trading infrastructure in Hong Kong has largely emerged through grassroot bricolage. In Finland and Denmark, in contrast, public institutions or state-owned monopolies have played a critical role. On a theoretical level, this study calls for the need to expand the scope of analysis beyond individual adopting organizations when analyzing electronic trading infrastructures, and shows that there is also a need to probe industries and public institutions when studying electronic infrastructure development.

JOCEC 2001 Volume 11 Issue 3

Introduction to the Special Issue on Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management BIBA 153-154
  James Y. L. Thong; Patrick Y. K. Chau; Kar Yan Tam
This issue is based on three outstanding articles presented at the Fourth Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems held in Hong Kong from June 1 through 3, 2000. The articles are concerned with various knowledge management issues in the Internet era. To meet the quality of this journal, expanded versions of the conference articles went through two additional rounds of review by at least three reviewers each. We thank the authors for their perseverance and the reviewers for contributing their valuable time in reviewing the articles within an expedited time frame.
A Conceptual Model for Virtual Organizational Learning BIBA 155-178
  Fu-ren Lin; Sheng-cheng Lin
As a trend toward virtual organizations (VOs) emerges in the era of electronic commerce, an understanding of knowledge processing is essential to sustain performance. Active learning is the key to achieving flexibility in a VO; however, few studies have focused on this dimension. In this article we attempt to assemble insights about learning in a VO by developing a conceptual model for virtual organizational learning (VOL). The VOL model is focused on transactive memory, which is composed of knowledge maps, social networks, and mnemonic functions. The initialization of modeling learning in VOs in this article has been erecting the foundation for transactive memory systems in a cyber community. A case study, Smart Creative Teachers Network, is used for demonstrating the transactive memory system for a teacher community to share and create knowledge and form VOs across school boundaries.
Knowledge Sharing Through Intranet-Based Learning: A Case Study of an Online Learning Center BIBA 179-195
  Shan L. Pan; Ming-Huei Hsieh; Helen Chen
Recent academic and managerial interest in electronic commerce (e-commerce) activities has created enormous interest in the world of information technology and in many other industries. Therefore, managers are facing new challenges. One such daunting task is the ability to manage knowledge, as this can now be exchanged or transferred on the Internet or Intranet without physical contact or time constraints. To understand some of the key human resource issues related to organizing global knowledge in the e-commerce context, an exploratory case study was conducted. One of the key findings from this case study is the recognition that human resource management (HRM) will play a new dual role in organizing global knowledge sharing in the e-commerce era. One role is to continue dealing with traditional administrative transactions and the other is to nurture knowledge-related activities. This contradicts simplistic prescriptions about managing knowledge, which suggests that the implementation and utilization of a particular information system are all that are necessary to facilitate effective knowledge sharing. Instead, this exploratory study shows that successful knowledge sharing is dependent not only on the use of particular information technologies but also on the successful creation of a knowledge-sharing environment with a knowledge management-focused HRM as the coordinator of related activities.
Internet Diffusion in Creative Micro-Businesses: Identifying Change Agent Characteristics As Critical Success Factors BIBA 197-214
  Pascale de Berranger; David Tucker; Laurie Jones
Micro-businesses make a substantial contribution to the economic and social well being of Europe, the Asian Pacific region, and the United States. In Europe, for example, 30% of firms with less than 10 employees generate 70% of turnover. This remarkable statistic has prompted the European Union to fund novel research projects aimed at stimulating growth within the very small businesses sector. In particular, projects aimed at improving the adoption rate of information and communication technology (ICT) are seen as vital. The Internet is a unique and powerful form of ICT, which is making electronic commerce attractive to even the smallest of businesses. These micro-businesses stand to gain tremendous business advantages from implementing Internet technology. For this reason, in this article we focus specifically on Internet diffusion processes in micro-businesses.1 Through a field study within a geographic cluster of creative micro-businesses, we identify the vital role played by the change agents. Revealing that the unique way in which the change agents became infused into the local community had a significant impact on fostering mutual trust that led to successful Internet adoption. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the provision of customized training programs by the change agents was a critical success factor. Finally, we reflect on the successful diffusion projects and identify the characteristics of the change agents that were instrumental in ensuring Internet adoption.

JOCEC 2001 Volume 11 Issue 4

Prototyping Electronic Commerce Systems Using Esterel BIBA 215-228
  Padmanabhan Krishnan
In this article I present the advantages of using the synchronous programming language Esterel to prototype electronic commerce systems. I first outline a technique to model HTML tags, which is then specialized to document types. A simple example illustrates the coding ideas for both the static and dynamic aspects of behavior. This is then extended to handle certain other features found in electronic commerce systems. I also show how the Esterel environment can be used to formally verify certain properties.
Determinants of Small Business EDI Adoption: An Empirical Investigation BIBA 229-252
  Patrick Y. K. Chau; Kai Lung Hui
Given the importance of widespread adoption for the success of electronic data interchange (EDI) and the "much-slower-than-anticipated" growth of EDI adoption in small businesses, in this study we aimed to identify the key determinants of small business EDI adoption. Based on prior research on IT/EDI adoption in large/small organizations, a model that incorporates 7 factors that are hypothesized to have influence on the EDI adoption decision was developed and empirically tested against data collected from 627 small businesses, with 38% of them having already adopted the technology. The findings suggest that in the eyes of small businesses, EDI still is not considered as something that enables a business to gain major strategic benefits or competitive advantages. Although perceived costs are found to be major impediments to adoption, small businesses tend to have an "unbalanced" treatment between direct and indirect benefits, focusing more on those that are immediate and direct rather than on long-term, indirect benefits. Furthermore, prior EDI experience and perceived level of support from the vendor are also important determinants of EDI adoption in small businesses. Implications to Internet-based EDI systems are also discussed.
Achieving Fair Nonrepudiation in Electronic Transactions BIBA 253-267
  Jianying Zhou
The fast development of computer networks has facilitated electronic commerce. Meanwhile, some security problems may arise in such a new business environment. Nonrepudiation services, in which evidence is generated, collected, and maintained to enable dispute resolution, protect the transacting parties against any false denial that a particular event or action has taken place. In addition, fairness is a desirable requirement such that neither party can gain an advantage by quitting prematurely or otherwise misbehaving during a transaction. In this article, I investigate the techniques and protocols that use a (trusted) third party to achieve fair nonrepudiation in electronic transactions, and I discuss some applications of these fair nonrepudiation protocols.
A System for Simulating Human Argumentation: Test Results Compared With a Realistic Institutional Setting BIBA 269-283
  Masoud H. Saeedi; John A. A. Sillince
A prototype system is described that simulates a transcript of a business meeting based on a computational model of argumentation using the distinction between premises, conclusions, and warrants. The argumentation in the dialogue is represented as a directional weighted graph. An algorithm for calculating the strength of each conclusion is described, and the results are shown for the business meeting transcript. These results are compared with perceptions of the strength of the arguments in the meeting by a group of management graduates.
The Building of a New Business Ecosystem: Sustaining National Competitive Advantage Through Electronic Commerce BIBA 285-303
  Ali F. Farhoomand; Pauline S. P. Ng; Justin K. H. Yue
Despite the high level of interest in the role of governments in building national information infrastructure (NII) as a source of competitive advantage, it is still not clear how major information technology initiatives can help leverage national economies into the global marketplace. In light of the recent rollout of one of the world's largest electronic commerce initiatives, we examine the role of private-public partnerships in the success of such initiative in Hong Kong. Furthermore, we trace the 3 stages of the project-development, implementation, and competitive entrenchment-to identify the difficulties and challenges encountered and how these were overcome. By drawing some comparisons with the Singapore approach, we identify the kind of government involvement appropriate to spur on national competitiveness. We show that in building the NII, the dual aspects of private-sector leadership and government involvement are mutually reinforcing. Government intervention is necessary in creating the initial supply push, whereas the demand pull engendered by the market is critical for leveraging the NII as a platform for national competitiveness. The ramification of the study for other countries is discussed.