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AUIC Tables of Contents: 00010203040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of AUIC'13, Australasian User Interface Conference

Fullname:Proceedings of the 14th Australasian User Interface Conference -- Volume 139
Editors:Ross T. Smith; Burkhard C. Wunsche
Location:Adelaide, Australia
Dates:2013-Jan-29 to 2013-Feb-01
Standard No:hcibib: AUIC13; ISBN: 978-1-921770-24-1 ISSN: 1445-1336
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Papers: Interfaces
  2. Papers: Evaluations
  3. Papers: Applications
  4. Posters

Papers: Interfaces

Tangible Agile Mapping: Ad-hoc Tangible User Interaction Definition BIBAKHTMLPDF 3-12
  J. A. Walsh; S. T. Itzstein; B. H. Thomas
People naturally externalize mental systems through physical objects to leverage their spatial intelligence. The advent of tangible user interfaces has allowed human computer interaction to utilize these skills. However, current systems must be written from scratch and designed for a specific purpose, thus meaning end users cannot extend or repurpose the system. This paper presents Tangible Agile Mapping, our architecture to address this problem by allowing tangible systems to be defined ad-hoc. Our architecture addresses the tangible ad-hoc definition of objects, properties and rules to support tangible interactions. This paper also describes Spatial Augmented Reality TAM as an implementation of this architecture that utilizes a projector-camera setup combined with gesture-based navigation to allow users to create tangible systems from scratch. Results of a user study show that the architecture and our implementation are effective in allowing users to develop tangible systems, even for users with little computing or tangible experience.
Keywords: Tangible user interfaces, programming by demonstration, organic users interfaces, proxemic interactions, authoring by interaction
vsInk -- Integrating Digital Ink with Program Code in Visual Studio BIBAHTML 13-22
  C. J. Sutherland; B. Plimmer
We present vsInk, a plug-in that affords digital ink annotation in the Visual Studio code editor. Annotations can be added in the same window as the editor and automatically reflow when the underlying code changes. The plug-in uses recognisers built using machine learning to improve the accuracy of the annotation's anchor. The user evaluation shows that the core functionality is sound.
Supporting Informed Decision-Making under Uncertainty and Risk through Interactive Visualisation BIBAHTML 23-32
  M. Daradkeh; C. Churcher; A. McKinnon
Informed decisions are based on the availability of information and the ability of decision-makers to manipulate this information. More often than not, the decision-relevant information is subject to uncertainty arising from different sources. Consequently, decisions involve an undeniable amount of risk. An effective visualisation tool to support informed decision-making must enable users to not only distil information, but also explore the uncertainty and risk involved in their decisions. In this paper, we present VisIDM, an information visualisation tool to support informed decision-making (IDM) under uncertainty and risk. It aims to portray information about the decision problem and facilitate its analysis and exploration at different levels of detail. It also aims to facilitate the integration of uncertainty and risk into the decision-making process and allow users to experiment with multiple "what-if" scenarios. We evaluate the utility of VisIDM through a qualitative user study. The results provide valuable insights into the benefits and drawbacks of VisIDM for assisting people to make informed decisions and raising their awareness of uncertainty and risk involved in their decisions.
Metadata Manipulation Interface Design BIBAHTML 33-42
  S. Dekeyser; R. Watson
Management of the increasingly large collections of files and other electronic artifacts held on desktop as well as enterprise systems is becoming more difficult. Organisation and searching using extensive metadata is an emerging solution, but is predicated upon the development of appropriate interfaces for metadata management. In this paper we seek to advance the state of the art by proposing a set of design principles for metadata interfaces. We do this by first defining the abstract operations required, then reviewing the functionality and interfaces of current applications with respect to these operations, before extending the observed best practice to create a generic set of guidelines. We also present a novel direct manipulation interface for higher level metadata manipulation that addresses shortcomings observed in the sampled software.

Papers: Evaluations

Understanding the Management and Need For Awareness of Temporal Information in Email BIBAHTML 43-52
  N. Singh; M. Tomitsch; M. L. Maher
This paper introduces research into the presence of temporal information in email that relates to time obligations, such as deadlines, events and tasks. A user study was undertaken which involved a survey, observations and interviews to understand current user strategies for temporal information management and awareness generation in email. The study also focused on current difficulties faced in temporal information organisation. The results are divided across trends identified in use of the inbox, calendar, tasks list and projects as well as general temporal information organisation difficulties. Current problematic conventions and opportunities for future integration are discussed and strong support for careful visual representation of temporal information is established.
An Online Social-Networking Enabled Telehealth System for Seniors -- A Case Study BIBAHTML 53-62
  J. S. Dhillon; B. C. Wünsche; C. Lutteroth
The past decade has seen healthcare costs rising faster than government expenditure in most developed countries. Various telehealth solutions have been proposed to make healthcare services more efficient and cost-effective. However, existing telehealth systems are focused on treating diseases instead of preventing them, suffer from high initial costs, lack extensibility, and do not address the social and psychological needs of patients. To address these shortcomings, we have employed a user-centred approach and leveraged Web 2.0 technologies to develop Healthcare4Life (HC4L), an online telehealth system targeted at seniors. In this paper, we report the results of a 6-week user study involving 43 seniors aged 60 and above. The results indicate that seniors welcome the opportunity of using online tools for managing their health, and that they are able to use such tools effectively. Functionalities should be tailored towards individual needs (health conditions). Users have strong opinions about the type of information they would like to submit and share. Social networking functionalities are desired, but should have a clear purpose such as social games or exchanging information, rather than broadcasting emotions and opinions. The study suggests that the system positively changes the attitude of users towards their health management, i.e. users realise that their health is not controlled by health professionals, but that they have the power to positively affect their well-being.
Validating Constraint Driven Design Techniques in Spatial Augmented Reality BIBAHTML 63-72
  A. Irlitti; S. V. Itzstein
We describe new techniques to allow constraint driven design using spatial augmented reality (SAR), using projectors to animate a physical prop. The goal is to bring the designer into the visual working space, interacting directly with a dynamic design, allowing for intuitive interactions, while gaining access to affordance through the use of physical objects. We address the current industrial design process, expressing our intended area of improvement with the use of SAR. To corroborate our hypothesis, we have created a prototype system, which we have called SARventor. Within this paper, we describe the constraint theory we have applied, the interaction techniques devised to help illustrate our ideas and goals, and finally the combination of all input and output tasks provided by SARventor. To validate the new techniques, an evaluation of the prototype system was conducted. The results of this evaluation indicated promises for a system allowing a dynamic design solution within SAR. Design experts see potential in leveraging SAR to assist in the collaborative process during industrial design sessions, offering a high fidelity, transparent application, presenting an enhanced insight into critical design decisions to the projects stakeholders. Through the rich availability of affordance in SAR, designers and stakeholders have the opportunity to see first-hand the effects of the proposed design while considering both the ergonomic and safety requirements.
Music Education using Augmented Reality with a Head Mounted Display BIBAHTML 73-80
  J. Chow; H. Feng; R. Amor; B. C. Wunsche
Traditional music education places a large emphasis on individual practice. Studies have shown that individual practice is frequently not very productive due to limited feedback and students lacking interest and motivation. In this paper we explore the use of augmented reality to create an immersive experience to improve the efficiency of learning of beginner piano students. The objective is to stimulate development in notation literacy and to create motivation through presenting as a game the task that was perceived as a chore. This is done by identifying successful concepts from existing systems and merging them into a new system designed to be used with a head mounted display. The student is able to visually monitor their practice and have fun while doing so. An informal user study indicates that the system initially puts some pressure on users, but that participants find it helpful and believe that it improves learning.

Papers: Applications

A Tale of Two Studies BIBAHTML 81-90
  J. Bowen; S. Reeves; A. Schweer
Running user evaluation studies is a useful way of getting feedback on partially or fully implemented software systems. Unlike hypothesis-based testing (where specific design decisions can be tested or comparisons made between design choices) the aim is to find as many problems (both usability and functional) as possible prior to implementation or release. It is particularly useful in small-scale development projects that may lack the resources and expertise for other types of usability testing. Developing a user-study that successfully and efficiently performs this task is not always straightforward however. It may not be obvious how to decide what the participants should be asked to do in order to explore as many parts of the system's interface as possible. In addition, ad hoc approaches to such study development may mean the testing is not easily repeatable on subsequent implementations or updates, and also that particular areas of the software may not be evaluated at all. In this paper we describe two (very different) approaches to designing an evaluation study for the same piece of software and discuss both the approaches taken, the differing results found and our comments on both of these.
Making 3D Work: A Classification of Visual Depth Cues, 3D Display Technologies and Their Applications BIBAHTML 91-100
  M. Mehrabi; E. M. Peek; B. C. Wuensche; C. Lutteroth
3D display technologies improve perception and interaction with 3D scenes, and hence can make applications more effective and efficient. This is achieved by simulating depth cues used by the human visual system for 3D perception. The type of employed depth cues and the characteristics of a 3D display technology affect its usability for different applications. In this paper we review, analyze and categorize 3D display technologies and applications, with the goal of assisting application developers in selecting and exploiting the most suitable technology. Our first contribution is a classification of depth cues that incorporates their strengths and limitations. These factors have not been considered in previous contributions, but they are important considerations when selecting depth cues for an application. The second contribution is a classification of display technologies that highlights their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their requirements. We also provide examples of suitable applications for each technology. This information helps system developers to select an appropriate display technology for their applications.
An Investigation of Usability Issues in AJAX based Web Sites BIBAHTML 101-110
  C. Pilgrim
Ajax, as one of the technological pillars of Web 2.0, has revolutionized the way that users access content and interact with each other on the Web. Unfortunately, many developers appear to be inspired by what is technologically possible through Ajax disregarding good design practice and fundamental usability theories. The key usability challenges of Ajax have been noted in the research literature with some technical solutions and design advice available on developer forums. What is unclear is how commercial Ajax developers respond to these issues. This paper presents the results of an empirical study of four commercial web sites that utilize Ajax technologies. The study investigated two usability issues in Ajax with the results contrasted in relation to the general usability principles of consistency, learnability and feedback. The results of the study found inconsistencies in how the sites managed the usability issues and demonstrated that combinations of the issues have a detrimental effect on user performance and satisfaction. The findings also suggest that developers may not be consistently responding to the available advice and guidelines. The paper concludes with several recommendations for Ajax developers to improve the usability of their Web applications.
Determining the Relative Benefits of Pairing Virtual Reality Displays with Applications BIBAHTML 111-120
  E. M. Peek; B. Wünsche; C. Lutteroth
Over the last century, virtual reality (VR) technologies (stereoscopic displays in particular) have repeatedly been advertised as the future of movies, television, and more recently, gaming and general HCI. However after each wave of commercial VR products, consumer interest in them has slowly faded away as the novelty of the experience wore off and its benefits were no longer perceived as enough to outweigh the cost and limitations. Academic research has shown that the amount of benefit a VR technology provides depends in the application it is used for and that, contrary to how these technologies are often marketed, there is currently no one-size-fits-all 3D technology. In this paper we present an evaluation framework designed to determine the quality of depth cues produced when using a 3D display technology with a specific application. We also present the results of using this framework to evaluate some common consumer VR technologies. Our framework works by evaluating the technical properties of both the display and application against a set of quality metrics. This framework can help identify the 3D display technology which provides the largest benefit for a desired application.


An Ethnographic Study of a High Cognitive Load Driving Environment BIBAHTML 121-122
  R. Wellington; S. Marks
This poster outlines Ethnographic research into the design of an environment to study a land speed record vehicle, or more generally, a vehicle posing a high cognitive load for the user. The challenges of empirical research activity in the design of unique artifacts is discussed, where we may not have the artefact available in the real context to study, nor key informants that have direct relevant experience. We also describe findings from the preliminary design studies and the study into the design of the yoke for driving steer-by-wire.
Experimental Study of Steer-by-Wire Ratios and Response Curves in a Simulated High Speed Vehicle BIBAHTML 123-124
  S. Marks; R. Wellington
In this poster, we outline a research study of the steering system for a potential land speed record vehicle. We built a cockpit enclosure to simulate the interior space and employed a game engine to create a suitable virtual simulation and appropriate physical behaviour of the vehicle to give a realistic experience that has a suitable level of difficulty to represent the challenge of such a task. With this setup, we conducted experiments on different linear and non-linear steering response curves to find the most suitable steering configuration. The results suggest that linear steering curves with a high steering ratio are better suited than non-linear curves, regardless of their gradient.
3D Object Surface Tracking Using Partial Shape Templates Trained from a Depth Camera for Spatial Augmented Reality Environments BIBAHTML 125-126
  K. Tsuboi; Y. Oyamada; M. Sugimoto; H. Saito
We present a 3D object tracking method using a single depth camera for Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR). The drastic change of illumination in a SAR environment makes object tracking difficult. Our method uses a depth camera to train and track the 3D physical object. The training allows maker-less tracking of the moving object under illumination changes. The tracking is a combination of feature based matching and frame sequential matching of point clouds. Our method allows users to adapt 3D objects of their choice into a dynamic SAR environment.
My Personal Trainer -- An iPhone Application for Exercise Monitoring and Analysis BIBAHTML 127-128
  C. R. Greeff; J. Yang; B. MacDonald; B. C. Wunsche
The obesity epidemic facing the Western world has been a topic of numerous discussions and research projects. One major issue preventing people from becoming more active and following health care recommendations is an increasingly busy life style and the lack of motivation, training, and available supervision. While the use of personal trainers increases in popularity, they are often expensive and must be scheduled in advance. In this research we developed a smartphone application, which assists users with learning and monitoring exercises. A key feature of the application is a novel algorithm for analysing accelerometer data and automatically counting repetitive exercises. This allows users to perform exercises anywhere and anytime, while doing other activities at the same time. The recording of exercise data allows users to track their performance, monitor improvements, and compare it with their goals and the performance of other users, which increases motivation. A usability study and feedback from a public exhibition indicates that users like the concept and find it helpful for supporting their exercise regime. The counting algorithm has an acceptable accuracy for many application scenarios, but has limitations with regard to complex exercises, small number of repetitions, and poorly performed exercises.
Interactive vs. Static Location-based Advertisements BIBAHTML 129-130
  M. Raijmakers; S. Shahid; O. Mubin
Our research is focused on analysing how users perceive different mediums of advertisements on their mobile devices. Such advertisements are also called location-based advertisements (LBA's) as they relay brand and product information to mobile phones that are in the vicinity. We investigated two different ways of presentation marketing information (static vs. interactive). Our results clearly showed that interactive (clickable advertisement with additional information) LBAs were preferred to static LBAs.
Temporal Evaluation of Aesthetics of User Interfaces as one Component of User Experience BIBAHTML 131-132
  M. Vogel
User experience (UX) is gaining more and more relevance for designing interactive systems. But the real character, drivers and influences of UX are not sufficiently described until now. There are different theoretical models trying to explain UX in more detail, but there are still essential definitions missing regarding influencing factors i.e. temporal aspects. UX is increasingly seen as a dynamic phenomenon, that can be subdivided in different phases (Pohlmeyer, 2011; Karapanos, Zimmerman, Forlizzi, & Martens, 2009, ISO 9241-210). Trying to gain more knowledge about temporal changes in UX, an experiment was conducted examining the influence of exposure on the evaluation of aesthetics as one hedonic component of UX. A pre-use situation was focused including an anticipated experience of the user and no interaction was accomplished. It could be found that a repeated mere-exposure (Zajonc, 1969) does significantly influence the evaluation of aesthetics over time.