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AUIC Tables of Contents: 00010203040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of AUIC'12, Australasian User Interface Conference

Fullname:Proceedings of the 13th Australasian Conference on User Interfaces -- Volume 126
Editors:Haifeng Shen; Ross T. Smith
Location:Melbourne, Australia
Dates:2012-Jan-30 to 2012-Feb-02
Standard No:hcibib: AUIC12; ISBN: 978-1-921770-07-4
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Papers
  2. Posters


Website Navigation Tools -- A Decade of Design Trends 2002 to 2011 BIBAHTML 3-10
  C. J. Pilgrim
The World Wide Web Consortium describes the Web as "the universe of network-accessible information, the embodiment of human knowledge" (W3C, 2011). This vision of the Web is contingent on the ability of users to freely access and contribute to the overall system. The freedom of the Web threatens its own future due to the possibility of users being disoriented and cognitively fatigued when trying to locate desired information. Appropriate support for navigation is required if the Web is to achieve its vision. One challenge confronting website designers is to provide effective navigational support at the local level. Supplemental navigation tools such as search, sitemap and index tools are frequently included on websites to support navigation. However, there is a lack of detailed guidelines for design of such tools. Instead changes in design appear to be by natural evolution with a 'survival of the fittest' approach. This paper reports on a longitudinal survey of design of website navigation tools within commercial websites over the past decade. The survey exposes several trends in design practice, particularly in recent years. The intention of this survey is to provide a sounder basis for future research and development of website navigation tools by clarifying existing research and identifying important issues for future investigation.
Leveraging Human Movement in the Ultimate Display BIBAHTML 11-20
  R. McAdam; K. Nesbitt
Human movement is a "natural skill" employed to solve difficult problems in dynamics concerning the manipulation of a complex biomechanical system, the body, in an ever-changing environment. Continuous Interactive Simulation (CIS) is a technique that attempts to use this human capacity to solve problems in movement dynamics to solve problems concerning arbitrary dynamical systems. In this paper we test a simple CIS environment that allows a user to interact with an arbitrary dynamical system through continuous movement actions. Using this environment we construct an abstract representation of the well-known pole-cart, or inverted pendulum system. Next we undertake a usability trial and observe the way users explore key features of the system's dynamics. All users are able to discover the stable equilibria and the majority of users also discover the unstable equilibria of the system. The results confirm that even simple movement-based interfaces can be effective in engaging the human sensory-motor system in the exploration of nontrivial dynamical systems.
Website accessibility: An Australian view BIBAHTML 21-28
  J. Grantham; E. Grantham; D. Powers
For nearly 20 years, Australian and international legal requirements have existed around the development of accessible websites. This paper briefly reviews the history of legislation against web disability discrimination, along with the current legal requirements for website development as indicated by current international accessibility specifications, and reports on a manual examination of the accessibility of 40 Australian private and governmental websites. Not one of the 20 largest Australian companies, nor the Australian 20 Federal Government portfolios, were found to have produced a legally accessible website as per Australian standards.
Merging Tangible Buttons and Spatial Augmented Reality to Support Ubiquitous Prototype Designs BIBAHTML 29-38
  Tim M. Simon; Ross T. Smith; Bruce Thomas; Stewart Von Itzstein; Mark Smith; Joonsuk Park; Jun Park
The industrial design prototyping process has previously shown promising enhancements using Spatial Augmented Reality to increase the fidelity of concept visualizations. This paper explores further improvements to the process by incorporating tangible buttons to allow dynamically positioned controls to be employed by the designer. The tangible buttons are equipped with RFID tags that are read by a wearable glove sensor system to emulate button activation for simulating prototype design functionality. We present a new environmental setup to support the low cost development of an active user interface that is not restricted to the two-dimensional surface of a traditional computer display. The design of our system has been guided by the requirements of industrial designers and an expert review of the system was conducted to identify its usefulness and usability aspects. Additionally, the quantitative performance evaluation of the RFID tags indicated that the concept development using our system to support a simulated user interface functionality is an improvement to the design process.
A Virtual Touchscreen with Depth Recognition BIBAHTML 39-48
  G. Hartmann; B. Wünsche
While touch interfaces have become more popular, they are still mostly confined to mobile platforms such as smart phones and notebooks. Mouse interfaces still dominate desktop platforms due to their portability, ergonomic design and large number of possible interactions. In this paper we present a prototype for a new interface based on cheap consumer-level hardware, which combines advantages of the mouse and touch interface, but additionally allows the detection of 3D depth values. This is achieved by using a web cam and point light source and detecting hand and shadow gestures in order to compute 3D finger tip positions. Our evaluation shows that the concept is feasible and more powerful interactions than with traditional interfaces can be achieved. Limitations include a reduced input precision, insufficient stability of the utilised computer vision algorithms, and the requirement of a stable lighting environment.
Evaluating Indigenous Design Features Using Cultural Dimensions BIBAHTML 49-58
  R. George; K. Nesbitt; M. Donovan; J. Maynard
This study compares previous analytical findings in the area of cultural web design using Hofstede's dimensions with findings from a three year case study. This case study used an ethnographic and user-centric approach to better integrate cultural requirements into the website for a specific Indigenous community. We overview this design process and describe the ten key design features that were identified in the project. These design features were considered essential for capturing the cultural identity of the community. They are relevant to designers of indigenous websites and designers considering culture as part of their interface design process. We evaluate these design features by considering them in terms of Hofstede's cultural model. Some correlations have previously been found between Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the structural and aesthetic design features that are used in websites from different cultures. We compare the ten design features identified from our case study with the outcomes we might expect, given the measured position of the group on Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The best correlations occurred on the power distance index where the navigation, organisation and image content conformed with expectations. However, a number of contrary results were also found.
Enhancing 3D Applications Using Stereoscopic 3D and Motion Parallax BIBAHTML 59-68
  I. K. Y. Li; E. M. Peek; B. C. Wünsche; C. Lutteroth
The interaction with 3D scenes is an essential requirement of computer applications ranging from engineering and entertainment to architecture and social networks. Traditionally 3D scenes are rendered by projecting them onto a 2-dimensional surface such as a monitor or projector screen. This process results in the loss of several depth cues important for immersion into the scene. An improved 3D perception can be achieved by using immersive Virtual Reality equipment or modern 3D display devices. However, most of these devices are expensive and many 3D applications, such as modelling and animation tools, do not produce the output necessary for these devices. In this paper we explore the use of cheap consumer-level hardware to simulate 3D displays. We present technologies for adding stereoscopic 3D and motion parallax to 3D applications, without having to modify the source code. The developed algorithms work with any program that uses the OpenGL fixed-function pipeline. We have successfully applied the technique to the popular 3D modelling tool Blender. Our user tests show that stereoscopic 3D improves user's perception of depth in a virtual 3D environment more than head coupled perspective. However, the latter is perceived as more comfortable. A combination of both techniques achieves the best 3D perception, and has a similar comfort rating as stereoscopic 3D.
An Evaluation of a Sketch-Based Model-by-Example Approach for Crowd Modelling BIBAHTML 69-76
  L. Guan; B. C. Wünsche
An increasing number of computer applications require complex 3D environments. Examples are entertainment (games and movies), advertisement, social media technologies such as "Second Life", education, urban planning, landscape design, search and rescue simulations, visual impact studies and military simulations. Many virtual environments contain thousands of similar objects such as characters, trees, and buildings. Placing these objects by hand is cumbersome, whereas an automatic placement does not allow sufficient control over the desired distribution characteristics. In previous work we presented a prototype for a sketch-based model-by-example approach to generate large distributions of objects from sketched example distributions. In this paper we present an improved algorithm and we perform a formal user study demonstrating that the approach is indeed intuitive, effective, and that it works for a large number of regular, irregular and clustered distribution patterns. Remaining limitations related to Gestalt and semantic concepts are illustrated and discussed.
Supporting Freeform Modelling in Spatial Augmented Reality Environments with a New Deformable Material BIBAHTML 77-86
  E. T. A. Maas; M. R. Marner; R. T. Smith; B. H. Thomas
This paper describes how a new free-form modelling material, Quimo (Quick Mock-up), can be used by industrial designers in spatial augmented reality environments. Quimo is a white malleable material that can be sculpted and deformed with bare hands into an approximate model. The material is white in colour, retains its shape once sculpted, and allows for later modification. Projecting imagery onto the surface of the low-fidelity mock-up allows for detailed prototype visualisations to be presented. This ability allows the designer to create design concept visualisations and re-configure the physical shape and projected appearance rapidly. We detail the construction techniques used to create the Quimo material and present the modelling techniques employed during mock-up creation. We then extend the functionality of the material by integrating low-visibility retro-reflective fiducial markers to capture the surface geometry. The surface tracking allows the combined physical and virtual modelling techniques to be integrated. This is advantageous compared to the traditional prototyping process that requires a new mock-up to be built whenever a significant change of the shape or visual appearance is desired. We demonstrate that Quimo, augmented with projected imagery, supports interactive changes of an existing prototype concept for advanced visualisation.


Service History: The Challenge of the 'Back button' in Mobile Context-aware Systems BIBAHTML 89-90
  A. Hinze; K. Müller; G. Buchanan
This paper discusses the challenge of providing effective interaction for navigating a user's browsing history in context-aware mobile services. Mobile systems are often composed of a number of services, and navigation must be understood both in terms of a single service and of movement between different services over time. The semantics of simple navigational steps such as "back" and "forward" becomes much more complex than on traditional interfaces, and there is also a need to understand the difference between navigation based on the user's actual physical context (i.e. their real location) and exploratory navigation at a different virtual site. The challenges of composition and geography both need to be effectively addressed to build a complete and usable history of a user's interaction with the system.
An investigation of factors driving virtual communities BIBAHTML 91-92
  J. Grantham; C. Habel
Adopting the view that virtual communities are an important part of today's social fabric, this study investigates the relationships between different factors commonly used to measure people's attitudes towards virtual communities. The study reviews existing research in both traditional non virtual and virtual communities to build a more inclusive factor model which includes the idea of motivation and de-motivation found in Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory.
Feasibility of Computational Estimation of Task-Oriented Visual Attention BIBAHTML 93-94
  Y. Nakahira; M. Nakayama
Eye movements are elicited by a viewer's task-oriented contextual situation (top-down) and the visual environment (bottom-up). The former and its computability were investigated by measuring a subjects' eye movements while identical graphs were viewed under different mental frameworks. The prerequisite conditions for predicting task-oriented attention from the visual environment were determined.
Magnetic Substrate for use with Tangible Spatial Augmented Reality in Rapid Prototyping Work BIBAHTML 95-96
  T. M. Simon; R. T. Smith
We present a method for dynamic manipulation and interchanging of tangible objects in a spatial augmented reality environment for use in rapid proto-typing. We call this method MagManipulation. This method improves on existing methods in several ways: allows for the use of abstract and non-uniform curves, allows for ease of manipulation on non-tabletop like surfaces, allows for interchangeable tangible objects to be used. Our method allows us to dynamically manipulate tangible objects in a TSAR environment in a manner unattainable with current technologies.
Data Mining Office Behavioural Information from Simple Sensors BIBAKHTMLPDF 97-98
  Samuel J. O'Malley; Ross T. Smith; Bruce H. Thomas
This paper discussed the concept of using three simple sensors to monitor the behavioural patterns of an office occupant. The goal of this study is to capture behaviour information of the occupant without the use of invasive sensors such as cameras that do not maintain a level of privacy when installed. Our initial analysis has shown that data mining can be applied to capture re-occurring behaviours and provide real-time presence information to others that occupy the same building..
Keywords: Digital Foam, Data Mining, Apriori Algorithm, Non-invasive, Ambient Display, Market Basket Analysis